Sei sulla pagina 1di 15

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

CHAPTER III
HYDROLOGY

3.1. THE HYDROLOGY DATA


The hydrological data that was available are as follows:
(1) Daily rainfall data at Noilmina catchment area:
Station of rainfall
recorder

No. Sta

Elevation

Long of data

Oebobo

012 TTS

9 years (1986 - 1995)

Huetalan

004 TTS

18 years (1977 - 1995)

Nifukani

005 TTS

18 years (1977 - 1995)

Source :

Data 1994 up to 1999 taken from Climatological Station, Lasiana-Kupang

(2) Climatological data


Data type

Meteorology Sta

Period

Monthly solar radiation

Oebobo

20 years (1976 1996)

Monthly wind velocity

Oebobo

20 years (1976 1996)

Monthly humidity

Oebobo

20 years (1976 1996)

Monthly temperature

Oebobo

20 years (1976 1996)

Source : Hidrological Report, PT. Jasapatria Gunatama, 1999/2000

This data is used for calculation of evapotranspiration with Penman Method.


(3) Actual Discharge
Actual discharge got by counting discharge which overflow of Linamnutu Weir, passing
of scouring gate and intake gate at the time of field visit. Calculation of discharge based
on water level at the upstream of weir, geometry of scouring gate and geometry of intake
gate.

NIPPON KOEI

III - 1

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

As for the discharge datas shall be as follows:

Date
Discharge
(m3/s)

2-Juli
-2003

10-August
-2003

27-August
-2003

25-Septm
-2003

17-Octbr
-2003

11-Nov
-2003

3.42

1.55

1.57

1.47

2.33

3.46

(4) Rupabumi Map


Rupa Bumi Map by Bakosurtanal, Scale 1 : 25000
Descriptions

Number of sheet

Type of map

Catchment Area Noilmina

13 sheets

Hard copy and Digital file

Bena D1 Irrigation Scheme

3 sheets

Print and Digital file

(5) Catchment area


Data of catchment area Noilmina River on Linamnutu Weir are as follows:

River

: Noilmina

Width of catchment area

: 1618,37 km2

Length of main river

: 79.00 km

Upstream elevation

: + 2200.00 m

Downstream elevation

: + 65.00 m

Catchment area is shown in Figure. 3.1

NIPPON KOEI

III - 2

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

1.618 Km

INTAKE
LINAMNUTU

U
INTAKE
TAEKOLA

LUAS CATCHMENT AREA


- INTAKE LINAMNUTU = 1618 Km

LEGENDA
JALAN
SUNGAI
STASIUN HUJAN

Figur 3.1. Catchment Area Noilmina River in Linamnutu Weir

NIPPON KOEI

III - 3

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

3.2. WATER REQUIREMENT


Water requirement for paddy is determined taking into account several factors mentioned
bellow:

Land preparation

Consumptive use

Percolation and infiltration

Water layer replacement

Effective rainfall

Irrigation efficiency

Cropping pattern

a) Land preparation
In Bena irrigation scheme, water layer requirement for land preparation is assumed to be
250 mm in total, including 200 mm for saturation and ploughing and 50 mm for standing
water immediately after transplanting.
b) Consumptive use
Consumptive use was calculated by the modified Penman method
c) Percolation and infiltration
Percolation rate in general depends on soil characteristic; normally percolation rate after
inundated is around 1-3 mm/day. For Bena irrigation scheme, the value of percolation
assumed to be 2 mm/day.
d) Water layer replacement
Water layer replacement is 50 mm (or 3.3 mm/day for half month) at one month and two
month after the transplantation respectively.
e) Effective Rainfall
The calculation of effective rainfall for paddy is based on 70% from a half-month rainfall
with 20 % no fulfilled possibility (R 80), while palawija 70% from a half-month rainfall
with 50% no fulfilled possibility (R50). Rainfall data that is used for Bena irrigation area is
NIPPON KOEI

III - 4

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

Rainfall data Oebobo station, because that is nearest station and represented rainfall
condition in Bena irrigation area.
Rainfall data Oebobo station from 1986 until 1995 are taken from Laporan Hidrologi,
PT. Jasapatria Gunatama, 1999/2000.
Effective rainfall for Oebobo station as fallows:
Descripti1on
R.80
R.50
0.70 x R.80 (Paddy)
0.70 x R.50 (Palawija)

Sat
mm
mm
mm
mm

R.80
R.50
0.70 x R.80 (Paddy)
0.70 x R.50 (Palawija)

Sat
mm
mm
mm
mm

Jan
45.0
143.7
31.5
100.6

84.5
158.0
59.2
110.6

Peb
58.5 60.5
84.0 91.6
41.0 42.4
58.8 64.1

Mar
47.5 23.0
89.0 62.0
33.3 16.1
62.3 43.4

Apr
17.0 0.0
42.5 4.0
11.9 0.0
29.8 2.8

Agt

Sep

Okt

Jul
0.0
1.0
0.0
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Mei
0.0
6.5
0.0
4.6

Jun
5.0
7.0
3.5
4.9

Nop
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

9.0
68.2
6.3
47.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Des
28.5 41.0
127.2 70.5
20.0 28.7
89.0 49.4

f) Irrigation efficiency
Before irrigation water reaches paddy field through canal systems, a quarter up to onethird of water in general is lost due to percolation, management losses, and illegal use.
Irrigation efficiency expresses as ratio between water reach to paddy fields and water
intake.
Loss of irrigation water by canal system is generally considered as follows:
15 22.5 % at tertiary system
7.5 12.5 % at secondary canal
7.5 12.5 % at primary canal
Thus, total efficiency is:
= Eff. Tertiary system x Eff. Secondary system x Eff. Primary canal.

Value of totally efficiency is around 0.59 0.73. For Bena irrigation scheme, losses in
each canal system are considered as follows:
80% at tertiary system
90% at secondary canal
90% at primary canal
Thus, total efficiency is 0.65.

NIPPON KOEI

III - 5

0.0
7.5
0.0
5.3

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

g) Cropping pattern
Proposed cropping pattern for Bena irrigation scheme is Paddy I Paddy II and Palawija
starting from the firs half of November 1.
3.3.

WATER AVAILABILITY

The water availability for farming is usually used on dependable discharge 80%, or failed
level 20%. The analyse result of water availability of Noimina River which based on the
calculation result from Nippon Koei, is shown on Table 3.1.
Table 3.1. Dependable Discharge 80%
Unit : m3/sec
January

February

March

April

May

June

II

II

II

II

II

II

8.90

13.6

8.60

22.10

11.70

9.20

8.70

8.20

7.30

6.10

5.80

4.90

July

Augustus

September

October

November

December

II

II

II

II

II

II

4.40

3.60

3.50

2.90

2.80

2.50

2.20

1.80

1.90

1.80

3.30

3.50

Source: Analysis by Nippon Koei

3.4.

WATER BALANCE

Irrigation area is determined based on the water balance analysis, using the following
formula:
A = Q / DR

Where:
A
= Area to irrigated (Ha)
Q
= Dependable discharge (m3/sec)
DR = Diversion Requirement (l/sec/ha)
On Bena irrigation scheme, cropping pattern Paddy I Paddy II Palawija is done with
calculation of irrigation water diversion needed with four alternatives planting starting Nov-1,

NIPPON KOEI

III - 6

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

Nov-2, Des-1, Des-2. The detail calculation can be seen on Attachments, and the calculation
result is shown on Table 3.2 up to Table 3.5.
Table 3.2. Water Balance for Nov-1

NIPPON KOEI

III - 7

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

Table 3.3. Water Balance for Nov-2

NIPPON KOEI

III - 8

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

Table 3.4. Water Balance for Dec-1

NIPPON KOEI

III - 9

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

Table 3.5. Water Balance for Dec-2

NIPPON KOEI

III - 10

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

Base on the calculation result, that is choose alternative the first planting on Dec-1 with water
diversion needed Bena irrigation scheme is 1.41 lt/sec/ha (Table 3.4). Width of the irrigation
area that will be design is 3,500 ha, so that will get the crop intensity is 291%. The graphic of
water balance Bena Weir is shown on Figure 3.2.

3.5.

DRAINAGE MODUL

The drainage of Bena irrigation scheme will be provided by a system which incorporates a
collector drain and an internal drainage net work discharging to the natural water courses
crossing the irrigation area. The drainage requirements are estimated for two kinds of area, i.e.
the rice field area and the non-rice field area.
a.

Rice Field Area

In order to assess the drainage requirement in rice field, the DGWRDs Design Criteria was
adopted. The drainage water requirement for rice field area is estimated base on the maximum

NIPPON KOEI

III - 11

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

3-day rainfall with a return period of 5 years. Drainage water requirement of 6.00 l/sec/ha was
used for designing drainage canal.
b.

Non Rice Field Area

The drainage water requirement for non-rice area is divided into two drainage requirements,
namely, the peak drainage requirement and the design drainage requirement. The peak
drainage water requirement is estimated by the Der Weduwen or Rational Formulas by using
maximum daily rainfall with a 5 years return period.
The design drainage requirement is estimated by the following formula using the maximum
one day rainfall with a 5-years return period.
Qd = 0.116 a R(5) A0.92
Qd
A
R(5)
A

: Design drainage requirement (l/se)


: Runoff coefficient
: Maximum one day rainfall with a 5-years return period
: Drainage area (ha)

The design drainage discharge with a 5-years return period is:


Qd = 1.62 x 5.3 x A0.92

3.6.

PEAK DISCHARGE

There are many natural drains / river from hill at the left side of irrigation area. The natural
drain crossing with main canal, so that need crossing structure i.e. aqueduct, cross drain, and
over chute. Capacity of its structure was designed with peak discharge. The catchment area
figure of natural drain / river is shown on Attachments.
Analysis peak discharge for the external drainage use Rational method, that is method of
Weduwen, Hasper, and Mononobe. In general method of Rational can be written down as
follows:
Qn = . I . A or Qn = . . qn . A

NIPPON KOEI

III - 12

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Where :
Qn

qn
L

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Hydrology

flood discharge for return period n (m3/s);


catchment area (km2);
rainfall intensity (mm/hour);
runoff coefficient (-);
reduction coefficient of rainfall area;
rainfall in m3/s.km2 for return period n
length of river (km)

According to Mononobes method, rainfall intensity can be calculated by the formula as


follows :
I = ( Rn / 24 ) * (24 / t)2/3
Where :
t

= L / (72* slope0.6)

According to Weduwen and Hasper, runoff coefficient can be expressed:


-

Weduwen : = 1 (4.1/( . qn + 7))


Hasper
: = (1+0.012.A0.7) / ( 1+ 0.075 A0.7)

Runoff coefficient of the methods corresponding to runoff coefficient in the project area that
representing result of the calibration and simulation rainfall-runoff model (1977-1995) from
the Tank and Nreca model like as follows:
-

on the Bena basin


on the Malaka basin

: = 0.2 0.45;
: = 0.487 0.6;

Data of external drainage on the Bena irrigation area could be seen on the Table 3.6. and
Recapitulation for design of external peak discharge could be seen on the Table 3.7.

NIPPON KOEI

III - 13

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

Table 3.6. Catchment Area data for external drain


No. of
C.A

Length of
River
(km)
0.330

Elevation
U/S
(m)
+125.00

Elevation
D/S
(m)
+62.50

dH
(m)

Width of
C.A
(km2)
0.450

65.50

0.189394

7.708

6.500

+200.00

+50.00

150.00

0.023077

2.750

3.320

+175.00

+50.00

125.00

0.037651

0.352

1.018

+187.00

+50.00

137.50

0.135069

1.898

3.364

+137.50

+50.00

87.50

0.026011

0.342

1.292

+112.50

+37.50

75.00

0.058050

0.530

1.078

+125.00

+37.50

87.50

0.081169

0.449

1.493

+125.00

+87.50

87.50

0.058000

0.191

0.724

+112.50

+67.50

67.50

0.093000

10

0.337

0.825

+112.50

+67.50

67.50

0.081800

11

6.430

6.406

+250.00

+37.50

212.50

0.033172

12

0.110

0.443

+75.00

+37.50

37.50

0.084650

13

0.680

1.269

+137.50

+25.00

112.50

0.088652

14

0.670

1.565

+125.00

+25.00

100.00

0.063897

Table 3.7. External peak discharge


C.A

Width

Return Period (Years)

of C.A

10

25

50

100

sq.km

cu.m/s

cu.m/s

cu.m/s

cu.m/s

cu.m/s

cu.m/s

0.45

5.10

6.18

6.75

7.33

7.70

8.02

7.71

27.82

36.60

41.28

46.22

49.33

52.03

2.75

15.04

19.20

21.40

23.70

25.14

26.39

0.35

4.41

5.30

5.77

6.25

6.55

6.82

1.90

12.05

15.22

16.89

18.64

19.73

20.68

0.34

4.33

5.20

5.67

6.14

6.43

6.69

0.53

5.63

6.85

7.49

8.15

8.57

8.93

0.45

5.10

6.17

6.74

7.32

7.68

8.00

0.19

3.06

3.61

3.91

4.21

4.39

4.56

10

0.34

4.29

5.16

5.61

6.08

6.37

6.63

11

6.43

24.97

32.68

36.78

41.10

43.82

46.17

12

0.11

2.20

2.56

2.75

2.94

3.06

3.17

13

0.68

6.53

8.00

8.78

9.58

10.08

10.52

14

0.67

6.47

7.93

8.70

9.49

9.98

10.42

Panite River

82.42

114.50

161.42

186.99

214.68

232.36

247.61

Noelmeto River

127.57

148.61

212.20

247.03

284.94

309.20

330.13

NIPPON KOEI

III - 14

DISIMP

Review Design on Bena Irrigation Extension

Hydrology

Generalization of external drainage flood discharge on Bena Irrigation area based on the
computation flood discharge by Rational method for various return period as the following
Aquetion.
Q2 = 8.2209 A0.597 ,
R2 = 0.9806
Q5 = 10.189 A0.6262 ,
R2 = 0.9840
Q10 = 11.229 A0.6375 ,
R2 = 0.9852
Q25 = 12.303 A0.6481 ,
R2 = 0.9863
Q50 = 12.974 A0.6540 ,
R2 = 0.9868
Q100 = 13.560 A0.6584 ,
R2 = 0.9872
Where Q is flood discharge in m3/s and A is Catchment area in km2.

NIPPON KOEI

III - 15

DISIMP