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IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016

Study of rheological behavior and other physical


property matrix by reinforcement of calcium
carbonate in different ratio in High density
polyethylene
Pratibha Gupta1, M.D. Choudary2
1

Technical Manager (Lab) Miltech Industry, MIDC, Nagpur, MS

Professor & Head, Department of applied Science, BDCOE, Sevagram, Wardha, MS

ABSTRACT
Rheology is a science that deals with deformation of material as result of an applied stress . It is also defined as the study of
flow deformation behavior of polymers or in other words study of flow pattern or characteristics of the polymer Rheological
properties provide an insight into the processability of the material, polymer architecture , morphology , chain branching in
polymer. Specific gravity values represent the main advantage of plastic over other material , namely , light weight . All plastics
are sold today on a cost per pound basis and not on a cost per unit volume basis Durometer Hardness test is based on
penetration of a specified indenter onto the surface of the object. Indentation hardness is inversely related to the depth of
penetration , elastic modulus as well as viscoelastic behavior of material In present experiment Particular size of calcium
carbonate is reinforced in high density polyethylene (HDPE) in different weight ratio .The objective of present experiment to
study the Rheological property via Melt flow index, density and Hardness of reinforced blended material as compare to neat
material.

Keyword : Calcium Carbonate , HDPE , Melt flow index , density and Durometer hardness .

1.INTRODUCTION
The study of deformation and flow properties of plastic material as results of an applied stress or strain can be studied
under rheological properties. Rheological properties provide idea about the process ability of plastic material,
molecular, architecture, morphology, chain branching, anisotropic micro structural development, temperature
dependence of properties and degradation. Logical suggestion for adjusting the processing conditions in order to
minimize or completely remove the faults and to select the appropriate plastic material for specified end user can be
exhausted from rheological datas, further this study is important because the complete flow behavior of polymers like
Newtonian, non-Newtonian, pseudo plastic, thixotropic etc. , cannot be characterized by a single value of viscosity at
constant temperature . it needs absolute evaluation of the parameters including shear stress , shear strain , shear rate
and shear modulus as a function of time , temperature and frequency . The equipment study of the flow character of
polymers are generally facilitated by different rheometers
Melt flow rate is the rate extrusion of a thermoplastic material through an orifice of designated dimensions under
prescribed temperature and pressure. It is defined as the mass of polymer in grams flowing in 10 minutes through a
capillary of specific diameter (20.0051mm) and length (80.0025mm)by a pressure applied using a piston . some
polymer are measured at higher temperature , some use different weights and even different orifice sizes. Melt flow
index is an assessment of average molecular mass and is an inverse measure of the melt viscosity , i.e high melt flow
rate corresponds to low molecular weights . Higher MFI polymers are used in injection moulding and lower MFI
polymer are used with blow moulding or extrusion processes .
ASTMD 1238 Standard test method for melt flow rates of thermoplastics by extrusion plastometer and Test sample is
in the form of granules , powder or cut pieces
The flow index of the polymer is calculated as
MFI = (Mass(gm)/time(s))*10
Where Mass = mass of the extrudate
Time = Time in seconds

Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016

Page 14

IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the weight of the given volume of a material to that of an equal volume of
water at a stated temperature. The temperature selected for determining the specific gravity of plastic parts is 23 C
Such a practice increase the significance of the specific gravity considerably in both purchasing and production control
, two basic method have been developed to determine specific gravity of plastics depending upon the form of plastic
material . Method A is used for a specimen in forms such as sheet, rods, tubes, or molded articles . Method B1
developed mainly for material in the form of molding powder, flakes or pellets .
In present experiments Method A is used for determination of specific gravity of the samples .
Specific Gravity = a / (a+w)-b
Where a = weight of specimen in air ; b = weight of specimen (sinker, if used ) and wire in water ; w = weight of
totally immersed sinker (if used ) and partially immersed wire .
The Durometer hardness tester consists of a pressure foot, an indenter and an indicating device. The indenter is spring
loaded and the point of the indenter protrudes through the hole in the base. The test specimen is at least inches thick
and can be either molded or cut from a sheet. Several thin specimens may be piled to form inch thick specimen but
one piece specimens preferred. The poor contact between the thin specimens may cause results to vary considerably.
This is carried out by first placing a specimen on a hard flat surface. The pressure foot of the instrument is pressed on
to the specimen, making sure that it is parallel to the surface of the specimen. The Durometer hardness is read within
1second after the pressure foot is in firm contact with the specimen .
Experiment
In present experiment, HDPE used for this work is Relene Grade. M60075 of Reliance Industries Ltd. [Density: 0.94
gm/cc; MFI: 8-10 gm/10 minute]. The nano-filler used in this work is calcium carbonate, purchase from local market
in Maharashtra. The Calcium carbonate (coated) used is having average particle size 9-11 nm, Grade OMYACARB 2T
SA of Omya Malaysia SDN BHD Malaysia.
For melt flow index test is carried out at instrument of M/s International equipment Mumbai India, Density / specific
gravity is measured in mettler density meter of M/s mettler Toledo Switzerland model ME204 and Durometer
hardness is measure in Shore D hardness meter of M/s Apex Enterprises Mumbai .

Fig 1: Melt flow index tester

Fig 2: Density meter

Fig 3: Durometer

In this investigation calcium carbonate of average particle size 9-11nm is blended with high density polyethylene in
different proportion by weight as below and results of Melt flow index , Density and Hardness test are stipulated below
Table 1: Density values

Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016

Page 15

IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

Fig 4: Comparison Graph for density of blended material and neat material
Table 2: Melt flow index values

Fig 5: Comparison Graph for melt flow index for blended material
Table3: Shore D Hardness values

Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016

Page 16

IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

Fig 6: Comparison Graph Durometer hardness for blended material


Result and conclusion
1. The result obtained for Density test for different reinforcement as tabulated in the table1, it is observed that value
of density is increasing as compared to the neat material due to the presence of filler .
2. For melt flow Index test for different reinforcement as tabulated in the Table 2. It is observed that value of melt
flow index is decreases as compared to the neat material due the presence of calcium carbonate in different
percentage.
3. For Hardness test in shore D for different reinforcement as tabulated in the Table 3. It is observed that value of
melt flow index is increases as compared to the neat material due the presence of calcium carbonate in different
percentage

References
[1.] Material Characterization test chapter 7 ; Page 166 of handbook of plastic testing technology by vishu shah
performance engineered product , Inc. Pononaa, California
[2.] Toughening of polypropylene with calcium carbonate particles ARTICLE in POLYMER JANUARY 2003 By
W.C.J. Zuiderduin, C. Westzaan, J. Hue tink, R.J. Gaymans, Department of Chemical Technology, University of
Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.
[3.] The Use of Calcium Carbonate in Polyolefins Offers Significant Improvement in Productivity by M.D. Roussel,
A.R. Guy, L.G. Shaw, and J.E. Cara Omya, Inc. 61 Main St. Proctor, VT 05765
[4.] EFFECT OF NANOCLAY ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF COMPATIBILIZED ETHYLENE VINYL
ACETATE COPOLYMER / HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE BLENDS by Atul Rajan1, Pradeep
Upadhyaya1, Navin Chand2 , Vijai Kumar1 1Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology, Lucknow,
India 2Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute (AMPRI), Bhopal, India
[5.] Comparison of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate/Polylactic Acid and Halloysite/Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites By
XuetaoShi,1,2
GuangchengZhang,1
CristinaSiligardi,3
GuidoOri,3,andAndreaLazzeri2,1DepartmentofAppliedChemistry,SchoolofScience,NorthwesternPolytechnicalUni
versity,Xian710072,China
DepartmentofChemicalEngineering,IndustrialChemistryandMaterialsScience,UniversityofPisa,ViaDiotisalvi2,
56126 Pisa,Italy DepartmentofChemistry,UniversityofModenaandReggioEmilia,41100Modena,Italy
[6.] Fundamental of Plastic testing By Dr. S.K.Nayak , Dr. S.N Yadav & Dr. S. Mohanty ;LARPM; CIPET Gunidy
Chennai Chapter 3 :Mechanical Properties Page 69
[7.] Fundamental of Plastic testing By Dr. S.K.Nayak , Dr. S.N Yadav & Dr. S. Mohanty ;LARPM; CIPET Gunidy
Chennai Chapter 9 :Rheological Properties Page 293
[8.] Analytical test chapter 10 ; Page 239 of handbook of plastic testing technology by vishu shah performance
engineered product , Inc. Pononaa, california
[9.] Mechanical properties chapter 2; Page 79of handbook of plastic testing technology by vishu shah performance
engineered product , Inc. Pononaa, california

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