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STEP

REACTION
Glucose enters the cell and receives a
phosphate group from ATP.
Hexokinase transfers the phosphate
group from ATP to glucose.ATP
provides the phosphate group as well
as the energy required to attach the
phophate group to glucose. The sugar
is trapped in the cell once it is
phosphorylated because of the
impermeability of the plasma
membrane to ions.Phosphorylation
makes glucose more chemically
reactive. Glucose 6-phosphate is
formed.
Glucose 6-phosphate is rearranged to
form its isomer, fructose-6-phosphate.
Phosphoglucoisomerase catalyses this
reaction.
Another ATP is invested. The enzyme
phosphofructokinase transfers the
phosphate group from ATP to
fructose-6-phosphate to form
fructose-1,6-biphosphate.The sugar
now is ready to be cleaved.
Fructose-1,6-biphosphate is split into
2 three carbon sugars glyceraldehyde3-phosphate and dehydroxyacetone
phophate. This two sugars are isomers
of each other. This is the reaction
from which glycolysis gets its name.
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and
dehydroxyaceton phosphate are
isomers and are interconvertable.
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
undergoes dehydrogenation/oxidation
to form phosphoglycerate. NAD+ is
the hydrogen acceptor. NADH is
formed.
Phophoglycerate reacts with inorganic
phophate to yield glycerate-1,3biphosphate.

PROCESS
Phosphorylation

ENZYME
Hexokinase/
Glucokinase (found only
in HEPATOCYTES)

Rearrangement
of hydrogen and
oxygen atoms.

Phosphoglucoisomerase

Phosphorylation

Phophhofructokinase

Cleavage/
spilitting

Aldolase

Isomerisation

Trisphosphate isomerase

Dehydrogenation Phosphoglyceraldehyde
dehydrogenase

Phosphorylation

Phosphoglyceraldehyde
dehydrogenase

Substrate-level

Phosphoglycerokinase

ADP is phophorylated to form ATP.


The phosphate group is removed from
glycerate-1,3-biphosphate to form
glycerate-3-phosphate.
Glycerate-3-phosphate rearranges to
form glycerate-2-phosphate.The
phophate group is shifted.
A molecule of water is removed from
glycerate-2-phosphate which result in
the formation of double bond.The
product form is phosphoenolpyruvate.
Phosphoenolpyruvate transfers a
phosphate group to ADP to form
ATP.Pyruvate is formed.

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Process
Phosphoryl transfer

Phosphoryl Shift

Isomerisation

4
5

Dehydration
Aldol cleavage

phosphorylation

Rearrangement

Phosphoglyceromutase

Removal of
water

Enolase/dehydrase

Substrate-level
phosphorylation

Pyruvatekinase

Reaction
A kinase transfers a phosphoryl group from ATP to
an intermediate,or from an intermediate to ADP.
A mutase shifts a phosphoryl group from one oxygen
atom to another.
An isomerase converts a kitose to aldose and vice
versa.
Enolase/dehydrase removes water.
Aldolase splits a carbon-carbon bond.