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Acids and Metals

Level E

Earth and Space

Acids and
Metals
Level E Science Topic Book

Glasgow City Council


Designed and Published by
Education Services
Education Improvement Service
Wheatley House
25 Cochrane Street
Glasgow G1 1HL

Phone 0141 287 2000

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Science Topic Book

Acids and Metals

Contents

List of Learning Outcomes

Topic Outline

Activity Support Sheets

Teachers Science Notes

Investigations

Topic Assessment Sheets

Homework Sheets

Glossary

Pupil Checklist

Resources and Safety Issues

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 2

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Science Topic Book

Acids and Metals

Learning Outcomes
TOPIC: Acids and Metals

Level E

Stage S1/S2

Knowledge and Understanding Strands

Changing Materials.

Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the unit the pupils should be able to:

Level

Measure the pH of common solutions.

Identify acids, alkalis and neutral solutions from the pH values.

State that the lower the pH of an acid the greater the acidity; the higher the

pH of an alkali the greater the alkalinity.

State that acids and alkalis combine to form a neutral solution.

State that when an acid neutralises an alkali, a salt and water is formed.

Give real life examples of neutralisation.

Plan and carry out a practical investigation on the differences in

acid content in a range of soft drinks.

List metals in order of reactivity with oxygen, water and acid.

Give examples of how reactivity relates to uses and sources of metals.

State that more reactive metals can displace less reactive metals from their solutions.

State that electrolysis can be used to obtain a metal from a solution.

Describe the effects of electroplating.

Give examples of how some metals are extracted.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 3

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Science Topic Book

Acids and Metals

Topic Outline

The following topic outline suggests activities and examples of ongoing assessments to take forward the Learning
Outcomes listed for this study. To suit their own classes and situations, teachers may want to add to, or adapt some of
these. The main aim, however, is to ensure that children are given the opportunity to overtake the learning outcomes
listed.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 4

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Topic Outline

State that the


E
lower the pH of an
acid the greater
the acidity; the
higher the pH of
an alkali the
greater the
alkalinity.

Ask pupils what they already know


about acids (many will mention
burning, corrosion, acid rain,
vinegar, citric acid, sour sweets,
rotting teeth, etc.). Develop the
need for a way to identify an acid
(and later measure the degree of
acidity).
Mention the pH scale consisting of
numbers 0 to 14 which do this. At
this point you could demonstrate
some solutions and their pH using a
pH meter/probe with interface.
Introduce the concept of an
indicator and demonstrate the use
of Universal Indicator as a way of
indicating the pH of a solution. Now
get pupils to measure the pH of a
variety of (safe) common solutions
with Universal Indicator paper (or
the pH meter/probe).

Universal Indicator paper


with colour chart, pH meter
or probe with interface,
variety of common
solutions e.g. lemon, lime,
orange and grapefruit
juices, vinegar, citric acid,
cream of tartar, coffee, tea,
de-ionised water, salt
solution, Epsom salts, milk,
milk of magnesia, washing
up liquid, bicarbonate of
soda, weak ammonia
solution, etc., beakers,
safety glasses. (Possibly
droppers and dimple tiles.)

Get pupils to use the values of pH


measured from Support Sheet 1 to
complete a table which sorts the
solutions into acids, alkalis and
neutral solution.

Activity Support Sheet 1.

The above activities will lead to


opportunities to discuss what is
happening the further away from
pH 7 you go. Teachers should, if
they have not already done so,
introduce the terms acidity/acidic
and alkalinity/alkaline as well as
acids and alkalis. Get pupils to
name some strong acids and
alkalis.

Activity Support Sheet 1.

Activity Support Sheet 1.

Assessment

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Identify acids,
alkalis and
neutral solutions
from the pH
values.

Resources

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Measure the pH of E
common
solutions.

Learning Activities

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Level

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Learning
Outcomes

Pupils can identify the pH


(values, 0 - 14) of a
solution from the colour of
pH paper or using a probe
or Universal indicator
solution.

Pupils can state that acids


have a pH value < 7,
neutral solutions have a
pH value = 7, alkalis have a
pH value > 7.
Pupils can rank substances
in order of acidity/
alkalinity using pH values.

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Topic Outline

Give real life


examples of
neutralisation.

Use 10ml syringes (use red and


blue tape to identify which syringe
will be used for the acid and alkali)
to draw 10ml of alkali and put into a
beaker (50ml) to which Universal
indicator has been added. Now
add acid (using the red-taped
syringe) drop by drop, stirring
constantly noting the pH as
indicated by the colour change (or
pH probe). When the pH reaches 7,
point out to pupils the volume of
acid added is the same as the initial
volume of alkali.

Syringes (10ml) of HCl and


NaOH (same molarity e.g.
0.1 M) Beakers, universal
indicator, safety glasses.
Activity Support Sheet 2.

Repeat the experiment with alkali


Activity Support Sheet 3.
being added to acid. Point out that
neutralising an acid moves its pH
up towards 7 and neutralising an
alkali moves its pH down towards 7.
Use a pH meter or probe with
interface to graph volume versus
pH for acid to alkali or alkali to acid.
Pupils can then repeat the above
experiment without using indicator
and then evaporate off the water to
obtain the salt. (Before evaporation,
pupils can check the pH using pH
paper.)

Syringes (10ml) of HCl and


NaOH (e.g. 0.1 M.)
Beakers, safety glasses pH
paper evaporating basins,
Bunsen burners, tripod
stands.

Other examples could be sodium


hydroxide and ethanoic acid,
sulphuric acid and ammonia
solution.

Activity Support Sheet 4.

Get pupils to find out about the


applications of acid, alkalis and
neutralisation using the Find out
about sheet.
Some pupils can research
neutralisation examples such as
milk of magnesia for indigestion,
treatment of garden soil, sodium
bicarbonate for acid bee stings and
vinegar for alkali wasp stings.
Others can research uses of acids
and alkalis such as skin hair care,
fruit juices and vinegar and
cleaning products. Others still may
research the harmful, irritant and
corrosive nature of acids and
alkalis and precautions needed.

Books, Internet access, CD


ROMs.
Activity Support Sheet 5.

Assessment

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

State that when an E


acid neutralises an
alkali a salt and
water is formed.

Resources

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Learning Activities

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

State that acids


and alkalis
combine to form a
neutral solution.

Level

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Learning
Outcomes

Pupils can state that


adding acid to alkali
lowers the pH and adding
alkali to acid raises the pH
until pH 7 is reached when
the solution is neutral.

Pupils can state that the


neutral solution formed is
a salt and water.

Pupils can identify some


acids, e.g. vinegar, lemon
juice.
Pupils can identify some
everyday uses of acids,
e.g. in foods, medicines,
cleaning materials
treatment of bee/wasp
stings, treatment of soil,
etc.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 6

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Topic Outline

After their research you can get


pupils to try out one or two
examples as experiments. Get them
to plan and record what they do.
For example treatment for
indigestion; pupils take 20 ml of HCl
and add to beaker, add some
universal indicator, then add
indigestion powder or indigestion
tablets to beaker stir and watch
what happens to pH. Ask pupils
what type of reaction is taking place
and which type of chemical must be
present in the indigestion powder.

Use 0.1 M HCl, stirring rods,


beakers, selection of
indigestion tablets/
powders, universal
indicator.

Treatment of garden soil (farm


land).
Mention acid rain and its effect on
raising soil acidity which can affect
plant growth. Repeat the activity
above but replacing indigestion
powder with lime.

As above, but replace


indigestion powder with
lime.

Give pupils a variety of soft drinks


to test. Pupils can use pH paper or
better still a pH meter or probe with
interface.

Activity Support Sheet 6.

Activity Support Sheet 6.

Assessment

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Resources

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plan and carry out E


a practical
investigation on
the differences in
acid content in a
range of soft
drinks.

Learning Activities

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Give real life


examples of
neutralisation,
contd.

Level

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Learning
Outcomes

Various soft drinks each


with a different acid content
are required, universal
indicator, pH paper, pH
meter, beakers, measuring
cylinders, syringes.
I am a Scientist
investigation sheets.

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Topic Outline

Assessment

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Give examples of
how reactivity
relates to uses
and sources of
metals.

Resources

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

List metals in
E
order of reactivity
with oxygen,
water and acid.

Learning Activities

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Level

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Learning
Outcomes

Burn samples of magnesium and


copper to demonstrate their
reaction with oxygen and to
illustrate either end of the reactivity
series. Pupils can look at display of
metals that have been left exposed
to oxygen for a month and compare
it with fresh samples (arrange the
degree of corrosion to reinforce the
reactivity of the metals).

Safety screen, Bunsen


burner, mat, tongs,
magnesium ribbon, copper
foil; samples of metals,
fresh and partially corroded
e.g. Mg, Zn, Fe, Sn, Cu, Ag,
Au.
Activity Support Sheet 7.

Teacher demonstration of metals in


water using small samples of
potassium, sodium (caesium can be
shown using a video). Pupils
should then try out samples of
calcium, magnesium, aluminium,
zinc, iron, tin, copper (note the
order).

Safety screen, trough with


water, samples of, K, Na, Ca,
Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Cu, Pb, test
tubes and racks, safety
goggles.
Activity Support Sheet 8.

Get pupils to repeat their


experiments using dilute HCL
instead of water (Ca is very
reactive!). If any pupil (or teacher)
has a piece of gold they are willing
to add to acid that can be tested as
well. Include lead in the metal
samples to be tested.
Pupils can test a sample of the gas
which is generated to identify it as
hydrogen. (The test for hydrogen is
covered in the Unit Chemical
Reactions.) Pupils find it interesting
to see that there is hydrogen gas
given off by the action of a metal.

Dilute HCl, CD-ROMs, Multi


Media Science School has
video clips of the group one
metals, also Crocodile
Chemistry will allow you to
show animations of the
experiments.
Activity Support Sheet 9.
Activity Support Sheet 10.

Discuss the experiments with


pupils and then complete the
reactivity series table. Point out that
metals near the top react with
oxygen and water; metals near the
middle react with acid but not
water and metals near the bottom
do not react at all.

Get pupils to research everyday


Books, Internet access, CD
uses of metals (and dates of
ROMs.
discovery) and how this relates to
Activity Support Sheet 11.
their reactivity and use. Pupils can
also find out where different metals
come from. Pupils can write report
individually or in a group and
present work/or display work to
the rest of the class.

Pupils should be able to list


metals in the correct order
of reactivity: potassium,
sodium, calcium,
magnesium, aluminium,
zinc, iron, tin and copper.

Pupils can give examples


that show how reactivity of
a metal is related to its use.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 8

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Topic Outline

Describe the
effects of
electroplating.

Give examples of
how some metals
are extracted.

Get pupils to use metals to displace


less reactive metals from their
solutions. Give them a solution of a
less reactive metal and a more
reactive metal in metallic form to
insert.
The inserted metal disappears and
the metal originally in solution is
deposited. For example - zinc metal
into a solution of copper sulphate.
Iron metal into a solution of copper
sulphate. Magnesium metal into a
solution of nickel sulphate.
Point out that the new metal has
been formed and that the original
metal that was placed in solution is
not present any longer. Highlight
any change in colour of the original
solutions and possible change in
temperature.

Let pupils carry out the electrolysis


of copper (II) chloride and observe
and record the formation of
products at the electrodes
particularly the deposition of
copper.
Demonstrate the electrolysis of
molten lead bromide. Show a video
clip for this experiment.

Zinc, iron and magnesium


metals. Copper sulphate
solution and nickel
sulphate solution.
Or any other suitable
combinations.
Small beakers, stirring rods,
(or boiling tubes) safety
goggles.
Activity Support Sheet 12.

Solution of copper (II)


chloride, carbon electrodes,
power pack, leads, beakers,
safety goggles.
Lead bromide and suitable
apparatus for carrying out
the electrolysis experiment.
Activity Support Sheet 13.

Safety Note: Use low voltage in


copper chloride experiment to
prevent build up of chlorine gas;
ventilate room while carrying out
experiment.

Get pupils to carry out


electroplating of a steel nail with
nickel or with copper. Point out that
it is possible to electroplate one
metal with another using
electrolysis.
Discuss with pupils how this
method is used to protect metals
from corrosion.
Get pupils to research the
extraction of metals from their ores
e.g. Iron, aluminium, copper, lead,
gold, silver.

Assessment

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

E
State that
electrolysis can be
used to obtain a
metal from a
solution.

Resources

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Learning Activities

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

State that more


reactive metals
can displace less
reactive metals
from their
solutions.

Level

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Learning
Outcomes

Solutions of copper
chloride and nickel
sulphate, power pack,
leads, carbon electrodes,
steel nails, beakers,
crocodile clip.
Activity Support Sheet 14.

Books, Internet access, CD


ROMs.
Activity Support Sheet 15.

Pupils can state that metals


higher in the reactivity
series can displace metals
lower in the series from
their solutions.

Pupils state that


electrolysis is a method of
extracting metals from
solutions.

Pupils can describe the


effects of electroplating
one metal with another
using electrolysis.

Pupils can explain the


extraction of some metals
from their ores.

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Science Topic Book

Acids and Metals

Activity Support Sheets


Primarily the pupil worksheets support children through practical activities or experiments. A few reinforce knowledge
and understanding.
The Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme promotes an enquiry-based approach to learning which is characterised by firsthand experience. Great care has been taken, therefore, not to place an over-reliance on worksheets.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 10

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

Name

Measuring pH
Use the table here to record your values for the pH of the solutions you
tested. Write the name of your solution in the left hand column the first
two have been done for you.

solution

pH

acid or alkali or neutral

Hydrochloric acid
Sodium hydroxide

Acid, alkali or neutral


Use the values of pH to decide if the solution is an acid, alkali or neutral and write your result in the
last column.
Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 11

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

Name

Adding acid to alkali


Add the alkali to the beaker first and use the table to record how the pH
changes as you add acid.

acid

alkali

universal indicator

Volume of alkali

10 ml

volume of acid added (ml)

pH

2
4
6
8
10

Use the words in the word bank to complete the sentence about adding acid to alkali.

When acid is added to

, the pH of the mixture


until the solution is

Wordbank

neutral

decreases

alkali

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 12

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

Name

Adding alkali to acid


Add the acid to the beaker first and use the table to record how the pH
changes as you add alkali.

acid

alkali

universal indicator

Volume of acid

10 ml

volume of alkali added (ml)

pH

2
4
6
8
10

Use the words in the word bank to complete the sentence about adding acid to alkali.

When alkali is added to

, the pH of the mixture


until the solution is

Wordbank

neutral

increases

acid

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 13

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

Name

Making salt

acid

alkali

acid + alkali

a salt + water

Describe how hydrochloric acid and sodium


hydroxide can be used to make common salt
(sodium chloride).
Space for diagram

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 14

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

Name

Finding out about neutralisation


This sheet will help you to plan how you are going to carry out your research, record your findings and
present a report to your class.

1.

Where are you going to find the information you need?


Write the names of the books, CD ROMs or web sites you use in this box.
Your teacher may be able to help you with this.

2.

What information are you going to need?


Use this box to write down any questions you want to find the answers to, e.g.
How is indigestion cured? How are bee and wasp stings treated?
How do gardeners treat soil?

3.

Now write down all of the information you have found.


Do this in your jotter or on a separate piece of paper.

4.

How are you going to present your findings?


You could use a poster, a written report, or a report you read out to your class.
Be creative what about a poem, a play or a presentation?

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 15

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

Name

Trying it out
Collect some dilute hydrochloric acid in a test tube and add a few drops
of Universal Indicator.
Crush an indigestion tablet. Add the crushed tablet bit by bit to the acid
(stirring all the time) until the acid is neutralised.
Use the space below to plan out your experiment.

Treating the soil


Collect a small amount of soil, add some water and a few drops of Universal Indicator solution.
Change the pH of the soil to make it alkaline good for roses!
Use the space below to plan out your experiment.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 16

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

Name

Reactions of metals with oxygen


Compare the appearance of each fresh metal sample with how it looks
after being exposed to oxygen for a month.
Describe the differences as accurately as you can.

name of metal

fresh

after a month's exposure

The most reactive metal is the most corroded.


Place the metals below in order of how reactive they are.

magnesium

iron

tin

gold

zinc

copper

less reactive

more reactive
Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 17

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

Name

Reactions of metals with water


Describe how each metal reacts with water as accurately as you can.

name of metal

decription of reaction with water

Place the metals below in order of how reactive they are in water.

magnesium

potassium

less reactive

iron

sodium

caesium

zinc

calcium

more reactive
Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 18

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

Name

Reactions of metals with acid


Describe how each metal reacts with acid as accurately as you can.

name of metal

decription of reaction with acid

Place the metals below in order of how reactive they are in acid.

magnesium

copper

less reactive

iron

aluminium

tin

zinc

lead

more reactive
Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 19

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

10

Name

Reactivity Series
Complete the table below using the following metals:aluminium, zinc, potassium, sodium, clacium,
magnesium, gold, slver, iron, tin, lead. copper, caesium.

react with water

metal

react with acid

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ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

11

Name

Finding out about metals


This sheet will help you to plan how you are going to carry out your research, record your findings and
present a report to your class.

1.

Where are you going to find the information you need?


Write the names of the books, CD ROMs or web sites you use in this box.
Your teacher may be able to help you with this.

2.

What information are you going to need?


Use this box to write down any questions you want to find the answers to, e.g.
Why is copper used for household plumbing? Whats so special about gold?

3.

Now write down all of the information you have found.


Do this in your jotter or on a separate piece of paper.

4.

How are you going to present your findings?


You could use a poster, a written report, or a report you read out to your class.
Be creative what about a poem, a play or a presentation?

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 21

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

12

Name

Using reactivity displacement


Set up the two experiments shown here.
In the space below each diagram, record any changes you see as
accurately as possible.

zinc sulphate solution

copper

copper sulphate solution

zinc

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 22

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

13

Name

Splitting up
Use this sheet to record your observations of the electrolysis
of copper chloride.

Power Pack
DC Supply

positive electrode

negative electrode

copper chloride
250 ml beaker

at the positive electrode

at the negative electrode

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 23

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

14

Name

Electroplating
Use this sheet to record your observations of electroplating
a steel nail with copper.

Power Pack
DC Supply

positive electrode

steel nail

copper sulphate

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 24

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Activity

Support Sheet

15

Name

Finding out about metal extraction


This sheet will help you to plan how you are going to carry out your research, record
your findings and present a report to your class.

1.

Where are you going to find the information you need?


Write the names of the books, CD ROMs or web sites you use in this box.
Your teacher may be able to help you with this.

2.

What information are you going to need?


Use this box to write down any questions you want to find the answers to, e.g.
What is an ore? What happens to it in a blast furnace?

3.

Now write down all of the information you have found.


Do this in your jotter or on a separate piece of paper.

4.

How are you going to present your findings?


You could use a poster, a written report, or a report you read out to your class.
Be creative what about a poem, play or presentation?

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 25

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Teachers Science Notes

Acids and Metals

Teachers Science Notes


Many teachers do not feel confident to teach science outwith their own specialist area. They are concerned that their own
limited knowledge restricts what they should be teaching. The materials in this programme are designed to help increase
teacher confidence.
These notes provide a summary of the science ideas covered in this topic and relate directly to the suggested learning
activities.

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Teachers Science Notes

Acids and Metals

Teachers Science Notes


Acids
Pupils often describe acids as being dangerous and able to dissolve things like the blood from the creature in Alien. You
can have a good session exploring the misconceptions.
Acids are really compounds which generate hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. The degree of acidity is measured by
the hydrogen ion concentration called the pH scale.

Acids and alkalis


You can describe acids as substances which like to give hydrogen. The opposite of an acid is a base a substance which
likes to accept hydrogen. In this unit, we only mention alkalis - which are bases that are soluble in water. Neutral substances
do not like to give or accept hydrogen. A solution is acidic, alkaline or neutral.

pH Scale
A good way to help pupils remember what they are measuring is to call the

pH = 4

pH scale the Power of Hydrogen scale. Values of pH less than 7 indicate the

pH = 5

solution is an acid; a value greater than 7 indicates the solution is an alkali; a

pH = 6

value equal to 7 indicates a neutral solution. (All substances tested in this


unit will be in solution.) A strong acid will have a pH value of 0 and a strong

pH = 7

alkali will have a pH value of 14.

pH = 8

The pH number of a solution can be determined by colour matching using

pH = 9

Universal Indicator which comes as a liquid or in strips of paper which has

pH = 10

been impregnated with Universal Indicator called Universal Indicator

Sample of colours of Universal


Indicator showing pH values 4-10.

Paper or, more normally, pH paper.

Neutralisation
Acids and alkalis can cancel each other out in a process called neutralisation. This has many useful applications which
include:

Treating bee stings (venom is acidic) with sodium bicarbonate and wasp (venom is alkaline) stings with vinegar.

Indigestion tablets (alkaline) to cure acid indigestion e.g. milk of magnesia.

Lime (alkali) used by farmers to raise soil pH.

All neutralisation processes move the pH of an acid or alkali towards 7. The products of all neutralisation reactions include
a salt and water. (With a carbonate the gas carbon dioxide is also formed.) To name the salt, use the metal from the alkali
for the first part and the name of the acid for the second part, e.g. reacting sodium hydroxide and Hydrochloric Acid
together would give you sodium chloride. Testing the pH of salts will show that not all salts are neutral.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 27

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Teachers Science Notes

Reactivity Series
The reactivity series is a list which places metals in order of their readiness to take part in chemical reactions. Metals at the
top react faster with water and dilute acid and burn more vigorously in oxygen. See the table below for the reactivity of
common metals.

Calcium
Magnesium
Aluminium

Iron

Tin
Lead

FORM OXIDE ON
SURFACE ONLY

Nickel

SLOW REACTION WITH WATER

Zinc

Mercury
Gold

NO REACTION WITH
WATER

Silver

NO REACTION WITH
OXYGEN

Copper

REACTION WITH

ACID

REACTION WITH

COMPOUND

IN GENERAL EACH METAL CAN DISPLACE ANY METAL BELOW IT FROM ONE OF ITS COMPOUNDS

Lithium

BURN TO FORM METAL OXIDE

Sodium

WATER

METALS TOO REACTIVE


TO TRY IN ACID

Potassium

REACTION WITH

DISPLACE HYDROGEN FROM ACID

OXYGEN

DO NOT DISPLACE HYDROGEN


FROM ACID

REACTION WITH

DISPLACE HYDROGEN FROM COLD WATER

METALS

Metals higher up the table can also push out lower ones from compounds. This is called displacement.
When a metal higher up the reactivity series is added to a solution containing a metal lower in the series, the lower metal
is forced out of the solution and is deposited the higher up metal replaces it in solution.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 28

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Teachers Science Notes

The reactivity series affects how metals are used. Metals like
lead and copper are used for roofs and piping because they
do not react easily.
Iron is common and is used to make many things, but it has
to be protected from corrosion (electroplating).
Very unreactive metals like gold and silver are used for
jewellery because they stay shiny.
The Glasgow Science Centre has a titanium roof.

Electroplating of Metals
Electroplating is the coating of an object (which must be a conductor) with a metal. The object to be coated is attached to
the negative electrode. The positive electrode would be the coating metal (otherwise the coating metal comes out of solution).
These would then be placed in a solution of the coating metal. An electric current passes through the solution due to the
movement of electrons and ions in the solution. This is also the basis of the operation of a battery.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 29

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Teachers Science Notes

Extraction of Metals
Electrolysis is a method of extraction using electricity to split up a metal ore. This method of extraction is only used to
extract the metals from the top of the reactivity series. The metal always forms around the negative electrode during
electrolysis (because metal ions are positive).
Less reactive metals are extracted using heat and carbon (coke) usually in a furnace. The extraction of iron is carried out in
a blast furnace using this method. The very unreactive metals such as gold and silver have been known since earliest
civilisation and are often found in their metallic state.

METAL

EXTRACTED ORE

USE

chalcopyrite

Electrical wiring
good conductor
of electricity

aluminium

bauxite

Cans; aircraft bodies


because of its low
density

zinc

smithsonite

Used to protect iron


by galvanising

magnesium

magnesium chloride

Fireworks; flares;
medicines

tin

cassiterite

copper

iron

haematite

Solder; anodising
steel

Iron is used to make


steel girders and steel to
reinforce concrete
because it is strong
under tension

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Investigations

Acids and Metals

Investigations

Although investigating is an activity that crosses the curriculum, it has special significance for
science. First-hand investigations are central to the way in which young children learn science,
providing opportunities to plan fair tests, make observations, hypothesise, predict, collect
evidence, research, survey and discuss. Through such means, opportunities arise to infer,
deduce, calculate, draw conclusions from evidence, make judgements and debate important
issues. Characteristics such as curiosity, responsibility, perseverance, cooperation, attention
to detail and divergent thinking are also encouraged.
Environmental Studies 5-14 National Guidelines (2000)

Open-ended investigations are proven to increase pupil motivation, thinking skills and knowledge and understanding.
The investigative skills of planning, fair testing, observing, measuring, recording, reporting and evaluating are best promoted
through investigative work and to this end, this topic includes a topic investigation.

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Investigations

By the time pupils reach S1/S2, they will have, with the support of their teachers, developed a range of investigative skills.
If the Glasgow Science Programme has been used throughout the primary stages, almost all pupils will have achieved skills
at level C by P7 and most will be working at level D. During S1/S2, therefore, pupils should concentrate on the skills at D to
F. The teacher will decide which level is most appropriate for each pupil. The progression in S1/S2 from Level D to Level F
is reflected in the difficulty of the planning and recording sheet for the topic. However, to ensure differentiation, the I am a
Scientist sheets from topics at other levels can be used.
This section of the booklet offers teachers advice on developing the skill areas of

Preparing for tasks

Planning

Predicting

Fair testing

Carrying out tasks

Observing and measuring

Recording

Reviewing and reporting on tasks

Reporting and presenting

Interpreting and evaluating

It also suggests a topic investigation that will promote scientific enquiry.


It is important that when carrying out investigations pupils are encouraged to suggest ways of answering the investigating
question.
The accompanying Investigation Planning and Recording Sheet I am a Scientist takes pupils through a structure for
investigation and allows them to systematically record their findings. A separate sheet is included for each skill strand.

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Investigations

Preparing for Tasks


Preparing for tasks includes understanding a task and planning a practical activity, making predictions and
undertaking fair testing.
By the time pupils reach S1, they will have been working at level D and should be able, with help from the teacher,
to contribute to the whole investigative process from planning to evaluation. Teachers in secondary schools
should be aware that the 5-14 programme is not an end point but a pathway to Standard Grade courses in S3/S4
and skills development should lead naturally to pupils acquiring those skills required for Standard Grade
investigations. Even so, pupils at the beginning of S1 will require more support than those at the end of S2.
The following outlines the progression in skills for preparing for tasks for levels D to F and includes the
investigative skill objectives from Standard Grade (all sciences).

Level D

Level E

Pupils are able to:

Pupils are able to:

identify two or three questions to investigate

identify a number of questions to investigate

provide reasons for planning decisions

plan a valid and reliable test for a given hypothesis

include fair testing in planning by changing one


factor

show awareness of the significance of variables

Level F

Standard Grade

Pupils are able to:

Pupils are able to:

formulate a testable hypothesis

demonstrate understanding of the problem posed (G1)

plan an appropriate strategy to investigate a

state the aim of the investigation (G2)

hypothesis

articulate a testable hypothesis (G3)

suggest a broad strategy to adopt (G4)

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Investigations

Carrying out Tasks


Carrying out tasks includes observing, measuring and recording findings.
By the time pupils reach S1, they will have been working at level D and should be able, with help from the teacher,
to contribute to the whole investigative process from planning to evaluation. Teachers in secondary schools should
be aware that the 5-14 programme is not an end point but a pathway to Standard Grade courses in S3/S4 and
skills development should lead naturally to pupils acquiring those skills required for Standard Grade investigations.
Even so, pupils at the beginning of S1 will require more support than those at the end of S2 although their repertoire
of measurement skills should be quite well developed on entry to secondary.
The following outlines the progression in skills for carrying out tasks for levels D to F and includes the investigative
skill objectives from Standard Grade (all sciences).

Level D

Level E

Pupils are able to:

Pupils are able to:

make an appropriate series of accurate

measurements

select and use appropriate forms of graphical


presentation

select an appropriate way of recording findings

Level F

Standard Grade

Pupils are able to:

Pupils are able to:

make a series of measurements of the input and

adopt appropriate and safe procedures (E1)

outcome variables

identify the input variable to be used and alter it


over a suitable range (E2)

make their own selection and be able to use


appropriate recording and presentation

control all relevant variables as necessary (E3)

make valid, reliable measurement of the outcome


variable (E4)

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Investigations

Reviewing & Reporting on Tasks


Reviewing and reporting on tasks includes reporting and presenting as well as interpreting and evaluating results
and processes.
Scientific investigations lend themselves to reporting and presenting information to fellow pupils. This forces
children to clarify their thinking and knowledge. Explaining to others is at the heart of constructivism and is a very
powerful way to learn developing metacognition in pupils.
The following outlines the progression in skills for reviewing and reporting on tasks for levels D to F and includes
the investigative skill objectives from Standard Grade (all sciences).

Level D

Level E

Pupils are able to:

Pupils are able to:

make an organised report of an investigation using

appropriate illustrations and vocabulary

appropriate illustrations

provide explanations related to scientific

knowledge

draw conclusions consistent with the findings

identify limitations of the approach used.

write a structured report of an investigation using


establish links between the results and the original
hypothesis

suggest improvements to the approach used

Level F

Standard Grade

Pupils are able to:

Pupils are able to:

evaluate a range of aspects of the investigation

tabulate results with appropriate headings and units


of measurement (RR1)

present the results on a graph or chart (RR2)

draw a valid conclusion inter-relating the appropriate


variables (Ev1)

use results to evaluate the original hypothesis (Ev2)

describe how the investigation was carried out (RR3)

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 35

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Investigations

Acids and Metals

Topic Investigation: Teacher Information


Which drink is the most acidic?
Preparing for tasks
What will be measured?

The pH (the acidity) of the drink, type (name ) of drink.

How will it be measured?

Using pH paper or universal indicator or because of the colour of some of the


soft drinks a pH meter may be more suitable.

What needs to be kept the same?

The volume of soft drink.

Make a hypothesis.

There is no obvious trend to determine. Pupils may wish to take the


investigation further by looking at label contents or compare still and fizzy
drinks.

Carrying out tasks


How will measurements be recorded?

Use a table headings could be:


Name of soft drink and pH value

Reviewing and reporting on tasks


Make a graph

A bar graph in this case.

Draw a conclusion

Which drink gave the highest/lowest pH?


Was the prediction correct?

Can you explain?

Drinks with acid give a low pH. Milk is alkaline, although if it is left out for a few
days its pH decreases. This is a possible alternative investigation.

Write a report.

Include a plan, diagram of apparatus , table of measurements , and description


of procedure.
If another pupil could repeat the investigation from the report, it is good.

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Investigations

a science investigation report


by:

Preparing the task


Title
(Investigative question)

What I
will change
(Input variable)

What will be
measured?
(Outcome variable)

How will it be
measured?
(Description of apparatus)

What do I think
will happen?
(Hypothesis)

What I will do to
keep the test
fair?
(Control of variables)

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Investigations

Carrying Out the Task


My table of results

A graph of my results

Comments (e.g. relationships between variables)

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Investigations

Reviewing & Reporting on the Task


Diagram of my apparatus

Description of what I did:

Summary of what I found out (Conclusion/links to hypothesis):

Description of improvements (Evaluate at least two aspects):

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 39

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Assessment Sheets

Acids and Metals

Assessment Sheets

The topic outline offers suggestions for ongoing assessment. The following sheets are provided to aid summative assessment
of pupils knowledge and understanding. They can be copied and used during the topic or at the end of the topic if the
teacher prefers.
The pupil evaluation sheets ask pupils to think about how much they have learned and what areas they enjoyed. These
sheets give the pupils an opportunity to give feedback to the teacher and provide some evidence for the teacher on the
pupils developing attitudes.

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Science Topic Book

Evaluation Sheet
I have completed a topic about:

These are the things I have learned and can do better:

Next time I do science I want to get better at:

Shade in the box to show how much you enjoyed the Topic.

very poor

very good

Comment:

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 41

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Assessment

Sheets

Name

Use this page to record things you want to get off your chest!

Find out some information about the acid content in drinks. Revise what you know about teeth and
tooth decay.
Give your opinion on the issue below.
Some dentists would like to see fizzy drinks banned because they damage teeth. Others want
the acid content reduced or the drinks to cost more. The makers dont want the drinks banned.
They are also worried that changing the acid content will affect the taste. What do you think?

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 42

KU

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Assessment

Sheet

Name

What colour is pH paper when in an acid?

What colour is pH paper when in an alkali?

What colour is pH paper when in neutral substances?

Name two common solutions which are acidic.

Name two common solutions which are alkali.

Name two laboratory acids.

Name two laboratory alkalis.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 43

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Assessment

KU

Sheet

pH

less than 7

more than 7

13

pH

pH

GROUP

14

11
12

pH

pH

10
pH

pH

8
pH

pH

6
pH

pH

pH

pH

2
pH

groups:

pH

In an experiment, Caitlin was asked to


organise some solutions into three

Name

What name could be given to a solution in:


Group A?

Group B?

Group C?

What chemical could Caitlin use to test the pH of liquids?

What happens to the pH of an acid as it is neutralised?

What happens to the pH of an alkali as it is neutralised?

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ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Assessment

KU

Sheet

Name
Taking indigestion remedies to cure acid indigestion is an example of neutralisation.
What two things are always made when neutralisation takes place?

Describe another example of neutralisation.

Rearrange the following metals in order of reactivity; putting the most reactive on top.

METAL

ORDER

zinc
copper
calcium
tin
sodium
aluminium
potassium
magnesium
iron

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ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Assessment

KU

Sheet

Name
Gold and silver have been used to make jewellery
since the earliest times.
Other metals such as calcium and aluminium were
unknown until approximately 200 years ago.

Explain why gold and silver were among the first metals to be discovered.

Explain why calcium and aluminium were not discovered until recent times.

Some metals were added to solutions as shown below. In the box provided state which metal is left
after the reaction takes place.
METAL FORMED

iron + copper sulphate

tin + zinc sulphate

magnesium + nickel chloride

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 46

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Assessment

KU

Sheet

Name
Describe what happens when copper
chloride is electrolysed.
Remember to describe what happens at the

Space for diagram

electrodes.

Screws, which are to be used outside, are often electroplated with zinc.
Describe how a steel screw can be electroplated.

Why is it useful to use zinc-plated screws outdoors?

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 47

KU

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Assessment

Sheet

Name
Describe two different extraction processes
for any metals you have studied in this
topic.

Space for diagram

Method 1:

Space for diagram

Method 2:

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 48

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Assessment

PS

Sheet

Name
Jeff added dilute potassium hydroxide slowly to dilute sulphuric acid. After he added each drop, he
tested the pH of the solution and recorded the results in a table.
NUMBER OF DROPS

pH OF SOLUTION

10

12

Draw a line graph of Jeffs results.

How many drops of potassium hydroxide neutralised the acid?

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 49

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Assessment

PS

Sheet

Name
Name the acid and alkali which could be used to prepare solutions of each of the following salts.

magnesium sulphate

sodium chloride

calcium nitrate

Experiments were set up to investigate the rate of reaction of six metals, A, B, C, D, E and F with dilute
hydrochloric acid, oxygen and water. The results are shown below.

METAL

REACTION WITH ACID

REACTION WITH WATER

REACTION WITH OXYGEN

no reaction

no reaction

no reaction

vigorous reaction

slow reaction

slow reaction

slow reaction

slow reaction

no reaction

explosive reaction

vigorous reaction

very quick reaction

slow reaction

no reaction

no reaction

vigorous reaction

fast reaction

quick reaction

Place the six metals in order of reactivity. (Start with the least reactive.)

less reactive

more reactive

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 50

ACIDS AND METALS Level E/F: Homework Sheets

Acids and Metals

Homework Sheets

Improving Science Education 5-14 (1999), section 2.3 makes the following statement about homework:
Science homework was rarely given in primary schools and was not sufficiently purposeful or challenging in
secondary schools.
The following homework sheets are designed to address this need. The questions are intended to offer the opportunity for
pupils to think, write extended answers and try some simple practical tasks. Teachers should ensure that pupils are given
any necessary safety advice in relation to the practical tasks (e.g. do not drink the water after adding salt, if the tumbler
breaks, ask an adult to help clean the broken glass).
Although entitled Homework Sheets, these questions can be used to check pupils understanding and can be used in
class as well as at home. The material supplied here is not exhaustive. Teachers can and should use other sources for
homework in the course of their teaching.

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ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Homework

Sheet

Name

neutral

slihtly alkaline

beige

yellow

lime green

green

dark green

turquoise

pale blue

blue

dark blue

violet

purple

red
pH 1

10

11

12

13

14

very alkaline

slightly acid

orange

very acid

pink

The table below was copied from Universal Indicator paper (pH paper).

Describe how the pH of a solution can be measured using pH paper.

What colours does pH paper turn in acids?

What range of pH values indicates a solution is acidic?

What range of pH values indicates a solution is alkaline?

What colour does pH paper turn in neutral solutions?

What is the pH of neutral solutions?

Name one neutral solution.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 52

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Homework

Sheet

1a

Name

neutral

slihtly alkaline

orange

beige

yellow

lime green

green

dark green

turquoise

pale blue

blue

dark blue

violet

purple

pH

10

11

12

13

14

very alkaline

slightly acid

pink

very acid

red

The table below was copied from Universal Indicator paper (pH paper).

Describe how the pH of a solution can be measured using pH paper.

What colours does pH paper turn in acids?

What range of pH values indicates a solution is acidic?

What range of pH values indicates a solution is alkaline?

What colour does pH paper turn in neutral solutions?

What is the pH of neutral solutions?

Name one neutral solution.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 53

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Homework

Sheet

Name
The following is a report given by SEPA to a fish farmer.

Describe how you would use Universal Indicator or pH paper to measure the pH of the water.

Give a name of a substance which could be used to neutralise the water.

Explain what is meant by neutralisation.

What happens to the pH of an acid as it is neutralised?

What happens to the pH of an alkali as it is neutralised?

What are the two products formed in a neutralisation reaction?

Explain why indigestion tablets are taken to relieve indigestion.

If you were stung by a wasp what would you use to neutralise it?

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 54

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Homework

Sheet

Name
The table below shows how long it takes 1g of each of the five metals to react completely in
hydrochloric acid.
METAL

TIME

copper

years

iron

600s

magnesium

35s

sodium

15s

zinc

180s

Write down the metals in order of reactivity (most reactive first).


1
2
3
4
5

Which of these metals react most strongly with water?

The reactivity of calcium is mid-way between those sodium and magnesium. How long might 1g of
calcium take to dissolve in the acid?

Explain why copper rather than magnesium is used to make water pipes.
Concentrate on reactivity in your answer.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 55

ACIDS AND METALS: Level E: Homework

Sheet

Name
As a homework exercise, pupils were asked to find the pH values of a number of substances found in
the home. One pupil wrote down her results as follows:

lemon juice 3

washing up liquid 8

indigestion tablet 10
vinegar 4

coffee 5

window cleaner 12

sugar solution 7

bicarbonate of soda 9

cola drink 5

salty water 7

Make a table to show whether these substances were acid, alkali or neutral.

ACIDS

NEUTRAL

ALKALIS

Draw and label a diagram to show how copper can be obtained from the electrolysis of copper
chloride.

Name one neutral substance, one laboratory acid and one laboratory alkali.

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Glossary

Acids
and
Metals
Glossary
Name
WORD

MEANING

acid
alkali
neutralisation
pH scale
pH paper
Universal Indicator
solution
reaction
Reactivity Series
metals
displacement
electrolysis
electroplating
corrosion
extraction
electrode
ore
blast furnace

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 57

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Glossary

Acids
and
Metals
Glossary
Name
WORD

MEANING

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 58

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Pupil Checklist

Acids
and
Metals
Pupil Checklist
Name

By the end of this unit I should be able to:


Measure the pH of common solutions using pH paper and Universal Indicator.
State that acids have a pH value less than 7, neutral solutions have a pH value = 7 and alkalis
have a pH value more than 7.
State that the lower the pH of an acid the greater the acidity; the higher the pH of an alkali the
greater the alkalinity.
State that acids and alkalis combine to form a neutral solution and adding acid lowers pH while
adding alkali raises pH.
State that when an acid neutralises an alkali, a salt and water is formed.
Give real life examples of neutralisation.
Plan and carry out a practical investigation on the differences in acid content in a range of soft
drinks.
List metals in order of reactivity with oxygen, water and acid; potassium, sodium, calcium,
magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, tin and copper.
Give examples of how reactivity relates to uses and sources of metals.
State that more reactive metals can displace less reactive metals from their solutions.
State that electrolysis can be used to obtain a metal from a solution.
Describe the effects of electroplating one metal with another using electrolysis.
Give examples of how some metals are extracted from their ores.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 59

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Resources and Safety Issues

Acids and Metals

Resources and Safety Issues


A list of the resources required for this topic is given. The list is intended to give an overall feel of the nature and quality of
the resources required. Teachers should refer to the resources column in the Topic Guide which gives a list of resources
(per pupil/group) for each activity. The pupil numbers in each group and the number of pupils in the class will determine
the number of items.
There are relatively few hazards associated with the science activities outlined in the Glasgow Science Programme. For
those that do exist, the risks they present are readily controlled. Areas of safety to be aware of are outlined in the following
section but more detailed advice on all aspects of safety in science can be found in Glasgow City Councils Science Code of
Practice SSF/S1, Hazardous Chemicals Manual COSHH/8b and Be Safe (GSF/25, SSF/S31).
Teachers should follow advice given in these documents as well as exercise common sense when carrying out science
activities. Pupils too, should be made aware of potential hazards and be encouraged to consider these when planning
their own investigations.
If there is any doubt about safety issues during the teaching of this topic, consult Technician Resource Service (TRS), 135
Westmuir Street, Glasgow G31 5EX, 0141 554 6322 (or David Lawson, Adviser in Science, 0141 287 4126).
Teachers must ensure that proper risk assessments are undertaken for each activity that is relevant to their own
establishment. The following advice is taken from Be Safe and is suitable generic risk assessment for all activities.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 60

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Resources and Safety Issues

Acids and Metals

Resources

Universal Indicator paper with colour chart.

Universal indicator.

pH meter or probe with interface.

Variety of common solutions e.g. lemon, lime, orange and grapefruit juices, vinegar, citric acid, cream of tartar, coffee,
tea, deionised water, salt solution, Epsom salts, milk, milk of magnesia, washing up liquid, bicarbonate of soda, weak
ammonia solution.

Beakers (50 ml, 100ml 250ml).

Safety glasses.

Droppers and dimple tiles.

Text books, CD ROMs, internet access.

10 ml syringes marked with red and blue tape.

HCl, H2SO4, CH3CO2H (ethanoic acid), NH3OH, NaOH (all solutions are 0.1M).

Evaporating basin.

Bunsen burner, tripod stand, heat resistant mats.

Stirring rods.

Indigestion tablets/powder.

Lime for putting on soil.

Soft drinks various acidities.

Measuring cylinders.

Safety screen.

Samples of fresh and partially corroded magnesium, zinc, iron, tin, copper.

Tongs.

Samples of metals for reactions: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, tin, copper.

Test tubes and racks.

Copper sulphate solution and nickel sulphate solution for displacement reactions.

Copper (II) chloride, carbon electrodes, power pack and leads for electrolysis.

Lead bromide (demonstration of molten electrolysis).

Steel nail for electroplating, crocodile clips.

Glasgow 5-14 Science Programme Education Improvement Service 61

ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Resources and Safety Issues

Acids and Metals

Safety Issues
(Advice taken from Be Safe)

Chemicals
The substances suggested for use in this topic can be used safely by pupils with the correct precautions but remember that
any substance, even salt can be harmful if taken in sufficient quantity. Be aware that any substance in a fine powdery or
dusty form can be inhaled and thus harm health.

Safety code for using chemicals

When transferring solid chemicals use small spoons kept for this purpose, and not fingers. For liquids, use droppers
always taking great care to avoid cross contaminating the chemicals.

Only dispense small quantities so that it is never necessary to return excess chemical to the container.

Prevent contact with the eyes. This can happen when chemicals spit out of a tube during heating or when fingers are
contaminated with chemicals. Wear safety goggles/spectacles for such activities.

Avoid skin contact and use protective gloves if the information on the substance indicates it is corrosive or irritating to
skin or is poisonous by skin absorption.

Wipe away any spillage at once.

Always wash hands after using chemicals.

It may be dangerous to mix chemicals. Even inadvertent mixing in a sink, etc. of household chemicals, such as bleach
with other cleaners or acid can produce a toxic gas. Warn children of the dangers.

Safety code for storing chemicals

Always store chemicals in containers securely labelled with the name of the chemical, and with a hazard warning
symbol if appropriate. It is best to use the original containers.

Be aware of the risk of confusion and avoid using food or drinks containers for the storage of chemicals.

Keep only small quantities of chemicals.

Keep a record of all chemicals stored.

Store all chemicals in a locked cupboard or room away from heat sources and separate from those intended as foodstuffs.

Store flammable liquids separately from other chemicals. Where there is more than half a litre of any one flammable, it
must be locked in a flame-resistant cupboard or store.

Disposing of chemicals
Consult the Technician Resource Service (TRS), 135 Westmuir Street, Glasgow G31 5EX (or David Lawson, Adviser in Science
0141 287 4126) if you wish to dispose of any chemicals.

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ACIDS AND METALS Level E: Resources and Safety Issues

Particular advice for this topic


Chemicals
There are a number of acids and alkalis suggested for this topic. The concentration of these solutions should not exceed
0.1 M. In all experiments, safe classroom practice should be carried out at all times.
The acids and alkalis used can be safely disposed of down the drain, flushing well with water.
Reference should be made to the COSHH guidelines in the school (or contacts see above) if there is any doubt about
disposal.
Some pointers to remember when dealing with the chemicals are: Prevent contact with the eyes this can happen if
fingers are contaminated. Wear safety goggles/spectacles for all activities, wipe away any spillage at once and always wash
hands after use.

Metals
When testing the more reactive metals (Alkali metals) this should be done as a teacher demonstration.
The Multi Media Science School on the schools network has some nice video clips of the more reactive metals which you
can show. It also has a nice but very short clip of the electrolysis of molten lead bromide which you could show.
When heating the magnesium ribbon remind the pupils not to look directly at the magnesium as it can damage their eyes,
a beaker of cold water could be used to drop the copper in to after heating it.
When collecting the hydrogen gas for testing remind the pupils not to touch the bottom of the test tubes containing the acid
and metal as they will be warm, in some cases very warm!

Electrolysis
When carrying out the electrolysis experiments remember to ventilate the room to prevent a build up of chlorine gas, and
do not exceed 6V on the power pack when doing the experiment.

Electroplating
When carrying out the electroplating experiments remind the pupils to be careful with the electroplating solution and to
rinse it off immediately if they spill it on themselves. Remember to switch off the power packs before handling the electrodes.

Further information
Consult Technician Resource Service (TRS), 135 Westmuir Street, Glasgow G31 5EX, 0141 554 6322 (or David Lawson, Adviser
in Science, 0141 287 4126).

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