nb
t
t
n
r
Reflected light
Er = Ei Hr + t t r
+ + t t r H2 p 3L Hp 1L L

Transmitted light
Et = Ei t t H1 + r 2
+ r 4
2d
+ + r 2 Hp 1L Hp 1L L

MultipleBeamInterference.nb
tt +r 2
r
t
tr+rt
Reversibility
t t + r2 = 1
t r + r t = 0
t t = 1  r2
r = r
Therefore
R + T = 1;
t t = T;
R = r 2 = r 2
Er = Ei Hr + t t r
H1 + r 2
i
j
Er = Ei j
j
jr + t t r
k
p2
n=0
i
Er = Ei j
jr + t t r
k
1  r 2 Hp 1L Hp 1L y
i
zy
z
j
j
2 zz
1  r
{{
k
r 2 n
y
z
z
{
n dz
z
t t r y
jr 
Er = Ei i
z
1  r2
{
k
d
1  r2  t t y
j
Er = Ei r i
z
1  r2
{
k
d
1  Hr2 + t t L y
j
Er = Ei r i
z
1  r2
{
k
!!!
!
i R H1  L y
Er = Ei j
j z
z
1R
k
{
d
R H2  2 Cos@dDL
N
Ir = Er Er = Ii J
1 + R2  2 R Cos@dD
*
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
4 R Sin@d 2D2
Ir
Ii
H1  RL2 + 4 R Sin@d 2D2
+ r 4
2d
+ + r 2 Hp 1L Hp 1L L

i 1  r 2 p p y
Et = Ei t t j
z
z
j
2
{
k 1  r
Let p.
t t
Et = Ei
1  r 2
d
T
Et = Ei
1R
d
It
T2
2
1 + R  2 R Cos@dD
Ii
It
T2
2
Ii
H1  RL + 4 R Sin@d 2D2
Ir
F Sin@d 2D2
Ii
1 + F Sin@d 2D2
It
1
Ii
1 + F Sin@d 2D2
This shows again that the reflected and transmitted light are complementary.
Ir
does go to zero for all values of R, but it goes to 1 only in the limit that R 1.
Ii
It
goes to 1 for all values of R, but it goes to zero only in the limit that R 1.
Ii
As R1 the transmitted light becomes narrow bright fringes on a dark background.
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
Transmission Fringes
1
R=0.04
0.8
R=0.18
0.6
0.4
R=0.8
0.2
Order Number
1.5
1
0.5
0.5
1.5
Reflection Fringes
1
R=0.04
0.8
R=0.18
0.6
0.4
R=0.8
0.2
Order Number
1.5
1
0.5
It
a maximum Sin@d 2D2 =0.
For
Ii
d
2p
= n d Cos@qD = m p
2
lo
or for a maximum in the transmitted light
0.5
1.5
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
2 n d Cos@qD = m l
Going through the same procedure for reflected light we find that for a minimum in the reflected light
2 n d Cos@qD = m l
This is the same result found previously for two beam interference.
For zero reflection all beams after the first reflection are subtracting from the first reflection.
Ir
F
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
Thus
1
1
= 2
2
1 + F Sin@
4 D
e
e
4 F
!!!!
!!!!
p F
p R
finesse = =
2
H1  RL
2p
d = 2 n d Cos@qD + 2 f
lo
f is the phase change upon reflection for each surface.
We can still write
It
T2
2
Ii
H1  RL + 4 R Sin@d 2D2
or
It
T2
1
Ii
H1  RL2 1 + F Sin@d 2D2
However, now we have losses of an amount A so we must write
R+T+A =1
or T = H1  RL  A
It follows that
2
It
A
1
= J1  N
Ii
1R
1 + F Sin@d 2D2
2
2
A
i 1 y
z
Tmax = J1  N = j
j
A z
1R
k 1 +
T {
The effect of absorption is to reduce transmitted intensity and shift fringes. For the maximum transmitted intensity
A
A
. Even though A may be very small, if T is also small (R large),
may become large
the important quantity is
T
T
and the maximum transmitted intensity may be very small. As an example let R = 99.7% and A = 0.2%, so T is
approximately 0.1%. Tmax is now 11%. However, let R = 99.7% and A = 0.29%. Now T is 0.01% and Tmax
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
becomes 0.11%. What is happening physically is that while for each reflection there is very little loss, the reflectivity is so high that there are many effective reflections and the total loss becomes large.
While the phase shift due to f is normally not a problem at normal incidence there may be a problem at nonnormal incidence because f is a function of polarization. At normal incidence f is an equivalent to an increase of
f lo /2p in optical thickness of the plate.
The reflection case is more complicated because first reflection experiences no absorption. As a result the interference pattern does not go to zero.
7.3 FabryPerot
The multiple beam interference fringes from two highly reflecting surfaces illuminated near normal incidence are
used in the classical FabryPerot interferometer. A FabryPerot interferometer is useful for spectroscopy.
FabryPerot
Etalon
Extended
Source
Focusing
Lens
Narrow bright circular fringes are obtained. For a bright fringe of order m
d
2 n d Cos@qD
f
m = = +
lo
2p
p
Screen
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
Transmission Fringes
0.5
0.5
1
1
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1
1
0.5
0.5
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
Reflection Fringes
0.5
0.5
1
1
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1
1
0.5
0.5
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
10
l + Dl
1.2
0.8
1
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.85
0.9
0.95
0.2
1.05
1.1
1.15
0.85
0.9
0.95
1.05
1.1
1.15
The left side of the figure shows the individual intensity contours of two FabryPerot fringes that are just resolved.
The right side shows the two intensity contours added to give the observed effect.
It should be noted that some books such as Born & Wolf have a different criterion. They choose a separation such
that the sum of the two intensities equals 0.811 that of the maximum. This agrees with the Rayleigh criterion that
if we had a sinc2 function the intensity maximum of one line would coincide with the minimum of the second line.
Using this criterion we would get a resolution equal to 0.97 the resolution we get using our criterion.
The phase difference between the two interfering beams is
4p
d = n d Cos@qD + 2 f
l
4
n d Cos@qD.
where 2f is much smaller than
p
2p
Dd12 =
finesse
1
Dd =  d Dl
l
l
d
2pm
= =
2 = m HfinesseL
Dl
Dd
finesse
p
l
m p !!!!
F
m p !!!
R!
resolving power = = m HfinesseL = =
2
H1  RL
Dl
near normal incidence
2nd
m
l
2nd
resolving power finesse
l
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
11
c
DnFSR =
2nd
So increasing the resolving power by increasing the cavity thickness gives a reduction in the FSR.
l
DlFSR = ;
m
l
Dlres =
m HfinesseL
!!!!
!!!!
p F
p R
DlFSR
= finesse = =
Dlres
2
1R
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
12
Slit
Source
R
G
B
Fabry Prism
Perot
Etalon
B
The prism does gross separation to eliminate, or at least reduce, the FSR problem.
The FabryPerot gives high resolution.
The following figure shows some actual interference fringes obtained using a FabryPerot etalon with a prism
spectrometer (Ref: Born & Wolf).
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
13
Laser Light
Detector
FabryPerot
Etalon
Oscilloscope
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
14
The scanning can be achieved by mounting one of the FabryPerot mirrors on a PZT. Since for a given fringe
2 d = m l;
2d
2 D d = m Dl = Dl
l
Thus
Dl
Dd
=
l
d
As d is varied different wavelengths will be transmitted through the FabryPerot and the oscilloscope display will
show the wavelengths present.
T
J
M2
M1
I
J
d
In the paraxial region the path difference between the initial ray I J and ray I J I J I J is equal to 4 d, where d is the
distance between M1 and M2 .
Instead of obtaining a series of parallel emerging rays originating from a single incident ray, as is the case with a
plane parallel plate FabryPerot, we have a series of overlapping rays travelling along JT. The phase difference
between consecutive rays is given by
2p
f = H4 d L
l
which is independent of the inclination of the rays and their azimuth within the limits of the Gaussian approximation.
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
15
The intensity expression is the same as for a regular parallel plate FabryPerot, except we have a flat tint all over
the field. If rays are inclined to the axis thirdorder aberrations produce variations of the path difference and we
find the flat tint surrounded by circular fringes. We can reduce aberrations by placing two identical circular
diaphragms centered on M1 and M2 .
This interferometer is well suited to the large path differences corresponding to a high spectral resolution.
Imax
2p
It =
where d = 2 n d Cos@qD + 2 f
lo
1 + F Sin@d 2D2
f is the phase change on reflection at each surface.
A schematic diagram of a FECO interferometer is shown below. Both the sample and the reference surface must
have high reflectivity so high finesse multiple beam interference fringes are obtained. The sample is imaged onto
the entrance slit of a spectrometer
Image sample
on slit
White
Light
Source
Slit
Reference
Surface
Sample
Fringes
2d
lm =
m 
f
p
Solving for the height difference across a sample is complicated since f = f[l]. However, with many coatings f
can be considered to be independent of l over the small spectral region used for the analysis. (For more details see
Born & Wolf or Jean Bennett, JOSA 54, p. 612 (1964).
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
16
The following drawing shows two fringes in the FECO output. The goal is to find the surface height difference
between points 1 and 2.
2
1
m+1
l2,m  l1,m
f
d2  d1 = Jm  N J
N
p
2
f l
d = Jm  N and
p 2
Thus,
l1,m 1
f
Jm  N =
p
l1,m  l1,m 1
+
and
l1,m 1
l2,m  l1,m
d2  d1 =
J
N
l1,m  l1,m 1
2
+
The following figure shows some actual FECO interference fringes (Ref: Born & Wolf).
MultipleBeamInterference.nb
17
Since d2  d1 is proportional to l2,m  l1,m , the profile of the crosssection of an unknown surface is obtained by
plotting a single fringe on a scale proportional to the wavelength.
The spectroscopic slit is in effect selecting a narrow section of the interference system and each fringe is a profile
of the variation of d in that section since there is exact pointtopoint correspondence between the selected region
and its image on the slit.
Small changes in d are determined by measuring small changes in l. There are no ambiguities as to whether a
region is a hill or a valley. There are no ambiguities at a discontinuity as we would have with monochromatic light
where it is difficult to determine which order belongs to each fringe. Surface height variations in the Angstrom
range can be determined.
Two disadvantages are
1) we are getting data only along a line and
2) the sample being measured must have a high reflectivity.
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