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Praktek Tata Kelola Migas di Mancanegara (Sebagai “Benchmarking” dalam rangka disain tata kelola migas di tanah
Praktek Tata Kelola Migas di Mancanegara (Sebagai “Benchmarking” dalam rangka disain tata kelola migas di tanah

Praktek Tata Kelola Migas di Mancanegara

(Sebagai “Benchmarking” dalam rangka disain

tata kelola migas di tanah air)

Benny Lubiantara

-Fiscal Policy Analyst, Sekretariat OPEC, Vienna, Austria (Jan 2006 Feb 2013) --Ketua Bidang Peraturan dan Kebijakan, Ikatan Ahli Teknik Perminyakan Indonesia (IATMI) - Penulis Buku “Ekonomi Migas”

Disampaikan Dalam

Diskusi Publik “Mencari Model Kelembagaan Sektor Hulu Migas Dalam Revisi Undang – Undang Migas”

yang diselenggarakan oleh PWYP Indonesia bekerjasama dengan Revenue Watch Institute Jakarta, 4 Desember 2013

Worldwide Petroleum Arrangements

Worldwide Petroleum Arrangements

Petroleum Contracts & Transfer of Ownership

Petroleum Contracts & Transfer of Ownership *) Author’s illustration - Modified from Society of Petroleum Engineers

*) Author’s illustration - Modified from Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

Division of Gross Production

Concession

Gross Production Royalty Costs Deductions Income Tax Company’s Production
Gross
Production
Royalty
Costs
Deductions
Income
Tax
Company’s
Production

PSC

Gross Production Royalty Cost Oil (Cost Recovery) Profit Oil (P/O) Government Contractor P/O P/O Income Tax
Gross
Production
Royalty
Cost Oil
(Cost Recovery)
Profit Oil
(P/O)
Government
Contractor
P/O
P/O
Income Tax

Service Contract

Income Tax Government Cost Oil (Cost Recovery) Production Service Fee Gross
Income Tax
Government
Cost Oil
(Cost Recovery)
Production
Service Fee
Gross

Country’s Strategic Option

Reserves

Strategic Option Governance
Strategic
Option
Governance
Country’s Strategic Option Reserves Strategic Option Governance Fiscal Regimes NOC
Country’s Strategic Option Reserves Strategic Option Governance Fiscal Regimes NOC

Fiscal

Regimes

NOC
NOC
Country’s Strategic Option Reserves Strategic Option Governance Fiscal Regimes NOC

Proven Reserves (by Country)

Proven Reserves (by Country)

Proven Reserves (by Country)

Proven Reserves (by Country)

Country-by-Country Evolution of Oil Production Capacity to 2020

Country-by-Country Evolution of Oil Production Capacity to 2020 Source: Leonardo Maugeri, Oil – The Next Revolution

Source: Leonardo Maugeri, Oil The Next Revolution, Harvard Kennedy School, June 2012

NOC (Ranking based on Reserves)

     

State

Reserves

Rank

Company

Country

Ownership

(Million Barrels)

(%)

 
  • 1 Saudi Aramco

Saudi Arabia

100

264.200

 
  • 2 NIOC

Iran

100

138.400

 
  • 3 INOC

Iraq

100

115.000

  • 4 KPC

 

Kuwait

100

101.500

 
  • 5 PDVSA

Venezuela

100

99.377

 
  • 6 ADNOC

UEA

100

52.800

 
  • 7 LNOC

Libya

100

30.700

 
  • 8 CNPC

China

100

22.447

 
  • 9 NNPC

Nigeria

100

21.700

 
  • 10 Rosneft

Russia

75

17.513

 
  • 11 Lukoil

Russia

 

12.572

 
  • 12 Pemex

Mexico

100

12.187

 
  • 13 Sonatrach

Algeria

100

11.400

 
  • 14 ExxonMobil

US

 

11.074

  • 15 QP

 

Qatar

100

10.624

  • 16 BP

 

UK

 

6.541

 
  • 17 Petrobras

Brazil

4856

9.581

 
  • 18 Gazprom

Russia

50

9.195

 
  • 19 Surgutneftegas

Russia

 

7.929

 
  • 20 Petronas

Malaysia

100

7.876

 
  • 21 Chevron

US

 

7.523

 
  • 22 ConocoPhillips

US

 

6.541

 
  • 25 Total

France

 

5.778

  • 26 Shell

 

UK/Netherlands

 

4.887

 
  • 29 ONGC

India

74

3.607

  • 30 PDO

 

Oman

60

3.360

  • 32 Eni

 

Italy

30

3.269

 
  • 43 CNOOC

China

64

1.564

44

Pertamina

Indonesia

100

1.505

Governance in Oil & Gas Sector

Policy Ministry NOC
Policy
Ministry
NOC
Policy Ministry Gov’t Body/ NOC Agency
Policy
Ministry
Gov’t Body/
NOC
Agency
Policy Ministry NOC
Policy
Ministry
NOC

Governance in Oil & Gas Sector

Governance in Oil & Gas Sector Source: Valerie Marcel, Oil Titans, NOC in the Middle East,
Governance in Oil & Gas Sector Source: Valerie Marcel, Oil Titans, NOC in the Middle East,

Source: Valerie Marcel, Oil Titans, NOC in the Middle East, Page 143

Governance in Oil & Gas Sector

(a) (b) Policy Policy Ministry Ministry IOCs Directorate/ IOCs Gov’t Body/ NOC NOC Agency Algeria Saudi
(a)
(b)
Policy
Policy
Ministry
Ministry
IOCs
Directorate/
IOCs
Gov’t Body/
NOC
NOC
Agency
Algeria
Saudi
Brazil
(c)
Arabia
Indonesia
Malaysia
Policy
Mexico
Kazakhstan
Nigeria
Angola
No NOC
Norway
U K
IOCs
U S A
NOC
Canada
Russia
Venezuela
Australia

Proven Reserves & Fiscal Regimes

No Access Service Contract, Limited Access Service Contract, Limited Access No Access JV Concession, limited access
No Access
Service Contract, Limited Access
Service Contract, Limited Access
No Access
JV Concession, limited access
JV Concession, limited access, (PSC failed)
JV Concession, PSC, limited access
PSC
JV Concession, PSC, limited access
JV Concession, PSC, limited access
Concession, open access
JV Concession, limited access
Concession, PSC,
No Access
JV Concession, PSC, limited access
JV Concession, PSC
PSC
Service contract, limited access
PSC
PSC
Concession, open access
PSC
PSC, Service contract
Concession, open access
PSC
PSC
Concession, open access
PSC
Concession, open access

JV, Limited access

One-size-fits-all model does not exist

Extra Deepwater Extra Heavy OIl High Cost EOR Conventional E & P Project´s Risk Development Field
Extra
Deepwater
Extra
Heavy OIl
High Cost
EOR
Conventional
E & P
Project´s Risk
Development
Field
Low Cost
The needs for IOC´s
Involvement
Brownfield
Technical
Services

Proven Reserves & NOC Share of Production

OPEC Middle East, Venezuela 100% 14 102 Mexico, Brazil, 265 154 14 Norway, Algeria 7 141
OPEC Middle
East, Venezuela
100%
14
102
Mexico, Brazil,
265
154
14
Norway, Algeria
7
141
297
12
Nigeria
37
6
Malaysia
50%
Angola
10
Indonesia
4
0%
> 25 Billion Barrels
Proven Reserves
NOC Share of Production

Proven Reserves & NOC Share of Production

Mexico, Brazil, OPEC Middle Norway, Algeria East, Venezuela 100% 14 102 265 154 14 No Access,
Mexico, Brazil,
OPEC Middle
Norway, Algeria
East, Venezuela
100%
14
102
265
154
14
No Access,
No Access
7
141
Service Contract
297
12
Concession/ JV,
PSC,
PSC
Nigeria
37
6
Malaysia
50%
PSC
10
Angola
PSC
Indonesia
4
0%
> 25 Billion Barrels
Proven Reserves
NOC Share of Production

Proven Reserves & NOC Share of Production

102 NOC Share of Production 297 141 265 154 100% 0% 50% 7 37 10 6
102
NOC Share of Production
297
141
265
154
100%
0%
50%
7
37
10
6
12
14
14
4

> 25 Billion Barrels

Proven Reserves

Proven Reserves & NOC Share of Production

0% NOC Share of Production > 25 Billion Barrels 297 141 265 154 ?? ?? Concession/
0%
NOC Share of Production
> 25 Billion Barrels
297
141
265
154
??
??
Concession/ JV,
PSC,
No Access,
Service Contract
50%
7
100%
PSC
PSC
No Access
102
37
10
6
12
14
14
4

Proven Reserves

Net Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

Net Oil Exporting and Importing Countries Source: OPEC ASB, 2013, BP Statistical Review, 2013 and EIA

Source: OPEC ASB, 2013, BP Statistical Review, 2013 and EIA

Different Case - Different Strategy

Different Case - Different Strategy New Blocks Offered Existing Contracts Expiring Contracts
Different Case - Different Strategy New Blocks Offered Existing Contracts Expiring Contracts
Different Case - Different Strategy New Blocks Offered Existing Contracts Expiring Contracts
Different Case - Different Strategy New Blocks Offered Existing Contracts Expiring Contracts
Different Case - Different Strategy New Blocks Offered Existing Contracts Expiring Contracts
New Blocks Offered
New
Blocks
Offered
Existing Contracts
Existing
Contracts
Expiring Contracts
Expiring
Contracts

Different Case - Different Strategy

New Blocks Offered

Different Case - Different Strategy New Blocks Offered Attract Investors ? Fiscal/Taxes Incentive to Encourage Exploration

Attract Investors ?

Fiscal/Taxes Incentive to Encourage

Exploration Activities

Combination of Back end loaded features : lower royalty/FTP

And Front- end loaded features :

progressive share, additional taxes, etc.

Existing Contracts
Existing
Contracts
Different Case - Different Strategy New Blocks Offered Attract Investors ? Fiscal/Taxes Incentive to Encourage Exploration

Encourage EOR Development

Production Optimization

Encouraging Exploration Drillings in Producing Blocks

Expiring Contracts
Expiring
Contracts
Different Case - Different Strategy New Blocks Offered Attract Investors ? Fiscal/Taxes Incentive to Encourage Exploration

Higher NOC (up to 100%) Participation depending upon

the risk profiles

Higher NOC Share Less issue on commercial Terms and

Conditions More Issue on the ability of NOC to finance the current and upcoming

E & P projects

Oil and Gas Industry in Indonesia

Oil and Gas Industry in Indonesia

Thank you