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NAME OF THE TOPIC

CONTENT

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1.

INTRODUCTION------------------------------------------------

01- 09

2.

CHAPTER-1

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10- 15

3.

CHAPTER-2

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4.

CHAPTER-3

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18- 27

5.

CHAPTER-4

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28- 35

6.

CHAPTER-5

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36 -39

7.

CHAPTER-6

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40 -41

8.

CHAPTER-7

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42-43

INTRODUCTION

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. It has an emergency stop valve (ESV),control valve(CV), and high & low pressure turbines. Steam turbines has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston steam engine because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-weight ratio. Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator – about 80% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of steam turbines. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency through these of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible process. Many industrial plants like sugar, pulp, paper, chemicals, fertilizers, steel and petroleum refineries require steam at low and medium pressures for process purposes and power for driving numerous machines, like turbo generators, compressors, pumps etc ., incorporated in the plant. Normally steam is generated either in separate boilers that utilize the heat provided by exothermic reactions of the chemical process, depending on the nature of the industry. Steam is generated at pressures and temperatures higher than that needed for the process, in order to keep the size of boilers and steam carrying piping small and also to realize a reasonably good efficiency during steam generation. This high pressure steam is expanded in steam turbine upto the pressure levels required for process. The power developed by the steam turbine is utilized for driving either compressors, pumps, blowers etc ., or turbo generators for generating electric power. Most of the driven machines are run at comparatively high speeds except pumps, blowers and turbo generators . Especially centrifugal compressors used in chemical, fertilizer, petro-chemical and other plants run at very high speeds so as to achieve maximum efficiency.

When these turbines are used to drive generators and other low speed machines,

such as reciprocating compressors and cooling water pumps, a gear box must be incorporated in

order to reduce the speed.

To fit into varying operational requirements of energy balance, a wide range of steam

turbines are required. Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1

hp (0.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft

driven equipment, to 2,000,000 hp (1,500,000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity.

PRINCIPLE OF WORKING:

Steam turbines works on the principle of rankine cycle.

RANKINE CYCLE:

The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into work. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as the working fluid. This cycle generates about 80% of all electric power used throughout the world, including virtually all solar thermal, biomass, coal and nuclear power plants. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath.

thermal, biomass, coal and nuclear power plants. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine, a

There are four processes in the Rankine cycle, each changing the state of the working fluid. These states are identified by number in the diagram to the right.

Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure, as the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy.

Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor.

Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur.

Process 4-1: The wet vapour then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure and temperature to become a saturated liquid. The pressure and temperature of the condenser is fixed by the temperature of the cooling coils as the fluid is undergoing a phase-change.

In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be isentropic, i.e., the pump and turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximize the net work output. Processes 1-2 and 3-4 would be represented by vertical lines on the Ts diagram and more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle. The Rankine cycle shown here prevents the vapor ending up in the superheat region after the expansion in the turbine , which reduces the energy removed by the condensers.

STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANT CYCLE:

Steam turbine power plants are based on the Rankine cycle investigated by a Scotch Engineer and Scientist William Rankine (1820 -1872). Rankine cycle for Steam turbine power plant

with ideal turbines and pumps and superheated and saturated steam as a working fluid respectively as shown below. A conventional power plant steam for such a consideration is also shown:

power plant steam for such a consideration is also shown: Fig.1.1 Ideal Rankine cycle for superheated

Fig.1.1 Ideal Rankine cycle for superheated steam on T-S axes.

Fig.1.1 Ideal Rankine cycle for superheated steam on T-S axes. Fig.1.2 Ideal Rankine cycle for saturated

Fig.1.2 Ideal Rankine cycle for saturated steam on T-S axes

The steam turbine is fed with steam under temperature t1, pressure p1, and enthalpy h1. Expanding within the turbine, steam produces work W t and goes into the condenser under conditions p2 and h2. Hence its rejects heat Q r to cooling water and the resulted condensate with enthalpy h3<<h2, but with the same t3=t2 and pressure p3=p2 comes to the pump. At the expense of the pump work W p , the feed water pressure and enthalpy rise to values p4 and h4 with which feed water enters the steam generators where it is heated and evaporated due to the heat added Q a . For saturated – steam cycle the steam expansion process in the turbine begins from C, and with complete condensation in 3 with subsequent compression by the pump.

Thermal efficiency of ideal Rankine cycle for superheated –steam turbine power plant can be defined as:

superheated –steam turbine power plant can be defined as: = {(h 1 -h 2 ) /

= {(h 1 -h 2 ) / (h 1 -h 4 )}

x

=

n th

(1-W p /Q a )

x

{1 – (h 4 -h 3 )/ (h 1 -h 2 )}

Here n th is the gross thermal efficiency that is without regard to the expense of energy within the cycle.

STEAM REHEAT:

In the cycle with steam reheat instead of through adiabatic steam expansion from initial steam pressure p1 to end pressure p2, steam expands within the HP turbine part to the intermediate pressure (point5) and then is heated isothermally to steam reheat temperature (point 6) and then expands within IP-LP part to same end pressure p2 as shown below. In this case, for ideal cycle the thermal efficiency is approximately given by:

n th

=

(h 1 - h 5 )+ (h 6 - h 2 )

(h 1 - h 4 )+ (h 6 - h 5 )

Conventional power plant scheme:

Fig.1.3 Ideal Rankine cycle for steam reheat 1.5 COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT: Combined cycle (CC)

Fig.1.3 Ideal Rankine cycle for steam reheat

1.5 COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT:

Combined cycle (CC) power plant generate electricity by both gas and steam turbines within the joint unit and use the waste heat of gas turbine exhaust gas in the steam turbine cycle. Combined cycle allows attaining quite high values of thermal efficiency due to the high level of the upper cycle temperature (inlet gas turbine temperature) and the low level of the bottom cycle temperature (temperature at the steam turbine exhaust) CC units have lesser capital cost and require less time periods for launching than conventional steam turbine one.

The CC –unit thermal efficiency is calculated as:

n

c =

N cc / Q t

=

( N qt + N st ) / Q t

=

(Q qt .n qt +Q st .n st ) / Q t

Where Q t is the total heat amount in the unit.

STEAM TURBINES:

Classification of Steam Turbines

1. Based on Blading Design :

a) Impulse turbine

b) Reaction turbine

c) Combination of Impulse & Reaction turbine

2. Based on Application :

a) Utility turbines

b) Industrial turbines

c) Nuclear turbines

d) Marine turbines

a) Utility Turbines :

- Regenerative feed heating

- Regenerative feed heating with Reheat

- Combined cycle plants

b) Industrial Turbines :

Captive Power plant

- Straight Condensing

- Straight Condensing with Injection

Co-generation Power Plant (Power + Steam to process)

- Straight Back Pressure

- Extraction Condensing

- Extraction Back Pressure

- Double Extraction Back Pressure/ Condensing

- Extraction / Injection

Drive Turbines

- Compressor drive

- Blowers drive

- Boiler feed pump drive, etc.

• -2 Series Turbines

• -3 Series Turbines

• -4 Series Turbines

• HMN Series Turbines

KN Series Turbines

• Low Cost Turbines

CHAPTER-1

TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES :

The necessity to keep down the production costs lead to standardization of the types of steam turbines, such as back pressure, condensing, extraction back pressure and extraction condensing, injection condensing.

Condensing turbines

Back pressure turbines

Multiple extraction turbines

Injection condensing turbines for combined cycle plant

Reheat condensing turbines for utility type.

Most of the industrial steam turbines are high speed turbines for the power output range of 1-30MW with speed reduction by turbo gears which in turn means smaller sizes and higher efficiency for the turbine for the output of 30MW and above the turbine speed is 3000rpm.

The main features of industrial steam turbines are:

The turbine is fixed at the rear end and expands towards the front side of the turbine. The rotor is fixed at the thrust bearing which is housed in the front bearing pedestal and expands towards the rear bearing. The casing which gets expanded in turn pushes the front bearing pedestal by the same amount.

This sliding of front bearing pedestal results in moment of thrust bearing in the rotor of the same amount and hence the expansion of the outer casing is nullified.

Customizing of steam turbines modules to meet the customer’s needs based on building block system in a particular series of turbines optimum flow path designed can be done depending upon case to case.

Type of governing system is nozzle governing type that has very good part load efficiency.

BACK PRESSURE AND EXTRACTION BACK PRESSURE TURBINES:

Back pressure steam turbines are normally employed where the process steam is required at one single pressure extraction. Back pressure sets are used where process steam is required at two different pressure levels. In both the cases power generation is only a byproduct. These turbines are extensively used in sugar plants and small paper plants where clients desire more power from these turbines, the requirement can be met by designing the turbine to pass more steam. Excess steam after meeting the process steam requirements can be dumped in dump condenser. Back pressure turbines are also employed as topping turbines .i.e. the exhaust steam from back pressure turbines are fed to another steam turbine called bottom in turbine .this arrangement has been adopted in some old power houses, which were operating on low pressure cycles and where only boilers were replaced, but steam turbines residual life is considerable .low pressure

boilers were replaced with high pressure boilers. Back pressure topping turbine was employed, to reduce the steam pressure to the levels at which the old steam turbines in the power can accept. This arrangement has improved the operating economics of the old power houses. To meet the specific requirements of a leading chemical plant in India, BHEL designed a back pressure turbines with Siemens assistance, to operate with high inlet steam temperature of 565 deg c .this set is already manufactured at Hyderabad works and supplied. CONDENSING TURBINES:

Condensing turbines are primarily employed for power generation. These turbines can be provided with uncontrolled extraction where clients require steam in small quantities. Uncontrolled extraction avoids extraction controlled valves and therefore throttling losses are reduced even while providing small quantity’s of process steam. Another application of uncontrolled extraction is wander controlled system. In wander control system two bleeds are provided. One bleed is at high pressure and another at low pressure. In part load operations HP bleed meets the process steam requirement. At full load operations, the LP bleed will meet the steam requirement. This arrangement reduces energy losses due to throttling, considerably. Condensing turbines are employed mostly in industries like cement where process steam requirement is not required.

EXTRACTION CONDENSING:

Where customer gives equal importance for meeting the process steam and power needs, extraction condensing sets become ideal choice. The benefit is, power generation can be maintained at the required levels even when process steam needs to fluctuate. In paper and pulp industries, process steam requirement of digesters fluctuate, while power requirement of the paper plant remains almost constant. Hence in all medium and large paper plants, extraction condensing sets are employed.

EXTRACTION INJECTION CONDENSING TURBINES:

Extraction turbines are not restricted only to the provision of extracting steam, but may also be employed as induction turbines, i.e. excess steam in LP bus line can be used economically for power generation in such turbine without difficulty as in case of extraction turbines, the turbines governing system for maintain constant pressure. In the line can also be used for these injection turbines. Injection condensing turbines are employed in combined cycle plants and in fertilizers industries.

APPLICATIONS:

The steam turbines are utilized in several industries viz

Paper, fertilizers, chemical petro

chemicals, sugars, refinery, metallurgical etc foe power generation and mechanical drives already described. The following illustration explains the selection - application criteria of industrial turbines.

CATEGORIES IN STEAM TURBINE:

Industrial steam turbine are categorized into different series like -2 series -3 series -4 series

-2 SERIES TURBINES:

These series of turbines are of standard type and have been designed for the best efficiency for range parameters. Based upon the inlet conditions like pressure temperature, material selection is varied. Designs being the standard further based on then steam flow quantities size of the turbine is

selected .in these series of turbines the fixed blade grooves are machined directly in the outer casing and guide blades are inserted.

directly in the outer casing and guide blades are inserted. Different sizes of -2 types of

Different sizes of -2 types of turbines are:

G250-2

EK/K 600-2

G300-2

EK/K 800-2

G400-2

EK/K 1000-2

G500-2

EK/K 1100-2

G800-2

EK/K 1400-2 EK/K 1800-2

“G” stands for back pressure turbine

“K” stands for condensing turbines

“E” stands for controlled extraction

The number besides the letter indicates the area of the exhaust of the turbines.

-3 SERIES TURBINE:

Based on customer’s requirements and steps involved in design, the turbine is divided into different sections: inlet section, transition, exhaust or condensing section .these sections can be combined with each other. The figure shows the various sections of these series and possible combinations of withy one size of admission section. the admission sections are supplied in two versions, one from normal initial steam conditions up to 100 bar / 510 deg C and for high steam initial steam conditions up to 140 bar /540deg C .the size of the section is geometrically graded in the ratio to 1.25 to form different sizes of section .The parts associated with front section as front bearing pedestal, control valves, safety devices like emergency stop valves are fixed for a particular size. Also the same is done for the exhaust sections. With this arrangement for a particular front and rear section selected the connecting parts to the sections are common from case to case. now the length of the middle are transition section can varied based upon the number of blade stages required and the number of extractions required . with this concepts, besides optimizing the flow path, the use of standard and proven components like casings , guide blade carriers , bearing pedestals, nozzles, servo- motors, stop and governing valves from a particular model are ensured .unlike the -2 series the blade grooves in these turbines are made in the guide blade carriers which is supported in outer casing . Robust drum type rotors with integral shrouds, labyrinth glands for sealing of rotor ends and

inter stage blading, ensure greater reliability and efficiency. These turbines usually employ a gear

box between turbine and generator to achieve optimum efficiencies.

-4 SERIES TURBINES:

These types of series are called as centre admission steam turbines with counter flow for the

mid range of power, between 30MW to 150 MW. Using these concepts results in the compact single

casing solution in many cases up to 100 MW. The flow path is initially towards the front and in

inner casing after being admitted in the centre.

The steam reverses the direction on the reaching the end of inner casing to flow around inner

casing and expands towards the rear end of the turbine. This process of reverse flow of steam helps

in control the axial thrust to a large extent. The rear portion of the turbine is constructed based upon

the building block principle as explained in -3 series, front being a standard from particular range of

inlet parameters. These turbines are directly coupled to the generator. The valve blocks in these

turbines are separate and hence faster startups of the turbine .these turbines are best suited for combined cycle plant application.

NEW SERIES TURBINE:

These types of turbines have been developed by BHEL in the range of 15 to 20 MW to cater the special requirements of industries like sugar and cement w.r.t low inlet parameters and high extraction requirements for operation during season and power generation during off season periods. In view of the above certain cost saving features has been incorporated. the outer casing casting have been simplified by separating the valve chest the valve chest is cast separately and bolted to the outer casing there by limiting the importance of selection of material to valve chest . The middle section and the rear section of the turbine are based on the building block concept as that of -3 turbines. These turbines operate in the speed range of 6000 to 8000rpm. The flow path design of the above turbines confirms to the SIEMENS design practices. provision has been given for an extraction, which is useful for the process of NOX control CCP applications .the detailed design analysis is done with flow path design , mechanical design which includes rotor dynamics , design analysis by finite element methods and computational fluid dynamics for flow analysis

CHAPTER-2

PARTS OF STEAM TURBINE

2.1 THE VARIOUS PARTS OF STEAM TURBINE:

2.1.1 NOZZLE: The nozzle expands steam of comparatively low velocity and high static pressure

within considerable increase in velocity. The nozzle is so positioned as to direct the flow of steam

into the rotor passage.

2.1.2 DIFFUSER: It is a mechanical device that is designed to control the characteristics of steam

at the entrance to a thermodynamic open system. Diffusers are used to slow the steam's velocity and to enhance its mixing into the surrounding steam. In contrast, a nozzle is often intended to increase the discharge velocity and to direct the flow in one particular direction. Flow through nozzles and diffusers may or may not be assumed to be adiabatic. Frictional effects may sometimes be important, but usually they are neglected. However, the external work transfer is always assumed to be zero. It is also assumed that changes in thermal energy are significantly greater than changes in potential energy and therefore the latter can usually be neglected for the purpose of analysis.

2.1.3 BLADES OR BUCKETS: The blades or buckets form the rotor flow passage and serves to

change the direction and hence the momentum of the steam received in the stationary nozzles.

2.1.4

GUIDE OR GUIDEBLADES: Often a turbine is arranged with a series of rotor flow

passages. Intervening between the blades comprising the rotor passages are rows of stationary guide

blades. The purpose of this guide is to reverse the direction of steam leaving the preceding moving

blade row so that general direction of steam leaving the preceding moving blade rows is similar. If

guide blades were not provided, opposing force would be exerted on the rotor which would largely

negate each other.

2.1.5 CASING SHELL OR CYLINDER: The turbine enclosure is generally called the casing

although the other two names are in common use. The nozzle and guide are fixed on casing, which in addition to confining the steam serves as support for the bearings. Sometimes the word cylinder is restricted as a cylindrical form attached to inside of the casing to which the guides are fixed.

2.1.6 SHAFT, ROTOR and SPINDLE: These terms are applied to the rotating assembly which

carries the blades.

2.1.7

DISC OR WHEEL: The moving blades are attached to the disc which in turn is keyed to the

shaft.

2.1.8

DIAPHRAGM: The diaphragm which is fixed to the cylinder or casing contains the nozzle

and serves to confine the steam flow to nozzle passage.

2.1.9 PACKING: Packing in the form of carbon rings minimizes the leaking in the annular space

between the diaphragm and shaft.

2.1.10 THRUST BEARINGS: Usually a combination of Kingsbury and collar types absorbs the

axial forces.

2.1.11 EXHAUST HOOD: The exhaust hood is the portion of the casing which collects and

delivers the exhaust steam to exhaust pipe or condenser.

STEAM CHEST: The steam chest is the supply chamber from which steam is admitted to the

nozzles.

GOVERNOR: The governing system may be designated to control steam flow so as to maintain constant speed with load fluctuations to maintain constant pressure with variation of demand for processed steam or both.

THROTTLES OR STOP VALVES: The throttle and stop valves are located in the steam supply line to the turbine. The stop valve is hydraulically operated quick opening and shutting valves designed to be either fully opened or shut. On small turbines the stop valves may be manually operated but in any case is intended for emergency use or when fully shut down. The throttle valve is used in smaller turbines in addition to stop valve as a means of regulating steam flow during the starting or stopping the operation.

3.1 TURBINE CASING:

CHAPTER-3

The casing is out of cast steel and is split horizontally, the joint being level with the rotor axis. The casing of back pressure turbines is supported, on separate bearing pedestals with the support surface level with the rotor axis. This ensures that the position of the casing relative to the rotor remains always constant at all operating temperatures, the radial blade clearance thus remaining unchanged. In order to permit unrestricted horizontal expansion of the casing, without moving it out of centre, the casing of the back pressure turbines is located at both ends by two strong guide keys arranged in the vertical centre plane at the bearing pedestals.

For condensing turbines, the casing supports and guide keys are provided only at the front end bearing pedestals. The rear end bearing pedestal is cast integral with the exhaust branch, the supporting surface being level with the rotor axis.

Thermal expansion of casings

causes the front end

bearing

pedestal to move

axially for all types of turbines. The fixed point of the casing relative to bed plate and the

foundation for back pressure turbines is the rear end pedestal, which is bolted down and

located by dowel pins. The fixed point of

the condensing turbines is the exhaust branch.

The

construction

of

casings

for

extraction

type

machines

in

both

condensing and back pressure models is the same as described above, except that a branch is provide for extracting steam.

3.2 Turbine Rotor

The rotors for all types, complete with shaft ends and impulse wheels serving as governing stage, consist of single forging. All rotors of standard turbines are designed for

sub-critical operation i.e., as rigid rotors in the case of -2 type and as flexible rotors in the case of -3 type. The rotors are made of forgings of alloy steel material. when integrally machined A-wheel blades are to be used. Rotors are made of 22 cr MOV 12.1 material. During rotation of the shaft, the connection to the bearing pedestal is provide by the lubrication film. This film has spring and damping characteristics which can under certain conditions reach high values. Computer programs are used for calculating the spring and damping coefficients of journal bearings for any given form of bearings.

Most of the rotors used

for

turbo generator sets

are

of rigid type whereas

those used for compressor drive are of flexible type. After completion of machining and blading , the rotors are balanced in accordance with API 612. The rotor of high speed turbines for compressor drives are centrifuged at 25% above the maximum continuous speed

and those for generator drives are centrifuged at 20% above their operating speed. The centrifuging test is done to check the stability of rotor and soundness of blades assembly.

CONSTRUCTION:

Figure shows the basic version of the turbine rotor. The number of blade rows shown many differ from the actual model. The rotor is a single forging together with the thrust bearing collar (3). In front of the thrust bearing collar is the over speed trip (1) and shaft end with the coupling hub for the front power take-off. After the front journal bearing come the sealing strips for the outer gland bush (5) and the inner bush (6).

In

the figure it is possible to see after

the drum blading (7)

and the

subsequent LP blading of expansion space II (ES II) a part of the rear outer gland bush (10), which is followed by the rear journal bearing (11).

(10), which is followed by the rear journal bearing (11). FIG 1.2 Turbine Rotor The rotor

FIG 1.2

Turbine Rotor

The rotor ends in a tapered hub (14) suitable for fitting one half of a coupling which compensates for any axial or radial displacement. The primary balancing planes (17) are located in front of the inner gland bush, after the final row of moving blades and between the two expansion spaces. In addition, there are secondary balancing planes (15 & 17) in front of the outer gland bush and in front of the coupling hub.

Blading

The blading converts the thermal energy of the steam into mechanical energy. The efficiency and reliability of the machine are therefore very dependent on the blading.

Consequently , exceptionally high standards must be set in the design and manufacture of the blades.

To maximize turbine efficiency, the steam is expanded, generating work, in a number of stages. These stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from them and are known as impulse or reaction turbines. Most modern steam turbines are a combination of the reaction and impulse design. Typically, higher pressure sections are impulse type and lower pressure stages are reaction type.

IMPULSE TURBINE:

An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets. These jets contain significant kinetic energy, which the rotor blades, shaped like buckets, convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. A pressure drop occurs across only the stationary blades, with a net increase in steam velocity across the stage.

As the steam flows through the nozzle its pressure falls from steam chest pressure to condenser pressure (or atmosphere pressure). Due to this relatively higher ratio of expansion of steam in the nozzle the steam leaves the nozzle with a very high velocity. The steam leaving the moving blades is a large portion of the maximum velocity of the steam when leaving the nozzle. The loss of energy due to this higher exit velocity is commonly called the "carry over velocity" or "leaving loss".

REACTION TURBINE: FIG 2.1 Impulse & Reaction Stages In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades

REACTION TURBINE:

FIG 2.1

Impulse & Reaction Stages

In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. Steam is directed onto the rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the blades. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the rotor, with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through the rotor, with no net change in steam velocity across the stage but with a decrease in both pressure and temperature, reflecting the work performed in the driving of the rotor.

Main Features Of The Reaction Blading :

Standard turbines operate on 50% reaction principle and are, therefore, fitted with reaction blading, preceded by a single row impulse wheel as governing stage. The blades are milled from bar stock. The guide blades are made from drawn profiles. The last stage blades are of special design.

The reaction blades have rounded inlet edges, which are less affected by changes in the direction of entry than thin profiles, thus giving high efficiencies even at part load. The material used, the method of production and the profile adopted for the blades assure a considerable degree of protection against crack formation and fracture due to vibration.

Each blade is machines from the solid and has an integral shrouding at its tip. When the blades are fitted in the rotor, the roots form a continuous ring of shrouding. This helps to eliminate the danger from resonance, which is particularly liable to occur in compressor drives. The maximum allowable stresses due to static and dynamic forces are precisely calculated for the various steam zones. According to these limits the most suitable blade profiles will be selected.

The reaction blading permits larger axial clearances than impulse type blading without reduction of efficiency. The gap between the blade shrouding and the casing is sealed by sealing strips caulked into the casing.

The A-wheel blades are of impulse type and in certain cases where the blade stresses are very high the A-wheel blades are machined integral with the rotor by electrochemical machining. The A-wheel blades are always of forked root construction withstand the high concentration of stresses developed.

Moving Blades

There are two different types of moving blades:

There are two different types of moving blades: Fig 2.2 Dru m Blading Fig 2.3 Tapered
There are two different types of moving blades: Fig 2.2 Dru m Blading Fig 2.3 Tapered

Fig 2.2

Drum Blading

Fig 2.3

Tapered and Twisted blades

(a). The reaction blade for the drum blading and,

(b). The tapered and twisted blade for the low pressure stages of condensing turbines.

blade for the low pressure stages of condensing turbines. Fig 2.4 Moving Blade with inverted T
blade for the low pressure stages of condensing turbines. Fig 2.4 Moving Blade with inverted T

Fig 2.4

Moving Blade with inverted T & Tree root with integral shroud

The moving blades have their root, web and shrouding milled from the same solid forging. Exception to this rule are twisted blades of LP rows where it is not possible to design them integral due to their wide spacing and, for damping blade vibration in this section they provided with

damping wires of steel or titanium. Normally, only the roots of the control stages are forked. Sometimes, depending on the centrifugal stresses, the last rows of low pressure blades also maybe designed with fork roots. The running blades in the drum stages have roots of the inverted T-type. The guide blades are manufactured from drawn bar material and pronged roots. Spacers are provide between the guide blades and the group of blades are together held by a shroud which is riveted into them.

Low Pressure Stages

The last three stages of the turbine form a standard stage group. The substantial difference between the circumferential velocity at the hub and at the blade tip is allowed for by using a suitable profile and stagger angle. This geves the low pressure blades about their twisted form. The thickness of the blade also decreases from the hub to the tip because of the high centrifugal force.

the hub to the tip because of the high centrifugal force. Fig 2.5 LP stage with
the hub to the tip because of the high centrifugal force. Fig 2.5 LP stage with

Fig 2.5 LP stage with T & fork root blades

Again the moving blades have inverted T roots which means that the method of fixing is no different from the remainder of the drum blading. The final row blade are with curved for tree roots. They are inserted into axial grooves in the rotor and secured with caulking pieces.

Fig 2.6 Blade root with multiple fork

The moving blades are fitted with loose damping pins. The final row blades have integrally forged thickness around the hole for the damping pin so that the remainder of the blade cross section is not over stressed.

The fixed blades of the LP stage groups have thin trailing edges in order to prevent the formation of water droplets. The axial distance before the final row of moving blades is made large in order to facilitate the acceleration and atomization of any water droplets which detach from the trailing edges of the Ked blades.

This reduces the force with which the droplets Impinge on the leading edges of the blades. The leading edges of the blades are hardened if circumferential is high. The LP guide blades of the last two stages are of hollow type and manufactured from alloy steel plates which have high erosion resistance.

Losses in Turbine

External Losses

- ESV & strainer losses

- Governing losses (throttling losses)

- Leaving Energy Losses (Latent heat of exhaust steam in condenser)

- Radiation Loss to the surroundings

Internal Losses

1. Blade losses i) Primary Losses:

a) Shape loss due to mechanical strength

b) Friction loss due to profile surface finish

ii) Secondary Losses:

a) Incidence loss (Blade twist is required to minimize this loss)

b) Impingement loss

c) Boundary Layer loss ( between profiles and end walls)

d) Trailing edge loss

2. Disc Friction Losses:

Moving disc surface exerts a drag as steam which sets it in motion and produces a definite circulation.

3.

Partial Admission Losses:

a) Flow will be disturbed in partial filled blades. b) Eddies will be produced in inactive blades c) Energy is required to flush the steam in inactive blades when they come to active.

4. Inter stage Tip Leakages:

Steam throttles in the inter stage seals without doing work

5. Residual velocity Losses:

Kinetic energy of

the leaving steam of one stage will be carried over to the next stage. As the axial clearances increase between the stages (or stage groups) part of the kinetic energy will be lost.

6. Wetness Loss

Blade Tip Sealing

There is a radial clearance of several millimeters at the tip of all fixed and moving blades fitted with shrouding. This eliminates any possibility of contact between the stationary and moving parts of the machine due to distortion of the rotor or casing. This relatively large radial cleaeance is sealed with sealing strips in order to restrict the loss in power due to the tip loss to an absolute minimum. The sealing strips for fixed blades are caulked into the rotor and those for the moving blades into the guide blade carrier. The sealing strips are very thin and leave only a few

tenths of a millimeter between the shrouding and the rotor or

guide blade carrier.

made of

strong to withstand the maximum pressure differences which can occur. Due to rubbing, the amount of heat generated is insufficient to cause any dangerous distortion of the rotor or guide blade carrier.

The

sealing

strips

are

also

rust resistant

steel. They are sufficiently

The sealing strips are easy to replace. Therefore, it is a simple matter to remove any damaged strips and fit new ones to give the proper clearance during overhaul at site.

CHAPTER -4

4.1 Front Supporting System

4.1.1 Purpose

The supporting system on the front side of the turbine (casing support, shaft bearing housing, supporting brackets of outer turbine casing) supports the turbine casing and rotor

and serves to align these parts with respect to each other. At the same time, the correct position of the turbine with regard to the casing support is ensured by the center guide and screw bolts.

4.1.2 Design

A principal part of the supporting system is the casing support (3) which is firmly anchored in the turbine foundation. The casing support carries screwed-in adjusting elements (9) upon which the supporting brackets (2) of the turbine casing rest and to which it is vertically aligned. The turbine is prevented from lifting off by screw balls (4). As the temperature of

the turbine casing increases the casing is free to expand in the horizontal direction. To provide an additional safe guard against lifting off, the casing brackets can be loaded by cup springs (10). In addition to the turbine casing, the front shaft bearing housing (5) is supported on the casing support. It rests freely on adjusting elements (6) and is prevented from lifting off by screw bolts (8). These screw bolts allow a few hundredths of a millimeter free play between the shaft bearing housing and the casing support so that the shaft bearing housing can glide freely. The bearing housing is rigidly connected to the lower section of the turbine casing by two bolts (7) arranged parallel to the turbine axis and is therefore constrained to follow any forward movement of the expanding turbine casing. The bearing housing is axially split. It accommodates the thrust bearing and the front journal bearing which carries the weight of the rotor. The inner space of the bearing housing is sealed by a bearing seal ring at the point where the rotor extends into the turbine casing.

A center rail (11) serves to guide the bearing housing. It also acts as a

A center rail (11) serves to guide the bearing housing. It also acts as a guide for the outer casing so that the two can move in the axial direction. Lateral alignment is carried out by means of adjusting elements (12).

4.2 Rear Supporting System

4.2.1 Function The rear support elements – bearing housing, support brackets of the exhaust part and the aligning elements serve to support the turbine casing and the turbine rotor and for their alignment relative to each other.

4.2.2

Unlike the front support, the exhaust part (1) with its support brackets (8) is directly connected to the turbine foundations, whereby the two support brackets each rest on a base plate (7). The base plates are rigidly anchored to the turbine foundations. The support brackets and base plates are connected by bolts. However, the bolts are designed such that in case of thermal expansion the support bracket can expand laterally. Freedom of movement can be checked by spacers which must always be easily movable.

Design

The rear fixed point of the turbine casing, relative to which the turbine expands towards

The rear fixed point of the turbine casing, relative to which the turbine expands towards the front end, is formed by one bolt (6) per supporting bracket, inserted transverse to the turbine axis. A forked prong (3) is bolted on beneath the bearing housing as a centre guide. With the aid of the mating part fixed to the foundations, lateral movements of the turbine casing are thus prevented, while thermal movement in the horizontal and axial directions is possible. Like the front bearing housing, the rear bearing housing (2) rests on adjusting elements, but, in contrast, is connected with the exhaust part by balls and is aligned axially and fixed by means

of eccentric balls.

beneath the lower part of the bearing housing.The bearing housing is split axially and is designed to accommodate a manual or hydraulic shaft turning gear.

The bearing housing is aligned transversely by means of the centre guide filled

4.3 Thrust Bearing

4.3.1 Purpose

The thrust bearing takes up the residual axial thrust forces of the turbine that have not been compensated by the labyrinth sealed balancing piston and also any thrust forces possibly transferred through the gear tooth coupling and transmits these forces to the front bearing housing. The magnitude of the axial forces thus exerted on the thrust bearing is determined chiefly by the turbine load. In addition, the thrust bearing serves the purpose of fixing the rotor in its axial position with respect to the turbine housing.

4.3.2 Design and Mode of operation

Normally, the thrust bearing will be accommodated in the front bearing housing (1). Its principal parts are :

(a)

An axially split casing ( 3 & 9),

(b)

The two segment rings (6 & 3).

Several pivoted segments are assembled to form a segment ring. The pivoted segments will transmit the axial thrust of the turbine rotor via the thrust bearing housing. That side

of the pivoted segments, which is in contact with the collar (7) on the rotor shaft, is babbit-lined. On its rear side and perpendicular to the direction of the shaft rotation, each side pivoted segment carries a pivoting edge around which it is able to tilt. The relative motion between the collar and the babbited faces of the segments induces the formation of a hydrodynamic oil film between

collar

and are thus secured against displacement in the direction of rotation.

and

segments. The

pivoted segments are retained by radially located cylindrical pins (5)

The thrust bearing comprises two rings of pivoted segments. The two rings are identical, but

The thrust bearing comprises two rings of pivoted segments. The two rings are identical, but are situated on opposite sides of the collar in a reflected mirror arrangement. This makes the thrust bearing equally well suited for taking up thrust from either of the two axial directions. The precise axial positioning of the thrust bearing with respect to the bearing housing is obtained by two liner rings. 4.3.3 Lubrication The thrust bearing will be supplied with pressure oil from the general lubricating oil system of the turbine. The lubrication oil entering the lower half of the bearing housing flows into a circular outer oil channel (14) around the periphery of the thrust bearing casing. From there it flows (1) through drilled radial holes (4), which start from the outer oil channel, towards the turbine rotor where centrifugal forces are pressing it again in outward direction through the oil film between rotor collar and pivoted segments into the inner oil channel (8). Several axially directed oil drain passages (11) are provided on both sides of the thrust bearing casing top half (3). As it has to be ensured that oil pressure in the thrust bearing casing will be positive under all conditions, the total flow section of the oil requirement which is a

function of rotor speed and bearing size. According to the circumstances prevailing in a particular installation, it may thus become necessary to plug one or several drain passages by screw plugs.

Monitoring of oil temperatures is normally carried out by means of either a steam type or a contact making thermometer (12). The temperature inside the babbit-lining of the tilting segments can be

measured with the help of thermo-couples.

bore of the thrust bearing housing at the two points where the rotor shaft penetrates the housing will, together with the over pressure reigning inside the thrust bearing housing prevent aspiration of air along the shaft.

Sealing strips (10) caulked circumferentially into the

4.4 Journal Bearing ( Tilting pad bearing )

4.4.1 Function Journal bearing in the front and rear bearings housing support the turbine rotor in a central position in relation to the fixed guide blade carrier in the outer casing. The journal bearings are of the tilting pad type due to the required stability characteristics and the loading of the turbine rotor. 4.4.2 Construction A journal bearing consists of an axially split shell, the two halves of which are bolted and pinned. A location pin prevents any movement of the bearing shell in the housing. The five bearings pads are supported in the shell on the soleplates (shoes) which are spherical on one side. The pads are fixed in their axial positions on both sides by a locating ring and dowel pins. The running surfaces of the pads are of white metal.

4.4.3 Lubrication The bearings are force lubricated with oil. The oil is supplied to the

4.4.3 Lubrication The bearings are force lubricated with oil. The oil is supplied to the bearing journal through an annular groove and radial inlet passage between the bearing pads. The rotation of the shaft drags the oil into the wedge shaped gaps so that as the speed rises a hydrodynamic lubricating film is built up. Through friction and compression, this phenomenon produces lubricant pressures, which, when the relationship between wedge gap shape, oil viscosity and circumferential velocity is correct, are sufficient to raise from the bearing shell, even under heavy load, and thus support the shaft on a film of lubricant without any metal to metal contact.

4.4.4 Temperature monitoring

In order to ensure safe operation of the turbine the bearings are equipped with temperature measuring devices. The measured temperatures can also be used for annunciation, alarm or turbine tripping. The bearing metal temperature is measured in the region of the narrowest gap. The bearing shell temperature depends on the oil inlet temperature, the speed and also the magnitude and direction of the load on the bearing exerted by the turbine rotor. The measurement is rapid in response and immediately follows all changes in conditions. Holes are provided in the bearing shell into which the temperature sensors of thermocouples can be inserted directly under the white metal running surface.

4.5 Seal Ring Front ( with sealing gas connection )

4.5.1 Function

The seal ring seals the bearing housing from the turbine casing where the turbine rotor penetrates the casting.

4.5.2 Design

The bearing seal ring is split axially. It is inserted in a groove in the bearing

housing (1) and is thus fixed in its axial position. Sealing strips (3) are caulked into the seal ring

at the point where the rotor passes through the turbine casing. Together with the turbine rotor

sealing lip (7), which is matched to the seal ring, the sealing strips prevent any oil seeping out. In the bottom half of the seal ring there are also oil drainage holes between the sealing strips which enable any oil that accumulates to flow to the bearing housing. A thermal protection shield (2)

is fitted on the seal ring to protect the bearing housing from excessive heat.

4.5.3 Sealing gas

The oil system must be protected against any aggressive atmosphere. Since the

atmosphere via the oil frain lines of the bearing housing can affect the oil system

a sealing gas ( air or nitrogen ) is fed

particularly,

to

the

dealing strips

at approximately 1 bar via the

connection (L). this pressure is sufficient to seal the bearing effectively housing, and thus the oil system, against the atmosphere.

4.6 Seal Ring Rear It is similar in construction as that of front seal ring , except that

the sealing gas connection is not existing.

5.1 Emergency Stop Valve

CHAPTER-5

The emergency stop valve is provided at the steam inlet to the turbine. It is directly mounted on the casing with a view to reduce the quantity of steam entrapped between the stop valve and control valves. In the event of sudden load throw off, if this entrapped steam is sufficient in quantity, it may tend to over speed the turbine.

Figures 4.1 and 4.2 show the emergency stop valves used in -2 & -3 type

Figures 4.1 and 4.2 show the emergency stop valves used in -2 & -3 type of turbines. In -3 type of turbines the valve cone sits on a diffuser to prevent turbulence in the steam chamber. To withstand the high pressure of steam generally used in H type of turbines, an L-ring is used for sealing the high pressure steam and the taper block is designed to transmit the steam force onto the housing thus avoiding the force on the connecting flange. The hydraulic actuator design for both types of valves remains basically the same. The ESV is provided with a testing device to check the proper functioning of the valve even during regular operation. This ensures that the spindle does not get sticky due to continued operation in one position. Live steam is admitted to the valve chest through the emergency stop valve. In normal operation, this valve is held open against the spring load by oil pressure. In the event of a trip condition, the trip oil circuit is drained and the spring closes the valve very quickly.

A steam strainer is fitted in the emergency stop valve body. It consists of a corrugated steel strip wound spirally on the edge of a former and is stronger than conventional strainers made out of perforated sheet. The free cross section is larger although the mesh opening is smaller. Any water droplets entrained by the steam are evaporated upon impact on the strainer sides due to the large heat storage capacity of the strainer, blade erosion is thereby avoided. The small mesh opening also provides effective protection against the passage of even small solid particles.

5.2 steam strainers

5.2.1 Function

Steam strainers are initiated in the main steam lines and in the hot reheat lines from the boiler. They protect the admission elements of the HP & IP turbines from foreign objects which could be picked up in the boiler or associated piping.

which could be picked up in the boiler or associated piping. 5.2.2 Construction The strainer screen

5.2.2 Construction

The strainer screen (~) is made of corrugated strip wound on e<1 on a frame. This design offers a high degree of resistance even to particles impinging at high velocity. The frame consists of two ring (1 & 6) and a number of rods (5) welded between the rings. The rods are additionally braced by reinforcing rings (4) welded inside them. The strainer is designed for

a single direction of flow from the outside inwards. For longer strainers, the screen is made up of several parts. The end turns of the corrugated strip are then tacked to the T- section intermediate rings(3). The maximum mesh size of the strainer, which is determined by the height of that corrugations, is 1.6mm . The effective area is made at least three times the cross-sectional area of the pipe. The strainer may be used for both initial commissioning of the turbine and for regular operation.

area of the pipe. The strainer may be used for both initial commissioning of the turbine

Chapter- 6

6.1 Control Valves

The control valves regulate the amount of steam flowing to the turbine according to the load. The cones of control valves are suspended from a beam ( fig 5.1). The beam is supported by two spindles which are raised and lowered through a system of levers by a servomotor arranged adjacent to the valves. Each control valve is adjusted to give a different distance between the bottom of the backing nut and its seating on the top of the beam, so that, when the beam is lifted, the valves open in a sequence and the steam is admitted progressively to the various nozzle groups. The advantages of independent mounting of control valves are:

Independent adjustment of the valves to the valve seats.

Spindle breakages due to vibration are avoided.

Only two spindle glands through the admission chest are necessary for a maximum number of five control valves.

6.1.1 Function The control valves are opened and closed in order to adjust the throughput off steam to give the required power output from the turbine. Depending on the power required, therefore,

the control valves are opened or closed in a specific sequence. The valve seats are in the form of diffusers in order to keep flow losses to a minimum.

6.1.2 Construction The steam chest (4) contains valve crossbar (5) in which the actual control valves (9) are suspended loosely. The crossbar is connected to the arm (1) through two stems (9) and the pivoted links (2). The arm is operated by the actuator (15) which is flexibly mounted on a bracket (11) attached to the stem chest. The steam chest has two bonnets (3) in which the valve stems are guided by two rings (10 & 12). The rings also form the top and bottom stem glands.

Each stem head (13) is loaded by a compression spring (14) so that the control valves are held closed when the turbine is stationary.

6.1.3 Mode Of Operation When the turbine is at rest the springs keep the crossbar

6.1.3 Mode Of Operation

When the turbine is at rest the springs keep the crossbar in its lowest position and the cones of the control valves are forced on to their seats (8) by the pressure of steam. A control pulse from the governor causes the actuator to pull the arm downwards, thus raising the stems and lifting the crossbar. The valves then lift in a sequence determined by the different lengths of the spacer bushes (7) in the crossbar.

CHAPTER-7

CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS

INTRODUCTION:

When the steam is allowed to expand through a narrow orifice, it assumes kinetic energy at the expense of enthalpy (heat energy).this kinetic energy of steam is charged to mechanical (rotational) energy through the impact (impulse) a reaction of steam against the blades. It should be realized that the blade of the turbine obtains no moving force from the static pressure of the steam or from any impact of the steam jet. The blades are designed in such a way, that the steam will guide on and off the blade without and tendency to strike it.

As the steam moves over the blade, its direction is continuously changing and centrifugal pressure exerted as the result is normal to the blade surface at all points. The total motives force acting on the blades is thus the resultant of all the centrifugal forces plus change of momentum. This causes the rotational motion of blades.

CONTRUCTIONAL DETAILS:

The constructional details of the turbine include the High Pressure (HP), Intermediate Pressure (IP) and Low Pressure (LP) turbines.

H.P.TURBINES:

The outer casing of the HP turbine is of barrel type. This avoids mass accumulation due to absence of flanges. It consists of following:

H.P outer casing

H.P inner casing

H.P rotor

The inner casing carries guide blades and is kinematically supported. The spaces between inner and outer casings are filled by sealing rings. The inner casing is fixed in the horizontal and vertical planes in the outer casings so that it can freely expand radial in all directions and axially from a fixed point. The barrel construction permits rapid starts-ups and higher rates of load changes due to absence of high thermal stress .Barrel type casings are also easy to cast which means the casings can be exceptionally good quality .The connection with the piping is made through breach nuts. This arrangement provides ease of opening the joint during maintenance.

I.P.TURBINE:

The IP casing is split horizontally and is of double shell and double flow construction, with the inner casing carrying the guide and kinematically supported within the outer casing. The construction provides flexibility for choosing the location of bleed steam point to suit the best thermal efficiency. The reheated steam enters the inner casing through top and bottom. IP Turbine consists of the following regions.

IP outer casing

IP Inner casing

IP rotor.

The arrangement confines the high steam temperature to the admission branch of the casing while the joint of the outer casing is only subjected to lower pressure and temperature at the exhaust of the inner casing. The hydraulic turning gear blades are located on the coupling of the IP Rotor.

LP TURBINE:

The LP turbine is of triple shell fabricated construction .The outer casing consists of the front and rear end walls; two side members called longitudinal grinders and top cover. The twin Shell inner casing is supported kinematically at each end by two support arms resting on the side members of the outer casting. The inner shell of the inner casting carries the guide blade carrier of the first stage of the turbine. Rings of guide carries, which constitutes the guide blade carries, which constitutes the remaining stages of turbine, are bolted to the middle inner outer casing. LP Turbine consists of the following regions.

LP outer casing

LP Inner - outer casing

LP Inner - Inner casing

LPRotor.