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ANNEXES

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest


Action Plan
Service Contract No. 30-CE-0227729/00-59

By an external evaluation team of


Lead Contractor:
European Forest Institute (EFI)
(Joensuu, Finland and Regional Office EFIMED in Barcelona, Spain)
Torikatu 34, 80100 Joensuu, Finland

Subcontractors:
University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU)
Institut fr Wald-, Umwelt- und Ressourcenpolitik
Feistmantelstrae 4
A-1180 Wien, Austria

Centre Tecnolgic Forestal De Catalunya (CTFC)


Ctra. de St. Lloren de Morunys, Km 2
E-25280 Solsona, Spain

University of Hamburg, Institute for World Forestry (UHH/vTI)


Leuschnerstr. 91
D-21031 Hamburg, Germany

November 2009

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest


Action Plan
Service Contract No. 30-CE-0227729/00-59

ANNEXES
Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP
Annex 2: Case study Exchange and assess experiences on
the valuation and marketing of non-wood forest goods and
services (Key Action 3)
Annex 3: Case study FAP and SFC role towards EU
compliance with the obligations on climate change
mitigation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol
Annex 4: Case study Strengthening policy coordination
between policy areas: EU FAP strengthening co-ordination
within the Commission
Annex 5: List of themes and topics of new emerging issues
for consideration of the EU FAP in the future
Annex 6: List of materials

ANNEX to the Report of the


Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest
Action Plan
Service Contract No. 30-CE-0227729/00-59

Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP


List of contents:
Introduction

List of abbreviations

OBJECTIVE 1: Improving long-term competitiveness

Key Action 1 Examine the effects of globalisation on the economic viability and
competitiveness of EU forestry
Key Action 2 Encourage research and technological development to enhance the
competitiveness of the forest sector
Key Action 3 Exchange and assess experiences on the valuation and marketing of non-wood
forest goods and services
Key Action 4 Promote the use of forest biomass for energy generation
Key Action 5 Foster the cooperation between forest owners and enhance education and training
in forestry

OBJECTIVE 2: Improving and protecting the environment

7
8
10
11
14

16

Key Action 6 Facilitate EU compliance with the obligations on climate change mitigation of
the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol and encourage adaptation to the effects of
climate change.
Key Action 7 Contribute towards achieving the revised Community biodiversity objectives for
2010 and beyond
Key Action 8 Work towards a European Forest Monitoring System
Key Action 9 Enhance the protection of EU forests

16
19
22
23

OBJECTIVE 3: Contributing to quality of life

28

Key Action 10 Encourage environmental education and information


Key Action 11 Maintain and enhance the protective functions of forests
Key Action 12 Explore the potential of urban and peri-urban forests

28
30
32

OBJECTIVE 4: Fostering coordination and communication


Key Action 13
Key Action 14
Key Action 15
Key Action 16
Key Action 17

33

Strengthen the role of the Standing Forestry Committee


Strengthen coordination between policy areas in forest-related matters
Apply the open method of coordination (OMC) to national forest programmes
Strengthen the EU profile in international forest-related processes
Encourage the use of wood and other forest products from sustainably managed
forests
Key Action 18 Improve information exchange and communication

33
34
35
35
37
39

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

Introduction
This Annex provides information on implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan (EU
FAP) Key Actions and activities. The inventory is based on the EU FAP Work Programme
2007-2011, progress reports concluded as part of the SFC annual work programmes 20072009, and the data and information collected in the mid-term evaluation document reviews,
in interviews of the Commission representatives as well as in the Member State responses
to the implementation inventory survey.
In total 24 Member States responded to the inventory survey, and the following table
summarises the responses of the EU Member States excluding Portugal, Malta and
Belgium. Contact to the Member States was made through the Standing Forestry
Committee representatives. In the survey, the Member States were requested to indicate the
status of implementation of the EU FAP Key Actions and activities where the EU FAP
work programme indicates Member States as Leading Actors either on their own or
together with the Commission. The Member States were also requested to specify the most
important measures in their country contributing to achievement of the EU FAP objectives.
The level of detail in the Member States responses varied considerably. Furthermore, a
number of respondents pointed out that it is difficult to indicate activities at the national
level which were implemented specifically due to the EU FAP. Rather, the activities are
ongoing in many cases, for several years already and they would also have taken place
without the Action Plan, even though they now contribute to the objectives defined in the
EU FAP. As a consequence, the list of activities in the Member States presented in this
Annex is not exhaustive but rather, gives a sample of activities and types of activities
carried out in the Member States within the objectives of the EU FAP.
The period of analysis for the investigation is from the beginning of the implementation of
the EU FAP (January 2007) up until the mid-term review and the time of data collection
(March 2009). More recent activities in 2009 are presented when they are relevant for the
description. Stakeholder involvement and activities parallel to the EU FAP are included to
extent such references are made in the documents reviewed and in the surveys carried out
for the mid-term evaluation.

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

List of abbreviations

AC-FBI
AFOLU
AGFC

Advisory Committee on Community Policy regarding Forestry and Forest-based Industries


Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses (UNFCCC)
Advisory Group on Forestry and Cork

BENELUX

Belgium and the Netherlands and Luxembourg

C&I
CADSES
CBD
CEI-Bois
CEPF
CEPI
CIFOR
CIP-IEE
CITES
COFO
COFORD
COP
COP/MOP
COPA-COCEGA

pan-European Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management (MCPFE)


Central, Adriatic, Danubian and South-Eastern European Space
Convention on Biological Diversity
European Confederation of Woodworking Industries
Confederation of European Forest Owners
Confederation of European Paper Industries
Center for International Forestry Research
EUs Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP): Intelligent Energy Europe
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
FAO Committee on Forestry
the National Council for Forest Research and Development (IE)
Conference of Parties (UNFCCC)
Meeting of the Parties (Kyoto Protocol)
Committee of Professional Agricultural Organisations & General Confederation of Agricultural
Cooperatives in the European Union
European Cooperation in Science and Technology
Collaborative Partnership on Forests

COST
CPF
DG

Directorate General (Commission departments and services):


DG AIDCO
EuropeAid Cooperation Office
DG AGRI
DG Agriculture and Rural Development
DG COMP
DG Competition
DG DEV
DG Development
DG EMPL
DG Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities
DG ENLARG
DG Enlargement
DG ENTR
DG Enterprise and Industry
DG ENV
DG Environment
DG ESTAT
Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union
DG MARKT
DG Internal Market and Services
DG REGIO
DG Regional Policy
DG RTD
DG Research
DG SANCO
DG Health and Consumers
DG TRADE
DG Trade
DG TREN
DG Transport and Energy
JRC
Joint Research Centre
SG
General Secretariat

EAFRD
EBRD
EEA
EESC
EFDAC
EfE
EFFIS
EFI
EFICP

European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development


European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
European Environment Agency
European Economic and Social Committee
European Forest Data Centre
Environment for Europe
European Forest Fire Information System
European Forest Institute
European Forest Information and Communication Platform

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP
EFMS
ELO
ENFE
ENGREF
EPPO
ERA
ERDF
EU FAP
EUSTAFOR

European Forest Monitoring System


European Landowners' Organisation
European Network of Forest Entrepreneurs
Ecole Nationale du Gnie Rural, des Eaux et des Forts
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization
European Research Area
European Regional Development Fund
EU Forest Action Plan
European State Forest Association

FACE
FAO
FBI
FCN
FCS
FERN
FLEG(T)
FP
FRI
FTP
FTP NRA
FTP SRA

Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation of the EU


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Forest-based Industries
Forest Communicators Network (UNECE/FAO team of specialists)
Forest Stewardship Council (certification)
an environmental non-governmental organisation
Forest Law Enforcement, Governance (and Trade)
EUs Framework Programme for research FP6 / FP7
forest research institute
Forest-based sector Technology Platform
National Research Agenda
Strategic Research Agenda

GHG
GPP

greenhouse gas
Green Public Procurement

ICP Forests

IFSA
IIASA
IPCC
IPPC
ISG
ITTO
IUCN

International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects


on Forests
International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on
Ecosystems
International Forestry Students' Association
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
International Plant Protection Convention
Interservice Group (Commission internal body)
International Tropical Timber Organization
International Union for Conservation of Nature

KBBE

Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (FP7)

LBA
LIFE+
LULUCF

legally binding agreement


Financial Instrument for the Environment
Land use, land-use change and forestry (UNFCCC)

MCPFE

Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe

ICP IM

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP
MS

Member State, EU27 abbreviations:


AT
Austria
BE
Belgium
BG
Bulgaria
CY
Cyprus
CZ
Czech Republic
DE
Germany
DK
Denmark
EE
Estonia
EL
Greece
ES
Spain
FI
Finland
FR
France
HU
Hungary
IE
Ireland
IT
Italy
LT
Lithuania
LU
Luxembourg
LV
Latvia
MT
Malta
NL
Netherlands
PL
Poland
PT
Portugal
RO
Romania
SE
Sweden
SI
Slovenia
SK
Slovakia
UK
United Kingdom

NFP
NGO
NWFGS

national forest programme


non-governmental organisation
Non-wood forest goods and services

OECD
OMC

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development


Open Method of Coordination

PAWS
PEBLDS
PEFC
PRO SILVA

Pedagogische Arbeit im Wald PAWS project (Pedagogic Work in Forests)


Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy
Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes
a European federation of foresters advocating forest management based on natural processes

R&D
RES
RDP

Research and Development


Energy from Renewable Sources
Rural Development Programme

SBSTA
SEBI 2010
SEE
SEIS
SFC
SFM

Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (UNFCCC)


Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators for 2010
South East Europe
Shared Environmental Information System
Standing Forestry Committee
Sustainable Forest Management

UN
UNCCD
UNECE
UNFCCC
UNFF
USSE
WG
WWF

United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification
United Nations Economic Commission to Europe
Framework Convention on Climate Change
United Nations Forum on Forests
Union of Foresters of Southern Europe
working group
World Wide Fund for Nature

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

OBJECTIVE 1: Improving long-term competitiveness


Target: To improve the long-term competitiveness of the forest sector and to enhance the sustainable use of forest products and services.
No.

EU FAP Objectives and targets;


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 1 Examine the effects of globalisation on the economic viability and competitiveness of EU forestry
Target: Raising awareness of factors affecting competitiveness of forestry in the EU.
A1.1
Study on the effects of globalisation on
Study on effects of globalisation on the
the economic viability of EU forestry
economic viability and competitiveness of EU
forestry commissioned by DG AGRI published
in 2008. Study disseminated, results and
follow-up discussed in the SFC and AGFC.
A1.2

Conference on strengthening
competitiveness of forestry

Conference organised by German Presidency in


Munich on 2021 June 2007 Strengthening
the Competitiveness of the forest sector".
Results reported to SFC 102nd meeting.

Many Member States (MSs) report activities for raising awareness of


factors affecting competitiveness of forestry in the EU: 13 MSs activity
carried out or in progress and 4 MSs activity in planning (ES, IT, RO, SK).
6 MSs indicate this activity is not on their agenda: BG, CY, EL, HU, LU, SI
(no information for AT)

Member States activities in relation to Key Action 1:


- CZ: to include in the next NFP in 2013 more comprehensively economic aspects of forest sector (innovation, technology, markets)
- DE: further work on national action programme Charta for Wood (2003); start preparation for new comprehensive forest strategy; preparations for an initiative 2009
towards EU Charta for wood (recommended in the outcome of EU Conference on Competitiveness 2007 in Munich) procedure and timeframe to be discussed within EU
- DK: guidelines on public procurement on timber revised in summer 2009, follow up on ministers plan for public procurement of legal and sustainable wood 2006. The State
Forests certified by FSC and PEFC June 2007
- FI: economic viability of the sector addressed in the NFP 2015 and numerous related studies
- FR: Forest Assembly 11/2007-1/2008 and Grenelle de l'Environnement (ongoing since the fall 2007 with one of the 33 specific committees dedicated to forestry), have
permitted to place forest and the forest-based sector at the heart of sustainable development, especially concerning construction and renewable energies. Lots of
workgroups with more than 120 participants have given a sincere overview of the strengths and weaknesses of this economic sector.
- IE: participation in UNECE Timber Committee processes and communication of results to forest industry through the COFORD council and through COFORD
- LV: participation in discussion on draft regulation laying down the obligations of operators who place timber and timber products on the market
- SK: analyzing the results of national research project on the impacts of the quality of natural resources, labour and capital on competitiveness of forestry enterprises. The
research results are going to be communicated to stakeholders.
Stakeholder involvement: in 1.1, 1.2 and through AGFC in general

Status
Completed
Completed
(2007-08)

Completed
2007

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

No.

EU FAP Objectives and targets;


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 2 Encourage research and technological development to enhance the competitiveness of the forest sector
Target: Developing the forest sector more dynamic, with a strong emphasis on R&D
A2.1
Support forest-based sector research and Framework Programme 7 (FP7) calls for
technological development
projects; Forest-based sector Technology
Platform; internal JRC research; SFC opinion on
FP7 calls and regular exchange within
Commission through ISG and interservice
consultation. FP7 and its calls refer to FAP.
Good representation of forestry/forest sector
issues in FP7 calls in 2007, 2008 and 2009.
A2.2
Exploring the possibilities of better
Conference organised by DG RTD in relation to
coordination and communication on
FTP event in Slovenia 2008 Forest Governance
forest-based sector research
and the Role of Forestry Research. Conference
report and recommendations reported to SFC
and AGFC.
SFC opinions on FP7 calls and regular exchange
within Commission through ISG.
A2.3
Forest-based Technology Platform (FTP)
Development of Forest-based sector
FTP SRA and altogether 17 National Research Agendas (NRA) completed,
Strategic Research Agenda (SRA)
Technology Platform (FTP) was supported by
and a few NRAs under development (as to April 29, 2009). According to
DG AGRI, DG RTD and DG ENTR.
www.forestplatform.org the NRAs have completed in the following
Conference on FTP Strategic Research Agenda
Member States (MSs): AT, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, IE, IT, LT, LV, SE, SI,
(FTP SRA), Hannover, Germany, in May 2007
UK
and other conferences during the presidencies
MS report active support for FTP SRA (NRAs): activity carried out/in
(in 2006 in Austria and Finland, 2008 in
progress in 20 MSs and in planning in CZ. FTP-SRA/NRA is not on the
Slovenia)
agenda in CY, EL, LU.
Member States report following support of and involvement in NRAs:
- BG: National FTP group established and in a process of elaboration of
project proposals.
- DK: new research agenda for the Danish Forest Based Sector (2007),
Forest & Landscape, Life, Copenhagen University.
- EE: National Support Group of FTP established May 2007 and "NRA
Estonian Forest Sector Research and Development Strategy 20082013" compiled
- FI: NFP 2015; The Finnish Forest cluster outlined the NRA (new
innovation company Forestcluster ltd as a strategic centre for science,
technology and innovation)
- IE: Strategic Research Agenda for the Irish Forest-based sector
completed, Irish National Support Group for FTP established, and

Status
Ongoing
Ongoing
2007-2011

Completed
2007-08

Presidencies
2007

(FTP activities
ongoing)

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

national funding of forest R&D by COFORD. Enterprise Ireland and other


agencies are involved in Woodwisdom ERA-net and in FP7 projects.
IT: SRA for Italian research on forestry; support by CRA and
Federlegno Arredo. Initiatives launched June 2008
LT: National Forest-based sector Technology Platform program in
2004; national support group to FTP since 2005. Agreement of the
partnership between the major forest industry associations, academic
and business sector representatives, regarding establishment of
National Forest-based sector Technology Platforms.
LV: participation in annual FTP conferences, working groups. National
support group for FTP established. LV planning to participate in ERANet Wood Wisdom.
RO: activities of Romanian FTP and the National support Group since
establishing conference July 2008
SK: draft NRA was elaborated by the National Forest Centre - Forest
Research Institute in Zvolen in Feb.2009. At the moment, the draft is a
subject of discussions with relevant stakeholders at a national level.

Additional Member States activities in relation to Key Action 2:


- HU: Reorganisation of the Forest Research Institute is ongoing and new priorities are set including research to improve the competitiveness of forestry. Special research
program on tree plantations will get a higher attention in the future. Reorganisation in 2009, research program is at least for 5 years.
- IE: Call for proposals issued in 2005, 2006 and 2007 seeking innovative projects to enhance the overall value of the sector in Ireland. Many innovative and valuable pilot
projects received funding. Projects ranged from the creation of producer groups particularly targeting the wood energy market, to tackling the grey squirrel problem and an
innovative Model Timber Sales system.
- NL: 'Vision on the timber harvest' (2005), in cooperation with the timber companies. The competitiveness of the Forest sector is an important part of that vision. The forest
sector has worked out a working program for Biomass from Nature, Forest, Landscape and Timber.
- SK: Establishment of two centres of excellence, dealing with special forestry topics, represents a significant contribution in the field of research and development to the
implementation of the key action 2: centre of excellence for biological methods of forest protection (National Forest Centre in Zvolen), centre of excellence for adaptation of
forest ecosystems (Technical University of Zvolen).
Stakeholder involvement:
- regular involvement through AGFC;
- FTP is a generic stakeholder activity, the EU FAP has only supporting role for FTP and its Strategic Research Agenda and the National Research Agendas.
- FTP organised the conference "Development of the forest-based sector in Eastern Europe" in May 2008 in Kranska Gora, Slovenia, back-to-back with the conference Forest
Governance and the Role of Forestry Research (A2.2)

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

No.

EU FAP Objectives and targets;


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 3 Exchange and assess experiences on the valuation and marketing of non-wood forest goods and services
Target: To answer to needs of society and produce services based on sustainable forestry
A3.1
Carry out studies and pilot projects on
Study on the development and marketing of
Member States (MSs) carry out studies and activities in Key Action 3
valuation, compensation and innovative
non-market forest products and services in the themes: activity carried out / in progress in 18 Ms. Activity in planning in
marketing of non-wood forest goods and EU (FORVALUE study) commissioned by DG
BG, CY, CZ, HU. Not on the agenda in NL. (no information for EL)
services, including methodologies
AGRI: study report published in March 2009.
Member States report the following activities:
Study on "Economic value of groundwater and
- AT: study (Potenzialabschtzung von Nichtholzprodu kten und
biodiversity in European forests"
forstlichen Dienstleistungen in sterreich); and an initiative on
commissioned by DG ENV (2008)
protective function of forests
- CY: studies on valuation of NWFGSs are planned to be conducted
FP7 call 2009 topics Developing new methods
during the next revision (2010) of the action plan of the NFP
for valuing and marketing currently non- DK: Forest & Landscape Life, Copenhagen University project
marketable forest functions, goods and
"Valuation and compensation methods for non-wood forest goods
services and related topics e.g. Assessment
and services", 2006-08; expert participation in SFC ad hoc WG
of economic instruments to enhance the
- ES: regional project for forest value, and the next phase is to extend it
conservation and sustainable use of
to the whole country by 2010
biodiversity
- FI: one of the priorities in NFP 2015; "Welfare effects of forests"
research programme (2008-12) by Finnish Forest Research Institute;
ERA-net BiodivERsA project Beech forests for
Forest Biodiversity Action Programme for Southern Finland METSO
the future planned to be started in 2009
2008-2016
- FR: valuation of environmental services activities linked to carbon
A3.2
Examining ongoing activities and lessons
Ad hoc working group of the SFC "Valuation
sequestration rights
learned on compensation for and
and compensation methods of non-wood
- HU: Within the frame of the rationalisation of the structure of the
valuation of non-wood forest good and
forest goods and services" 2007-2008: SFC WG
state owned forest companies a special study on valuation of nonservices, and identification of possible
report (2008) and SFC opinion (2009);
wood forest products and services is foreseen in 2009-2010.
constraints
WG report and SFC opinion distributed to SFC,
- IE: e.g. COFORD R&D programme on non-wood forest products.
AGFC;
- IT: several pilot projects and initiatives on the use of non-timber
Exchange of experiences from different
forest products, Seminar by University of Padova in March 2009
countries in the SFC WG1, included in WG
- LT: studies (Ministry of Environment and Forest Research Institute
report (only countries represented in the WG);
FRI) and methodology on valuation and compensation. Innovative
Assessment on country situations (whole EU)
marketing of non-wood forest goods and services: Evaluation of
included in FORVALUE study
economical and social forest functions (FRI 2007); Draft of Rules for
preparation and use of secondary forest goods and Valuation
methodology (1992)
- SK: a research project focusing on identification, valuation,
compensation and innovative marketing of forest functions (forest
goods and services); Research, classification and implementation of
forest functions; Evaluation of non-wood forest functions and

10

Status
Ongoing
Ongoing
2007-2011

WG
Completed
2007-08

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

11
services; Valuation of outdoor recreation in forests; Valuation of nonwood forest functions: forest berries and mushrooms; Research of
efficient use of environmental, economic and social potential of
forests in Slovakia

Additional Member States activities in relation to Key Action 3:


- EE: Action Plan Forest Diversified Use with objectives for production of non-wood goods, cultural heritage and recreation.
- IE: Organisation of workshops and seminars by COFORD on non-wood forest products, publication of Markets for Non-wood Forest Products and Forest Fungi in Ireland,
establishment of Forest Fungi Working Group.
- LU: instead of studies, organisation of seminars on possible options and awareness raising for non-market forest goods and services
- LV: compensation to forest owners due to tree felling restrictions. One option is RDP measure - Natura 2000 payments for forest owners and other opportunity is national
payment for tree felling restriction in specially protected nature territories.
- RO: studies about due sums to compensating for forest owners holding forests with special protection functions. A new proposal for a regulation is under supervision for
extending the applicability of the act to legal persons and local council forest owners.
Stakeholder involvement: regular involvement in SFC, WG and the study; AGFC informed
Forest owners organisation CEPF was involved as a practice partner in the study but the study results are not prominently placed on CEPF website. EFI has co-organised studies
about NWFGS.
No.

EU FAP Objectives and targets;


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 4 Promote the use of forest biomass for energy generation
Target: To mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuel, improving energy self-sufficiency, enhancing security of supply and providing job opportunities in rural areas
A4.1
Improve the mobilisation and efficient
SFC ad hoc working group on Mobilisation and Member States (MS) activities (incl. e.g. National Biomass Action Plan):
use of wood and wood residues,
efficient use of wood and wood residues for
activity carried out or in progress in 19 MS. Activity in planning in BG, EL,
including low-value timber
energy generation in 2007-2008: WG report
HU and PL. Activity not on agenda in CY.
(2008) and SFC opinion (2009). Follow-up in
FAP activity 5.2 i.e. the fragmentation study
Member States report the following activities:
- AT: study on potential supply of woody biomass
JRC internal research: high-spatial resolution
- CZ: National Biomass Action Plan; NFP includes independent actions
forest map covering all EU MSs; a report on EU
on the promotion and supporting of biomass
Forest-based biomass for energy: cost/supply
- EE: NFP promotes the use of biomass and bioenergy
relations and constraints, resulting from the
- EL: planning in cooperation with the Centre for Renewable Energy
workshop held on the same topic in September
Resources to assess the volume of the biomass produced in the
2007.
forests and available for energy generation (preliminary results at the
end of 2009).
Forest-based industries: AC-FBI Working Group - FI: targets and measures for the use of forest biomass for energy
(2005-07) report on The interaction of EU
production; Bio-energy research programme
renewable energy policies and the forest based - FR: Forest Assembly 11/2007-1/2008 and its working groups
sector
- IE: funds for demonstration programme focussing on mobilisation of
wood energy from forests; targets for wood energy; organisation of
Intelligent Energy for Europe (CIP-IEE) tender
workshops, seminars, conferences and website on the promotion of
Real potential for changes in growth and use
wood energy
of EU forests (EUwood) October 2008
- IT: several local initiatives to support production and use of bioenergy

Status
Ongoing
Completed
2007-08

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

DG TREN study on "Sustainability Criteria and


Certification Systems for Biomass Production"
RES Directive (DG TREN) and a template for the
MSs for their development of National Action
Plans (June 2009).
Commission follow-up of the MCPFE WG on
sustainability criteria for biomass production

A4.2

Developing cooperation methods and


mechanisms between forest owners in
energy markets

Pilot study (commissioned by DG ENV): a


demonstration / communication action carried
out on developing cooperation methods and
mechanisms between forest owners in the
energy markets EUROFORENET, incl.
conference 2007
Briefing of SFC (2008) on Commission
participation in the work of the MCPFE ad hoc
working group, among other issues also
exploring the issue of sustainability criteria for
forest biomass in the energy sector (DG TREN)

A4.3

Support research and development of


technologies for the production of heat,
cooling, electricity and fuels from forest
resources, and encourage the
implementation of Strategic Research
Agendas of the F-BS Technology Platform
and the Biofuel Technology Platform

FP7 2007 call relevant topics: new forest based


products and processes; BIOREFINERY
biotechnology for the conversion of biomass
ands waste into value-added products;
Lingnocellulosic enzymes; Energy plants
JRC internal research
Topics included in also in FTP SRAs and NRAs as
well as in Biofuels Technology Platform

12
- LT: National Energy Strategy approved; operational objectives for
biomass production
- LU: promotion of wood as construction material in buildings
- LV: studies related to wood for energy production; National Biomass
Action Plan is planned
- RO: promotion system for energy production from renewable
resources; Biomass Plan prepared with support of the Agency for
Sustainable Development and the Ministry of Economic Affairs from
the Netherlands
- SI: implementation of the FAO study WISDOM on woodfuel
production; RDP support for agricultural and forestry products and
investments on the wood processing and marketing
- SK: strategy for the use of renewable energy sources adopted;
National Biomass Action Plan adopted; funds for biomass research as
a part of Rural Development Programme
Developing cooperation methods are either carried out or in progress in
12 Member States, in planning in CZ, ES, HU, LT, LV and SK; not on the
agenda in BG, CY, EL, PL and RO (no information for DK)

Completed
2007

Member States report the following activities:


- DE: national action program that includes biomass mobilization,
knowledge transfer, technological barriers, enabling legal framework
and investment support
- ES: some pilot and demonstrative projects carried out and ongoing,
and Strategy for Energy use of forest residual biomass is under
preparation by the end of 2009
- FR: Different initiatives from the sector (forest cooperatives or forest
municipalities) are ongoing in order to structure the local woodenergy supply chains.
- SE: project with aim of increasing wood mobilization through
education, advice and demonstration activities
Ongoing
2007-2011

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP
A4.4

Analyse how implementation of Key


Action 4 is supported by rural
development programmes in individual
MSs

[ Activity forthcoming 2011 ]


Report on implementation of Forestry
Measures under the Rural Development
Regulation 1698/2005 for the period 20072013 by DG AGRI published in 2009 also
addresses the topic bio-energy.
Parallel: The Health Check of the Common
Agricultural Policy (2008) identified climate
change, bioenergy, biodiversity and water
management as new challenges for EU
agriculture and forestry

13
Several Member States plan to utilise EAFRD resources in rural
development programmes for promoting the use of forest biomass for
energy generation: activity carried out/in progress in 17 countries, in
planning in CZ. Not on the agenda of BG, CY, DE, IE and LU.
Member States reported the following activities:
- DK: Aid applicable for investment and demonstration projects in the
Danish RDP regarding local business development.
- EE: Estonian development programme for promotion and usage of
biomass and bioenergy 2007-2013 forms a national policy framework
for promoting the use of forest biomass for energy generation.
Different support measures are available through Estonian Rural
Development Plan 2007- 2013.
- FR: Beyond subsidies of 123B measure which can be activated for the
mechanization of wood mobilization, one of the work group of the
rural network (obj 4) is dedicated to the valorisation of woods from
rural forests.
- HU: Subsidies to establish short rotation tree plantations are provided
within the frame of EAFRD until 2013.
- IT: several local initiatives to support production and use of
bioenergy, supported mainly by RDPs (20 regions) and linked to the
National Plan on Biofuels (Probio) agreed in 2000
- LT: National Energy Strategy (1999; update every five years, last
update in 2007) with one of the strategic objectives to strive for a
share of renewable energy recourses of up to 20 % of the total
primary energy balance by 2025. Operational objectives for biomass
production are formulated in RDP 2007-2013.
- LV: two measures in RDP 2007-2013 related to energy from biomass
(including forest biomass): Production of energy from biomass which
is of an agricultural or forestry origin, and; a submeasure Production
of fuel derived from agricultural and forestry produce under the
measure Support for creation and development of microenterprises.
- SE: a project on bioenergy and compensation measures through
capacity building for forest owners and entrepreneurs aiming for
bioenergy generation
- RO: modernising agricultural holdings and bioenergy generation
under rural development plan

Additional Member States activities related to Key Action 4, e.g. :


- LU: Activities under key action 4 take place within an Interreg IVA project "Regiowood" (2009-2011) (budget: total EUR 4.8 million).
- DK: The governments energy agreement from 2008, amongst other issues targets biomass for energy production to increase it with up till 700.000 tonnes in 2011 an
increase in the total renewable energy equivalents of 1.2 pct. The governments former and new energy technological research and development programme from 2009, cf.
http://www.ens.dk/sw15736.asp

Ongoing
(in work
programme
2011)

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

14

IE: Funding of COFORD Forest Energy R&D and demonstration programme focussing on mobilisation of wood energy from forests, Government White Paper on Energy,
which includes targets for wood energy, establishment of the Renewable Energy Development Group by the Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources,
with input from COFORD and the Forest Service, Forest Service grants for wood energy harvesting machinery, COFORD workshops on wood energy, the woodenergy.ie
website and advisory service, development of wood fuel quality testing service (in conjunction with Sustainable Energy Ireland), seminars and conferences outlining good
practice in development of wood fuel supply chains, wood fuel combustion and fuel quality.
- NL: the Netherlands has established a 'Vision on Biobased Economy'. It is a part of the program "Clean and Sparing", which has the ambition to reduce C02-emission of 30%
in 2020 compared to 1990.
Parallel activities:
ENERSILVA project: cooperation financed in an INTERREG programme (ERDF) and six regions in Portugal and France participating with the aim to make biomass more dynamic
Stakeholder involvement: regular involvement in AGFC meetings, in SFC ad hoc WG2 (wood mobilisation).
CEPF Cooperatives Working Group has developed a Wood Mobilisation Action Plan (Draft ref. website, April 2009).
MCPFE Workshop on Strategies for increased mobilisation of wood resources from sustainable sources, 16-18 June, 2009 in Grenoble, France. The industries (CEPI and CEPF
together) followed on activity 4.1 and developed and ranked 33 measures as a guidance for policy-makers (presented at the Grenoble workshop in June 2009)

No.

EU FAP Objectives and targets;


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 5 Foster the cooperation between forest owners and enhance education and training in forestry
Target: Investment in job quality and human capital
A5.1
To survey MS activities on support for:
Member States report activities in relation to forest owners and workers:
- vocational training and education of
- vocational training: carried out/progress 19 MS; CY in planning, not
forest owners and forest workers
The Report on Implementation of Forestry
on the agenda ES and NL (no information for DK, EL)
- development of advisory services for
Measures under the Rural Development
- advisory services: 23 MS carried out/in progress, EL in planning
forest owners and their associations
Regulation 1698/2005 for the period 2007- environmental awareness: carried out / in progress in 17 MS; in
- environmental awareness of forest
2013 by DG AGRI published in 2009 (incl.
planning in BG, DE and SK; not on the agenda in CY (no information
owners and workers
measures vocation training, and advisory
for EL, ES, FR)
services)
Example of reported activities:
- BG: Vocational training and education of forest owners and forest
workers take place since 2001 with the help of GTZ-project, where
Parallel activities [DG ENTR]
annually 6-7 seminars have been organized; New separate
Forest-based industries: AC-FBI Working
department dealing with non-state forest owners established in 2008;
Group (2001-07) on The enhanced Use of
Life+ project for forest pedagogics is under approval.
Wood, EU27 survey (2005-06) on education, - CY: actions on vocational training and on the development of advisory
training and skills in and around the EU
services in the RDP 2007-2013
woodworking sector and its follow-up
- CZ: education of forest owners and workers; regional cooperation to
workshop (2007)
support small forest owner associations
- EE: supporting measures to advising and training of private forest
owners and agricultural advisers in the area of forest management;
forestry-related joint activities of private forest owners.
- EL: establishment of advisory services for forest owners planned
under the Rural Development Programme.
- FI: NFP 2015 number of graduates on all levels of education in forest

Status
Ongoing

(work
programme
2008)

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

15

management, bioenergy, wood and paper industry reflects the


recruitment needs; (outlook studies incl. employment and training)
IE: free advisory and training service for landowners
LV: vocational training and development of advisory services under
Rural Development Programme
RO: authorized training centres, and organisation of information
material for forest owners and hunters
SK: advisory system for forestry

Study on the market supply of wood and


Call for tenders in 2009 for a study
other forest products, in particular on
"Prospects for market supply from
obstacles to mobilisation due to
fragmented forest structures (report
fragmented ownership structures
forthcoming in 2010)
A5.3
Exchange of experiences on cooperation
[ CEPF report "European Forest Owner
methods of private forest owner's
Organisations Forest Owner Cooperation "
organisations
presented at SFC meeting May, 2009 ]
Additional Member States activities in relation to the Key Action 5:
- BG: EBRD project to support the structural reform of the state forest administration (includes the whole forestry sector); Phare Twinning Light project for strenghtening the
administrative capacity of State forest administration in compliance of all EU documents related to sustainable, multifunctional and close-to-nature forest management
- DE: Germanys Round Table in the National Forest Program aims at including more stakeholders; Germany distributes advisory leaflet for landowners and exchange of
experiences among forest owners in the framework of the national campaign on strengthening competitiveness of forest groupings.
- IR: Creation of Woodspec manual website and advisory service to promote the use of wood products; GROWFOR forest modelling and valuation system and advisory
service aimed at forest valuation and improved management of resources; Model timber sales system for privately owned forests; Dublin Mountains Partnership, promoting
and marketing recreational use of public forests in the Dublin mountains; Hardwood Matters a web-based buy and sell system for private owners and buyers of hardwood
timber
Stakeholder involvement: Regular involvement in AGFC meetings, SFC ad-hoc WG2 (wood mobilisation) and study on fragmentation of forest ownership.
There are also several other studies on wood mobilisation by the stakeholder organisations, e.g. CEPI study and the summary report by the UNECE/FAO Timber section,
Potential Sustainable Wood Supply in Europe; CEPF report "European Forest Owner Organisations Forest Owner Cooperation: Main figures, aims and goals"; Wood
Mobilisation Action Plan Draft by CEPF
Stakeholders have produced statements and opinions on the topic. They have also been active in events, e.g. in Geneva Jan. 2007 workshop on wood mobilisation organised by
FAO, UNECE, MCPFE, EFI and CEPI; MCPFE Workshop on Strategies for increased mobilisation of wood resources from sustainable sources, 16-18 June, Grenoble, France by
MCPFE, UNECE, EFI, CEPI, CEPF, COPA-COGECA, ENFE, EUSTAFOR
A5.2

Ongoing 2009

2009

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

16

OBJECTIVE 2: Improving and protecting the environment


Target: To maintain and appropriately enhance biodiversity, carbon sequestration, integrity, health and resilience of forest ecosystems at multiple geographical scales.
No.

FAP Objectives and targets; Key Actions and


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009) as reported by MS
activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
Key Action 6 Facilitate EU compliance with the obligations on climate change mitigation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol and encourage adaptation to
the effects of climate change.
A6.1 Examine how to respond in a more
Debriefing to SFC on UNFCCC meetings
Member States (MS) report this activity carried out / ongoing in 16 MS
coordinated way to the obligations of
(UNFCCC SBSTA Bonn May 2007, COP 13 Bali
and in planning in RO. Not on the agenda in BG, CY, DE, DK and LU (no
Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol
December 2007, COP 14 Poznan December
information for AT, FR)
2008)
E.g. following activities are reported by MSs for improving coordination:
Life+ call for proposals July 2008
- EE: Continuous joint efforts are made to improve the forest related
elements on reporting within the cooperation of the Ministry of the
SFC ad hoc WG on Climate Change and
Environment, Estonian Environment Information Centre, Tallinn
Forestry (2009- )
University of Technology and the Centre of Forest Protection and
Silviculture, who is responsible for further development of sampleParallel: EU Climate Action and Renewable
plot based National Forest Inventory to incorporate the data-needs of
Energy Package 2008
international and domestic data-users
- FI: Active participation in the international climate negotiations
- IT: Joint establishment by the Ministry of Environment and the State
Forest Service of the National Register of Agri-forest Carbon sinks
linked to the National Forest Inventory
- SE: active involvement in the EU-level climate negotiations. The
Ministry of Agriculture participates through experts seconded to the
Ministry of Environment (i.e. the lead actor in climate negotiations on
behalf of Sweden).
A6.2 Increase the effectiveness of the discussions Debriefing of SFC on UNFCCC meetings
Member States report this activity ongoing in 17 MS and not on the
on climate change mitigation and
agenda in BG, DK, EL, LU, RO, SI (no information for FR). Participation in
adaptation by facilitating exchanges
the sinks expert group specifically mentioned only by EL.
between the SFC and the EU sinks experts
group
A6.3 Carry out a study and other relevant
Study on impacts of climate change on
scientific projects on impacts of climate
European forests and options for adaptation
change on forestry and on adaptation of
(commissioned by DG AGRI) published in
forestry to climate change
2009
Scientific projects: Calls for projects in FP7
FP7-KBBE-2008-1-2-06 Forecasting forest
diversity under the influence of climatic
changes and the consequences for stability

Status

Ongoing
2008-2010

Ongoing
2007-2011

Ongoing
2007-09

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

17

and productivity of forest ecosystems


FTP7-KBBE-2009-1-2-08 Assessing and
reducing vulnerability of European forests to
climate change and the consequences for
industrial and societal needs SICA (Russia)
A6.4

MS reporting on their activities to:


raise awareness on the impacts of climate
change on forestry
address the impacts of climate change on
forestry
promote climate change mitigation and
adaptation

SFC WG on climate change and forestry


(2009- )
Informal meeting of EU Environment
Ministers under the Slovenian Presidency:
Forest biodiversity as a challenge and
opportunity for climate change adaptation
and mitigation, April 2008.

Member States report several activities:


- BG: The participation in the establishment of different EU systems
and centres is conducted within the agreed framework and meetings
executed.
- CY: raising awareness is included in relevant plan of activities; studies
have been decided to be made on Impacts of climate change and on
adaptation of forests.
- CZ: key action "To alleviate impacts of expected global climate change
and extreme meteorological phenomena" in the 2nd NFP.
- DK: Forest Day 3, high level side event at COP 15 Climate Conference
in Copenhagen December 2009, Schools are in 2009 planting trees as
a contribution to the international campaign in 2009 "Replant the
Planet", development of new teaching material for schools in 2009
regarding forest and climate, the Danish network "Forest in Schools"
is participating in the international campaign "Learn About Forests"
targeting education of school children, etc. Information and pilot
projects regarding Close-to-Nature Forestry and a long term Action
Plan for Close-to-Nature Forestry in the Danish State Forests.
- EE: Forestry information regularly distributed by extension and
consultation services, in public events like Forest Week and via
media
- EL: leaflet (forthcoming) on climate change, disseminated to raise
awareness; addressing impacts through Life+ projects
- FI: Activities have been integrated in Finland's NFP 2015 and are fully
consistent with the National Climate and Energy Strategy.
- FR: conference on March 2006 in Paris (ENGREF):Climate Change and
Forest Genetic Diversity: consequences on forest sustainable
management in Europe, Report Lerat-Bourgau: Adaptation of forest
management in Europe (May 2007), evaluation of the consequences
of climate change on forest management and recommendations for
the MAP, Report Roman-Amat (R&D programme, creation of mixed
technological network, forest genetic resources...), national
Commission for the conservation of forest genetic resources, forest
research community working in the context of anticipating the
consequences of climate change on forests in order to define a
national adaptation strategy, storm recovery plans after storms to
recover damaged forests to reactivate their Carbon sink function,

Ongoing
2009-2011

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

18

wood mobilization and silviculture to increase production and use of


wood instead of fossil fuels and Carbon stock capacity of young
stands, establishing a diagnostic of the risks and adaptation capacities
of French forests and to prepare a national adaptation strategy (2010)
HU: To increase carbon sequestration, afforestation is supported and
encouraged in the frame of EAFRD untill 2013.
LT: In 2007 the Ministry of Environment has contracted Forest
Research Insitute to prepare special study addressing the impacts of
climate change on forestry. Results will be presented for the Ministry
of Environment in 2009 and results will influence future policy on
climate change.
LU: Revision of conditions for forest plantation subsidies in relation to
climate change.
RO: Climate change mitigation is carried out by promoting and
supporting afforestation of agricultural and degraded land and
developing forest belts systems, especially in the plain and plateau
areas with low forest cover, including through the National Program
for Rural Development
SE: The Swedish Forest Agency is developing a large-scale information
campaign to brief forest owners on the effects of climate change and
possible strategies for adaptation.
SI: Strategy for adaptation of Slovenian agriculture and forestry to
climate change was adopted by Slovenian Government, 18.6.2008.
Action plan for the implementaion of Strategy is under prepation.
SK: Adoption of the National Forest Programme and its Action Plan by
the Government of the Slovak Republic. The Action Plan includes
measures that aim, inter alia, at adapting structure of forest stands to
expected climate change and its consequences by means of
adaptation measures.

Additional Member States activities in relation to Key Action 6:


- BG: Participation in the finalized projects (in 2008) under INTERREG III B/CADSES MONITOR and MONITOR INTERREG III C/EU for mapping of the risk for occurrance of
natural hazards, risk assessment, monitoring and reporting and mountain forests.
- DK: National long term target in the NFP 2002 of doubling the afforested area, cf. http://www.skovognatur.dk/Udgivelser/Tidligere/2002/forestprogram.htm
- EE: Improving the Quality of Estonia`s GHG Inventory, joint efforts to improve forest related elements in reporting within the cooperation of the Ministry of the
Environment, Estonian Environment Information Centre, Tallinn University of Technology and the Centre of Forest Protection and Silviculture
- ES: Life+ project BOSCOS (Consell Insular de Menorca), the project aims to contribute to the adaptation of the Mediterranean forest ecosystems of Menorca to climate
change through sustainable forest management at estate level.
- FI: Life + project VACCIA (Finnish Environment Institute) 2009-2011. This project will develop a vulnerability assessment of ecosystem services for climate change impacts
and adaptation. -Research programme "Functioning of forest ecosystems and use of forest resources in changing climate, 20072011 (Finnish Forest Research institute). The
programme produces information in support of the greenhouse gas reporting dealing with forests, for Finlands National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change, IPCC
and the National Forest Programme and the Climate Change Adaptation Research Programme 20062010, FI has also been very active in the international climate
negotiations, especially when it comes to forest issues

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

19

HU participate the meetings organised by JRC; and reports an ongoing discussion on responsibilities of reporting, procedures and methods between the Min. of Environment
and Min. of Agriculture. Based on the final agreement LULUCF reporting will be developed and prepared by January 2010.
- IE: COFORD is co-ordinating 5 forest and climate change research projects under CLI-MIT Research Programme; CARBIFOR II (information to determine the influence of
distrurbance, land-use change, soil type and forest age on carbon budgets that are relevant to the reporting LULUCF activities under the Kyoto Protocol and UNFCCC);
CARBWARE (tools and systems for reporting on forest carbon stocks and stock change under the Kyoto Protocol and the UNFCCC); CLIMADAPT (use of Ecological Site
Classification in adapting forests and their management of Climate Change); FORESTSOILC (soil carbon stock changes and greenhouse gas fluxes in Irish Forests);
WOODCARB (carbon stocks and carbon changes in harvested wood products).
- LV: research project Reaction capability of Latvia's forestry on potential climate changes in Europe.
- RO: research projects: on the establishment and management of the National Phenology Network as support for climate change assessment and its impact on forests (200608); Assessment and monitoring of environmental global changes on forest ecosystems; reconstruction / conservation of biodiversity for forest ecological reconstruction.
(2006-10)
- SI: LULUCF reporting part of the national reporting system coordinated by ARSO (National Environmental Agency) and MOP, several research projects supporting the efforts
to improve forest related elements of reporting LULUCF. efforts to improve forest related elements of the reporting on In the period 2007/08 (08: first half of the year)
Slovenian experts were actively participating at the EU EG LULUCF meetings (informal exchange of information between SFC and LULUCF representatives)
- SK: research projects e.g. "Impacts of climate change on forests in Slovakia" (2004-2008). Special attention was paid to the investigation of forest-based adaptation and
mitigation measures; EU FP6 project CECILIA" Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment 2006-09
Parallel activities to Key Action 6, e.g.:
- FP7 project CCTAME, Climate change terrestrial adaptation and mitigation in Europe (AT, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, SK, UK and JRC)
- FutMon project (Life+), 2009-2013 with partners from 24 MSs: AT, BE, BG, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HU, IE, IT, LT, LV, NL, PL, RO, SE, SI, SK, UK
- INTERREG IVB project ForeStClim 2008-2012, Transnational Forestry Management Strategies in Response to regional Climate Change Impacts (DE, FR, LU, NL, UK )
- INTERREG IVC project FUTUREforest launched 2009-2011 using innovation in the environment to prepare the forest of Europe for climate change and contribute towards
carbon sequestration and reducing natural hazards (BG, DE, ES, FR, LV, SK, UK)
- Relevant COST-Projects e.g. FP0703 Expected Climate Change and Options for European Silviculture (ECHOES); FP0903 Climate Change and Forest Mitigation and
Adaptation in a Polluted Environment
Stakeholder involvement: Regular involvement in AGFC meetings, participation in SFC ad-hoc WG climate change (2009-)
Information campaigns etc. by the stakeholders to raise awareness of role of the forest-based sector in climate change mitigation and adaptation. E.g. the European Economic
and Social Committee (EESC) exploratory opinion adopted in March 2009 underlining the importance of forests in the fight against climate change
No.

FAP Objectives and targets; Key Actions


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009) as reported by MSs
and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
Key Action 7 Contribute towards achieving the revised Community biodiversity objectives for 2010 and beyond
Target
A7.1
Exchange experiences on implementation
Two SFC sessions in 2008 with
Member States (MS) report this activity carried out / ongoing in 17 MS
of Natura 2000 in forest areas
- report on exchange of experiences on
and in planning in BG, FI, LU and IT. Not on agenda in NL (no information
application of national methods for nature
for AT and EL).
conservation (representatives of SE, FI and
AT presented innovative methods for nature - EE: Management of Nature 2000 sites; project together with Spain
conservation)
- FR: ATEN Atelier Technique des Espaces Naturels / Technical
- presentation and discussion of the state-ofWorkshop on Natural Spaces with objective to foster information
the-play of MS and Commission reports
sharing on the implementation and management of Natura2000 areas
according to Article 17 of the Habitats
(all ecosystems including forest).
Directive article 17 material reporting
- IT: TAIEX meeting Antalya Jan.2009 on Nature2000 experiences in the

Status

2008-09

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

20

consultation on the conservation of habitats


and species
Commission synthesis reports on forest
habitats in Natura 2000 to be made based on
MS contributions was discussed in SFC 20082009 (by 2009 eleven MS have contributed
to the report).
Forthcoming: SFC and Habitat committee
joint meeting (prep.2009)
Forthcoming 2009: Opinion of the SFC on
implementation of Natura 2000 in forest
areas.

A7.2

Consider forest biodiversity reporting and


monitoring in the framework of the SEBI
system of EU biodiversity indicators

SEBI process; forest related parameters


discussed in SFC in 2008 (incl. presentation
on Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring
Scheme)
Forest-related inputs integrated in reporting
on EU Biodiversity Action Plan to Halt the
loss of Biodiversity by 2010 (mid-term
assessment includes report on MS activities).
JRC activities:
A methodology for the analysis of forest
spatial pattern developed by the JRC
included in the MCPFE 2007 report and
presented as a component of the SEBI
indicators) covering: (a) the analysis of forest
spatial pattern and its relation to forest
vulnerability and resilience, (b) use of
national forest inventories for the analysis of
forest spatial diversity, (c) implementation of
the Biosoil-Biodiversity project.

field of forestry. IT reports that also several groups and NGOs lead
initiatives supporting the Objective 2 and spreading information to
the public and professionals, e.g. WWF/Birdlife seminar in Rome,
April 2009 in relation to the monitoring of Natura2000 areas.
LU: guidance to private forest owners.
RO: as long as most of the Administrations of National and Natural
Parks declared as Natura 2000 Sites are under the National
Administration of Forests, there is a good communication and
exchange of information and experience in this respect.
SE: both from the side of forest owners and public administration
continuous dialogue takes place on the implementation of Natura
2000. Moreover, Sweden has contributed to the information
exchange at EU level through, for example, written submissions on
Natura 2000 in forest areas (within the framework of cooperation in
the SFC).
SK: report national experiences on the implementation of Natura2000
in forest (SFC), by means of exchange of experiences, at national
level, between nature conservation authority (State Nature
Conservancy) and the National Forest Centre as a part of cooperation
projects.
Ongoing
2007-09

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

21

EEA Report on European forests


ecosystem conditions and sustainable use.
A7.3

Consider monitoring of the fragmentation


of forests and of the effects of forest
expansion on biodiversity

SFC sessions;
JRC report on forest area changes and forest
fragmentation in the EU based on high
resolution forest maps of Europe.

Ongoing
2008-2010

Study Undisturbed forests in Europe:


concept, assessment and guidelines by DG
ENV, report forthcoming in 2009.
A7.4

Follow developments in CBD and other


international fora regarding forest
biodiversity

SFC sessions; Regular debriefing of the SFC


after CBD meetings.
JRC report on the implementation of the
SEBI2010 forest spatial pattern indicators

Ongoing
2007-2011

A7.5

Periodically organise joint meetings of the


EU Forest and Nature Directors
(Greenforce network) and promote active
participation by forest administrations in
informal exchanges between MS on
implementation of nature protection
legislation in the EU

EU forest directors meetings by the


Presidencies

Member States report this activity carried out / ongoing in 19 MS. Not
on agenda in BG and EL (no information for AT, NL and RO).

GreenForce network meetings:


2007: Expert meetings in Spain and Scotland
and Plenary meeting in Brussels
2008: Expert meetings in Germany and the
Netherlands and Plenary meeting in Brussels
2009: Expert meeting in Spain

Slovenian Presidency (2008): Nature Directors meeting sustainable


forest management and monitoring to achieve targets for halting the
loss of biodiversity by 2010
Czech Presidency: conference on wilderness areas in the EU (2009)
Greenforce Network meetings are referred to e.g. by BG, EE, FI, IE and IT

Additional Member States activities in relation to the Key Action 7:


- BG: research project for Enthomophaga maimaiga; a Phare Twinning Light project (2009) for strengthening the legislative framework of the forest sector and securing
sustainable management and multifunctional utilization of our forests based on EU practices.
- FI: National Strategy and Action Plan for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity 2006-2016; also NFP 2015 includes many measures relevant to biodiversity.
- HU: introduction of forest environmental measures under EAFRD to promote close to nature forest management.
- IE: participation to COST E27 (completed), LIFE05 NAR/IRL/000182: 'Restoring Priority Woodland Habitats in Ireland' is ongoing.
- IT: Ministry of Environment manages a national network of some 800 protected areas hosting plenty of forests, out of which 130 State reserves are still directly managed by
the State Forest Service.
- LV: research projects on the subjects of currency of rare and protected invertebrate, vascular plant and mushroom species dependence on forest management and
protection history as well as structures preserving biodiversity.
- NL: Policy Program Biodiversity (2008-2011), National Ecological Network to protect the existing nature sites (450.500 ha), as wel as establish new nature sites (275.000 ha),
in order to improve the biodiversity.
- SI: Climate Change & biodiversity are the base-line of the Research programme Forest Biology, Ecology and Technology; several Goal developmental projects are under way
addressing CC and biodiversity issues.
- SK: National Programme for Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources 2005-2010, participation in the EU RESGEN Project "Establishment of a European Information System

Ongoing
2007-2011

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

22

on Forest Genetic Resources" (EUFGIS), participation of the Slovak Republic in the EUFORGEN programme.
Parallel activities to Key Action 7 e.g.
ERA-net BiodivERsA project
Stakeholder involvement: Regular involvement in AGFC meetings, Bird Life International presentation in SFC meeting (2008) on a version of the improved common forest bird
indicator
Participation in the events arranged in relation to the EU Presidencies e.g. a working meeting connected to the EU nature directors meeting in Slovenia (2008) between NGOs
(WWF, ELO, BirdLife, Prosilva etc.) and IUCN

No.

FAP Objectives and targets; Key Actions


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009) as reported by MSs
and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
Key Action 8 Work towards a European Forest Monitoring System
Target: Creating an European Forest Monitoring System with close involvement of the Member States and a Forest Data Centre within JRC.
A8.1
Further elaborating a European Forest
In several meetings 2007, experts of the MS
Member States report this activity carried out / ongoing in 21 MS and in
Monitoring System (EFMS)
provided a basic outline for future European
planning in LU. (no information for AT and FR)
forest monitoring
E.g. following activities are reported by MSs for elaboration of EFMS:
Briefing of SFC on the LIFE+ calls for
- CZ: NFP suggests to continue and extend the monitoring of air
proposals in 2007 and 2008. Incl. FUTMON
pollution impact on forest ecosystems (e.g. ICP Forest, ICP Integrated
project Further Development and
monitoring, Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER), LIFE+, etc.
Implementation of an EU-level Forest
- EE: Forest monitoring pursuant to the ICP-Forest Manual has
Monitoring System (2009-2010).
continued in the framework of Forest Focus regulation, LIFE+
- FI: prepared a proposal for an EFMS system and introduced it to the
JRC Report with recommendations for
SFC in December 2006
reliable and cost effective monitoring.
- IT: continuation by State Forest Service of the monitoring of forest
health (forest focus); links to JRC forest monitoring/database mainly
Report to SFC (2009) on the implementation
through NFI
of Biosoil project (JRC / Forest Focus). Biosoil - RO: participation in Life +: Forest biodiversity assessment across
Conference in Brussel in 2009 (DG ENV):
Europe: towards an integrated system for biodiversity monitoring
Project completed, data not validated but
FACTS
available.
- SE: Swedish presidency: http://www-conference.slu.se/futforestmon/
Conference on future forest monitoring in the European Union in
Annual reports on the implementation of the
Uppsala, Sweden 11-12 November 2009
Forest Focus Regulation were prepared by
- SI: in period 2004/06 in Forest Focus programme. In period 2007/08
JRC and provided to DG ENV. The annual
Ministry of agriculture, forestry and food supply was supporting
report includes progress reports on the
national forest monitoring program (level I and II).
implementation of the Forest Focus studies
launched by the Commission (DG ENV).
AT, BE, BG, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HU, IE, IT, LT, LV, NL, PL, RO,
SE, SI, SK, UK (ref. www.futmon.org) participate in the Further
COM(2008) 6 Report from the Commission to Development and Implementation of an EU-Level Forest Monitoring
the Council and the European Parliament on
System FUTMON project financed by Life+

Status

Ongoing
2007-2011

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

A8.2

Establishing a European Forest Data Centre


(EFDAC)

the implementation of the Forest Focus


scheme according to Regulation (EC) No
2152/2003 of the European Parliament and
of the Council of 17 November 2003
concerning monitoring of forests and
environmental interactions in the
Community (Forest Focus) with annexed
Commission staff working document
{SEC(2008) 30}
The Commission has started coordinating
work on a series of environmental data
centres (cooperation between DG ENV, DG
ESTAT and JRC and the EEA).
JRC: establishment of the European Forest
Data Centre (EFDAC) as a single point for
forest information in Europe. It includes data
on forest fires (from the European Forest Fire
Information System (EFFIS), forest extent,
forest fragmentation, and forest condition
(from the Forest Focus database) is available
at: http://efdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu and will
provide access data from other EC Services
(e.g. ESTAT) and International Organizations
(e.g. MCPFE, FAO)

23

Member States report this activity carried out / ongoing in 19 MS and in


planning in LU. Not on the agenda in SE and NL (no information for AT,
FR and UK).

Ongoing
2007-2011

E.g. following MS report active support for establishing of EFDAC:


DK, FI, HU, LT, LU, RO and SK

Parallel activities to the Key Action 9:


- FutMon project (Life+), 2009-2013 incl. partners from 24 MSs: AT, BE, BG, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HU, IE, IT, LT, LV, NL, PL, RO, SE, SI, SK, UK
- Relevant COST-Projects e.g. E43 Harmonisation of National Inventories in Europe: Techniques for Common Reporting
Stakeholder involvement: stakeholders informed about the activities in the Key Action 8 through AGFC
No.

FAP Objectives and targets; Key Actions


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009) as reported by MSs
and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
Key Action 9 Enhance the protection of EU forests
Target: Improving EFFIS, Support of MS exchange, Supporting, Coordination and Launching of Research projects in this topic
A9.1
Further develop the European Forest Fire
European Forest Fire Information System
Member States report this activity carried out / ongoing in 17 MS and
Information System (EFFIS)
(EFFIS) web site http://effis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ in planning in RO. Not on the agenda in DK IE, LU NL, SI and UK.
Information system providing data on active
fires, perimeter of burnt areas, analysis of fire E.g. following MS report data provision and support for elaboration of
damage with daily update.
EFFIS: EE, FR, HU, IT, LT and SK.
New modules of the EFFIS on impacts of fires
on soil erosion and estimation of emissions

Status

Ongoing
2007-2011

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

24

(2007). Improved operational EFFIS,


including the recognition of risk areas.
Developments launched in 2008, 2009 with
two years until full implementation in EFFIS.
Progress report for SFC in 2008 on four DG
ENV tenders launched under the "Forest
conservation and protection" pilot project for
the further development of EFFIS in the areas
of: forest fire fuel mapping; forest fire
emissions and dispersion; socio-economic
impact of fires; harmonization of terminology
of fire causes and establishment of a
European nomenclature system. Four tenders
were launched by JRC in 2008/2009 for the
development of operational EFFIS modules in
the above-mentioned areas.

A9.2

Carry out a study analysing main factors


influencing the evolution of forest condition
in Europe (including forest fires), the
efficiency of current Community
instruments and measures for forest
protection

Debriefing SFC on Meetings of the Forest Fire


Expert Group. Valabre meeting 2008 incl. e.g
presentation of study under Forest Focus A
simple and efficient method fort the analysis
of the severity of large fires and the study
Development of a proposal for the analysis
of socio-economic impact of forest fires
DG ENV forest fire expert group (MS
representatives) has been operational since
2000: 15 of 27 MS take regularly part in the
meetings
Feasibility study on means of combating
forest dieback in the EU (2007) was
presented to SFC in 2008.
Study "How to protect forests against
harmful impacts" was launched by DG ENV in
2008, and the report is forthcoming in 2009.
Briefing of SFC on the work undertaken in the
context of the preparation of the
Communication on a Community strategy for
the prevention of natural and manmade
disasters (including forest fires)

Ongoing
2007-2011

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

25

(COM(2009)82)
Briefing of SFC on the Communication on
Reinforcing the EUs disaster response
capacity (COM(2008)130)
Discussion with the SFC on development of a
Commission communication on forest
protection, with links to the elements of Key
Actions 6, 7 and 8.
COM(2009) 147 White Paper. Adapting to
climate change: Towards a European
framework for action
Research under FP7 (e.g. 2009 topics
assessing and reducing vulnerability of
European forests to climate change and the
consequences for industrial and societal
needs SICA (Russia); developing new
methods for valuing and marketing currently
non-marketable forest functions, goods and
services).
A9.3

Form groupings of MS to study particular


regional problems with the condition of
forest

Projects financed by LIFE+ and EAFRD e.g. on


the topics of:
- National afforestation guidelines
- Promote afforestation for environmental
and protective objectives
- promote agroforestry systems
- promote Natura 2000 forest measures
- voluntary environmental commitments
- ecological value of forests
- forest fire prevention measures
- restoration of forest damaged by nat.
disasters and fire
- studies on forest fire causes, campaigns,
training, demonstrations projects
- protections strategies.
GreenForce network (DG ENV) as a forum for
exchange of experiences on difficulties in
implementing environmental legislation

Member States report this activity carried out / ongoing in 12 MS and


in planning in CZ, EL, ES and IT. Not on the agenda in DE, EE, HU, LU and
SI (no information for AT, CY and SE).
DG ENV forest fire expert group (MS representatives) has been
operational since 2000: 15 of 27 MS take regularly part in the meetings
Activities reported by MS:
- CZ: NFP proposes different activities and surveys in protection
environment
- DK: Forest & Landscape, Life, Copenhagen Uni. participates in the
Nordic Minister Council funded networks addressing regional
problems concerning the condition of forests.
- ES: forest fires and Greenforce network (meeting 2009 in Spain)
- FR / French presidency: the forest director generals meeting in Nice
(October 2008) asked the forest fire expert group (DG ENV) to make
recommendations in order to improve the experience sharing - on a
voluntary basis - on best practices at the European level, and to
continue its work on the networks, indicators, methodology and

Ongoing
2007-2010

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

26

(currently used for Natura2000 and forests)


-

A9.4

Support research on the protection of


forest and phytosanitary issues

Research projects: e.g. two FP7 topics in 2007:


Novel Tree novel forest tree breeding
PRATIQUE development of more efficient
risk analysis techniques for pests and
pathogens of phytosanitary concern
Further research projects within FP7:
ENV.2007.1.3.4. 1. European (multi) hazard
database analysis
ENV.2007.1.3.3.3. Investigating Europes risk
from droughts
ENV.2007.1.3.3.2. Harmonising avalanche
forecasting, risk mapping and
warning
ENV.2007.1.3.2.1. Frame for better
vulnerability assessment
ENV.2007.1.3.1.1. European storm risk
ENV.2008.1.3.2.1. Natural Hazards: Social
perception, behaviour and
responses to risks
ENV.2008.1.3.4.1. Natural hazards in Europe:
Coordinated research
strategy between European and national
levels
ENV.1.3.1.1 Forest fires in the context of
climate and social changes
ENV.2009.1.3.2.1 Costs of natural hazards
ENV.2009.1.3.3.1 Risk, prevention and
management of urban floods
ENV.2009.2.1.3.2 Desertification process and
land degradation
ENV.2009.2.1.6.1 Sustainable forest
management as a tool to prevent

organisation; and to make proposals for the establishment of a


coordination programme at EU level, with regional specificities
LT: participating in Baltic-Nordic Forest Statistics group (BNFSG).
RO: Setting up the thematic network on afforestation in the
regional process of the implementation of UNCCD (2007)
SK: Establishing the Polish-Czech-Slovak expert group on forest
protection in order to study/address specific regional problems in
this field

Member States report this activity carried out / ongoing in 21 MS and


in planning in ES and IT (no information for EL)
Activities reported by MS:
- BG: Manual for protection of forests and phytosanitary issues.
Annual assessment and monitoring of the effect of the polluted air
upon forest ecosystems. Expected this activity to carry on as a Life+
project. Plan to establish an information database system form the
research and phytosanotary monitoring and harmonize it with the
existing EU methodologies.
- DK: The Ministry of Environment has a yearly revised contract with
Forest & Landscape, Life, Copenhagen Uni. regarding amongst other
important development objectives research on protection of forests
and phytosanitary issues,
http://www.sl.kvl.dk/upload/a04_mim_bilag1.doc
- EE: Centre of Forest Protection and Silviculture is carrying out
research activities on protection of forests (pests and diseases) and
phytosanitary issues in cooperation with Plant Production
Inspectorate. Activities include also regular assessment of the
populations of pest species and expertise of heavily damaged forest
areas and planning of activities for forest protection in both State
and private forests.
- FI: extensive research in the Finnish Forest Research Institute's
research programme "Safeguarding forest biodiversity policy
instruments and socioeconomic impacts 20052010" providing
information of the interrelations between safeguarding of forest
biodiversity and different sectors and actors in society in order to
support forest and conservation policy-making.
http://www.metla.fi/ohjelma/tuk/esite-en.pdf
- HU: The national forest condition monitoring system have specific
national components in addition to the EU monitoring system that
are successfully maintained and supported as important elements of
forest protection

2007 and
2009

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP
unwanted forest fires
DG ENV has concluded 2 administrative
arrangements with JRC (EUR 6 million and
EUR 3 million) to execute studies on a range
of forest protection issues (see above
sections regarding the implementation of
Forest Focus and the pilot project on Forest
Protection and Conservation).

27
- LU: research activities in nature conservation areas and
phytosanitary monitoring
- RO: following research projects have been carried out (2006-2008):
Dynamics of forest pollution process in hot spot areas Copa Mic
and Baia Mare, prevention and control of pollution effects measures;
Study on identification of invasive insect species in Romania (20062009)
- SE: Swedish University of Agricultural Science research
- SI: Internet portal and database called "e-forest protection" is at the
developmental phase (forthcoming in 3 years).
- SK: Programmes and sub-programmes of the Ministry of Agriculture
(research and professional assistance, development of forestry
sector)

Additional Member States activities in relation to the Key Action 9:


- BG: Participation in the finalized projects (in 2008) under INTERREG III B/CADSES MONITOR and MONITOR INTERREG III C/EU for mapping of the risk for occurrence of
natural hazards, risk assessment, monitoring and reporting, and mountain forests. COST project for governance and management of burned forest areas is SEE.
- CY: an action plan has been prepared on the immediate measures to combat the effects of drought on forests
- PL: Two research projects on improving and protecting the environment will be accomplished at the end of 2009.
Parallel activities to the Key Action 9:
- Relevant COST-Projects e.g. FP0701 Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe: http://uaeco.biol.uoa.gr/cost/
- EU Fire Paradox Project in the FP6 programme: http://www.fireparadox.org/
- EFI project centre Phoenix Fire ecology and post-fire management (2005-2009): http://www.phoenixefi.org/content/2/17/homepage
- Symposium on Fire Management in Cultural and Natural Landscapes, Nature Conservation and Forestry in Temperate-Boreal Eurasia (Freiburg, Germany, 25-27 January 2008)
Stakeholders involvement: AGFC meetings, Stakeholders Meetings on Disaster Prevention: Brussels, 19-21 May 2008, three focus group meetings, respectively on the economic
impacts of prevention, on environmental disasters, in particular forest fires, and on vulnerability assessment and Brussels, 27 April 2009, the Commission organised a workshop
on its Communications on an EU Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction in Developing Countries and on a Community approach on the prevention of natural and man-made
disasters (adopted as a package on 23/02/2009).

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

28

OBJECTIVE 3: Contributing to quality of life


Target: to contribute to the quality of life by preserving and improving the social and cultural dimensions of forests.
No.

FAP Objectives and targets; Key Actions


and activities

Community Level Action


(directly FAP related: COM DGs)

Mid-term progress (by March 2009) as reported by MS

Status

Key Action 10 Encourage environmental education and information


Target
A10.1

Exchange experience between MS on


environmental education and
Information campaigns.

Building on the work of UNECE/FAO Team of


Specialists "Forest Communicators Network";
to exchange views in the SFC and AGFC:
Austria invited other Member States to
designate representatives for
implementation of environmental education
and information key action. The kickoff
meeting was held in Vienna at 26th February
2007 and the 2nd meeting took place in
Vienna on 14th to 15th January 2008. Both
meetings stressed the cooperation between
the MS and the UN Forest Communicators
Network.

All 24 Member States responding to the mid-term evaluation survey


report activities at the national level

ongoing
2008

Presentation by Austria of Key Action 10 implementation in March 2007


(EU Forest Directors meeting)

Exchange of experiences in SFC forthcoming


in 2009: SFC opinion on environmental
education (based on study in Key Action 18),
in the work programme 2009
A10.2

Review activities of MS in promoting


23 Member States report activity carried out or in progress EL reports
education on sustainable forest
[ forthcoming in 2010 ]
activity in planning (i.e. a PAWS project proposal, see below)
management.
Member States activities reported in relation to the Key Action 10 i.e. activities at the national/sub-national level:
- AT: there is a certified training for forest pedagogs (forest related environmental education) forest pedagogics is carried out throughout the country by forest pedagogs
- BG: Directorates of Nature parks carry out annual activities with the younger generations in the field of environmental education and promotion of SFM.
- CY: Environmental Education Centre started in 2008 and another is under construction with start-up in 2012; education on SFM is covered with actions on vocational
training included in RDP 2007-2013
- CZ: NFP intends use State administration, State forests and interest associations for communication with the public; media visibility; development of forest pedagogy
- DE: continued promotion of forest educational and informational campaigns through institutional support to the specialised organisation Schutzgemeinschaft Deutscher
Wald [ www.sdw.de ]
- DK: The Danish Forest and Nature Agency is contributing to the yearly campaign Get Moving of the National Board of Health since 2006. A yearly "Forest Day" on a Sunday
in May in some private and public forests all over the country. The Danish network "Forest in the School" [see www.skoveniskolen.dk ]
- EE: Environmental Investment Centre has allocated funds to environmental awareness programme and different activities are carried out. Public awareness is raised by
different events like "Forest Week" and Nature Protection Month", nature information centres, educational camps and via electronic

Not started

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP
[www.metsainfo.ee/index.php?part=events and http://www.loodusajakiri.ee/eesti_mets/ ] and audio-visual media.
EL: European Forest Week (2008) and Forest days every year; a proposal for PAWS project (Pedagogische Arbeit im Wald / Pedagogic Work in Forests)
ES: Spanish forest Plan foresees an environmental education programme that is now been implemented
FI: in accordance of NFP 2015
FR: Ministry of Agriculture co-funds annually with the Ministry of Education a national campaign to increase awareness of primary school students on forest management:
"Going to the Forest School"
- HU: Continuous maintenance and support to forest schools to promote environment education and information on SFM. European Forest Week had a great success in HU
with hundreds of specific programs attended by ten thousands over the country in 2008.
- IE: Continual awareness raising, engagement with stakeholders in conjunction with implementation of the Water Framework Directive.
- IT: continuous environmental education by State Forest Service (courses, lessons, media spots, events and documents); Ministry of Agriculture forest information is available
from 2008 onwards through Rural Network website
- LT: The Ministry of Environment carries out a set of activities to encourage environmental education and information: inclusive e.g. tv, radio; forest tracks; seminars and
conferences; studies; publications.
- LU: implementation of nine information centres on nature and forests in Luxembourg (4 realised, 2 in progress, 3 in planning).
- LV: Forest Development Fund projects connected with education, insight of environment promoting and information campaign about actual environment questions, incl.
children and youth education projects (Dont litter in forest, Get to know forest, Birds in my forest, Forest days, etc.) and forest owner education training projects (e.g.
Forest days, Forest ABC), media, publications.
- NL: the program "Youth, nature, food and healthy" with an aim to emphasis the importance of nature for wellness and healthy, especially for the youth.
- PL: Permanent education, information campaigns and training
- RO: "Public Awareness Campaign towards Sustainable Forest Management" project with special educational section: information brochure and materials for schools.
Campaigns for education, information and public awareness carried out in the 22 National and Natural Parks under the administration of National Forest Administration.
- SE: Information and education campaigns targeting forest owners as well as schools and the general public are continuously ongoing. As regards environmental education
(focusing on forests) in schools, the Swedish Forest Agency has been running the "Skogen i Skolan" project already for a long time [see www.skogeniskolan.se ]. As regards
information campaigns targeted to forest owners, the Swedish Forest Agency has been conducting such (incl. extension) already for a long time. Information about the
forest environment and SFM is carried out through information activities such as forest days etc.
- SI: Forest nature trails (96 trails); Slovenian Forest week with a 30-year tradition
- SK: project of forest related environmental education (FREE) from 2002 onwards: National Forest Centre in Zvolen (coord.): vocational education, training and pedagogics.
Mainly focused on forestry specialists. Particular activities are carried out by the State forest enterprises, private forest owners and regional schools. Educational paths in
forests and open-air museum of forestry have been built as a part of the project. Moreover, special workshops and forestry exhibitions for public have been organized.
Parallel activities:
e.g. several national and international initiatives have been also launched and funded within the framework of the Leonardo da Vinci programme, such as: Forest-Worker
Education Mobility-Program between Plnninge and Bad Segeberg D/2005/PL/43040001DZ, Transfer of Innovative Learning Techniques over Forestry Education 2008-1-SK1LEO05-00222 , 3 International Education of forest machine Owners and Operators D/2003/PL/4303100252 , or the network for Qualification in Forestry (ENQuaFor)
[ http://www.enquafor.com/ ]
Stakeholder involvement: all stakeholders have active communication policies towards the society at large.
UNECE/FAO Forest Communicators Network includes several forest sector stakeholder organisations.
-

29

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

No.

FAP Objectives and targets; Key Actions


and activities

Community Level Action


(directly FAP related: COM DGs)

30

Mid-term progress (by March 2009) as reported by MS

Key Action 11 Maintain and enhance the protective functions of forests


Target
A11.1

A11.2

A11.3

Exchange experiences on measures


taken to enhance the protective function
of forests
Carry out studies on:
Flood prevention
Combating desertification
Avalanche control
Soil erosion prevention and control
Water resources preservation.
Natural hazard prevention.

Discussion and exchange of experiences


forthcoming SFC July 2009
SFC opinion forthcoming (work programme
2009)
Presentation to SFC regarding a study of the
soil aspects in the MS National Plans under
the CCD (ref. made in the FAP progress
report to AGFC in July 2008)

Status

Not started
20 Member States activity carried out or in progress. Activity in planning
in LU (no information for FR, SE and UK)

In work plan
2009

Not? started
2009-2011

Calls for proposals in FP7 addressing forestrelated natural hazards

Conference; internal research of JRC.


21 Member States carried out or in progress. Activity not in the agenda
(ref. to A11.3 in work programme 2009:
in CY and IE (no information for UK)
revision of SFC work programme forthcoming
in Dec.2009)
Member States report the following activities in relation to the Key Action 11:
- AT: the protective function of forests, prevention of natural hazards is a key issue of forest policy, institutional reforms led to better cooperation between different services
- BG: participation in transnational projects (finalised in 2008) INTERREG III B/CADSES MONITOR and MONITOR INTERREG III C/EU for mapping of the risk for occurrence of
natural hazards, risk assessment, monitoring and reporting, and mountain forests. In 2009 a SEE project has been approved for practical monitoring when managing natural
hazards.
- CY: measures enhancing of protective functions are included in RDP 2007-2013
- CZ: NFP (natural disasters, water resources, soil, torrent control...)
- DK: Cooperation between waterworks and the Danish Forest and Nature Agency on afforestation projects to ensure high quality of Drinking Water; Close-to-Nature Forestry
and a long term Action Plan for Close-to-Nature Forestry in all Danish State Forests. Subsidies for replanting storm felled forests as robust forests.
- EE: Forest owners carry out different measures which are subsidised by the State.
- EL: Forest measures under Rural Development Programme (226); National annual forest programmes for anti-erosion works, forest fire prevention
- FI: The Forest Biodiversity Programme for Southern Finland 2008-2016 METSO was drawn up to supplement the NFP in the conservation of forest biodiversity.
- FR: rural development programme (measure 226B) on the management of forests with a protective role on mountain erosion and on the investment or forest operations for
the prevention of forest fires (226C). Furthermore, on national domain forests, the State invests in forests with a specific protection role (coastal/sand piles, mountain
protective forests)
- HU: proposal of the new Forest Act, esp. a proposal to establish a forest protection service within the forest authority to contribute - among others - in natural hazard
prevention and management in forest; Support for restoration of forest land after abiotic hazards under EAFRD, and additional subsidies will be available in 2009 for
prevention against defined dangerous biotic agents threatening forests as well as for restoration of forest areas after biotic damages.
- IT: mainly at local level by local actors (forest management by Regions, sub-regional bodies) or by structures of the protected areas
- LT: Activities to forest natural hazard prevention are foreseen in three types of planning documents (Strategic - Forest Management Schemes, operational - Forest
Management Plans and special - Nature Management Plan). Activities to prevent forests from natural hazards are financed from the Special General Forestry Needs

Not started
2010 / 2011

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP
Financing Programme.
LU: delimitation of new water protection zones in planning; elaboration of an action plan in case of storm-hazard.
RO: Rural development programme funds; Torrent control (flood prevention) activity is carried out over decades and concerns torrential valleys in which works have not
been yet done. It is developed based on State budget, including a loan from EDB.
- SI: Ordinance on protection forests and forests with a special purpose, revision 2009; Encourage use of indigenous species for reforestation; Promote thinnings to improve
stability of stands and promote variegated structure of forest; Fire observing service (task of the Slovenian Forest Service)
- SK: implementing forest protection measures in 2009-2013, mainly against bark beetle outbreaks becoming a main threat to mountain forests in Slovakia significantly
affecting their protective functions.
Parallel activities:
e.g. INTERREG funding (ERDF) is utilised in regional projects (cross-border/transnational) relating to protective functions of forests
-

The FP7 programme has addressed forest-related natural hazards through several calls, from its Environment line; 5 specific calls in 2007, 5 in 2008 and 3 in 2009:
ENV.2007.2.1.3.1. Geographical transect approach to desertification
ENV.2007.1.3.4. 1. European (multi) hazard database analysis
ENV.2007.1.3.3.3. Investigating Europes risk from droughts
ENV.2007.1.3.3.2. Harmonising avalanche forecasting, risk mapping and warning
ENV.2007.1.3.2.1. Frame for better vulnerability assessment
ENV.2008.1.3.2.1. Natural Hazards: Social perception, behaviour and responses to risks
ENV.2008.1.3.3.1. Prediction of triggering and risk assessment for landslides
ENV.2008.1.3.3.2. Preparedness and risk management for flash floods including generation of sediment and associated debris flow
ENV.2008.1.3.4.1. Natural hazards in Europe: Coordinated research strategy between European and national levels
ENV. 2008.2.1.3.1. Assessment of methods to combat desertification
ENV.2009.1.3.2.1 Costs of natural hazards
ENV.2009.1.3.3.1 Risk, prevention and management of urban floods
ENV.2009.2.1.3.2 Desertification process and land degradation
JRC conducts studies on early warning systems. Specifically, in 2009, the Action will work towards establishing a European Flood Observatory (EUFO), which will be a central
website containing early warning info from EFAS (restricted access), ongoing flooding information, flood risk maps and climate change effect maps, as well as links to European
and global websites on floods. This action contributes to the JRC's Task Force 'Natural Disasters', the JRC Strategy on Climate Change, the Thematic Programme on the "EU-AU
Strategic Partnership", and the Task Force GMES. Within these platforms, collaboration takes place with several JRC Actions. The forecasting and risk mapping activities will be
coordinated with the ones foreseen under the European Forest Fire Information System, operated under the JRC by the Forest Action, the activities on Droughts, operated by
the Desert Action, and the activities on soils, soil erosion and landslides, operated by the Soil Action. Activities in Europe include:
- National and Regional Hydrological Services: communicating early flood warnings from the EFAS system.
- European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts: Research and Meteorological forecast data contributing to the European Flood Alert System.
- International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR): Development and delivery of the Danube part of the European Flood Alert System as a contribution
to the Danube Flood Action Programme.
- International river basin conventions, flood working groups, working on flood forecasting, flood risk mapping and flood prevention measures:- ICPDR (Danube river), IKSE (Elbe
river), IKSO (Oder river).
- Utrecht University, the Netherlands: Natural hazard research & data assimilation research.
Stakeholder involvement: Stakeholders have been involved in e.g. development of Mediterranean Forests Research agenda (EFI)

31

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

No.

FAP Objectives and targets; Key Actions


and activities

Community Level Action


(directly FAP related: COM DGs)

32

Mid-term progress (by March 2009) as reported by MS

Key Action 12 Explore the potential of urban and peri-urban forests


Target
A12.1

A12.2

Review and integrate methodologies for


evaluating the social and human impacts of
urban and peri-urban forests

(ref. to A12.1 in work programme 2009:


revision of SFC work programme forthcoming
in Dec.2009)

Status

Not started
16 Member States report activity carried out or in progress and activity
in planning in BG, RO and CY. Activity not in the agenda in HU and LU (
no information for EL, ES and FR)

Explore structures to engage local


(ref. to A12.2 in work programme 2009:
17 Member States report activity carried out or in progress, and activity
communities and non-traditional
revision of SFC work programme forthcoming in planning in BG, RO and SI. Activity not in the agenda in SK. (no
stakeholders in planning, creating, managing in Dec.2009)
information for AT, EL and ES)
and using urban and peri-urban forests
Member States report the following activities in relation to the Key Action 12:
- CY: studies; a more collaborative approach and cross-sectoral cooperation has been adopted; will be institutionalized with the new forest legislation to be adopted in 2010
- CZ: NFP demands to retain everymans right while reinforcing proprietary rights; support recreational use; define adverse activities causing damage
- DK: Forest & Landscape, Life, Copenhagen Uni. is coordinating the largest EU FP7 on urban development PLUREL project "Peri-urban land use relationships strategies and
sustainability assess urban-rural linkages".
- EE: studies on recreational uses
- FI: Finnish Forest Research Institutes research Programme "Welfare Effects of Forests 20082012" [ www.metla.fi/ohjelma/hyv/esite-en.pdf ]
- FR: On certain peri-urban forested areas which play an important role for local populations, a procedure is undertaken to classify the land and ensure its long-term forested
status.
- HU: a planning methodology has been developed for regional forest development which considers in a defined region all potential land use categories, local communities as
well as the needs of local population
- IT: some regional and local activities, e.g. "10 Grandi boschi per la pianure" launched/financed by regione Lombardia since 2000
- LT: Number of studies, at the moment Lithuanian University of Agriculture carries out a study program on evaluation the social and human impacts of urban and peri-urban
forests. In 2008 around 2000 respondents were interviewed. In planning processes of urban and pre-urban forests, local communities and non-traditional stakeholders
participates during the elaborations of above mentioned planning documents. All stakeholders have a possibility to participate in decision making process and present
opinion that is perceived by society.
- LU: educational and recreational activities around Luxembourg-City
- LV: legislation protection for urban forests and protection-belt around cities is established. Municipalities can set forest protection-belt around cities. There are established
strict forest management restrictions for urban forests and forest protection-belts. Currently working on protection-belt criteria reassessment.
- NL: the Netherlands has established the program "Green and City". Aim: green areas around the cities
- PL: New methods of environmental assessment; legally binding instruments engaging local communities in planning and adoption of forestry plan management.
- SI: Regional forest management plans include evaluation of recreational function of forests and guidelines for management of urban and peri-urban forests. Support of
Slovenian Forest Service to manage urban and peri-urban forests has been offered to city authorities including preparation of relevant decrees.
- SE: The Swedish Forest Agency is currently undertaking a national inventory of forests with high social values.
Parallel activities:
The COST network has funded two actions directly linked to this topic COST E12 "Urban Forests and Trees" (1997-2000) and COST E39 Forests, Trees and Human Health and
Wellbeing (2003-2007). COST E33 Forest for Recreation and Nature Tourism (2003-2008) also dealt with a quite close topic to the Key Action 12.
The European Forum on Urban Forestry [ www.efuf.org ] is an annual forum where urban forestry professionals meet scientists and policy-makers meet.
Stakeholder involvement: -

(plan)
2008-2010

2009 / 2010

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

OBJECTIVE 4: Fostering coordination and communication


Target: To improve coherence and cross-sectoral cooperation in order to balance economic, environmental and socio-cultural objectives at multiple organisational and institutional levels.
No.
EU FAP Objectives and targets;
Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Status
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 13 Strengthen the role of the Standing Forestry Committee
Ongoing
Target: To improve coordination and communication at multiple organisational and institutional levels
2007-2011
A13.1
Establish yearly work programmes for
Draft working programme has been prepared
Ongoing
the Standing Forestry Committee
by Commission on an annual basis (draft by DG
2006-2010
AGRI discussed in ISG meetings) and discussed
in the SFC.
SFC had 10 meeting in 2007-2008, with active
participation of Member Sates (in average,
90% of MSs participating in the meetings)
A13.2
Organise joint meetings between the
No joint meetings. Chairman of AGFC
Ongoing
members of the SFC and the AGFC, and participates in SFC meetings. Commission
2007-2011
with the Advisory Committee on
services report to SFC (incl. matters related to
Community Policy regarding Forestry
FBI group i.e. the FBI communication);
and Forest-based Industries
Commission also reports to AGFC.
A13.3
Strengthen the active involvement of
SFC opinions:
Ongoing
the SFC in its advisory role in policy
- Opinion on forthcoming forest sector
Active participation in the SFC meetings by the Member States
2007-2011
formulation and implementation 2007- research activities within FP7 (2008)
2011
- Opinion on the mobilisation and efficient use
of wood and wood residues for energy
generation (2009)
- Opinion on valuation of and compensation
for non-marketed forest goods and services
(2009)
A13.4
Adjust the working methods of the SFC
Two WGs have been operating in parallel 2007Ongoing
by making use of ad hoc working
2008 and 2009-2010:
Active participation in SFC WGs by the Member States
2007-2011
groups 2007-2011
-Valuation and compensation methods of nonwood forest goods and services in 2007-08
-Mobilisation and efficient use of wood and
wood residues for energy generation in 2007-08
- Climate change and forestry (2009- )
- Public Procurement of wood (2009- )
A13.5
Regularly organise meetings of the EU
Meetings arranged by presidencies (2007 in
Meetings of the EU Forest Directors are regularly carried out by the
Ongoing
Forest Directors
Germany and Portugal, in 2008 in Slovenia and Presidencies. Several Member States report participation in the
2007-2011
France, 2009 in Czech and in Sweden)
meetings (e.g. BG, EE, FI, IE, LT, LU, SI).
Stakeholder involvement:
Stakeholders participated in preparation of the EU FAP and in the consultations related to it, consultations on implementation report of Forestry Strategy (2005) and internetbased consultation and opinions/statements on the draft FAP document (2006). Also AGFC handled the Forestry Strategy and Action Plan questions in 2004-2006.

33

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

34

AGFC defined its priorities for EU FAP (29.11.2006 meeting). There are regular AGFC meetings with report of EU FAP implementation given by DG AGRI, and presentations of
other DGs. AGFC met three times both in 2007 and in 2008. In 2008 these meetings were held appr. one week prior to SFC meetings. Chairperson(s) of AGFC participate in the
SFC meetings.
AGFC and FBI advisory Group members nominate their members for the SFC ad hoc working groups
AGFC receives presentation of presidencies priorities (by Austria in the meeting of 10.3.06; Germany 29.11.06; Portugal 12.7.07)

No.

EU FAP Objectives and targets;


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 14 Strengthen coordination between policy areas in forest-related matters
Target: improving coordination within the Commission
A14.1
Appoint a co-ordinator for forestList of contact persons for forest-related
related policies in each relevant
policies in each relevant Directorate-General of
Directorate-General (priority for the
the European Commission was presented to
AGFC)
the SFC (May 2007).
A14.2
Regularly inform the SFC of the
Commission services report to SFC meetings.
initiatives and actions in different
Interservice Group on forestry (ISG established
policy areas that are of relevance to
in 2001/2002) has regular meetings on
the work of the Committee (priority
invitation by DG AGRI. In 2007-2008 the group
for the AGFC)
met three to four times per year. Invitations
are sent to 16 DGs and SG, and there is an
active participation of 5-7 DGs with DG AGRI,
DG ENV and DG SANCO participating in all
meetings and DG ENTR, DG TREN, JRC (Ispra,
Italy) and DG ESTAT (Luxemburg) in most of
the meetings. In addition to these, DG RTD, DG
EMPL and DG DEV have participated in some of
the meetings; DG TRADE and DG MARKT in
meeting with specific issues relating to their
field.
A14.3
Contribute to development of a work
The work programme 2007-2011 for
programme 2007-2011 for
implementation of the FAP developed by
implementation of the FAP; review the
Commission services in the context of the ISG
working methods of the group.
on Forestry and in cooperation with the SFC,
serving as a basis in establishing yearly work
programmes.
Additional Member States activities in relation to the Key Action 14 and strengthening coordination between policy areas, e.g. NFP structures are referred to by
- FI: national EU preparatory system pays special emphasis to coordination; different ministries and stakeholders are represented in the preparatory organs
- IT: new NFP and structures established in 2008/2009
Stakeholder involvement: Stakeholders are involved in AGFC, but also other Commission advisory groups and committees.

Status

Completed
(2007/08)
Updated as
needed
ongoing
2007-2011

ongoing
2007-2011

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

35

No.

EU FAP Objectives and targets;


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 15 Apply the open method of coordination (OMC) to national forest programmes
Target: to investigate applicability of the OMC to voluntary coordination of national forest programmes (OMC as a method to help Member States
to progressively develop their own policies).
A15.1
Explore the OMC and its potential to be
(ref. to A15.1 in SFC work programme 2009:
used for voluntary coordination in the
revision of the work programme forthcoming
field of forest policy
in Dec.2009)
Parallel activities:
- AT: The Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management commissioned an exploratory study in 2006: Plzl, Helga and Nussbaumer, Eva
(2006) Study about "Modes of governance" for European Forest Policy (coordination, co-operation, and communication) University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences
Vienna, Institute of Forest, Environmental, and Natural Resource Policy, Department of Economics and Social Sciences.
- OMC is utilised in the forest sector in relation to development of the European Research Area ERA and national and regional R&D policies. ERA-Net WoodWisdom mobilises
resources from the EU and national sources to support the priority areas defined in cooperation between participating national partners: WoodWisdom-Net (2004-2008) and
WoodWisdom-Net2 (2009-2012) [ www.woodwisdom.net ]
No

EU FAP Objectives and targets;


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 16 Strengthen the EU profile in international forest-related processes
Target: high degree of coordination both within the Commission and in the Member States to ensure coherence in different forest-related international processes.
A16.1
Participation in international processes
Interservice Group (ISG) on forestry was
All Member States replies (23) indicate participation in the international
relevant to forests and forestry
established 2001/2002, and it handles also the processes. Some countries state that they are active in international
Commission involvement in the international
processes (FI, SE, IE), some countries give more details on the forums
meetings; improved coordination of
and forms of participation. FAO incl. COFO, UN-ECE and UNECE/FAO
competences (e.g. in MCPFE, FAO Forestry
working groups, incl. UNECE/FAO Forest Communicators Network (AT)
Commission meetings) has been called for.
as well as UNFF and UNFCCC are specified in the Member State
There is also interservice group on
responses.
international forestry (in coordination of DG
ENV). Division of tasks between DG AGRI and
Contribution to the EU in the international processes is defined as e.g.
DG ENV in relation to international processes
backing EU positions in UNFF and COFO meetings, and delegation of
was defined in 2001.
votes to the EU Commission (IE).
EC follows-up in UNFF and CPF, FLEGT Action
Plan implementation, FAO COFO, ITTO, CBD,
CITES, UNFCCC, UNCCD, IPPC, EPPO, OECD.
Commission Communication addressing the
challenges of deforestation and forest
degradation to tackle climate change and
biodiversity loss (COM(2008) 645 final) was
adopted on 17 October 2008.

Following EU countries provided voluntary country reports to UNFF8


(April-May 2009) with information on implementation of the NonLegally Binding Instrument: BG, CY, FI, LU and SK. The European Union
regional report was submitted in by the French Presidency Oct.2008,
and a pan-European region report was prepared jointly by the
Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe MCPFE,
the UNECE Timber Committee and the FAO European Forestry
Commission UNECE/FAO, the European Forest Institute EFI, and the
Environment for Europe/Pan-European Biological and Landscape
Diversity Strategy EfE/PEBLDS.

Status
Not started

2010-2011

Status
ongoing
Ongoing
2007-2011

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

36

Commission informs the SFC (and AGFC)


meetings about the international meetings
and processes, as well as the Commission
communications and regulations. E.g.
following international processes have been
handled in the SFC: forest-related
developments in the UNFCC SBSTA meeting
and developments under CBD related to
forests (SFC in July 2007); information about
MSs National Action Plans under the UNCCD
(Oct.2007), outcomes of COP14 of UNFCCC
rd
(103 meeting, Feb.2008).

A16.2

Participation in the MCPFE process

Member States coordination is in respective


Council Working Parties and led by the
Presidencies. SFC (and AGFC) are informed on
the Presidencies programme and priorities in
relation to forest(ry) issues by respective MS.
Briefing of SFC on the MCPFE meetings,
launching of the next phase of the MCPFE
process by the Liaison Unit Oslo and the
follow-up of the MCPFE working groups e.g. on
water; energy; on sustainability criteria for
forest biomass production; on legally binding
agreement on forests in the pan-European
region.

In the Member States replies the MCPFE is specifically mentioned by


several countries e.g. relating to participation of meetings and work
groups (BG, EE, HU, IT,LU); organisation/co-hosting of MCPFE meetings
(IE, IT); and membership in MCPFE General Coordinating Committee
(SK).

ISG on forestry aims at coordination and


preparation of the Commission participation in
the MCPFE and its working groups (e.g. in 2007
Warsaw declarations, and in 2008 working
groups on sustainability criteria & LBA were on
the ISG meeting agenda)
Additional: MCPFE Liaison Unit Oslo participated in the SFC ad hoc working group WG1 (nwfgs)
Stakeholder involvement:
AGFC is informed by Commission and, according to the AGFC meeting schedule, also by the Presidencies on ongoing / forthcoming matters.
Multi-stakeholder dialogues are an integral part of the agenda at UNFF sessions, allowing major stakeholders to contribute to the forest policy forum. Also the European
stakeholders are active in UNFF: CEPF is one of the Major Group Focal Points to assist in coordination of input of each of the nine different major group networks to UNFF.
MCPFE observer organisations include international organisations and NGOs in the fields of research, forest industry and environment, e.g. forest owners, landowners, state
forests, community forests, forest industry and workers organisations, as well as environmental NGOs are involved. Stakeholders participate in MCPFE and its working groups (e.g.
CEPF, FERN, WWF, EUSTAFOR and CEI-Bois have participated in Working Group on "Sustainability Criteria for Forest Biomass Production, and; CEPI, IFSA, COPA-COGECA,
EUSTAFOR, USSE, WWF and in the MCPFE Working Group on LBA).

Ongoing
2007-2011

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

37

No.

EU FAP Objectives and targets;


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 17 Encourage the use of wood and other forest products from sustainably managed forests
Target
A17.1
Communication concerning the
Commission Communication concerning the
competitiveness of forest-based
competitiveness of forest-based industries
The EU FAP Work programme does not indicate activities for MSs
industries
(COM(2008) 113) was adopted in Feb.2008.
relating to the FBI-communication the competitiveness-related
activities in the Member States are listed under the Objective1.
In Dec.2008 DG ENTR together with EU FLEGT
Action Plan (DG DEV and DG ENV), as well as a
contribution from DG AIDCO arranged FLEGT
Industry Information Meeting. E.g. EC proposal
for a regulation on operators obligations (due
diligence) for placing timber and timber
products on the market was discussed.

Status

Ongoing
From FAP
perspective
activity is
completed,
FBI Comm. is
ongoing
(2008-12)

SFC has been informed about the preparation


and content of the FBI Communication and
information on the implementation
programme of the FBI Communication is in the
SFC agenda 2009.
AC-FBI meeting has been held in April 2009.
A17.2

Exchange experience between MS,


Commission services and stakeholders on
developing guidelines for application of
the Public Procurement
Directive to forest products, in order to
achieve better compatibility with each
other and also in support of the EU
FLEGT Action Plan

Exchange of experience has been facilitated on


EU level:
National delegations reported on developing
guidelines for application of the Public
Procurement Directives to forest products in
two SFC meetings in 2007.
Two conferences were arranged by Member
States and the Commission: "Setting criteria
for sustainable timber in public procurement"
(7-8 April 2008) organised by the Danish
Ministry of Environment together with DG ENV
and DG MARKT, and "Public Procurement
Policy on Wood and Wood-based Products" in
Brussels (13 June 2008) organised by the
Commission. The conference in Brussels was
attended by 27 national experts, 16 private
sector experts, and 10 representatives from

15 Member States report activities carried out / ongoing. Activity in


planning CY, CZ, HU, IT, RO, SI, SK only BG indicates that this activity is
not on the agenda (no information for EL)
MS report e.g. following activities:
- CY: plan to implement the EU policy as regards the application of the
Public Procurement Directive to forest products.
- DK: revised guidelines on public procurement on timer will be
available summer 2009
- FR: special procedure for public purchasing of wood and wood
products by the State and its public entities (Note of Prime Minister of
April 5, 2005) is currently under review by an external audit and an
update should be made to cope with current European and
international context.
- HU: Green public procurement strategy has been elaborated but not
yet approved by the Government. After approval guidelines for forest
products are foreseen to be established.
- IE: Forestry Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and

(2007-2008)
Ongoing
2009

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

38

five Commission departments (DG AGRI, DG


ENV, DG MARKT, DG ENTR and DG EMPL). SFC
got briefing of the conferences.
SFC ad hoc working group on Public
Procurement was initiated with terms of
reference defined and the work starting in the
beginning of 2009.
There have been several parallel processes
ongoing in relation to public procurement with
references to forest sector e.g.:
RES Directive: Proposal for a Directive on the
promotion of the use of energy from
renewable sources (COM(2008)19), Jan.2008 in
the Council April 2009,
sustainability criteria for biomass
GPP: Communication on procurement for a
better environment (COM/2008/400, July
2008) including construction, wood, paper,
energy and furniture among the priority
sectors.
GPP guidelines
group of National GPP experts
Communication on an EU approach to
deforestation (COM(2008) 645), Oct.2008
+study assessing impacts of options (DG ENV
Jan.2008)
Commission proposal for a regulation laying
down the obligations of operators who place
timber and timber products on the market
(COM(2008) 644), Oct.2008
due diligence principle
Other criteria mentioned in relation to the
forest-based sector products: ecolabelling,
certification.

Food is currently in the process of drafting guidelines for the


responsible procurement of timber and timber products. These
guidelines will place a strong emphasis on the procurement of only
legally felled timber products using the FLEGT process, the EU
Commission handbook on GPP, published in 2004, and the incoming
new Regulation for operators who place timber and timber products
on the European market, as its basis. These guidelines will be targeted
towards Government Departments and Agencies, Local Authorities
and private industry.
IT: participation of the State Forest Service staff in the FLEGT/due
diligence negotiations in Brussels and development on a national
Regulation to implement and put in place controls related to the EU
FLEGT Action Plan of 2003; a national day for information and
coordination was also organised in Rome by the State forest Service
Feb.2009
LU: elaboration of a green public procurement policy for wood
products is in progress by the government.
LT: participation in the SFC ad hoc working group
LV: involvement in FLEGT Action Plan
SK: Action Plan for NFP includes measure that aim at elaboration of a
proposal for national public procurement policy for wood and woodbased products by 2013.

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

39

Additional Member States activities in relation to the Key Action 17:


- CZ: NFP stresses necessity to make wood mass available and raise awareness about the Leader initiative (to engage forestry entities in local action groups)
- FI: promotion of use of wood in different ways e.g. Government Resolution Concerning the Use of Wood and the Promotion of Wood Construction (2005), with follow-up
2007-2010
Stakeholder involvement:
Stakeholders were involved in preparation and consultations of the FBI Communication. AGFC has handled the FBI communication in 2006 and in 2008 (joint resolution by AGFC
on the FBI Communication, 7.4.2008).
Advisory Committee on Community Policy regarding Forestry and Forest-based Industries (AC-FBI) is centrally involved in implementation and follow-up of the FBI
communication. The Committee was established in 1983 (83/247/EEC amended with 97/837/EC). In principle the committee meets once a year, but no meetings have taken place
during past two years. The members of the committee represent forestry sector; mechanical wood industry; pulp, paper and board manufacturing and converting industries, and;
printing and publishing industries.
There have been several stakeholder activities, events and campaigns concerning promotion of wood and wood products, e.g. CEI-Bois Roadmap 2010 for the European
woodworking industries. Increasing of the use of sustainably produced wood was a key message in the European Economic and Social Committee Exploratory opinion on The
role of forests and the forest-based sector in meeting the EUs climate commitments March 25, 2009.
Stakeholders are also active in producing statements and otherwise influencing the policy and decision making concerning legislation proposals in EP and the Council, e.g. the
proposed legislation on illegal logging now under process (COM(2008) 644).

No.

EU FAP Objectives and targets;


Community Level Action
Mid-term progress (by March 2009): activities reported by the Member
Key Actions and activities
(directly FAP related: COM DGs)
States in the inventory of implementation
Key Action 18 Improve information exchange and communication
Target: availability and communication of up-to-date information are essential for enhancing public awareness and consideration of forestry in policy-making
A18.1
Develop a communication strategy on
DG AGRI participates in UNECE/FAO team of 20 Member States report activities carried out / ongoing. Activity in
forestry and exchange experience
specialists Forest Communicators Network planning BG, DE, IT (no information for EL)
between MS on forest communication
DG AGRI study on "Shaping Forest
Austria plays an active role in the UNECE/FAO Forest Communicators
Communication in the European Union:
Network, and reports: network supports the implementation of the
public perceptions of forests and forestry"
FAP, in particular concerning forest related environmental education
has been launched in 2008. Results of the
and the development of a European Forest Communication Strategy.
survey are forthcoming and preliminary
Participation in the network is also mentioned e.g. by EE, FR, HU, SI. The
findings presented in the Czech presidency
conference in Czech republic in June 2009 aims at a clear definition of
conference Taking us out of the woods in
the core elements of a future EU communication strategy.
3-4 June 2009. The workshop report has
been presented to the EU Forestry Directors Several Member States indicate information and communication
General meeting in June 2009 (Czech
strategy defined in the relation to NFP (or similar), e.g.:
Republic, Vysoina Region) and
- FI: NFP defines information and communication as a key element for
subsequently to SFC.
NFP implementation
- RO: communication strategy has been established with a slogan
"Forest is more than wood" (inception phase of "Public Awareness
Campaign towards Sustainable Forestry"). The strategy established the
main direction for communication in short-medium term and also
established: target, message, main attributes and expected results as

Status

Ongoing
2007-2009

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP

40
well as monitoring indicators.
- SK: proposal for a national strategy of public relations and
communication in forestry was prepared in 2007; establishing of an
expert wg on communication in forestry

A18.2

Develop a forestry site on the


Europa website and ensure that forest
related information in the relevant
websites of the MS is available and can
be linked with the Europa forestry site

There is a forestry website and several


forest-sector related websites by COM
Services:
- Forestry measures at DG AGRI website
(documentation of forestry strategy, forest
action plan, SFC and AGFC);
- Forests website at DG ENV (EU forest
policies, international forest issues incl.
FLEGT, certification),
- Forest-based industries at DG ENTR
website (FBI in Europe, policies, industrial
resources, sectors)
- JRC Forest Action
The EC web-sites are often of a document
library character. Websites, their materials
and e.g. links to other sites are not
necessarily updated. There are links to other
Commission departments and services, but
not e.g. to Member States, to European
Parliament or to Council information
sources. EFICP or other data forums are not
easy to find through the Europa site or e.g.
the Eurostat forest-related sites.

A18.3

Work on the development of a


European Forest Information and
Communication Platform

Preparatory Action on European Forest


Information and Communication Platform
(EFICP) was concluded in 2008. JRC
demonstration version of EFICP was
presented in a workshop in Dec.2008
together with the follow-up and
development of the European Forest Data
Centre (EFDAC).

14 Member States report activities carried out / ongoing. Activity in


planning LV, LU and FR. IE and DK indicate that forestry site is not on
the agenda (no information for AT, EL, ES, SE, UK)

Completed
2007-2008

E.g. following forest(ry) websites are reported:


- CY: "forestry" web page maintained since 2007
http://www.moa.gov.cy/forest
- EE: Forest-related information websites http://www.eramets.ee/ and
http://www.metsainfo.ee/index.php?part=html&id=34
- FR: the interprofessionnal organisation France-bois-Fort is planning
on implementing such a website, integrating an economic observatory
of the sector.
- HU: A general forestry site was established in 2008, however links to
other homepages in Europe have not been fully established yet.
- IT: State Forest Service'sforest initiatives as the EU/international forest
related website, but also two forest magazines "Silvae" and "Il
Forestale"
- LT: Lithuanian State Forest Survey Service is developing forestry
related site (http://www.lvmi.lt/vmt) where the main topics about
Lithuanian state forest cadastre, national forest inventory, forest
assessment data and other forest facts are presented.
- RO: site promoted by Forestry development Project
(http://www.forestier.ro), link to European forestry site will be added;
another site by National Administration of Forests:
http://www.rosilva.ro. Also private initiatives e.g.www.forestry.ro
- SK: new internet sites on forests and forestry: www.forestportal.sk,
www.lesnapedagogika.sk (forest pedagogic), www.lesnickedni.sk
(forest days)
16 Member States report activities carried out / ongoing. Activity in
planning LV and RO. IE indicates that EFICP is not on the agenda (no
information for EL, ES, FR, NL, SE)
In June 2009, the EFICP site has links to the national forest inventory
sites in AT, DE, FI, FR, IT, LT, PT, SE and UK.
E.g. LT reports: Development of forest communication system and

Completed
2006-2008

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Annexes of the final report Annex 1: Inventory of the implementation of the EU FAP
http://eficp.jrc.ec.europa.eu/EFICP/
EFICP is a first step towards the
improvement of information in the forestry
sector. The EFICP has become integral part
of the European Forest Data Centre. EFICP is
fully operational but is not able to connect
to national systems as these are not interoperable at the moment. The JRC, in close
collaboration with DG AGRI and DG ENV, is
continuing the work on this subject in the
context of the further development of
EFDAC.
A18.4

Organise visibility events, such as a


Forest Week or Forest Day to raise
awareness of the benefits of sustainable
forest management

The SFC was regularly informed about the


preparation of the "Pan-European Forest
Week 2008" (MCPFE & FAO). Possibility to
participate in the event was discussed in the
SFC during 2007-2008. The Commission
participated in the week e.g. FAO event in
Rome.
Green week (DG ENV) has been
mentioned in ISG meetings. In 2009 (23.-26.
June) the theme is Climate Change, but no
specific contents on forest(ry) issues has
been linked from the EU FAP.
The Commission published in 2008 a
brochure on the EU Forest Action Plan (in
English, French and German) and the
material is available in the DG AGRI forestry
website.

41
exchange of experience between MS is foreseen in the ongoing EFICP
project. Beside of fully functioning Forest Cadastre Integrated
Information System based on internet and terminal servers
technologies was established in Lithuanian State Forest Survey Service in
2008. Further development of this system is foreseen towards user
friendly applications, better communication and interchange of
information, automatic data supply for interested parties, etc.

21 Member States report activities carried out / ongoing. Only NL


indicates activity not on the agenda (no information for EL and UK).
E.g. following regular events are reported:
- AT national forest week and other national campaigns are carried out
regularly.
- BG: State Forestry Agency celebrates Forest week for 84 years. This
week is always in the first week of April and is full of visibility events
oriented towards SFM and the valuable work of foresters, and
promotion of use of wood and other products of sustainable managed
forests.
- CY: "Save our forests week" is organised in April or beginning of May
annually;
- EE: already 17th annual event "Forest Week" took place on 4-10.5.2009
- IT: the organisation of forest days and events like the Day of the Tree
or the 10th Day of the Forest (Castelporziano on 3rd April 2009)
- HU: Forest week is organised each year
- LT: annually around 50 forest days in different regions in Lithuania are
organized by the Ministry of Environment, in November 2008 the
Ministry organized a Forest week, and the Lithuanian University of
Agriculture is organizing exhibition of forest technique annually. In
addition, visibility events such as planting forest or forest camp
are organized by forest enterprises and non-governmental
organizations.
- LU: annual organisation of the "Weekend du Bois" together with
Wallon region in Belgium and Champagne-Ardennes region in France.
- LV: Forest Days organized since 1928, every year during March, April
and May

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42
- PL: regular events documented since 1920s
- SI: Slovenian Forest Week in May every year.
- SK: National Forest Days every year and several other visibility
measures e.g. media communication on forest events, forestry and
forests through press releases, press conferences, media trips, articles
in papers and magazines, interviews with forestry experts in national
and regional TVs.
- RO: every last 2 years national foresters forums; every year "month of
forest" (mid-March to mid-April)
Member States participated also in the European Forest Week 2008
(20.-24. October) by organising national, regional and local events in e.g.
CY, FR, HU, LT, PL and SK.

Additional Member States activities in relation to the Key Action 18:


DK: To coincide with the Copenhagen Climate Conference on 6.-18.12.2009, CIFOR, the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) and the Government of Denmark will host
Forest Day 3 on the 13th December in Copenhagen. It will build on the success of Forest Day 1 and 2 in helping to ensure forests are high on the agenda for a future climate
agreement, and will pave the way forward in making this agreement work beyond Copenhagen.
Regional activities:
- LU: exchange on communication strategy with BENELUX countries is ongoing
- LV: Latvia is actively involved in Baltic-21 process, and together with Sweden the leading party of the Baltic Agenda 21 Forest Sector (incl. e.g. Action plan for the Baltic 21
Forests Sector 2005-2008, www.baltic21.org)
Importance of information and communication in the NFP is mentioned in several Member States replies, e.g.:
- CZ: NFP suggests analysis on external/internal communication in the forest sector; support public education and communication, and; support new technologies (job
qualifications)
- FI: information and communication is key element in NFP 2015: 5.4 Social acceptability of the forest sector & 5.5 Forest-related knowledge and skills among children and
young people
- SK: One of the strategic objectives of the National Forest Programme is to strengthen cooperation, coordination and communication. The Action Plan for implementation of
the National Forest Programme includes measure that aim at raising public awareness in relation to importance of forest certification for society (the activity has a
permanent character, time frame: 2009-2013).
Stakeholder involvement:
Stakeholders have web-pages on forest related issues, visibility and other promotion campaigns, material packages e.g. wood promotion etc.
As part of the "Pan-European Forest Week 2008" European Economic and Social Committee organised a conference in Brussels on 23 October, and several other stakeholder
organisations arranged seminars etc. events.
Stakeholders participate also in the UNECE/FAO Forest Communicators Network which is open. In 2009 the contact database of the network contains more than 120 persons
over 30 countries representing both, government and private sector organisations.

Annex to the Report of


Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest
Action Plan
Service Contract No. 30-CE-0227729/00-59

Annex 2: Case study Exchange and assess experiences on the


valuation and marketing of non-wood forest goods and
services (Key Action 3)
In relation to the Evaluation Theme 1: Improving competitiveness and enhancing sustainable
forestry

List of contents
1. Background for the case study of the Key Action 3
2. Methods
3. Outputs of the KA3
4. Summary results
References

44
45
45
57
60

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44

Evaluation theme: Theme 1 - Improving competitiveness


and enhancing sustainable forestry
Case study subject: Exchange and assess experiences on the
valuation and marketing of non-wood forest goods and services
(Key Action 3)

1. Background for the case study of the Key Action 3


Forests fulfil numerous functions, which are not reflected in the prices of marketed wood and
non-wood goods. Non-wood forest goods and services (NWFGS) is an issue of importance in
all Member States (MS) but in different ways and possibly with different priorities, yet there
is a lack of information in terms of the importance of the NWFGS. During the preparation of
the EU Forest Action Plan1 specific attention was requested to be given to non-wood forest
goods and services. In order to implement the Key Action 3 of the EU Forest Action Plan
aiming to "Exchange and assess experiences on the valuation and marketing of non-wood
forest goods and services", ad hoc Working Group 1 (WG) on Valuation and compensation
methods for non-wood forest goods and services of the Standing Forestry Committee (SFC)
was set up in June 2007.
The following tasks were foreseen in the FAP under the Key Action 3:
a. to form an ad hoc working group of the Standing Forestry Committee (SFC) on
NWFGS (to be done by Commission; active participation by MS);
b. to promote studies and pilot projects on valuation, compensation and innovative
marketing of forest goods and services (by Member States), which may be supported
by the EAFRD, the LIFE+ instrument, the 6th and 7th Research Framework
Programmes and the Intelligent Energy-Europe Programme (IEE) within the
Innovation Framework Programme (CIP):
These tasks were included in the work programme for the implementation of the EU FAP in
the form of two activities (Table 1).
Table 1 Activities of KA3
KA3
Exchange and assess experiences on the valuation and marketing of non-wood forest
goods and services
Activity
Carry out studies and pilot projects on valuation, compensation and innovative marketing of
3.1
non-wood forest goods and services, including methodologies
Activity
Examining ongoing activities and lessons learned on compensation for and valuation of non3.2
wood forest goods and services, and identification of possible constraints

COM (2006) 302 final.

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45

2. Methods
The case study on the Key Action 3 (KA3) gathers material on the effective and efficient
implementation of these activities (EQ1) and on how far they have reached and influenced
the key policy-makers and stakeholders (EQ2). It contributes to the answer of the evaluation
theme 1. From the detailed analysis, conclusions may also be drawn to the evaluation themes
4 and 6.
The data rely on the combination of questionnaires, interviews and document analyses. It
partly relies on the questionnaire sent out during the course of the project and complements
this information by document analysis and interviews at EU and MS levels. The following
data collection activities include (Table 2):
- collection of material of SFC WG 1 activities
- interviews with SFC WG 1 members, and EU level stakeholders
- questions in the FAP evaluation questionnaire to the MS governments
- e-mail request for further information from the MS governments (SFC members) and
collection of related studies
- review of EU and national level projects and studies
- review of support instruments and project databases
Table 2 Tasks of the case study of the evaluation theme 1
The following tasks were performed:
- review the activities of the SFC ad-hoc WG 1 on NWFGS: review of terms of reference,
meeting minutes and collected material such as contributions of the participants to the WG
- review of related studies conducted at EU and national levels: review of EC study FORVALUE
and its uptake by DG AGRI, SFC and national governments and publication/dissemination
- review of EU support instruments in how far they were used for related studies: EAFRD, the
LIFE+ instrument, the 6th and 7th Research Framework Programmes and the Intelligent
Energy-Europe Programme IEE within the Innovation Framework Programme CIP (data
collection: search of project databases for relevant studies and calls)
- use of questionnaire survey to the national governments, the Commission and stakeholders to
assess in how far the activities have reached and influenced the key policy-makers (specific
questions in the questionnaire)
- enquire with other stakeholders to assess how far the activities have reached and influenced
stakeholders (interviews with stakeholders from forest sector and other relevant NGOs as well
as EU representatives)

3. Outputs of the KA3


The activities of the KA3 made use of some of the best-valued instruments, i.e. a study on the
non-market forest goods and services, creating an ad hoc WG, and taking into consideration
SFC opinions.
Activities at EC level
A large part of the work in the KA3 was fulfilled by the end of 2008. For the purpose of
examining ongoing activities (activity 3.2) an ad hoc working group was installed early 2007
and finished late 2008 with a report (ad hoc working group 1 of the SFC on "Valuation and

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46

compensation methods of non-wood forest goods and services"). On the basis of the ad hoc
WG 1 results, an opinion of the SFC was developed and finalised in early 2009.
Activity 3.1 Carry out studies and pilot projects on valuation, compensation and
innovative marketing of non-wood forest goods and services, including methodologies
One of the activities under KA3.1 (carrying out studies and pilot projects by the Commission
as well as the Member States) from the side of the Commission (DG AGRI) was the Study
on the Development and Marketing of Non-Market Forest Products and Services
(FORVALUE), which was successfully implemented in 20082. The study was well received
by the Commission (DG AGRI, DG ENT) and published on the web in early 2009. In
addition, other studies contributed to the topic, including the study by DG ENV on the
"Economic value of groundwater and biodiversity in European forests" which is to be
presented to SFC in 2009.
The ad hoc WG1 consisted of 18 participants (14 countries and 4 stakeholders
representatives). It served for exchange of experiences. The SFC WG1 had six meetings in
total: June 2007, November 2007, February 2008, April 2008, June 2008, and the two last
ones in July and October 20083. According to information provided by the Commission, 12
countries delivered presentations about the NWFGS and their situations in the respective
countries. In addition, other organizations, processes and forest-related groups such as
MCPFE, IUCN, DG AGRI, COST and EFIMED attending the meetings provided additional
information on the NWFGS.
The MCPFE representative briefed the WG about a conference on forest and water that was
organised by EFIMED, MCPFE, IUFRO and others in Barcelona, 30 - 31 October 2008.
MCPFE is also organising a summer school in Chania, Greece, which will be dedicated to
forests and water. Other additional projects on groundwater and forests was launched by DG
Environment and contracted by IUCN and CEPF in January 2008. An economic assessment
of ground water protection has already been carried out by a past study (Economic
Assessment of Groundwater Protection: A Survey of the Literature; Project
ENV.A1/2002/0019).
According to the COST Action E30 presentation provided by Ms. Tyrvinen, the most widely
used methods in the EU are the contingent valuation (CV) and travel cost (TC) methods,
while choice experiments (CE) and hedonic pricing (HP) find fewer application. Most studies
have been undertaken in central and northern Europe; calculations of forest recreation value
at countries level remain rare (exceptions e.g. Belgium, Germany, France, the UK). Overall,
trading of amenity values seems to have a high potential for further development and
practical use.
ERDF and INTERREG funded projects
An especially relevant funding source for the NWFGS-related studies and projects has been
the INTERREG programme. For example, in the programming period 2000-2006, the
Community Initiative Programme Interreg IIIC contributed to project INCENDI on forest

Study on the Development and Marketing of Non-Market Forest Products and Services (FORVALUE), DG AGRI, Study Contract No: 30CE-0162979/00-21.
3

Meeting minutes from the 6th and 7th meetings were not delivered to the contractor.

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fires with a budget amounting to some 7 million euro. The project completion was planned
for June 2008.
Another INTERREG-funded activity is ForeStClim that addresses forests and climate
change. The short name stands for Transnational Forestry Management Strategies in
Response to Regional Climate Change Impacts, and it brings together 21 partners with a
wide range of experts from the United Kingdom, Germany, France, the Netherlands and
Luxemburg. The main aim is to develop proactive and adaptive regional forestry
management and forest protection strategies in the face of the expected climate change
scenarios. Consequently, it will contribute to the economic and ecological stability of the
forests in North-West Europe (NWE). ForeStClim has a total budget of 11.6 million euro.
Out of this, 5.7 million euro are provided by the ERDF.
Robinwood is a three-year INTERREG IIIC Regional Framework Operation project, a first
for Wales and delivered by the Forestry Commission Wales on behalf of the Welsh Assembly
Government using both the EU and WAG funding. One of its main objectives is to develop
and compare appropriate systems of forestry development, help define regional forestry
policies, and to increase the socio-economic potential for the forestry sector and increase
general growth and competitiveness in the area by considering the forest not only as a source
of production but to identify all means which will assist in sustainable development of
forests. It is also closely associated with the FAP objectives.
The Baltic Sea Region (BSR) INTERREG IIIB Baltic Biomass Network works at a regional,
spatial planning level with local authorities, biomass producers and bioenergy investors in
drawing up optimal GIS based biomass production schemes for mobilising biomass resources
and planning sustainable bioenergy investment projects. Co-financed from the ERDF within
the framework of the BSR INTERREG III B programme the project network consists of 13
expert institutions and associated bio-energy stakeholders from Germany, Poland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Estonia, and Finland.
The INTERREG project "Advantage Hardwood tools for integrated regional and
business development" takes its departure in some problems and challenges shared by the
BSR countries such as the need for converting agriculture and forestry to fit the enlarged
European Union; the increasing need for joint environmental actions to achieve sustainable
development; the risk of decline in rural areas, etc.
The main objective of the INTERREG III project FOWARA - Problems in the realisation
of forested water retention areas: natural and social scientific studies in the Rhine
catchment is to develop and test strategies for a sustainable management of forested water
retention areas of regional and local significance under the assumption of an increasing
probability of flooding events.
The INTERREG IV funded project Multi Function Mountain Forest MF has an overall
objective to exchange experience along with the development of a network between
transnational regions in the Central Alpine area, which should lead to the development of a
common transnational strategy in a view of the mountain and protection forest policy and
related measures. The issue "mountain/protection forest" as essential foundation for a safe
living area should thus receive a higher significance in the EU, and strengthen the Mountain
Forest Protocol and the Alpine Convention.

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LIFE+ funded projects


LIFE+ has funded projects such as FutMon, which is a LIFE+ co-financed project for the
"Further Development and Implementation of an EU-level Forest Monitoring System", a
project for the creation of a pan-European long term forest monitoring system. The project
coordination centre is situated at the Institute of World Forestry, Hamburg, Germany. Other
LIFE+ funded projects have been e.g. CENTOLIMED (C.I.H.E.A.M. Mediterranean
Agronomic Institute of Bari), which focuses on the identification, designation and
conservation of the ancient olive groves of the Mediterranean region as high nature value
farmlands. The project also aims to develop guidelines for the agro-environmental
management of these ancient olive groves.
The project LIFE+ BOSCOS (Consell Insular de Menorca) aims at contributing to the
adaptation of the Mediterranean forest ecosystems of Menorca to climate change through
sustainable forest management at estate level. This will include development of a forest
inventory and a set of planning and management guidelines, both feeding into a management
plan. Forest management actions aimed to decrease forest vulnerability will be demonstrated
in a pilot area of about 200 ha. Capacity building among forest owners, forest managers and
other stakeholders related to forests, as well as public awareness raising are also foreseen.
However, even if there are numerous LIFE+ projects under the development, many of them
are concerned with the protection measures. Some of them might have some connection to
KA3 related activities such as LIFE05 ENV/GR/000245 - Environmental Friendly
Technologies for Rural Development, or Action plan for three threatened bat species in
Flanders. Also project Conservation of imperial eagle and saker falcon in key Natura 2000
sites in Bulgaria, Conservation and regeneration of Nardus Grasslands in Central Europe,
the re-introduction of allis shad (Alosa alosa) in the Rhine System and Habitat
optimisation in a local breeding population of Black-tailed Godwits in the NATURA 2000
site might be of importance to KA3.
Some other partially relevant LIFE+ funded projects were Restoration of habitats in the
Federsee bog (ReHa Federseemoor), 2007, Biodiversity conservation in western Iberia in
2007, Identification and conservation of the high nature value of ancient olive groves in the
Mediterranea and a project of Production d'un combustible de subsitution partir de
dchets mnagers et valorisation nergtique.
FP7 funded projects
Under FP7 project proposals have been calls for Developing new methods for valuing and
marketing currently non-marketable forest functions, goods and services which directly
relates to the FAP KA3 and the FTP SRA area 1.6 (proposals are currently under
negotiation).
The FP7 has issued a call of SOILSERVICE - Conflicting demands of land use, soil
biodiversity and the sustainable delivery of ecosystem goods and services in Europe that
contributes to biodiversity to ecosystem services. Project was started in 2008.
Another KA3-related call has been PALMS - Palm harvest impacts in tropical forests that
focuses on the use of natural resources, and the impact on biodiversity, ecosystem, goods and
services (The project was started in 2009).

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BACCARA - Biodiversity and climate change, a risk analysis looks for forecasting forest
diversity under the influence of climatic changes and the consequences for stability and
productivity of forest ecosystems (started in the beginning of 2009), whereas ANAEE Structuring infrastructures for the analysis and experimentation on ecosystem focuses in
design studies for research infrastructures in all S&T fields started in 2008.
CIP
No active NWFGS-related projects were found under the framework of CIP.
COST
Since 2007, five COST Actions with some relevance to KA3 (E30, E40, E45, E51, E53) were
ongoing which are 14% of the Domains Actions, but no new started. A proposal for a
strategic workshop on competitiveness and innovation was not approved; particularly the
search for new financing mechanisms is related to innovation. In the ongoing COST Actions,
there is some focus on NWFGS. It seems that generally there is no strong connection of the
FAP with COST. Currently, it seems that COST does not specifically support FAP theme 1
questions and the promotion of NWFGS because new Actions do not relate to these issues.

Activity 3.2 Examining ongoing activities and lessons learned on compensation for and
valuation of non-wood forest goods and services, and identification of possible
constraints
In November 2008, the SFC completed the final report on non-wood forest goods and
services with a set of recommendation and findings at national level. The recommendations
of the final report propose at EC level to concentrate on the following 4 focus areas:
- strategy and planning of the NWFGS, the SFC recommends developing a vision of
the desired provision; providing discussion and guidance in implementing valuation
methods and developing and supporting communication strategies for the FGS;
- using rural development programmes regarding the measures addressed to the
provisions of NWFGS, to take NWFGS into consideration when undertaking different
capacity building topics and explore the possibility to support the introduction of
innovative schemes in rural development programmes;
- information needs and awareness raising to incorporate monitoring of the provision
and financing related to non-wood forest goods and services and promote
understanding and awareness of successful valuation and payment schemes at
different levels (national, international, intra-sectoral);
- research should enhance the accuracy of monetary estimates, further explore the
wider influence of NWFGS on regional economies and focus on efficiency of
different financing mechanisms.
The recommendations of the final report propose at MS and regional level the following 3
focus areas:
- strategy and planning work on a better integration of forest related goods and
services in spatial and land use planning and development at different levels, to foster
stakeholder involvement and dialogue by establishing inter-sectoral negotiation
bodies to promote communication and the coordination and coherence of related

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policies and plans, in consulting forest users, including forest-based industry, in the
development of NWFGS strategies and mechanisms to enhance the marketing of
hitherto non-market benefits;
payment schemes for policies preferably on market basis, support new and
innovative mechanisms like contractual instruments; reviewing existing mechanisms
and payment schemes to ensure that forest service providers are benefiting from
application and guidance in implementing in order to facilitate the broader use of
successful payment schemes;
market development to support innovation, product development and
entrepreneurship connected to NWFGS and explore options for forest owners to
benefit from such added value; further apply public payment schemes where the
public nature of NWFGS is likely to continue restricting marketability in the future
and promote pilot initiatives to function in order to foster broader application of
successful efforts in the marketing of non-wood forest goods and services.

Activities of the Member States


Activity 3.1 Carry out studies and pilot projects on valuation, compensation and
innovative marketing of non-wood forest goods and services, including methodologies
Based on the replies provided in the FAP questionnaire that was sent to Member States by the
contractor, 14 countries report carrying out the activities in the FAP activity 3.1, and 4
countries are planning to undertake them. In addition, during the ad hoc WG1 meetings, the
following 12 countries delivered presentations about the situation of the NWFGS in their
respective countries: Finland, France, Cyprus, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia,
Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, and UK. In the following, the summarised
information from the FAP questionnaire, WG1 of SFC meeting minutes and FORVALUE
study is presented.
AUSTRIA has completed a study Potenzialabschtzung von Nichtholzprodukten und
forstlichen Dienstleistungen in sterreich. The EAFRD pilot project Initiative on
protective function of forests according to the questionnaire answers provides the basis
for political decisions.
Only three publications are available in CYPRUS, which reports in the questionnaire on
private studies of Plan to improve the valuation of forest goods and services in Cyprus
Study and Valuing an urban forest, which is a pilot study for Athalassa National Forest
Park in Cyprus. A national study has been Valuing Mediterranean Forests-Towards Total
Economic Value. Studies on valuation of NWFGS are planned to be conducted during the
next revision (2010) of the national forest programme.
DENMARK indicates in the questionnaire a Copenhagen University project "Valuation and
compensation methods for non-wood forest goods and services", 2006-08, which is a pilot
project and nationally funded.
In its WG1 presentation, Denmark tells about other projects such as Choice Experiment in
2004-2005 in which people were asked for their willingness to pay (WTP) for water services.
Several studies related to WTP on protection of endangered species (but they usually address
more than forests).

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The Danish private forest sector receives approximately 10-15 /ha in subsidies and support
for specific management changes aimed at environmental services and habitat protection,
including changing species to native ones, setting aside forest as nature reserve, habitat
protection, the use of environment friendly silvicultural techniques, etc. Several of these
instruments are related to the EU policies.
Especially public money plays a major role in compensation for preservation of habitat and
biodiversity in Denmark, either through public-to-private payments or public-to-public. But
also private-to-private payments (capital funds as owners and managers of nature areas) and
private-to-public transfers (fees and licenses, specific taxes) exist. Denmark also emphasises
the need for sound calculation of willingness to pay (WTP). For example, different values
may be achieved if asking for a single specie present or in the context of a larger scope.
Referring to that, the reliability of WTP results may be questioned by decision makers. In the
case of recreation use values, no other methodology, for example multi criteria assessment is
necessary, but for biodiversity valuation the value criteria as such already appears to be
critical. The creation of private-to-private mechanisms and markets works directly through
person to person contacts (for example in hunting) and in different ways (for horseback
riders, stickers to prove payment may be required, in the case of mountain bikers, tour
organisers may pay to the landowner). In Denmark, owners also apply for environmental
payments, but there are indications that not all will be eligible for funding.
ESTONIAs biodiversity protection subsidies used to compensate private forest owners
(based on Natura 2000). Other Estonias activities include Restoration and repair of cultural
heritage objects (EAFRD funded) and publicly funded development of recreational sites in
the forests (eco-sponsoring).
According to FORVALUE results, public-private
contracts/partnerships are still a relatively new instrument in Estonia. The Estonian Forest
Act defines valuable forest habitats and the voluntary protection mechanism for commercial
forests in private ownership. Under this financing mechanism voluntary commitments by
private owners are made for the enhancement of biodiversity protection. Estonias key
policymakers were reached and policy-decisions were influenced on this particular case as
mechanism is incorporated into legislation.
FINLAND in the FAP questionnaire, reports on the research programme of the Finnish NFP
2015 "Welfare effects of forests" (2008-12) by FFRI and forest biodiversity programme for
Southern Finland METSO 2008-2016. Other activities that Finland reports under KA3.1 are
Natura-based recreation monitoring and assessment and Integrating ecological and social
information in urban planning, Developing services for efficient utilization of forest,
Resources for the welfare of forest owners and society, and Environmental and recreation
services of forests: economic impacts, valuation, and business opportunities.
In their presentation during the WG1 meeting, Finland tells about national studies on
Sustainable multiple use of forests in northern Lapland, and the Meaning of tourism and
recreation in rural development and landscape. Finnish Central Union of Agricultural
Producers and Forest Owners (MTK) of trade has developed a new compensation method in
recreational values for particularly valuable areas, for example particularly beautiful
landscapes. The Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) is now looking closer into the
economic impacts of recreational services and specifically focusing on market creation
through the introduction of trading mechanisms. Positive results were also obtained from the
biodiversity programme METSO.

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Two Finnish projects were found within the LIFE+ framework: LIFE to Koli - Restoration
of the forests and meadows in the nature park and LIFE07 ENV/B/000037/Promotion of
public awareness and protection of aapa mires in Lapland, 2005.
FRANCE reports completing national studies on the Inventory and analysis of payment
mechanisms for forest benefits for the water sector in France and in Europe and Guidelines
for good practises in implementing economic valuation methods or economic calculation
when valuating non-wood forest goods or services. France is a member of EVRY database
(Environment Valuation Reference Inventory) and has contributed to the European program
COST E45 (European forest externalities EUROFEX). However, according to the
questionnaire replies, the works undertaken are primarily of technical nature and have no
influence on political decisions even if they contribute to improving the evaluation of
services and to the dissemination of evaluation methods towards managers.
France presented in the WG1 meeting Econometric stu
by
. France already
has in place compensation mechanisms for the for non-market services. They are public
subsidies (forest management against erosion), incentive fiscal measures (Natura 2000) or
contractual measures (Natura 2000). It supports the production of non-market services by the
internalization of a part of collective goods produced by forests, to the benefit of forest
producers. A project of law "Grenelle I" currently worked on is planning the recognizing and
valorisation of non-wood forest services. With the establishment of CDC Biodiversit, a
private branch of the Caisse des Dpots Bank (an investment vehicle of the French
government to support private strategic sectors, activities and companies), a possible new
compensation mechanism has been introduced in France. On the basis of an environmental
impact study, CDC biodiversit can provide, sell or contract a required compensation for
losses caused by administrative requirements. The system may be applied to every
environmental service, including water. Frances national study on managements, water
quality, and land use provided positive results on the influence of forest on water quality. In
addition, the result supported on water price and replacement of forest by agriculture entails
more nitrates, or more pesticides, when corn a significant part in agriculture.
France has LIFE+ project forest and water 2003-2007 Role of forest in the Water
Framework Directive (WFD) that includes 3 associated countries: Sweden, UK and France.
France has also a joint project INRA Nancy-FPF of Synthesis on forest and water payment
schemes 2007-2009.
According to FORVALUE , GERMANY has formed a Round Table in NFP, and has
distributed advisory leaflet for landowners. Other activities done within KA3 are exchange of
experiences among forest owners in the framework of the national campaign on strengthening
competitiveness of forest groupings. Another German project is called Forest & Landscape
Life.
HUNGARY is, within the frame of the rationalisation of the structure of the state owned
forest companies, planning a special national study on valuation of non-wood forest products
and services, which is foreseen in 2009-2010. Some studies Hungary has presented during
SFC meetings have been TERMERD project: Assessing forest naturalness in Hungary
(2001-2005). Hungary emphasises state support to the forest sector still lay on afforestation,
changing forest structures and forest development. But also grants for forest railways play a

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prominent role. Growing passenger numbers underline the potential of such forest railroads
also for tourism but some coordination problems exist between the national and local
strategies.
IRELAND reports on national Woodspec manual study, website and advisory service to
promote the use of wood products. In addition, Ireland has launched the COFORD R&D
programme on NWFP. Irelands Departmental high level Group on Forestry Strategy has
been appointed to review the current policy strategy and identify clear options for decision
makers. That ongoing evaluation also includes non-wood benefits. The report is expected to
be presented in the coming months. The non-wood benefits covered by the review are
leisure/recreation, biodiversity as well as carbon sequestration. Other non-wood benefits like
landscape or water quality are not included so far.
Biodiversity values were derived from cost benefit analysis (CBA) carried out for the high
level review group as well as from existing studies. According to the CBA results each
afforested hectare accounts for a 80 value in biodiversity, and annually a benefit of 8 per
hectare can be added. Carbon sequestration is calculated at 17.7 per ton of CO2
sequestered.
Compensation mechanisms in use are the "NeighbourWood Scheme", which aims to support
local authorities in the establishment and improvement of forest amenities for recreation and
access, the "Native Woodland Scheme" that grants support to establish, develop or restore
native woodlands (grant and premium for establishment or conservation). The "Forest
Environment Protection Scheme" (FEPS) grants financial support for activities and benefits
beyond mandatory requirements already covered by the "Afforestation Scheme". Co-financed
by the Rural Development Fund this may incorporate measures like retained habitats or
planting berry bearing species. According to presentation provided in the WG1 meeting, this
scheme is widely accepted and used by forest owners.
In Ireland especially, population growth and access to land are important factors for land
valuation. Afforested areas are not open to the public and there is no obligation of the forest
owner to provide such an access. The issue is complex and connected to the general question
of access to the countryside. The willingness to pay is highly connected with that an access
framework and mixed practices exist in Ireland. Generally, forest owners defend their
individual access rights. It was clarified that hedgerows form a fundamental element of the
rural development protection scheme in Ireland, based on the principle of respect of the
existing stock and willingness to expand it where possible.
According to the FAP questionnaire replies, the pilot projects and studies reached the central
government level leading to the establishment of new and modifications to existing schemes
of NWFGS and/or their valuation.
ITALY reports on several pilot projects and initiatives on the use of non-timber forest
products, and a seminar was organised by the University of Padova in March 2009 (study
with EAFRD). However, Italy reports the impact of the NWFGS has not been so far very
significant even if the significance is slowly growing, especially in the case where there is a
clear and relevant economic profitability.

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LITHUANIA has prepared studies on evaluation of economical and social forest functions
and a project about rules for preparation and use of secondary forest goods and valuation
methodology.
LATVIA has completed studies on evaluation of economical and social forest functions.
Latvia also has launched a project for preparation and use of secondary forest goods and
valuation methodology. Projects concerning NWFGS in Latvia are such as nature trails in
connection with the Gauja National Park, and leasing of hunting.
In the WG1 presentation, Latvia tells that Natura 2000 payments are only provided for
private owners. Payments for game and hunting rights lease go to all landowners and are
quite high. In case the government may be ready to allocate additional money for
environmental services, new financing sources like for instance taxes may be created to
collect the necessary funds. However, this seems hard to achieve as national compensation
schemes are operational only since 2006, with 25% of funds from national, 75% from EU
sources. In Latvia an obligation exists to conduct a forest inventory every 10 years. This
might be changed in the future towards compulsory forest management plans. At the moment
such plans may be set up voluntarily. Management plans exist for protected areas that may
not even allow thinnings.
Latvia reports on the use of the EAFRD measures under the Rural Development Programme
for Latvia 2007-2013, and of Natura 2000 payments for forest owners. In addition, Latvia has
new initiatives on the establishment of enclosed areas for game observations or hunting, and
private installation of nature parks includes special offers like horseback riding and trails. The
local government initiatives includes the establishment of nature paths in protected areas with
additional offers like excursions, and nature education efforts by mother nature an
institution using multiple channels to inform people about nature.
POLAND reports about a study financed by the State Forest Organisation (the funding is
national).
THE NETHERLANDS is preparing to value the effects of land use scenarios in economic
terms by increasing experience by applying nature-inclusive Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) in
policy making on land use scenarios. Thus far, assessment of benefits and costs for
stakeholders associated with forest / nature has been studied. Next step would be the use
assessment of benefits to include stakeholders into financing nature development projects in
order to reduce free-riding on public financed nature.
The Netherlands overall spending for nature is dominated by public financing, which is also
the case for the two main nature conservation organisations. These nature conservation
organizations own around 47% of the non-governmental forests. They obtain revenues from
forestry activities, contributions, donations and the National Lottery. Membership of these
organisations has significantly increased the last decades and therewith public involvement in
forest management issues has also gained in importance. Potential areas for application of
CBA results have already been identified in the Netherlands such as payments for visiting
natural sites of interest (entrance fee, membership to nature conservation organizations and
therewith access to managed area), environmental improvements compensating for land
development elsewhere, or usage of added value of real estates due to environmental
favourable conditions to finance environmental projects. Other possibilities are clean water
fees provided by drinking water supply companies. According to presentation information,

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hedonic pricing results may be used to argue with the higher value in order to motivate house
constructors to financially support environmental improvements, for example the
establishment of a nature protection area. However this is only realized on a small scale so
far.
SLOVAKIAs national studies on the NWFGS are Research, classification and
implementation of forest functions, Valuation of outdoor recreation in forests, Valuation
of non-wood forest functions: forest berries and mushrooms. Other pilot projects are
Research of efficient use of environmental, economic and social potential of forests in
Slovakia (2008-2011) and European Forest Externalities (EUROFOREX, COST Action
E45).
SLOVENIA has completed different pilot projects and studies modelling future value of
forest stands (seed production), and of truffle production. In addition, Slovenia reports on
burn wood solutions and biomass trade centres.
The Constitution of the Slovak Republic also obliges the State to compensate land owners for
economic losses (income forgone, additional costs) due to management restrictions in public
interest. The available financial resources are not sufficient to allow the compensation in all
cases though. Land tax payment exemptions are granted for protection and special purpose
forests. The usage of market driven innovative mechanisms (contracts for nature protection,
personal services and leisure facilities etc.) is limited due to the general legal framework (free
access to forest land, obligation of forest owners for forest environment protection etc.).
Overall the compensation is not fully functional yet. The reason for not using the apparent
possibilities in application of alternative compensation mechanisms is caused by the
orientation of forest owners mainly towards wood production which means no realization of
the non-wood forest products potential.
Slovakias subsidies have relied mostly on the National Rural Development Programme
2007-2013, Natura 2000 payments on forestland, and forest-environment payments. The
funding has been national and publicly funded.
SPAIN reports on the project MEDFOREX that is a national study on the NWFGS, and
another national study of Forest incomes modelisation.
SWEDEN reports on the studies Forest and human health, Outdoor recreation in change
and Identification of forests with high social values.
In the WG1 presentation, Sweden tells on the study of the Swedish National Institute of
Economic Research (NIER) to elaborate an overview of monetary valuation methods of
biodiversity, its application by outlining strengths, weaknesses and suitability as well as the
motivation for implementation. The project worked through two expert panels (a researcher
panel and a stakeholder panel) supported by short discussion papers on opportunities and
constraints of monetary valuation of biodiversity. Results were delivered to the Swedish
Government by the end of 2007.
Seven experience values of forests, which determine the stewardship and the forest
management type, have been identified:
1. Solitude and story (for example old forests with a mystique aura)
2. A sense of a forest (forest harmonies)

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3. Space and view (wide views of the surrounding)


4. Biodiversity and learning (nature studies and teaching, schools in the forest)
5. Cultural history (civilisation tracks)
6. Activity and challenge (sports, outdoor activities)
7. Service and sharing (infrastructure, facilities)
Monetary valuation in Sweden is mainly motivated by demonstrating the value of
biodiversity, improve cost-benefit analysis and setting priorities within a fixed budget.
Methodological choice partly depends on the valuation purpose, threshold values are hard to
obtain though. Overall valuation studies need to be repeated. The valuation of ecosystem
services is the key in order to value biodiversity. Standard values should be produced to
include biodiversity in cost benefit analysis. Even if ecosystem services appear to be even
more complicated to valuate, according to the study results this is the only basis to create a
value for the service demanded. How well WTP calculations mirror the reality depends on
the specific good and service. Additional measurements (for example spending for bird food)
may help to validate WTP amounts.
The UK has completed national studies on Payments for Ecosystems Services Findings and
Perceptions from the USA, A valuation of the economic and social contribution of Forestry
for People in Scotland and Payments for ecosystem services: carbon valuation and risk
management.
In the UK, the economic values of forests may be subdivided into use (timber as a direct
value, recreation as an indirect value), and non-use values (which includes social and
environmental values like for instance existence biodiversity). No comprehensive valuation
had previously been undertaken for such social and environmental benefits (SEB), but
research has now been carried out to estimate the total values of several SEBs at regional,
country and the UK level. Included are inter alia biodiversity, landscape, recreation and
carbon sequestration. To support the research efforts, a steering group consisting of different
institutions (including the UK Forestry Commission, DEFRA and the Scottish Executive)
was set up. Methods applied include revealed or expressed preferences, qualitative data and
participatory approaches as well as secondary data. The actions in England, Wales, and
Scotland underline the importance of this area for the identification of opportunities for the
sector in the future.
Recently several studies were dealing with issues related to tourism, forest and forestry, by
looking inter alia on public perceptions of forest tourism, on recreational potential of forests
or on public needs and market demands from forest land. By using the Contingent Valuation
Method and Travel Cost Method, different recreational values have been calculated,
amounting for 4 per forest visit or around 530 million per year on national level.
Results from the UK studies are used as an input to support policy and forest management
decisions and to inform discussions on mechanisms like regulation and incentives e.g.
payments for ecosystem services (PES). Experiences with such payments exist in the US
(water, biodiversity, carbon, deforestation). The potential in the UK has still to be
substantiated, especially with respect to costs and effectiveness, property rights and multiple
ecosystem services. Therefore next steps will be to look closer into the design of
mechanisms.

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4. Summary results
Implementation at EU Level
The KA3 activities foreseen in the work programme were carried out. The Working Group
collected information through presentations prepared by the WG members and stakeholder
group. These presentations covered overviews of individual country experiences, specific
national and international projects, COST actions and briefings on support measures provided
by the Rural Development Programmes (RDP) and the State Aid rules.
Under the activity 3.1, a study on the Development and Marketing of Non-Market Forest
Products and Services provided a holistic view on the situation of NWFGS in the EU, which
was further amplified by the final report of the WG1. In addition to more traditional forest
goods and services (such as honey, timber, berries), topics related to recreation, biodiversity
and carbon sequestration are strongly represented in the Member States information. It
appears that especially issue of water is gaining a lot of attention: many of the given
presentations concentrated on the aspect of forest and water.
A majority of the different funding programmes concentrated on the biodiversity and nature
conservation (LIFE+, FP7) or biomass aspects. However, a few EU level studies/projects
exist on the NWFGS.
Under the activity 3.2, existing information on the valuation studies of NWFGS was collected
and analysed. There is a lot of existing information, but it appears that information mainly
concentrates on single services, habitats or species, and certain types of valuation types, those
being contingent valuation (CV) and travel cost (TC) methods. The WG1 acknowledges the
importance of these goods and services and their growing significance, and recognises the
need to further increase and diversify the available information on valuation and
compensation of the NWFGS. The WG1 also recognises the need to increase available
funding to support the development of different valuation schemes for the NWFGS at both
EC and national level.
Implementation in Member States
In sum, Activity 3.1 of collecting and carrying out studies and projects on valuation,
compensation and innovative marketing of non-wood forest goods and services, including
methodologies in was done to a different extent in different Member States.
Information the Member States provided in the FAP questionnaire was often scarce, and the
studies they reported relied in most cases to national and, to lesser degree, private funding.
Additional information obtained from the ad hoc WG1 meeting minutes and FORVALUE
results revealed Natura 2000 and EAFRD to be the most frequently used EU funds. In
addition, LIFE+, and Rural Development Funds were reported to be used in relation to FAP
KA3 objectives.
There is a huge difference between available information in the Member States: while some
countries inform about a great amount of relevant KA3 activities (studies and projects), some
countries provide none (CZ, BG, GR, RO or MT, BE, PT). The importance of the NWFGS or

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their innovative financing mechanisms is not always very clear, as is the case e.g. in Italy or
Estonia.
Exchange of experiences (Activity 3.2) especially took place in the ad hoc WG1 including a
limited number of countries and less in the SFC as a whole.
Have the activities been carried out effectively and efficiently?
The activities have been carried out according to the FAP and its multiannual work plan at
the EU level. One stakeholder referred to FORVALUE project as an important outcome of
the SFC activities during an interview. However, no other stakeholder related back to EC
activities with regards to KA3 of the EU FAP.
A number of countries report on recent, ongoing or planned studies. With this regard it
appears that there is a lot of interest invested in the question of NWFGS. In many cases, the
studies mostly refer to the forest functions and their valuation, sometimes also to their
compensation possibilities. In sum, there is not so much awareness of the questions of
marketing and new financing mechanisms.
One of the goals in the formation of the ad hoc Working Group 1 was the active participation
by the MS and exchange of experiences. Members were actively sharing information not only
on the NWFGS but also on their different valuation methods and on their financing
possibilities. The meetings have been arranged more or less regularly twice a year and been
attended by the MS representatives and various stakeholders and other experts. However, not
all countries distributed information on NWFGS within the ad hoc Working Group 1
meetings. The Commission has carried out studies and pilot projects on valuation,
compensation and innovative marketing on NWFGS, including methodologies.
The financing of the NWFGS appears to rely very much on the EU and public (national)
funding. To some degree, MS report on the private funding options. Most of the
compensations are to be found within existing programmes such as Rural Development and
Natura 2000 programmes. Search through different funding programmes did not provide very
much information; the most relevant programme when it comes to NWFGS is the
INTERREG. LIFE+ is more concerned with biodiversity and protective measures. One call
specifically related to NWFGS was issued under FP7. Other calls exist within FP7, albeit
they are not explicitly related to the valuation and compensation of NWFGS.
Both Activities 3.1 and 3.2 are seen as completed at EC level, and partially at MS level, too.
The scarce information provided by some MS in the FAP questionnaire may indicate the lack
of interest or possibilities to perform studies or projects.
Have the results reached and influenced key policy makers and stakeholders?
Relevant EU actors, MS representatives and stakeholders were engaged in the SFC, the SFC
ad-hoc WG1 meetings and activities and the study report. Results gained from the meetings
and studies were further reported to the AGFC. In addition, results are presented at various
seminars and will be published in journals by the study authors.
However, in the FAP questionnaire countries/stakeholders report nothing or explicitly say
that they have not received results of KA3. Only a smaller number of respondents report that

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policy-makers are aware of the results and then they mostly refer to national studies and
other national level activities. According to the MS replies, the results on the national studies
on NWFGS and their valuation methods have had a small or no impact on policy makers.
As being the case for all WGs and studies, also the KA 3 ad-hoc WG 1 and the study report
on the valuation and marketing of non-market forest goods and services (FORVALUE) are
seen as being particular successful by the DG representatives and other actors/stakeholders.
The study has been evaluated with a high score and the WG resulted in a common report and
was the basis for an SFC opinion on the issue. However, other stakeholders do not refer to the
KA3, nor do the MS representatives, which might indicate poor communication between the
Commission and the other actors, or their limited interest.
Recommendations
Funding of studies and projects
It seems that the national NWFGS projects and studies rely pretty much on the national
sources. Many of the different EU-funded projects concentrate on the protective measures,
biodiversity, and Natura 2000 sites. The Commission recommendation on the use of Rural
Development Programmes as a mean of promoting NWFGS could be more emphasised and
explored. In addition, other innovative funding/financing schemes could be supported and
encouraged at MS level, e.g. by taking into consideration local forest owners, stakeholders
and end-users and possibly consult with them (as was done in Finnish METSO-programme).
Communication and coordination
Information flows within the SFC are efficiently performed, however, there is the problem of
distributing the information to wider social groups, actors and stakeholders. Some of the
stakeholders are of the opinion that the SFC activities are not communicated to external
parties well enough. The communication could be improved and strengthened by, e.g. web
pages, distributing leaflets and reports of the SFCs findings. The communication and
coordination could be improved by requesting the MS reports on related dissemination
activities, and also reporting frequently on the projects and policies that relate to NWFGS.
It would be beneficial for the MSs to arrange seminars with a broad participation of
stakeholders, thus distributing and disseminating information about the NWFGS. The
Member States might try to collect more cases/relevant information on the non-wood forest
goods and services in order to facilitate the information flow at European level. The relevant
information is concentrated to certain countries, which dominate the studies on the NWFGS,
and also their valuations. However, best practises vary between countries, and more
information should be collected in order to be able to produce a comprehensive database at
EU level and, also, to be able to implement relevant and efficient policies at MS level in
order to promote the NWFGS. MS should also consider publications in technical journals
with a wide audience in order to support the promotion of NWFGS, their valuation and
financial mechanisms.
Increasing publicity and cross-sectoral activities
Organising specific events, publications or other follow-up activities at EC and MS levels
would increase the publicity and the awareness of the NWFGS, their funding mechanisms,

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and valuations. National RDPs could specifically refer to the study report, WG report or the
SFC opinion, and the EU policies could use the study as a reference, e.g. policies on
sustainable use of biomass, renewable energy, etc. in order to disseminate the information to
other sectors. CAP discussion on public goods could refer to the study, especially on how to
conceptualize public goods in agriculture. In addition, many interesting ideas and
mechanisms in the study could be of importance to other processes (e.g. climate change,
water protection, public procurement, rural development policy, public funding, etc.).
However, synergies are not yet fully realised/thought. It would be beneficial to consider also
this aspect, and indulge more closely in cross-sectoral/co-operation activities such as
arranging joint workshops and conferences with other DGs, stakeholders, organisations and
bodies.

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- Bucki M.,(ENV/B1), Study on the Economic value of groundwater and biodiversity in
European forests, 2008
- Fjellstad, K.B., MCPFE activities within the field of non-wood forest goods and
services 27 June 2008
- Gmez-Zamalloa M. G., Link between EU Industrial Policy and WG on valuation and
compensation methods of non-wood forest goods and services
- Greguka, Boris on Experiences on valuation and compensation mechanisms of nonwood forest goods and services applied in the Slovak Republic, 3rd meeting of the
SFC ad hoc Working Group on valuation and compensation methods of non-wood
forest goods and services Brussels, 15 February 2008
- Heikkil K., DG AGRI, Forestry rules in the Community Guidelines for State aid in
the agriculture and forestry sector, Presentation in DG AGRI on 15.22008
- Jellesmark Thorsen B.,Valuation and Compensation Methods of Non-wood forest
goods and services Danish Experiences , 15. February 2008, DG Agriculture and rural
development, European Commission, Bruxelles

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63

- Pusks, L., Valuation and compensation methods of nonwood forest goods and
services in Hungary, Experiences on valuation and compensation mechanisms
- Silamikele I., Non wood forest goods, tradition of use, possible markets and
evaluation of experiences in Latvia, 22 April, 2008
- Sjstrm M, Monetary valuation of biodiversity. Methods and experiences.
Environmental Economics Unit National Institute of Economic Research
- Snowdon, Pat Valuing forestry in the UK in the 4th meeting - ad hoc working group
of the Standing Forestry Committee "Valuation and compensation methods of nonwood forest goods and services" 22 April 2008,
- Szedlak, T., Forestry measures in Rural Development Programmes for the period
2007-2013, Preliminary overview, Brussels, 19 September 2008
- Tyrvinen, L., COST E33, Forest Recreation and Nature Tourism results
- Experiences on valuation and compensation mechanisms applied in France, The case
of Forest and water, 2008
- Study on the development and marketing of non-marketed forest products and
services, 2008
- SFC ad hoc working group on valuation and compensation methods of non-wood
forest goods and services DG AGRI F.6 Bioenergy, biomass, forestry and climate
change, 27.6.2008
- SFC ad hoc working group on valuation and compensation methods of non-wood
forest goods and services, DG AGRI F.6 Bioenergy, biomass, forestry and climate
change, 19.9.2008

Webpages:
http://www.forestclim.eu/
http://www.robin-wood.eu/whatis.php
http://www.ocrincendi.eu/
http://balticbiomass.com/content/index.cfm
http://www.advantagehardwood.org/default.asp?mainmenu=1
http://www.fowara.org/
http://www.network-mountain-forest.org/
http://futmon.org/
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/funding/lifeplus.htm
http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/projects/stories/index_en.cfm
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/projects_en.html
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf
http://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-un-en.pdf
http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/text.shtml#I
http://www.unccd.int/convention/text/pdf/conv-eng.pdf

Annex to the Report of


Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest
Action Plan
Service Contract No. 30-CE-0227729/00-59

Annex 3: Case study FAP and SFC role towards EU compliance


with the obligations on climate change mitigation of the
UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol
In relation to the Evaluation Theme 2: Improving and protecting the environment

List of contents
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion and conclusions

65
67
67
69

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65

FAP and SFC role towards EU compliance with the


obligations on climate change mitigation of the UNFCCC
and its Kyoto Protocol
Introduction
As a party of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC
1992), the European Community has committed to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations
at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
The Convention requires annual inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and
removals from industrialized countries. The first addition to the treaty, the Kyoto Protocol,
was adopted in 1997 and both the EU (as the European Community) and its member states
are Parties to it. The Kyoto protocol sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and
the European Community (EU-15) for reducing GHG emission. These amount to an average
of five per cent against the 1990 level over the five-year period 2008-2012, referred to as the
first commitment period.
The 15 EU Member States took on an 8% reduction commitment both individually and
together (as the Community), but have the right to redistribute their targets among
themselves, taking advantage of a scheme under the Protocol that is informally known as a
bubble. Ten of the countries that acceded to the EU after the target of the EU-15 bubble
was set are responsible for their individual commitments. Cyprus and Malta stand apart in the
EU family as they are not Annex B Parties and have consequently no binding targets.
Countries with commitments under the Kyoto Protocol to limit or reduce GHG emissions
should meet their targets primarily through national measures.
As an additional means of meeting these targets, the Kyoto Protocol introduced three marketbased mechanisms, thereby creating what is now known as the carbon market. These Kyoto
mechanisms are Emission Trading, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint
Implementation (JI). Furthermore, Parties can include land use, land-use change and forestry
(LULUCF) activities as part of their efforts to implement the Kyoto Protocol and to
contribute to the mitigation of climate change. Under Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol,
Parties decided that net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by
sinks through direct human-induced LULUCF activities, limited to afforestation,
reforestation and deforestation that occurred since 1990, must be counted towards reduction
commitments. Under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol, Parties may elect additional
LULUCF activities, specifically, forest management, cropland management grazing land
management and revegetation, to be included in their accounting of greenhouse gas emissions
and removals for the first commitment period (Table 1).

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66

Table 1. Election of activities and accounting period under Article 3.4 and election of accounting period under
Article 3.3, for the 25 EU Member States that are Parties to the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol.

Party
Austria

Article 3.3
accounting
period (a)
CP

Article 3.4 AFOLU activities and accounting period


Forest
Cropland
Grazing land
Revegetation
Management management
management
NA
NA
NA
NA

Belgium

CP

NA

NA

NA

NA

Bulgaria

CP

NA

NA

NA

NA

Czech Republic

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

Denmark

NA

Estonia

CP

NA

NA

NA

NA

Finland

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

France

NA

NA

NA

Germany

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

Greece

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

Hungary

NA

NA

NA

Ireland

CP

NA

NA

NA

NA

Italy

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

Latvia

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

Lithuania

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

Luxembourg

CP

NA

NA

NA

NA

Netherlands

CP

NA

NA

NA

NA

Poland

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

Portugal

CP

CP

CP

CP

NA

Romania

CP

CP

NA

NA

CP

Slovakia

CP

NA

NA

NA

NA

Slovenia

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

Spain

CP

CP

CP

NA

NA

Sweden

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

United Kingdom of
Great Britain and
Northern Ireland

CP

CP

NA

NA

NA

Abbreviations: A = annual, CP = entire commitment period, NA = no accounting.


Note: The European Community does not have specific values for these parameters because the activities elected under Article 3, paragraphs
3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol and the accounting periods for those activities are different for each member State.
a Accounting for land use, land-use change and forestry activities under Article 3, paragraph 3, of the Kyoto Protocol
(afforestation and reforestation, and deforestation) is mandatory.

The changes in carbon stock and greenhouse gas emissions relating to LULUCF activities
under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4 must be reported for each year of the commitment period,
beginning with the start of the commitment period, or with the start of the activity, whichever
is later.
Currently, negotiations for the post-2012 period are ongoing, and the global agreement for
post-2012 action is expected to be achieved at the 15th Conference of the Parties of the

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67

UNFCCC, in Copenhagen December 2009. There are great expectations to the Copenhagen
Climate Change Conference. The latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC 2007) has shown that global warming is very likely to reach dangerous levels
this century unless fast-increasing global emissions are cut sharply and rapidly. EU is
determined that the agreement must be guided by the latest scientific knowledge. This means
it must aim to limit global warming to an average of no more than 2C above the preindustrial temperature because there is strong scientific evidence that irreversible and
disastrous changes in the environment will become far more likely beyond this point.
Keeping within 2C will require a reduction in global emissions of at least 50% compared
with 1990 levels by 2050. On December 2008 the European Parliament and Council reached
an agreement on the EU Climate and Energy package that will help transform Europe into a
low-carbon economy and increase its energy security (COM(2008) 30 final). On the basis of
the package, the EU is committed to reduce its overall emissions to at least 20% below 1990
levels by 2020, and is ready to scale up this reduction to as much as 30% under a new global
climate change agreement when other developed countries make comparable efforts. It has
also set itself the target of increasing the share of renewables in energy use to 20% by 2020
(COM(2008) 30 final).
Consequently, climate change is a crucial issue on the environmental political agenda. The
EU has taken the leadership in the process and hence the non-compliance with the obligations
on climate change mitigation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol would be a loss of face.
Furthermore, the issue of climate change adaptation is critical for the sustainability as well as
the competitiveness of the forest sector in the EU. In this case study, which is part of a midterm evaluation of EU Forest Action Plan, the aim is to find out what is done under EU FAP
to reach the compliance with the obligations on climate change mitigation of the UNFCCC
and its Kyoto Protocol. This case study will help answering if and how the EU Forest Action
Plan (EU FAP) Key Action (KA) 6 has been or is being implemented effectively and
efficiently.

Methods
This case study assesses the implementation of FAP activities relating to its Key Action 6.
The assessment is based on a comparison of targets set in the EU Forest Action Plan and the
implementation based on the mid-term evaluation questionnaires and interviews with MS,
COM services and stakeholders. Particularly the questionnaires to COM services and MS
contained a set of questions in support of this case study. Furthermore, the work programmes
and minutes of Standing Forestry Committee (SFC), the Advisory Group on Forestry and
Cork (AGFC) and the Inter-Service Group on Forestry (ISG-F) are scrutinized. The EU
structure in issues concerning climate change and forestry is also demonstrated to see the
possible linkages between the EU Forest Action Plan and the climate discussions within EU.

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Results
The EU FAP Key Action 6, entitled Facilitate EU compliance with the obligations on
climate change mitigation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol and encourage
adaptation to the effects of climate change, includes following actions (Commission of the
European Communities COM (2006) 302 final and Annex):
-

6.1 The Commission will examine with the SFC how to respond in a more
coordinated way to the obligations of Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol,
including, inter alia, reporting on land use changes and forest management.
6.2 The Commission will facilitate exchanges between the SFC and the EU sinks
experts group, in order to increase the effectiveness of the discussions on climate
change mitigation. Measures to reduce global deforestation and post-2012 climate
commitments will be addressed. It was expected that this would contribute to the
development of science-based adaptation strategies and measures. Improved and more
coordinated reporting about land use under the Kyoto protocol will allow the EU to
better defend its positions in the upcoming UNFCCC negotiations about the Kyoto
regime after 2012.
6.3 The Commission will continue to support research, training and studies on the
impact of and adaptation to climate change.
6.4 The Member States are invited to work on assessing the impacts of climate
change, to raise awareness and to exchange experience, as well as to promote
activities for mitigation and adaptation. Awareness raising about the expected
effects of climate change is expected to allow forest-managers to anticipate evolution
of ecological conditions. In this context, it was considered especially important that
the EU has information about land use and climate change.

As the Standing Forestry Committee is the coordinating body of the EU FAP, we scrutinized
what was planned in the SFC work programs concerning the KA6 of the EU FAP and we
checked from the minutes of the SFC meetings what has been done on EU-level under FAP.
This indicated that SFC work has covered all issues mentioned in the work programme, but
targets set in the Action Plan (COM (2006) 302 final) are not yet reached. For Activities 6.1
and 6.2, establishment of the SFC ad hoc Working Group on Climate Change and Forestry is
the main activity so far, in addition to debriefing and discussion on the outcomes of the
UNFCCC COP13 and COP14 (KA6.2). No information about exchanges between the SFC
and the EU expert group on LULUCF (KA6.2) was found from SFC meeting minutes, but it
is expected that this will happen through the ad hoc Working Group on Climate Change and
Forestry, which was established in February 2009. For Activity 6.3, a study "Impacts of
climate change on European Forests and options for adaptation" was completed at end of
2008 and its results were presented by the contractor to the SFC.
On a Member State level, 23 countries (out of 24 countries that responded to the
questionnaire) reported Key Action 6 activities either as carried out or as being in progress,
and 10 countries reported additional activities directly targeted to implement the Objective 2
of the EU FAP. However, while only few of the reported activities were related to mitigation
of climate change, most of the reported forest sector activities were related to adaptation and
some of the activities reported under the Key Action 6 could be listed rather as additional
activities than actual progress of the EU FAP since they would also have taken place without
the Action Plan even though they are now contributing to the EU FAP. In addition, member

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Annexes of the final report Annex 3: Case study 2

69

states were also enquired about their latest developments in climate change related activities
in the field of mitigation and adaptation in forest sector (i.e. relating to Activity 6.3).
Feedback shows that a lot of research is ongoing at member state level and this research is
often in support of the climate change negotiations or in support of the development of
monitoring methods, but again these activities would also have taken place without the Forest
Action Plan. Nevertheless, a study commissioned by DG AGRI in support of Activity 6.3 has
consolidated knowledge from Member States and identified important gaps in knowledge,
awareness raising and actual adaptation activities (Lindner et al. 2008) and the SFC ad hoc
Working Group on Climate Change and Forestry will address the findings of the study
according the draft work plan for 2009 and consequently the recommendations of the study
should affect the future development of the Forest Action Plan.

Parties to UNFCCC &KP (COP, MOP, SBSTA & SBI)


European Union

EU member states

The European Parliament


EP Inter-group on Climate
Change and Biodiversity

The Council of European Union

Former Temporary
Committee on Climate Change
May 2007- February 2008

Working Party on International


Environment Issues

Working Party on
Forestry

EU LULUCF expert group

European Commission
DG AGRI

DG ENV

JRC

AT

BE

BG

CZ

CY

DE

DK

EE

ES

FI

FR

GR

HU

IE

IT

LV

LT

LU

MT

NL

PL

PO

RO

SI

SK

SE

UK

ESTAT

ISG-F
ISG-IF
Unit G.4,
Pre-accession
assistance to
agriculture
and rural
development

Unit L.4:
Evaluation
of measures
applicable
to
agriculture;
studies

Unit H4
Bioenergy,
biomass,
forestry
and
climate
change

Unit B1,
Agriculture
, forests &
soil

Directorate E,
International
affairs & LIFE

Unit C1 Climate
Strategy,
international
negotiation and
monitoring of
EU action

Formal role in EU FAP & UNFCCC


Formal role in EU FAP

ECCP I & II

AGFC

Formal role in UNFCCC

EEA

Ministry responsible for agriculture

Ministry responsible for environment

SFC
AT

BE

BG

CZ

CY

DE

DK

EE

ES

FI

FR

GR

HU

IE

IT

LV

LT

LU

MT

NL

PL

PO

RO

SI

SK

SE

UK

ETC/ACC

Ministry responsible for both


agriculture and environment
Ministry responsible for climate and
energy

Figure 1. EU organization in climate change issues. Boxes represent the different environment, agriculture
and/or forestry institutions involved in discussions and decision making process, and lines between the boxes
describe the direct connection between the institutions in the context of the UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change.

A diagram was drafted to show the interrelations between forest, environment and
agricultural institutions in the context of EU FAP and the UNFCCC (Figure 1). The figure
demonstrates that at the moment there is no direct link between the EU FAP and the
UNFCCC negotiations. The exchange of experiences between the SFC and the EU LULUCF
expert group, which is a group under and reporting to the WPIEI, would establish this
connection and could thus help to increase the effectiveness of EU FAP Key Action 6. To
have an effect through exchange of experiences within any member state, there should be a
link between the national SFC representative and UNFCCC focal point responsible for FCCC
negotiations (or the national LULUCF expert(s)). The figure however shows that SFC

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70

members represent usually the ministries that are responsible for agriculture, and UNFCCC
issues at the member states are under ministries of environment. Furthermore, although DG
ENV is one of the main actors on the Objective 2 of the EU FAP, the unit C.1 Climate
Strategy, international negotiation and monitoring of EU action is not expressly involved
with the EU Forest Action Plan. This missing or intransparent link between the SFC as an
advisory organ in forestry matters on the one hand and those who are taking principle
decisions that affect the forest sector on the other hand, presents an issue that should be
addressed. Without the link it will be hard for the EU FAP or the FSC to have a structured
impact on EU compliance with agreements in the context of the UN FCCC. More detail on
the role of the organizations shown in the figure is described in the Annex A to this case
study.

Discussion and conclusions


Basing on the reported implementation, the objectives of the EU FAP Key Action 6 are not
yet achieved. Also the terms in the Evaluation Question 3 cannot be answered to full
satisfaction from the point of view of the climate change objectives.
Although there is much R&D activity in the field of mitigation and adaptation in the forest
sector within EU member states, it is difficult to say how much of it results directly from the
Action Plan. It can also be asked how much even can be expected to be achieved under the
Action Plan since it lacks its own dedicated funds and it has no negotiating power or mandate
in the climate negotiations. However, this applies generally to the EU FAP, not only to KA6.
Furthermore, the Action Plan is coordinated by the Standing Forestry Committee which is an
advisory Committee. For the Action Plan, the SFC plays an active role in ensuring that the
Action Plan works in practice, facilitating exchanges of experience, sharing information,
strengthening cooperation between the SFC and stakeholders and preparing recommendations
on specific topics. Consequently, the SFC does not implement legislation, nor does its ad hoc
working group on Climate Change and Forestry. On the basis of the mid-term evaluation
responses, it seems that the role of the SFC or FAP is not understood correctly on member
state and stakeholder levels and there are different expectations towards the Action Plan.
Especially the expectations towards the Working Group on Climate Change and Forestry
seem to be unrealistic, which was noticed also by the EC InterService Group on Forestry (ref.
minutes of the 21st meeting of ISG-F) already in the establishment phase of the working
group. The major product of the group will only be a report with general recommendations,
but since it will also allow more representative participation of stakeholders which in turn
will help cross-sectoral dialogue and achievement of broad-based consensus, it is seen as an
important improvement by both the Commission, member states and also by the stakeholders.
The role of the EU Forest Action Plan can be seen only as a measure to disseminate the
knowledge related to the important role of forest sector to the mitigation of climate change.
At least so far, the added value of the EU FAP to the EU compliance with the obligations on
climate change mitigation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol has been minor. To
increase that in the future, it would be important to establish the exchange of experiences
between the SFC and the EU LULUCF expert group as stated in Activity 6.2. As such the
FAP would be in a better position to add to the substance basis for UNFCCC negotiations.
Furthermore, after the international agreement for the post-2012 period is achieved, the FAP
could be used as a forum to monitor, exchange information and coordinate member state
efforts in this field. The SFC has had an indirect impact with its work programmes on the

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71

programming of research topics and calls at DG RTD also on climate change issues. It could
also take a more proactive role on this, as it can draw on a lot of national as well as
international experience. The SFC is also well positioned to further stimulate cross-boundary
cooperation and exchange of experiences between countries and regions. There should be
formal consultation processes with stakeholders to also give them a chance to contribute on
this important topic.

References
Annual compilation and accounting report for Annex B Parties under the Kyoto Protocol
FCCC/KP/CMP/2008/9/Rev.1
(http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2008/cmp4/eng/09r01.pdf)
Communication from the Commission Progress Towards Achieving the Kyoto Objectives,
COM(2008)651final/2
Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European parliament on an EU
Forest Action Plan, COM(2006) 302 final
Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, The
European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.
Winning the Battle Against Global Climate Change COM(2005)35final
Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, The
European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.
Limiting Global Climate Change to 2 degrees Celsius: The way ahead for 2020
and beyond" COM(2007)2final
Communication from the Commission to the European parliament, the Council, the European
Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. 20 20 by
2020 Europes Climate Change Opportunity, COM(2008)30final
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, The
European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.
Towards a comprehensive climate change agreement in Copenhagen
COM(2009)39final
Detailed AGFC meeting minutes March 1st, 2004 February 20th, 2009 (total 13 meetings)
Detailed SFC meeting minutes for meetings no. 94 (27 June 2006) no. 106 (1 October
2008) and no. 108 (23 February 2009), summary report of the meeting no.109 (56 May 2009)
Draft minutes of the 21st meeting of the inter-service group on forestry, Brussels, 5 February
2009
Draft Work Plan of the SFC ad hoc Working Group on Climate Change and Forestry, 2009
EU FAP mid-term evaluations questionnaires and interviews (COM services, MS,
stakeholders)
IPCC Fourth Assessment Report - Climate Change 2007. Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change 2007.
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United
Nations 1998.
Lindner, M., Garcia-Gonzalo, J., Kolstrm, M., Green, T., Reguera, R., Maroschek, M.,
Seidl, R., Lexer, M.J., Netherer, S., Schopf, A., Kremer, A., Delzon, S., Barbati,
A., Marchetti, M. and Corona, P. 2008. AGRI-2007-G4-06. Impacts of Climate
Change on European Forests and Options for Adaptation. Report to the European
Commission Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 3: Case study 2

72

Standing Forestry Committee 2008 and 2009 work programmes for implementation of the
EU Forest Action Plan
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations 1992.
White paper - Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action
COM(2009)147final
Work Programme for Implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan (2007-2011)

Websites:
DG AGRI Forestry website:
http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/index_en.htm
DG Environment Climate Change website:
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/home_en.htm
Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural development (DG AGRI) website:
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/agriculture/index_en.htm
Directorate General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN) website:
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/energy_transport/index_en.htm
Directorate General for Enterprise and Industry (DG ENTR) website:
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/index_en.htm
Directorate General for Environment (DG ENV) website:
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/environment/index_en.htm
EP Intergroup on climate change and biodiversity (EP/ICCB) website:
http://www.ebcd.org/ISDA1.html
EU Climate Action website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/home_en.htm
European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) website:
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/eccp.htm
European Environment Agency website:
http://www.eea.europa.eu/
Former Temporary Committee on Climate Change (CLIM) website:
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/activities/committees/staticDisplay.do?language=
EN&id=180
Joint Research Centre (JRC) website:
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/jrc/index.cfm

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73

Annex A. Role of the EU and Member State organizations concerning climate change in the
EU FAP and the UNFCCC. These are descriptions of the different environment, agriculture
and/or forestry institutions involved in discussions and decision making process, as illustrated
in the Figure 1.
European Parliament
EP Inter-group on Climate Change and Biodiversity EP/ICCB, 7 subgroups, (former
intergroup on sustainable Development, renamed February 2009)
o Recognizing that the well-being of humankind is severely affected by climate
change and the loss of global biodiversity, the Intergroup on Climate Change
and Biodiversity aims to constitute a cross-sectoral political platform to lead
the integration of these issues in the legislative activity of the European
Parliament.
Former Temporary Committee on Climate Change (CLIM, May 2007-February 2008)
o Members: 60 MEPs, tasks to formulate proposals on the EUs future integrated
policy on climate change and to coordinate the Parliaments position in the
negotiations regarding the international framework for climate policy after 2012; to
analyze and evaluate the application, to date, of relevant Community legislation; to
that end, to make the necessary contacts and hold hearings with the parliaments and
governments of the Member States and third countries, the European Institutions
and international organizations, as well as representatives of the scientific
community, business and civil society, including the networks of local and
regional authorities
o WG 1 annual inventories: Improvement of quality of MS and EC GHG
inventories, exchange of experiences, evaluation of EC inventory system

Council of the European Union


The Working Party on International Environmental Issues (climate)
o Expert group on LULUCF (one of a number fo EGs under the WPIEI)
the group assists the WPIEI in preparing EU positions and submissions
and covers the negotiations on LULUCF at the meetings of the UNFCCC
Working Party on Forestry (council working group)

European Commission
Interservice Group on Forestry (ISG-F)
o chaired and managed by DG AGRI, with representation of in total 16 directorates
general, was established to ensure the flow of information and for seeking
agreement between departments
Interservice Group on International Forestry (ISG-IF)
o chaired by DG ENV, preparation of Commission positions in international issues
DG Agriculture and Rural Development (AGRI)
o Coordination of FAP, several units involved in FAP (at least Unit G.4 Preaccession assistance to agriculture and rural development, Unit L.4 Evaluation of

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measures applicable to agriculture, studies and Unit H.4. Bioenergy, biomass,


forestry and climate change)

Standing Forestry Committee (SFC)


chaired by DG AGRI in cooperation with DG ENV
represents forestry administrations of the EU Member States
European Commission a chairperson of the Committee, members
nominated by the governments of the EU Member States
three-fold role: advisory and management Committee for specific
forestry measures; an ad-hoc consultation forum that provides
expertise in connection with the development of forest-related
measures in the framework of various Community policies, such as
those on rural development and the environment; provides a venue
for exchange of information among Member States, and between
Member States and the Commission
plays also an active role in ensuring that the EU FAP works in
practice, facilitating exchanges of experience, sharing information,
strengthening cooperation between the SFC and stakeholders and
preparing recommendations on specific topics

Advisory Group on Forestry and Cork (AGFC)


representatives of forest owner organizations (public and private),
forest-based industries, environmental NGOs, forest trade unions,
traders and consumers
to seek the views of socio-economic sectors and consumers and all
those affected by agricultural policy decisions on matters arising in
connection with the operation of the various common organizations
of the market and other areas covered by the CAP and by rural
development policy

DG Environment (ENV)
o Several units of the DG ENV involved in FAP, at least Unit B.1 (Agriculture,
forests and soil) and Directorate E (International affairs and LIFE), coordination
of FAP Objective 2
o Overall responsibility for EC GHG Inventory
o Unit C.1 Climate Strategy, international negotiation and monitoring of EU action
Artur Runge-Metzger Chief Climate Negotiator of the European
Commission

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o European Climate Change Programme I (ECCP I, 2000-2003, ECCP II,


2005- )
multi-stakeholder consultative process that brought together all relevant
players such as the Commission, national experts, industry and the NGO
community
to identify and develop all the necessary elements of an EU strategy to
implement the Kyoto Protocol
to discuss and prepare the further development of the EUs climate policy
working groupsWG reportsECCP steering committee Commission
Action Plan
Joint Research Centre (JRC)
o Involved with FAP objectives 2 and 4, marginal involvement also in objective 1
o Assistance of EEA with data quality (agriculture and LULUCF) in EC GHG
inventory
EUROSTAT (ESTAT)
o Compilation of reference approaches, quality checks for GHG inventory
European Environmental Agency, EEA
o Supports the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, the evaluation of EU policies
and the development of long-term strategies to mitigate and adapt to climate
change by providing information on climate change in Europe
o Annual compilation and publication of the European Community GHG
inventory
o Annual assessment of progress of the European Community and European
countries towards their Kyoto targets
o Support to the IPCC and the UNFCCC on methodological issues and
reviews related to GHG inventories
o Regular evaluation of the implementation, by the Member States, of the
Emission Trading Directive;
European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change (ETC/ACC)
o centre of thematic expertise contracted by the European Environment Agency
(EEA) to carry out specific tasks identified in the EEA strategy
o a consortium of European institutes with the Netherlands Environmental
assessment agency (PBL) as its lead organization
o reports on the progress of EU environmental policy on air quality, air emission
and climate change issues

Annex to the Report of


Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest
Action Plan
Service Contract No. 30-CE-0227729/00-59

Annex 4: Case study Strengthening policy coordination


between policy areas: EU FAP strengthening co-ordination
within the Commission
In relation to the Evaluation Theme 4: Improving forest sector co-ordination, coherence and
communication

List of contents
1. Introduction
2. Scope of the study
3. Intersectoral Coordination Capacity Scale
4. Commission DGs and the EU FAP Key Actions
5. Conclusions
References

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77

Introduction

Policy co-ordination and coherence are given a high priority in the EU Forest Action Plan:
building on the EU forestry strategy, the Action Plan aims at providing a framework for
forest-related actions at the Community and Member State levels and serving as an
instrument of coordination between the Community actions and the forest policies of the
Member States. Furthermore, it aims at strengthening coherence between the forest-related
EU policies and initiatives and to enhance coordination within the Commission.
Based on the feedback and perceptions collected in the mid-term evaluation there are
different expectations as to what an improved coordination is and what it aims at. Response
from the Commission departments and services, Member States and stakeholders shows that
the very concept of coordination differs. Coordination can be understood, for example, as a
one-way hierarchical process of directing action, as a two-way dialogue of sharing and
gaining information about parallel actions, or as a multiple level collaboration process of
dialogue and feedback in preparing positions and future actions. None of these descriptions of
coordination is more right or wrong, but the feedback in the mid-term evaluation shows
that the different understandings of coordination mean different starting points for
implementing the EU FAP. The fact that it is not clear what should be coordinated, how
and/or by whom and why, can impede achievement of the objectives set for the Action Plan.
In the mid-term evaluation interviews and questionnaire responses e.g. the following
examples of shortcomings of coordination and implications of lacking coordination were
brought up:
- It is difficult to direct the Member States to work towards the international
commitments that the EU has: there are no legal bases for pushing the outcome from
international agreements and processes into action for e.g. forest monitoring or more
active participation in the EU FLEGT.
- There is a lack of coordination within the Commission: the legislative processes and
initiatives in other sectors do not recognize the effect they have on the forest sector in
the EU e.g. sustainability indicators for different forest products are prepared in
parallel in several DGs.
- It is not clear how the national forest programmes (NFP) relate to the EU Forest
Action Plan.
- The linkage between the European level good intentions and the implementation in
the Member States is weak: the principles of national forest programmes, sustainable
forest management and multiple functions of forests are signed for by the Member
States and the EU, but this does not lead to dissemination of good practices e.g. in
engaging stakeholders and the civil society in planning and implementation of
NFP/RFPs in the Member States.
- There is a need to define competences within the Commission for the international
meetings, e.g. the statements and positions presented in the UNECE/FAO meetings.
The case study does not allow investigating all aspects of coordination that the EU FAP aims
at affecting. Coordination between international and national (and subnational) levels would
be worth separate case studies, as well as coordination between the interrelated sectors. As
discussed in the evaluation Steering Group meeting in May 2009 the case study elaborates

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further the analysis on coordination within Commission, i.e. between the Directorate
Generals (DGs) involved in the implementation of the EU FAP. The study report has been
revised in accordance with the comments of the Steering Group of the mid-term evaluation in
July 2009.

2.

Scope of the study

The aim of the case study is to provide information how the Commission DGs are involved in
the implementation of the EU FAP, how the EU FAP aims at improving coordination and
coherence within Commission and what challenges there are for achieving the objective of
improved coordination.
Conceptual framework for the analysis is the intersectoral coordination capacity scale, which
is used to illustrate what kind of coordination capacities there are within the Commission for
the implementation of the EU FAP, and what are the mechanisms and instruments how the
EU FAP strengthens coordination of the forest-related Community actions. Similar analysis
could be made at national level in the EU Member States i.e. what mechanisms and
instruments there are to improve coherence between forest policy and other policy areas, and
how these mechanisms and instruments contribute to improved coherence in policy
formulation and decision making at the EU level. This case study covers only the
coordination within the Commission.
The EU FAP mid-term evaluation report describes how the EU FAP has been implemented in
the Commission and what kind of actions, initiatives and for example studies have been
carried out in the Commission in support of the EU FAP. The descriptions do not indicate
which departments (Commission DGs) have been involved in which activity of the EU FAP.
This case study aims at providing more detailed information on the Commission DGs
involvement in the EU FAP.
The case study report should not be understood as a description how the EU Commission
functions or how the Commission has organised its work for the implementation of the EU
FAP. The role of the Commission departments and services in the EU FAP Key Actions is
described based on the information collected in the mid-term evaluation in other words, the
description is based on the mid-term evaluation team observations from the document review
and from the information and assessments collected in the interviews and questionnaires.

3.

Intersectoral Coordination Capacity Scale

The Intersectoral Coordination Capacity Scale by Metcalf (in Hogl 2002b based on Metcalfe
1994 and 1997, OECD 1996) provides a qualitative scale to assess capacity of coordination.
The scale was developed for assessment and comparison of different governments
coordination capacity. It is based on the accumulation of coordination capacities from
autonomously acting policy areas, through informing and consultation to higher levels of
coordination by defining institutional structures, such as joint committees to avoid conflicting
views, arbitration systems to resolve intersectoral differences, agreements to define limits for
sectoral activities, and furthermore, common agreement on binding priorities (see Table 1).
The accumulation of capacities means that failure on lower level capacities hampers the

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success in higher levels: if there are commonly agreed binding priorities for the policy areas,
but there is no information sharing or consultation between the responsible actors, resources
will be needed to solve problems raised due to e.g. duplication of work, conflicts between
different actions, as well as topics left in the margin between specific responsibility areas. In
other words, the lower level capacities (e.g. communication and consultation) need to exist
and be reliable in order to make the higher levels (e.g. arbitration between conflicting views
or setting of binding priorities) work effectively and efficiently (Metcalf 1996). Higher level
coordination is not an aim as such: level of coordination should be matched with the needs of
the situation, and if issues can be handled in the lower levels that should be the aim. In the
following table the intersectoral coordination capacity scale is utilised to illustrate the
institutional arrangements in place for the implementation of the EU FAP.
The Table 1 illustrates how the mechanisms and instruments utilised in the implementation of
the EU FAP build up the coordination capacities as these capacities are defined in the eight
steps of the Intersectoral Coordination Capacity Scale.
Table 1: EU FAP mechanisms and institutional arrangements according to the Inter-Sectoral Co-ordination
Capacity Scale (modified from Hogl 2002b based on Metcalfe 1994 and 1997, OECD 1996).
Step 8 Establishing an overall inter-sectoral strategy.
(This step is added for the sake of completeness, but is
unlikely to be attainable in practice)
Step 7 Establishing commonly agreed or binding
priorities:
Inter-sectoral agreement to common priorities and/or high-inhierarchy level (of government) lays down the main lines of
policy and establishes cross-sector priorities.

Step 6 Defining common limits by setting parameters for


sectoral activities: A central organisation of an inter-sectoral
decision-making body may play a more active role by
constraining the admissible range of sectoral activity. The
parameters define what sectoral actors must not do, rather
than prescribing what they should do.
Step 5 Arbitration of inter-sectoral differences;
Where inter-sectoral differences cannot be resolved by the
horizontal co-ordination processes defined in steps 2 to 4, a
central mechanism of an ex ante commonly agreed procedure
for arbitration is applied (e.g. state hierarchy, voting)
Step 4 Avoiding policy divergences among sectors and
seeking consensus: Avoid taking conflicting negotiation
positions, and aim at appearance of a united front. Beyond
finding out differences and prevent mutual negative effects,
actors/organisations work together, e.g. in joint committees
and project teams, because they recognise their
interdependence and their mutual interest in resolving policy
differences.
Step 3 Consultation with others.
A two-way process. Sectors/actors inform others about what
they are doing, they consult others in the process of
formulating their own policies, or positions.
Step 2 Information exchange among sectors.
Sectors/actors keep each other up to date about arising issues
and how they propose to act in their own areas. Reliable and
accepted channels of regular communication must exist.
Step 1 Sectors/actors manage independently within their
domain/jurisdiction.
Each sector retains autonomy within its own policy domain.

EU Forest Action Plan starts with the policy framework


(based on the Council resolution on EU forestry strategy
1998) and the common priorities / aims adopted in the
Council this prioritization is based on subsidiarity and
shared responsibility. Commission is together with the
Member States a Leading Actor to implement the EU
FAP.
Commission internal agreement (2001) on division of
responsibilities in relation to implementation of the EU
forestry strategy.

Interservice group on forestry (2001) has an aim of


improving coordination and coherence
During 2007-2011 e.g. the MCPFE issues are brought for
discussion and comments in the ISG at the stage of
preparing a position

Interservice consultation is part of adopting any legislative


measure by the Commission (e.g. communications,
directives, regulations)
Joint seminars and workshops e.g. on public
procurement, biomass etc. as well as meetings and
contacts between the officials.

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Step 7 Establishing commonly agreed or binding priorities


Forest policy is a matter of national competence in the EU. The common priorities for
European Community forestry action are defined in the EU Forestry Strategy (Council
resolution 1998) and in the EU Forest Action Plan (Council conclusion 2005 followed by the
Commission Communication 2006). Key elements for the implementation of the Forestry
Strategy and the EU FAP are the principle of subsidiarity and the concept of shared
responsibility. Action at the EU level should be taken when a problem cannot be solved or a
specific goal not achieved more efficiently by a national, regional or local action. The
Commission and the Member States are the Leading Actors to implement the EU FAP.
Step 6 Defining common limits by setting parameters for sectoral activities
For the implementation of the EU forestry strategy, the Commission has an internal division
of tasks. The decision has been made in 2001.
Step 5 Arbitration of inter-sectoral differences
At the stage of preparing the EU FAP 2005-2006, an external coordinator / intersectoral
mediator between Commission departments was proposed in the Kindermann report
(European Parliament Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development report adopted in
the plenary on 16 February 2006). The report proposed that in addition to the existing
horizontal integration of the Commission departments responsible for forestry issues,
consideration should be given to vertical integration over all levels of work of Commission
departments, with a basis in the Secretariat in other words, a structural unit within the
Commission Secretariat to be designated to coordinate forestry-related policies. This kind of
structure has not been created. The Commission Secretariat General is a member of the ISG
on forestry.
Step 4 Avoiding policy divergences among sectors and seeking consensus
An interservice group on forestry was established in 2001/2002. DG AGRI is responsible for
the group, which includes in total 16 departments and services. The aim of the interservice
group is to strengthen the coordination of forest-related issues within the Commission. The
group meets regularly and is part of the EU FAP implementation. Another interservice group
on forestry-related issues (ISG on international forestry) is coordinated by DG ENV with the
task to facilitate the EU participation in the international processes e.g. positions for UNFF.
The group was established in the 1990s for the coordination needed for the IPF/IFF
preparations. It meets on an as-needed basis in response to developments in the international
agenda, and it is not part of the implementation of the EU FAP.
Step 3 Consultation with others
The official interservice consultation is part of adopting any legislative procedure by the
Commission. In 2007, a list of contact persons was compiled for forest-related policies in
each relevant DG.
Step 2 Information exchange among sectors
The contact persons network for forest related issues in the Commission is utilised for
inviting representatives of DGs to participate in e.g. information sharing events, seminars and
workshops arranged by the Commission (on its own or together with the Member States).
Colleagues are consulted and smaller ad hoc meetings between different specialists can be
arranged as needed.

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The EU FAP aims at improving coordination and coherence in forest-related matters at all
levels. The Key Action 14 concerns coordination within the Commission, and includes three
activities (see Table 2).
Table 2: EU FAP Key Action 14.
Key action 14: Strengthen coordination between policy areas in forest-related matters
Activity
Leading
TimeWorking method /
Actor
frame
instrument
14.1 Appoint a co-ordinator for forest- COM
2007
Internal procedures of
related policies in each relevant
Commission.
Directorate-General
14.2 Regularly inform the SFC of the
COM
2007Presentations by
initiatives and actions in different
2011
Commission services at
policy areas that are of relevance
the SFC sessions.
to the work of the Committee
14.3 Strengthen the role of the InterCOM
2007Contribute to the
Service Group on Forestry
2011
development of a work
programme 2007-2011
for implementation of
the FAP; review the
working methods of the
group.

Output/result
List presented to the SFC.

Improved information flow between the


Commission and members of the SFC.

The work programme 2007-2011 for the


implementation of the FAP developed
by the Commission services in the
context of the Inter-Service Group on
Forestry and in cooperation with the
SFC, serving as a basis for establishing
yearly work programmes (activity 13.1).

By the mid-term in 2009, most activities have been carried out as defined in the EU FAP
work programme. Coordinators or rather contact persons in the relevant DGs have been
appointed and the list of contact persons has been presented to the SFC in 2007. There are 14
DGs in the contact list, thus the same DGs as in the ISG on forestry, excluding DG ENLARG
and SG. The list indicates the name of the contact person, position, DG and Unit. The list
does not give information on a specific field of operation in relation to the EU FAP or its Key
Actions, activities or topics. The SFC and the AGFC are regularly informed about
developments on relevant policy areas by the respective DGs, for example, the forest-based
industry related matters by DG ENTR, biomass by DG TREN, biodiversity goals by DG
ENV and so on. The ISG on forestry participated in preparing the SFC work programme
2007-2011. DG AGRI drafts the SFC annual work programmes and the draft is discussed at
the ISG on forestry before it is finalised in the SFC together with the Member States. To the
knowledge of the evaluation team the working methods of the group have not been reviewed
so far (activity 14.3).
According to the logic of the intersectoral coordination scale, the failures in coordination
could be avoided or alleviated and solved with the capacities available in the lower levels of
coordination. The above description shows that in principle there are lower-level capacities
built up for implementation of the EU FAP, and the Action Plan itself has created and
strengthened the mechanisms to improve coordination. This is also confirmed in the mid-term
evaluation interviews with the Commission representatives: coordination within Commission
has improved due to the implementation of the EU FAP. There is a structured manner to
communicate and share information between parallel initiatives and actions. The EU FAP
work programme 2007-2011 gives a framework to the discussions, and the themes defined
for the annual SFC work programmes can be utilised to mobilise a specific area of expertise
to participate in the implementation of the EU FAP (incl. information sharing to the SFC and
AGFC).
However, the feedback from Member States shows practical examples where the
coordination has not functioned but the initiatives prepared in different DGs have led to
contradicting requirements to the forest sector (e.g. sustainaibility criteria to forest products).
Also two parallel interservice groups for coordination of forest-related matters in the

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Commission raise questions. Member States and stakeholders point out that although the
coordination within the Commission has improved, there is not a holistic enough approach to
the forest sector. The increased demands for forests, e.g. by the renewable energy,
biodiversity and other targets would require more coherence at all levels of coordination,
including the initiatives and actions within the Commission.

4.

Commission DGs and the EU FAP Key Actions

There are 18 Key Actions in the EU FAP, under the main responsibility of DG AGRI, with
environment related issues in coordination with DG ENV and forest-based industry related
issues in association with DG ENTR. The ISG on forestry includes representatives of 16
DGs. The following table summarises how the 16 DGs of the ISG on forestry are involved in
the implementation of the EU FAP Key Actions. The description is based on information
collected in the mid-term evaluation. In other words, this is not an official definition of tasks.
Neither should it be read as an exhaustive but rather as an illustrative presentation on how the
Commission DGs are involved in the implementation of the EU FAP.

Objective 4 coordination &


communication

SG

dg enlarg

dg comp

dg regio

dg markt

dg empl

dg trade

dg dev

KA2 RTD to enhance


competitiveness
KA3 non-wood forest goods and
services
KA4 forest biomass (energy
generation)
KA5 forest owner cooperation,
education and training
KA6 climate change and Kyoto
protocol
KA7 biodiversity objectives 2010
and beyond

dg rtd

dg estat

jrc

dg entr

dg sanco

dg env

KA1 effects of globalisation

dg tren

Key Actions (titles shortened)

dg agri

Objective 3 quality
Objective 2 environment
of life

Objective 1 competitiveness

Table 3: Involvement of Commission DGs in the implementation of the EU FAP Key Actions (KA),
including indication of the role in implementation of the EU forestry strategy (ref. 2001).
Forestry
strategy
(ref.2001)

X
X
X

X
X

DG ENV (+DG
AGRI)

DG ENV & DG
AGRI

KA11 protective functions of forests

KA12 urban and peri-urban forests

KA13 strengthening SFC

KA14 strengthening coordination


between policy areas

KA15 OMC to NFPs

X
X

KA8 forest monitoring system


KA9 enhance protection of EU
forests
KA10 environmental education and
information

KA16 EU profile in international


forest-related processes
KA17 encourage use of wood from
SMF
KA18 information exchange and
communication

DG ENV

X
DG ENV

X
X
X
X

DG AGRI & DG
ENV +DG ENTR

DG AGRI

DG AGRI & DG
ENV +DG ENTR

DG ENV & DG
AGRI +DG ENTR
DG AGRI

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Explanation for the table


DG AGRI
DG ENV

DG ENTR

DG TREN

DG SANCO

JRC
DG ESTAT
DG RTD
DG DEV
DG TRADE
DG EMPL

DG MARKT
DG REGIO

DG COMP
DG ENLARG
SG

general follow-up of the EU forestry strategy; all EU FAP objectives 1-4, though objective 2
under DG ENV coordination, and objective 3 not started (Member State initiative)
coordination of the EU FAP Objective 2; and involvement also in objective 1 (KA 1-4: green
credential as comparative advantage to forest sector; energy efficiency and environmental
friendly production technologies; nwfgs valuation; biomass sustainability criteria) and
objective 4 (KA16-17: international processes; GPP and FLEGT) All in all about ten DG ENV
units are involved in the EU FAP themes.
issues related to forest-based industries i.e. Objective 1 (globalisation, RTD incl. FTP, energy,
wood mobilisation, nwfgs) and objective 4 (KA17 FBI communication); partly involved also
in Objective 2 (incl. KA6.3 climate change study steering group) and Objective 3 (public
perceptions, forest-based industries).
energy issues, mainly involvement in objective 1 KA4 (renewable energy RES, Biomass
Action Plan and national BAPs), but also KA2 (Biofuel Technology Platform and research
related matters by another unit within DG TREN) and KA17 (sustainable use of resources).
issues in relation to plants and seeds (incl. nwfgs), plant health, pests and phytosanitary
questions in principle in all objectives 1-4 (DG SANCO covers also consumer protection
issues)
contribution to Objectives 2 and 4 (forest monitoring, data and information systems, EFICP);
marginal involvement in Objective 1 (e.g. nwfgs & information provision), specific studies
no direct contribution (production & trade data, forest accounts; UNECE/FAO data; JRC data)
objective 1 (KA2), possibly research in other themes too in relation to objectives 1-3 (KA11)
no direct involvement: Flegt, global and development issues
no direct involvement: Flegt, trade negotiations, third countries
no direct involvement (in principle relevant in relation to Objective 3 e.g. tourism and forests
for recreational purposes; in relation to objective 1 Social Dialogue Committees; in relation to
objective 4 PP guidelines and sustainability indicators)
no direct involvement (terms of reference of SFC Working Group on Public Procurement of
Timber)
no direct involvement (financing of cohesion policy and regional projects; ERDF,
INTERREG, EUSF, topics e.g. natural risk prevention, fire, RES incl. wood biomass, climate
change, protective functions)
no direct involvement (competition policy, State Aid etc. questions)
(preaccession negotiations and instruments, Sapard)
(coordination and coherence)

The EU FAP refers to several parallel Community Actions (e.g. the Biomass Action Plan, the
Biodiversity Action Plan, the FLEGT Action Plan and the FBI communication). These
actions are coordinated by different Commission DGs. Building the parallel actions towards a
more holistic approach to the EU forest sector is not a task that can be accomplished by
improving the coordination within the Commission only. The more holistic approach would
need to build up in all levels of coordination and policy formulation in the EU.
The mid-term evaluation feedback showed that there are also themes and topics in the EU
FAP Work Programme which are not easy to place under one specific sector of operation.
These themes fall between several sectors not only in the operation of the Commission, but
also at the national level between several Ministries. An example of such theme is the
environmental education, which covers environment, education and SFM questions but has
also to do with promoting the forest sector and the forest products and services, thus
including the FBI-related communication questions. Another example is the forest science
forum, which falls between the administrative sectors of research and forests, again including

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forestry as well as forest-based sector at large. It is not clear who should act as a leading actor
in these themes, and how an initiative would become a part of the EU FAP. For example, the
Forest Communicators Network is an existing structure outside the EU FAP, but it has
defined as one of its goals to support the EU FAP Key Action 10 environmental education
and the Key Action 18 forest sector communication strategy. Two DGs participate in the
network (DG AGRI and DG ENTR), but the network seems to remain as a parallel activity to
the EU FAP.
Furthermore, the same question comes apparent with regard to the EU FAP themes which
would interest several Member States, but not necessarily all EU27, and even so, not
necessarily as a national, but more likely as a sub-national theme. The Key Action 9 aims at
forming groupings of Member States to study particular regional problems with the condition
of forests. Also the EU FAP Objective 3 themes on e.g. mountain forests, water and soil
protection or the themes of urban and peri-urban forests would be interesting for several
countries, but there is no specific method or procedure as to how a regional activity could be
an EU FAP activity. This issue is not directly about coordination within the Commission, but
coordination within the Commission is needed to define the solutions how to trigger Member
State action and to give institutional support (incl. identification of possible means for
financing of such groupings). The themes and topics might already be found in the NFPs in
the Member States, but the EU FAP or the EU Forestry Strategy does not give the
Commission further building blocks to define the actions for the EU FAP goals. Initiative
would need to come from the Member States.

5.

Conclusions

There are structures and mechanisms to improve coordination within the EU Commission,
and the EU FAP has created and strengthened them e.g. by creating structured information
sharing mechanisms. The forest-related issues are handled in several policy areas, and it is
crucial to target for a more coherent approach. This would require more efficient use of the
existing structures and mechanisms for cooperation and coordination also within the
Commission.
In order to make the EU FAP to achieve its goals, the different levels of operation i.e. the EU
and its institutions, Member States, but also sub-national level actors and the stakeholders
would need to be mobilised for the exercise. This requires collaborative partnership. The
definition of coordination can be understood in several ways but ownership of an EU
Action can be built only in an open dialogue and with a participatory approach.

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Mid-term evaluation document reviews:
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Advisory Committee on Forestry and Cork meetings 2006-2009
EU FAP multiannual work programme 2007-2011
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Parliament on an EU Forest Action Plan, 15.6.2006; with Commission Staff
Working Document. Annex to the Communication on an EU Forest Action Plan
SEC(2006) 748
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Commission. Professor of Public Management/Director of Research, EIPA.
Lecture given at the Schuman-Seminar: 'Maastricht in Maastricht, the Treaty
Revisited', held at the Provincial Government House, Maastricht (NL) on 13 May
1996.
Plzl, Helga and Eva Nussbaumer (2006) Study about "Modes of governance" for European
Forest Policy (coordination, co-operation, and communication) University of
Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, Institute of Forest,
Environmental, and Natural Resource Policy, Department of Economics and
Social Sciences for the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment
and Water Management of Austria
Zingerli, Claudia, Kurt Bisang and Willi Zimmermann (2004) Towards Policy Integration:
Experiences with intersectoral coordination in international and national forest
policy.

ANNEX to the Report of the

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest


Action Plan
Service Contract No. 30-CE-0227729/00-59

Annex 5: List of themes and topics of new emerging issues for


consideration of the EU FAP in the future
In the mid-term evaluation of the EU FAP interviews and questionnaires were used to collect
information and assessments from the Member States (representatives of the SFC), from the
stakeholders (representatives of the AGFC as the main target group) and from the
Commission departments and services (14 DGs in total). As part of the questions concerning
relevance assessment of the EU FAP, there was a question: Are there any new emerging
forest-related issues which should be covered by the Action Plan in the future? This is a
summary of the responses given by the above mentioned three target groups.
Even though several respondents pointed out that the list of themes and activities included in
the EU FAP Work Programme is already very extensive and requires restructuring and better
focusing for the remaining 2009-2011, also new issues were brought up. These issues are
either given as issues missing from the list of activities or issues increasing in importance in
the near future.
The respondents gave two approaches how to deal with the emerging issues during the
remaining implementation period of the EU FAP (2009-2011):
a) Take the new emerging issues in consideration when preparing the post-2011 follow
up of the EU FAP. In other words, the remaining 2009-2011 should concentrate on
existing activities in the EU FAO Work Programme and make the outputs (e.g. the
studies and recommendations) into practice as concrete actions.
b) Increase flexibility of the EU FAP Work Programme and adjust it during 2009-2011
so that the emerging issues can be added on a continuous basis.

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Annexes of the final report Annex 5: List of themes and topics

87

Themes related to Objective 1: competitiveness


- Economic development, incl. studies on the impact of the current economic crisis on
the forest sector and its competitiveness, analysis on the structural changes and factors
of change and proposals for action to improve the forest sector competitiveness
- Rural (economic) development and forests, incl. financing instruments and CAP,
land-use and forestry, ownership questions, agri-forestry issues
- Wood supply, e.g. wood production, incl. plantation forests, methods and incentives
for wood mobilisation, fragmentation of forests
- Bioenergy, renewable energy sources at large, including e.g. climate change, carbon
cycles (analysis of both economic and ecological aspects)
- Innovation and new emerging issues e.g. the Lead Market initiative
- Labour force questions; competencies and qualifications
Themes related to Objective 2: environment
- Climate change mitigation, effects and adaptation
- Forest and water, European forests and rain patterns / changes to hydrological regimes
- Exotic trees, invasive alien species and newly appearing harmful organisms
- Decline of forest genetic resources, causing higher exposure to pests and diseases
- Biodiversity; scarcity of undisturbed forests and forest wilderness areas
- Protection and ecosystem services, incl. financial tools ensuring effective preservation
and conservation
- Clearcutting and its impact on biodiversity and greenhouse gas emissions
- Non-productive functions of forests, ecosystem services; public goods, incl. financial
incentives and schemes
- Fragmentation of forests (analysis of both ecological and economic aspects)
- Storms and wind throw (incl. land-use questions, economic and biodiversity loss)
- Forest fires incl. protective functions of forests, development of concrete actions to
increase prevention measures; insurance schemes; disaster prevention and European
funds; forest rehabilitation on forest burnt areas
- Excessive game density preventing natural regeneration of forests; illegal grazing
- Benchmarks relating to criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management
Themes related to Objective 3: quality of life
- Promotion of wood and forest products, incl. wood and new techniques e.g. green
construction; consumer attitudes
- Environmental education, cooperation between institutions of environmental
education
- Forests, recreation and health; forests and culture heritage
Themes related to Objective 4: coordination, coherence, communication
- Climate change both as a European issue and a global issue forest sector
communication: local action global impact
- Analysis of forest sector and interrelated policies (e.g. the targets set by the EU
incentives for forests bioenergy, climate change mitigation, biodiversity, timber);
proposals how to improve the policy coordination
- Governance and science: mobilisation of policy-science-practice triangle
- Feasibility analysis of legally binding instrument on forests in Europe
- Sustainable forest management SFM: promotion and practices; regional forest policies
(e.g. Mediterranean region); NFPs as instrument to tackle global challenges;
economical, ecological and social aspects of sustainability (incl. land use conflicts)
- Post-FAP preparations, incl. preparation of the EU budgetary period after 2013

ANNEX to the Report of the

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest


Action Plan
Service Contract No. 30-CE-0227729/00-59

Annex 6: List of materials

This list of materials was compiled as part of the EU FAP mid-term evaluation. Materials are grouped
by the 11 Evaluation Questions defined for the analysis.

List of contents
Evaluation Questions 1-2: Key Actions 1-5 (EU FAP Objective 1)
Evaluation Question 3: Key Actions 6-7 (EU FAP Objective 2)
Evaluation Question 4: Key Actions 8-9 (EU FAP Objective 2)
Evaluation Question 5: Key Actions 10-12 (EU FAP Objective 3)
Evaluation Question 6: Key Action 13 (EU FAP Objective 4)
Evaluation Question 7: Key Action 14 (EU FAP Objective 4)
Evaluation Question 8: Key Actions 15 and 17 (EU FAP Objective 4)
Evaluation Question 9: Key Action 16 (EU FAP Objective 4)
Evaluation Question 10: Key Action 18 (EU FAP Objective 4)
Evaluation Question 11: Relevance of the EU FAP

89
91
93
94
95
96
96
97
98
99

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Evaluation Questions 1-2: Key Actions 1-5 (EU FAP Objective 1)


Meeting minutes of the SFC, AGFC and ISG on forestry.
Meeting materials of the SFC ad hoc Working Group on valuation and compensation methods of nonwood forest goods and services, and the SFC ad hoc Working Group on mobilisation and efficient use
of wood and wood residues for energy generation
Work programme of the EU FAP 2007-2011 and the Work programmes of SFC 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Commission of the European Communities (1999) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on The State of the Competitiveness of the EU Forest-Based
and Related Industries. COM(1999) 457 final, 5.10.1999.
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
Council and the European Parliament on innovative and sustainable forest-based
industries in the EU. A contribution to the EU's Growth and Jobs Strategy. COM(2008)
113 final, 27.2.2008. {SEC(2008) 262}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Proposal for a Directive of the European
Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable
sources (presented by the Commission). COM(2008) 19 final, 23.1.2008, 2008/0016
(COD). {COM(2008) 30 final} {SEC(2008) 57} and {SEC(2008) 85}
Confederation of European Forest Owners CEPF (2008) European Forest Owner Organisations
Forest Owner Cooperation: Main figures, aims and goals. Study conducted by the CEPF.
September , 2008. [available at: http://www.unece.org/timber/docs/tc-sessions/tc-66/pddocs/CEPF_report.pdf]
Council Regulation (EC) No 1698/2005 of 20 September 2005 on support for rural development by
the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD), OJ L 277 of
21.10.2005, p. 1-40.
European Commission (2008) Forest governance and the role of forestry research Proceedings of
the EC/FTP Workshop held in Kranjska Gora, Slovenia 19-21 May 2008. Edited by
Helga Plzl. DG RTD / Directorate E Biotechnologies, Agriculture, Food / Unit E.4 Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Aquaculture.
[http://ec.europa.eu/research/agriculture/pdf/forest_governance_and_the_role_of_forest
ry_research_proceedings.pdf]
European Commission (2009) Report on implementation of Forestry Measures under the Rural
Development Regulation 1698/2005 for the period 2007-2013. DG Agriculture and rural
Development, H.4, March 2009.
[http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/publi/forestry_rurdev_2007_2013_en.pdf]
European Court of Auditors (2004) Special Report No 9/2004 Forestry Measures within Rural
Development Policy [http://eca.europa.eu/portal/pls/portal/docs/1/173377.PDF]
Greiber, T., van Ham, C., Janse, G., Gaworska, M. (2009) Study on the Economic value of
groundwater and biodiversity in European forests for the European Commission,
Directorate General Environment. By the IUCN Regional Office for Europe, IUCN
Environmental Law Centre and Confederation for European Forest Owners. Final report,
January 2009. [http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/report_january_2009.pdf]
Janse, G. (2008) Communication between forest scientists and forest policy-makers in Europe A
survey on both sides of the science/policy interface. Forest Policy and Economics 10:
183-194.
Mavsar, R., Ramilovi, S., Palah, M., Weiss, G., Rametsteiner, E., Tykk, S., van Apeldoorn, R.,
Vreke, J., van Wijk, M., Janse, G. (2008) Study on the development and marketing of
non-marketed forest products and services (FORVALUE). European Forest Institute,
November 2008. Report to the European Commission Directorate-General for

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Agriculture and Rural Development. AGRI-2007-G4-13.


[http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/analysis/external/forest_products/report_en.pdf]
Rametsteiner, E., Nilsson, S., Bttcher, H., Havlik, P., Kraxner, F., Leduc, S., Obersteiner, M.,
Rydzak, F., Schneider, U., Schwab, D. and Willmore L. (2007) Study of the Effects of
Globalization on the Economic Viability of EU Forestry, Tender no. AGRI-G4-2006-06.
By International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
[http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/analysis/external/viability_forestry/index_en.htm]
UNECE/FAO Timber Section (2008) Potential Sustainable Wood Supply in Europe. Prepared by
Sebastian Hetsch, October 2008. [http://www.unece.org/timber/docs/tc-sessions/tc66/pd-docs/Paper_PotentialWoodSupply_v18Oct.pdf]
Vis, M.W., Vos, J. and van den Berg, D. (2008) Study on Sustainability Criteria and Certification systems
for Biomass Production for the DG TREN European Commission. Final Report. By BTG
biomass technology group BV, February 2008.
[http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/bioenergy/doc/sustainability_criteria_and_certifi
cation_systems.pdf]
Workshops:
Workshop on Can Europe's Forests Satisfy the Increasing Demand for Raw Material and Energy
under Sustainable Forest Management? Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland on 11 12 January 2007. Joint workshop of UNECE/FAO Timber Section, CEPI, EFI, MCPFE
LUW, Joint FAO/ ECE/ ILO Experts Network.
[http://www.unece.org/timber/workshops/2007/wmw/mobilisingwood.htm]
Workshop on Strategies for increased mobilisation of wood resources from sustainable sources.
Grenoble, France on 16-18 June 2009. Joint workshop of the UNECE/FAO Timber
Section, EFI, CEPI, CEPF, COPA-COGECA, ENFE, EUSTAFOR and MCPFE.
MCPFE Working Group on "Sustainability Criteria" for Forest Biomass Production, including
Bioenergy [http://www.mcpfe.org/]
Workshop on Innovation, Education and Training for the EU woodworking industries and key linked
occupations in Brussels on 26th March, 2007. European Commission DG ENTR,
Textiles, Fashion and Forest-based Industries
[http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/forest_based/woodworking_en.html]
Websites
BiodivERsA (2005-2009) [http://www.eurobiodiversa.org/]
CIP-IEE Intelligent Energy for Europe 2 Program 2007-2013 [http://ec.europa.eu/energy/intelligent/]
Commission web site on forest-based industries
[http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/forest_based/index_en.html]
Commission website on forestry measures [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/]
Commission web site on renewable energy [http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/index_en.htm]
Commission web site on Health Check of the Common Agricultural Policy
[http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/healthcheck/index_en.htm]
Confederation of European Forest Owners (CEPF) [www.cepf-eu.org/]
COST European Cooperation in Science and Technology: FPS Domain Forests, their Products and
Services [http://www.cost.esf.org/domains_actions/fps]
ERA-NET Scheme (FP7) [http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/coordination/eranet_en.html]
EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) [http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/]
EUROFORENET European Forest Energy Network [http://www.euroforenet.eu/en/]
European Biofuels Technology Platform [http://www.biofuelstp.eu/]
European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC)
[http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/events/Conferences/2007/LUDC_copenhagen2007.pdf]
European Technology Platforms [http://cordis.europa.eu/technology-platforms/home_en.html]
Forest-based sector Technology Platform [http://www.forestplatform.org/]
JRC Forest [http://forest.jrc.ec.europa.eu/]
Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe MCPFE [http://www.mcpfe.org/]

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MFRA 2010-2012 A Mediterranean Forest Research Agenda (FTP)


[http://www.efi.int/files/attachments/efimed/mfra_july2009.pdf]
WoodWisdom-Net 2 (2009-2012) [http://www.woodwisdom.net/]
Evaluation Question 3: Key Actions 6-7 (EU FAP Objective 2)
Meeting minutes of the SFC, AGFC and ISG on forestry.
Terms of Reference for the SFC ad hoc Working Group on climate change and forestry.
Work programme of the EU FAP 2007-2011 and the Work programmes of SFC 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Commission of the European Communities (2005) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and
the Committee of the Regions on Winning the Battle Against Global Climate Change.
COM(2005)35final, 9.2.2005.{SEC(2005) 180}
Commission of the European Communities (2006) Communication from the Commission on Halting
the Loss of Biodiversity by 2010 and beyond. Sustaining ecosystem services for human
well-being. COM(2006)216 final, 22.5.2006.
Commission of the European Communities (2006) Communication from the Commission to the
Council and the European Parliament on an EU Forest Action Plan, COM(2006) 302
final, 15.6.2006. {SEC(2006) 748}
Commission of the European Communities (2007) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and
the Committee of the Regions on Limiting Global Climate Change to 2 degrees Celsius:
The way ahead for 2020 and beyond. COM(2007) 2 final, 10.1.2007. {SEC(2007)
7}{SEC(2007) 8}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on 20 20 by 2020 Europe's climate change opportunity.
COM(2008) 30 final, 23.1.2008. {COM(2008) 13 final}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission Progress
Towards Achieving the Kyoto Objectives (required under Article 5 of Decision
280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a mechanism for
monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto
Protocol) COM(2008) 651 final/2 (corrigendum on EN version of COM(2008)651,
16.10.2008) {SEC(2008) 2636}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on A Mid-term Assessment of Implementing the EC
Biodiversity Action Plan. COM(2008) 864 final, 16.12.2008 with annexes {SEC(2008)
3042-3045}
Commission of the European Communities (2009) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on Towards a comprehensive climate change agreement in
Copenhagen. COM(2009) 39 final, 28.1.2009. {SEC(2009) 101} and {SEC(2009) 102}
Commission of the European Communities (2009) White Paper on Adapting to climate change:
Towards a European framework for action. COM(2009) 147 final, 1.4.2009. with
{SEC(2009) 386} {SEC(2009) 387} and {SEC(2009) 388}
European Economic and Social Committee (2009) Opinion of the European Economic and Social
Committee on The role of forests and the forest-based sector in meeting the EU's climate
commitments (Exploratory opinion). Rapporteur: Mr Kallio. Plenary session, 24-25 May
2009.

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European Environment Agency (2008) European Forests ecosystem conditions and sustainable use.
EEA Report 3/2008.
European Environment Agency (2009) Progress towards the European 2010 biodiversity target. EEA
Report No 4/2009.
European Parliament resolution of 4 February 2009 on 2050: The future begins today recommendations for the EUs future integrated policy on climate change
(2008/2105(INI)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) IPCC Fourth Assessment Report - Climate
Change 2007 (AR4).
Lindner, M., Garcia-Gonzalo, J., Kolstrm, M., Green, T., Reguera, R., Maroschek, M., Seidl, R.,
Lexer, M.J., Netherer, S., Schopf, A., Kremer, A., Delzon, S., Barbati, A., Marchetti, M.
and Corona, P. 2008. AGRI-2007-G4-06. Impacts of Climate Change on European
Forests and Options for Adaptation. Report to the European Commission DirectorateGeneral for Agriculture and Rural Development
[http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/analysis/external/euro_forests/full_report_en.pdf]
MCPFE (2007) State of Europes Forests 2007. The MCPFE Report on Sustainable Forest
Management in Europe. Jointly prepared by the MCPFE Liaison Unit Warsaw, UNECE
and FAO. Warsaw, 2007.
UNFCCC (1992) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations 1992.
[http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf]
UNFCCC (1998) Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
United Nations 1998. [http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf]
UNFCCC (2008) FCCC/KP/CMP/2008/9/Rev.1 Annual compilation and accounting report for Annex
B Parties under the Kyoto Protocol
[http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2008/cmp4/eng/09r01.pdf]
UNFCCC (2009) A compilation of proposals by Parties for aggregate and individual figures for
Annex I Parties, Non-paper by the Co-Chairs of the Contact Group on paragraphs 49 (a)
and (b) of the of the report of the AWG-KP at its resumed sixth session version of
120609 http://unfccc.int/files/kyoto_protocol/application/pdf/2nd_nonpaper_cg_numbers.pdf]
Workshops:
Informal meeting of EU Environment Ministers under the Slovenian Presidency, Brdo, Slovenia on
11-12 April 2008.
[http://www.eu2008.si/en/Meetings_Calendar/Dates/April/0411_ENV.html]
Websites:
Commission website on forestry measures [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/]
Commission website on climate change [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/home_en.htm]
Commission website of the Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural development
[http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/agriculture/index_en.htm]
Commission website of the Directorate General for Energy and Transport
[http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/energy_transport/index_en.htm]
Commission website of the Directorate General for Environment
[http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/environment/index_en.htm]
Commission website of the Directorate General for Enterprise and Industry
[http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/index_en.htm]
Convention on Biological Diversity [http://www.cbd.int/]
COST European Cooperation in Science and Technology: FPS Domain Forests, their Products and
Services [http://www.cost.esf.org/domains_actions/fps]
FP0703 Expected Climate Change and Options for European Silviculture (ECHOES); [http://www.gipecofor.org/publi/page.php?id=2&rang=0&domain=37&lang=en_GB]
FP0903 Climate Change and Forest Mitigation and Adaptation in a Polluted Environment
[http://w3.cost.esf.org/index.php?id=143&action_number=FP0903]
EU Biodiversity Action Plan

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[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/comm2006/index_en.htm]
EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) [http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/]
European Climate Change Programme (ECCP)
[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/eccp.htm]
European Environment Agency [http://www.eea.europa.eu/]
European Parliament: EP Intergroup on climate change and biodiversity EP/ICCB
[http://www.ebcd.org/ISDA1.html]
European Parliament: Former Temporary Committee on Climate Change CLIM
[http://www.europarl.europa.eu/activities/committees/staticDisplay.do?language=EN&i
d=180]
GreenForce Network [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/greenforce/index_en.htm]
JRC Forest [http://forest.jrc.ec.europa.eu/]
LIFE+ [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/funding/lifeplus.htm]
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol [http://unfccc.int/]
Evaluation Question 4: Key Actions 8-9 (EU FAP Objective 2)
Meeting minutes of the SFC, AGFC and ISG on forestry.
Work programme of the EU FAP 2007-2011 and the Work programmes of SFC 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Baltic-Nordic Forestry Statistic Project. Minutes of the Meetings.
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Report from the Commission to the Council and
the European Parliament on the implementation of the Forest Focus scheme according to
Regulation (EC) No 2152/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17
November 2003 concerning monitoring of forests and environmental interactions in the
Community (Forest Focus). COM(2008) 6 final, 22.1.2008 and the annexed Commission
Staff Working Document {SEC(2008) 30}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
European Parliament and the Council on Reinforcing the Union's Disaster Response
Capacity. COM(2008) 130 final, 5.3.2008.
Commission of the European Communities (2009) Communication from the Commission to the
European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and
the Committee of the Regions on A Community approach on the prevention of natural
and man-made disasters. COM(2009) 82 final, 23.2.2009.
European Commission (2009) Report on implementation of Forestry Measures under the Rural
Development Regulation 1698/2005 for the period 2007-2013. DG Agriculture and rural
Development, H.4, March 2009.
[http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/publi/forestry_rurdev_2007_2013_en.pdf]
Mateus, P., 2008: Forest fires: global challenge, local solutions, Presentation at the OPEN-DAYS
Workshop Prevention of natural and man-made disasters: global challenge, local
solutions Open Days European Week of Regions and Cities, Brussels, 6-9 October
2008
Regulation (EC) No 2152/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003
concerning monitoring of forests and environmental interactions in the Community
(Forest Focus) (OJ L 324, 11.12.2003, p. 1-8)
Requardt, A. (2007): Pan-European Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management:
Networking Structures and Data Potentials of International Data Sources, PhD Thesis,
University of Hamburg (UHH), Institute for World Forestry, p.228 [ http://www.sub.unihamburg.de/opus/volltexte/2007/3430/]
Requardt, A., Khl, M., Schuck, A., Poker, J., Janse, G., Mavsar, R., Pivinen, R., (2007): Feasibility
Study on means of combating forest dieback in the European Union, EC DG ENV

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Contract (070102110004/2006/449050/MAR/B1), Brussels, p. 79 + Annex I, II, III.


[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/fpolicies.htm]
Workshops:
Symposium on Fire Management in Cultural and Natural Landscapes, Nature Conservation and
Forestry in Temperate-Boreal Eurasia. The Eurasian Fire in Nature Conservation Network
(EFNCN).
Freiburg,
Germany,
25-27
January
2008.
[http://www.fire.unifreiburg.de/programmes/natcon/EFNCN-meetings-1-2008.html]
Workshop on Forest Fires in the Mediterranean Region: Prevention and Regional Cooperation.
Sabaudia, Italy, 13-15 May 2008. Report. Workshop organised by Corpo Forestale dello
Stato (CFS) of Italy and FAO, with the support of the Silva Mediterranea Working
Group on Forest Fires and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission
in Ispra, Italy. [http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/k2891e/K2891E00.htm]
Stakeholders Meetings on Disaster Prevention: Brussels, 19-21 May 2008, three focus group
meetings, respectively on the economic impacts of prevention, on environmental
disasters, in particular forest fires, and on vulnerability assessment and Brussels, 27 April
2009 [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/civil/stakeholders_0408.htm]
Websites:
Commission website on forestry measures [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/]
Commission website of forest monitoring
[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/fmonitoring.htm]
COST European Cooperation in Science and Technology: FPS Domain Forests, their Products and
Services [http://www.cost.esf.org/domains_actions/fps]
COST E43 Harmonisation of National Inventories in Europe: Techniques for Common Reporting
[http://www.metla.fi/eu/cost/e43/]
COST FP0701 Post-Fire Forest Management in Southern Europe [http://uaeco.biol.uoa.gr/cost/]
EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) [http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/]
EU Project (FP6) Fire Paradox [http://www.fireparadox.org/]
EU Project (FP7) Novel Tree Breeding Strategies (NovelTree) [http://www.noveltree.eu]
EU Project (FP7) PRATIQUE: Enhancements of pest risk analysis techniques
[https://secure.csl.gov.uk/pratique/index.cfm]
EU Project (Life+) FutMon [http://futmon.org/]
European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC) [http://efdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/]
European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) [http://effis.jrc.it]
European Forest Information and Communication Platform (EFICP)
[http://eficp.jrc.ec.europa.eu/EFICP/]
JRC Forest [http://forest.jrc.ec.europa.eu/]
GreenForce Network [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/greenforce/index_en.htm]
LIFE+ [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/funding/lifeplus.htm]
Study on How to protect forest against harmful impacts (2008-2009, study commissioned by DG
ENV) [http://portal.uni-freiburg.de/ifp/FuU-en/research-en/projecten/euneu/view?set_language=en]
Evaluation Question 5: Key Actions 10-12 (EU FAP Objective 3)
Meeting minutes of the SFC, AGFC and ISG on forestry.
Work programme of the EU FAP 2007-2011 and the Work programmes of SFC 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Finnish Forest Research Institute: Welfare Effects of Forests 2008-2012 A research programme by the
Finnish Forest Research Institute, Metla [http://www.metla.fi/ohjelma/hyv/esite-en.pdf]

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Janse, G., Konijnendijk, C.C. (2007) Communication between science, policy and citizens in public
participation in urban forestry - Experiences from the Neighbourwoods project. Urban
Forestry & Urban Greening 6 (1): 23-40.
Konijnendijk, C.C., Nielsen, A.B., Schipperijn, J., Rosenblad, Y., Sander, H., Sarv, M., Mkinen, K.,
Tyrvinen, L., Donis, J., Gundersen, V., kerlund U. and Gustavsson, R. (2007)
Assessment of urban forestry research and research needs in Nordic and Baltic countries
in Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Volume 6, Issue 4, 15 November 2007, Pages 297309.
UNECE/FAO Forest Communicators Network (2008) FCN Mandate 2008 to 2013. Proposal of
Bilbao, 15 May 2008 [http://www.unece.org/timber/pr/docs/2008-draft-mandate.pdf]
Websites:
Commission website on forestry measures [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/]
Cost actions database [http://www.cost.esf.org/domains_actions/all_actions]
COST E33 Forests for Recreation and Nature Tourism
[http://www.openspace.eca.ac.uk/coste33/welcome.htm]
COST E39 Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing [http://www.e39.ee/]
EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) [http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/]
European Forum on Urban Forestry (EFUF) [http://www.efuf.org/]
European Network for Qualification in Forestry [http://www.enquafor.com/]
Interreg IVC projects [http://www.interreg4c.net/Projects.html] other INTERREG projects (20002006 and 2007-2013) from programme-specific webpages [further information from
http://www.interact-eu.net/etc/4]
Leonardo da Vinci project and product portal ADAM [http://www.adam-europe.eu/]
Life projects database [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm]
LIFE+ [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/funding/lifeplus.htm]
UNECE/FAO Forest Communicators Network [http://timber.unece.org/index.php?id=95]
Evaluation Question 6: Key Action 13 (EU FAP Objective 4)
Meeting minutes of the SFC, AGFC and ISG on forestry.
Work programme of the EU FAP 2007-2011 and the Work programmes of SFC 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Commission Decision (97/837/EC) of 9 December 1997 amending Decision 83/247/EEC setting up a
committee on Community policy regarding forestry and forestry-based industries. (OJ L
346, 17.12.1997, p. 95)
Council Decision (89/367/EEC) of 29 May 1989 setting up a Standing Forestry Committee. (OJ L
165, 15.6.1989, p. 14-15)
Commission Decision (2004/391/EC) of 23 April 2004 on the advisory groups dealing with matters
covered by the common agricultural policy. (OJ L 120, 24.4.2004, p. 50-60)
Websites:
Advisory Committee on Community Policy regarding forestry and forest based industries, meeting in
April 2009 [http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/forest_based/advisory_committee.html]
Commission website on forestry measures [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/]
Commission website on transparency, incl. register of comitology and register of expert groups
[http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/index_en.htm]
Council of the European Union [http://www.consilium.europa.eu/]
Council of the European Union document register
[http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=1279&lang=EN]
European Parliament document register
[http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegWeb/application/registre/advancedSearch.faces]

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EUR-LEX [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/]
EUR-LEX Process and players.
[http://eur-lex.europa.eu/en/droit_communautaire/droit_communautaire.htm]
Evaluation Question 7: Key Action 14 (EU FAP Objective 4)
Meeting minutes of the SFC, AGFC and ISG on forestry.
Work programme of the EU FAP 2007-2011 and the Work programmes of SFC 2007, 2008 and 2009.
List of contact persons in Commission DGs (SFC meeting materials 2007)
Commission internal documents and information
Websites:
Commission website on forestry measures [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/]
Commission website on transparency, incl. register of comitology and register of expert groups
[http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/index_en.htm]
Commission Directory [http://ec.europa.eu/staffdir/plsql/gsys_page.display_index?pLang=EN]
Evaluation Question 8: Key Actions 15 and 17 (EU FAP Objective 4)
Meeting minutes of the SFC, AGFC and ISG on forestry.
Work programme of the EU FAP 2007-2011 and the Work programmes of SFC 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Commission of the European Communities (2001) European Governance A White paper
COM(2001) 428, 25.7.2001
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Proposal for a Directive of the European
Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable
sources (presented by the Commission). COM(2008) 19 final, 23.1.2008, 2008/0016
(COD). {COM(2008) 30 final} {SEC(2008) 57} and {SEC(2008) 85}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
Council and the European Parliament on innovative and sustainable forest-based
industries in the EU. A contribution to the EU's Growth and Jobs Strategy. COM(2008)
113 final, 27.2.2008. {SEC(2008) 262}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and
the Committee of the Regions on Public procurement for a better environment.
COM(2008) 400 final, 16.7.2008. {SEC(2008) 2124} {SEC(2008) 2125} and
{SEC(2008) 2126}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on Addressing the challenges of deforestation and forest
degradation to tackle climate change and biodiversity loss COM(2008) 645 final,
17.10.2008 with annexes {SEC(2008) 2618-2620}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Proposal for a Regulation of the European
Parliament and of the Council on laying down the obligations of operators who place
timber and timber products on the market (presented by the Commission). COM(2008)
644 final, 17.10.2008. 2008/0198 (COD). With {SEC(2008) 2615} and {SEC(2008)
2616}

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Plzl, Helga and Nussbaumer, Eva (2006) Study about "Modes of governance" for European Forest
Policy (coordination, co-operation, and communication) University of Natural Resources
and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, Institute of Forest, Environmental, and Natural
Resource Policy, Department of Economics and Social Sciences for the Federal Ministry
of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management of Austria.
Workshops:
Conference on Setting criteria for sustainable timber in public procurement in Copenhagen, 7-8 April
2008 organised by the Danish Ministry of Environment together with the Commission.
Presentations available at:
[http://www.skovognatur.dk/International/English/Forestry/Presentations.htm]
FLEGT Industry Information Meeting, in Brussels, 4 December 2008 arranged by the Commission
[http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/forest_based/news_en.html#flegt]
Workshop on Public Procurement Policy on Wood and Wood-based Products in Brussels, 13 June
2008 organised by the Commission.
Websites:
Commission web site on forest-based industries
[http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/forest_based/index_en.html]
Commission website on forestry measures [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/]
Commission website on forests [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/home_en.htm]
Commission web site on Green Public procurement GPP
[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/gpp/index_en.htm]
Commission website on Investing in European research: Open Method of Coordination
[http://ec.europa.eu/invest-in-research/coordination/coordination01_en.htm]
Commission website on Public Procurement legislation
[http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/publicprocurement/legislation_en.htm]
European Union Eco-label web site
[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/index_en.htm]
Ministerial Conference on Protection of Forests (MCPFE) Working Group on exploring the potential
added value of and possible options for a legally binding agreement (LBA) on forests in
the pan-European region [http://www.mcpfe.org/]
United Nations Forum of Forests (UNFF) ad hoc expert groups
[http://www.un.org/esa/forests/adhoc.html]
Evaluation Question 9: Key Action 16 (EU FAP Objective 4)
Meeting minutes of the SFC, AGFC and ISG on forestry.
Work programme of the EU FAP 2007-2011 and the Work programmes of SFC 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Commission of the European Communities (2007) Communication from the Commission to the
Council concerning the European Community's participation in the fifth Ministerial
Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (Warsaw, 5-7 November 2007).
COM(2007) 597 final, 12.10.2007.
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on Addressing the challenges of deforestation and forest
degradation to tackle climate change and biodiversity loss COM(2008) 645 final,
17.10.2008 with annexes {SEC(2008) 2618-2620}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Proposal for a Regulation of the European
Parliament and of the Council on laying down the obligations of operators who place
timber and timber products on the market (presented by the Commission). COM(2008)

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644 final, 17.10.2008. 2008/0198 (COD). With {SEC(2008) 2615} and {SEC(2008)
2616}
Websites:
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Forests [http://www.cbd.int/forest/]
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
[www.cites.org]
Commission website on forestry measures [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/]
Commission website on forests [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/home_en.htm]
Council of the European Union document register
[http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=1279&lang=EN]
European and Mediterranean Plant protection Organisation (EPPO) [http://www.eppo.org]
European Parliament document register
[http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegWeb/application/registre/advancedSearch.faces]
FAO Committee on Forests COFO [http://www.fao.org/forestry/37836/en/]
Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [www.ipcc.ch]
Ministerial Conference on Protection of Forests MCPFE [http://www.mcpfe.org/]
UNECE Timber Committee [http://timber.unece.org/index.php?id=2]
UNECE/FAO Teams of Specialists [http://timber.unece.org/index.php?id=145]
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) [http://www.unccd.int/main.php]
United Nations Forum of Forests UNFF [http://www.un.org/esa/forests/]
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
[http://unfccc.int/meetings/items/2654.php]
Evaluation Question 10: Key Action 18 (EU FAP Objective 4)
Janse G. (2007) Communication in forest policy decision-making in Europe: a study on
communication processes between policy, science and the public University of Joensuu,
Faculty of Forest Sciences, Academic dissertation. Dissertationes Forestales 48/2007.
Rametsteiner, E. and Kraxner, F. (2003) Europeans and Their Forests - What Do Europeans Think
About Forests and Sustainable Forest Management? A Review of Representative Public
Opinion Surveys in Europe. MCPFE 2003.
Rametsteiner, E., Oberwimmer, R. and Gschwandtl I. (2007) Europeans and Wood What Do
Europeans Think About Wood and its Uses? A Review of Consumer and Business
Surveys in Europe. MCPFE 2007
UNECE/FAO Forest Communicators' Network (2008) Best Practices in Forest Communication,
Edited G. Janse. June 2008.
Events:
European Forest Week web site [http://www.europeanforestweek.org/home/en/]
Forest Day 3 web site [http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/events/forestday3]
Green Week web site [http://greenweek2009.alligence.com/home.html]
International Year of Forests 2011 [http://www.un.org/esa/forests/2011/2011.html]
UNECE/FAO Forest Communicators' Network (FCN) Workshop in Support of the EU Forest Action
Plan Taking us out of the woods Communication on Forests and Forestry, June 3-5,
2009
Websites:
Commission web site on forest-based industries
[http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/forest_based/index_en.html]
Commission website on forest and illegal logging
[http://ec.europa.eu/development/policies/9interventionareas/environment/forest/forestry
_intro_en.cfm]

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Commission website on forestry measures [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/]


Commission website on forests [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/home_en.htm]
Commission website on Seeds and Plant Propagating Material Forests
[http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/propagation/forestry/index_en.htm]
European Forest Information and Communication Platform (EFICP)
[http://eficp.jrc.ec.europa.eu/EFICP/]
Eurostat: forestry statistics [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/forestry/introduction]
JRC Forest [http://forest.jrc.ec.europa.eu/]
UNECE/FAO Forest Communicators' Network (FCN) [http://timber.unece.org/index.php?id=95 incl.
publications and products available at
http://www.unece.org/timber/pr/publist/pubslist.htm]
Evaluation Question 11: Relevance of the EU FAP
Commission of the European Communities (1988) Commission Communication on Community
Strategy and Action Programme for the Forestry Sector. COM(88) 255 final, 11.11.1988.
Commission of the European Communities (1998) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on A Forestry Staretgy for the European Union. COM(1998)
649 final, 18.11.1998.
Commission of the European Communities (2001) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on the sixth environment action programme of the European
Community 'Environment 2010: Our future, Our choice' - The Sixth Environment Action
Programme. Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on
Laying down the Community Environment Action Programme 2001-2010 (Presented by
the Commission). COM (2001) 31 final, 24.1.2001. 2001/0029 (COD).
Commission of the European Communities (2003) Communication from the Commission to the
Council and the European Parliament on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and
Trade (FLEGT). Proposal for an EU Action Plan.COM (2003) 251 final, 21.5.2003.
Commission of the European Communities (2005) Communication from the Commission to the
Council and the European Parliament on Reporting on the implementation of the EU
Forestry Strategy. COM(2005) 84 final, 10.3.2005, with annexed Commission Staff
working document {SEC(2005) 333}.
Commission of the European Communities (2005) Communication from the Commission on Biomass
action plan. COM(2005) 628 final, 7.12.2005. {SEC(2005) 1573}
Commission of the European Communities (2005) Communication from the Commission to the
Council and the European Parliament on the review of the Sustainable Development
Strategy. A platform for action. COM(2005) 658 final, 13.12.2005.
Commission of the European Communities (2006) Communication from the Commission on Halting
the Loss of Biodiversity by 2010 and beyond. Sustaining ecosystem services for human
well-being. COM(2006)216 final, 22.5.2006.
Commission of the European Communities (2006) Communication from the Commission to the
Council and the European Parliament on an EU Forest Action Plan, COM(2006) 302
final, 15.6.2006; with Commission Staff Working Document. Annex to the
Communication on an EU Forest Action Plan {SEC(2006) 748}
Commission of the European Communities (2007) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on the Mid-term review of the Sixth Community Environment
Action Programme COM(2007) 225 final, 30.4.2007.
Commission of the European Communities (2007) Green Paper from the Commission to the Council,
the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the

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Regions on Adapting to climate change in Europe options for EU action. COM(2007)


354 final, 29.6.2007. {SEC(2007) 849}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on 20 20 by 2020 Europe's climate change opportunity.
COM(2008) 30 final, 23.1.2008. {COM(2008) 13 final} {COM(2008) 16 final}
{COM(2008) 17 final} {COM(2008) 18 final} {COM(2008) 19 final}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Proposal for a Directive of the European
Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable
sources (presented by the Commission). COM(2008) 19 final, 23.1.2008, 2008/0016
(COD). {COM(2008) 30 final} {SEC(2008) 57} and {SEC(2008) 85}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
Council and the European Parliament on innovative and sustainable forest-based
industries in the EU. A contribution to the EU's Growth and Jobs Strategy. COM(2008)
113 final, 27.2.2008. {SEC(2008) 262}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and
the Committee of the Regions on Public procurement for a better environment.
COM(2008) 400 final, 16.7.2008. {SEC(2008) 2124} {SEC(2008) 2125} and
{SEC(2008) 2126}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on Addressing the challenges of deforestation and forest
degradation to tackle climate change and biodiversity loss COM(2008) 645 final,
17.10.2008 with annexes {SEC(2008) 2618-2620}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Proposal for a Regulation of the European
Parliament and of the Council on laying down the obligations of operators who place
timber and timber products on the market (presented by the Commission). COM(2008)
644 final, 17.10.2008. 2008/0198 (COD). With {SEC(2008) 2615} and {SEC(2008)
2616}
Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on A Mid-term Assessment of Implementing the EC
Biodiversity Action Plan. COM(2008) 864 final, 16.12.2008 with annexes {SEC(2008)
3042-3045}
Commission of the European Communities (2009) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on Towards a comprehensive climate change agreement in
Copenhagen. COM(2009) 39 final, 28.1.2009. {SEC(2009) 101} and {SEC(2009) 102}
Commission of the European Communities (2009) White Paper on Adapting to climate change:
Towards a European framework for action. COM(2009) 147 final, 1.4.2009. with
{SEC(2009) 386} {SEC(2009) 387} and {SEC(2009) 388}
Commission of the European Communities (2009) Communication from the Commission to the
Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the
Committee of the Regions on Mainstreaming sustainable development into EU policies:
2009 Review of the European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development. COM(2009)
400 final, 24.7.2009
Commission Decision (97/837/EC) of 9 December 1997 amending Decision 83/247/EEC setting up a
committee on Community policy regarding forestry and forestry-based industries. (OJ L
346, 17.12.1997, p. 95)
Commission Decision (2004/391/EC) of 23 April 2004 on the advisory groups dealing with matters
covered by the common agricultural policy. (OJ L 120, 24.4.2004, p. 50-60)
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1857/2006 of 15 December 2006 on the application of Articles 87
and 88 of the Treaty to State aid to small and medium-sized enterprises active in the

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production of agricultural products and amending Regulation (EC) No 70/2001. OJ L


358 of 16.12.2006, p. 3-20)
Commission: Community guidelines for state aid in the agriculture and forestry sector 2007 to 2013
(OJ C 319 of 27.12.2006, p.1-33).
Committee of Regions (2006) Opinion of the Committee of the regions on the Commission
Communication on the implementation of the EU Forestry Strategy (OJ C 115,
16.5.2006, p. 84-87).
Council conclusions on an EU Forest Action Plan (Agriculture and Fisheries Council on May 30 and
31, 2005) [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/publi/2005_council_conclusions.pdf]
Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds. (OJ L 103,
25.4.1979, p. 1-18)
Council Decision (89/367/EEC) of 29 May 1989 setting up a Standing Forestry Committee. (OJ L
165, 15.6.1989, p. 14-15)
Council Directive 91/414/EEC of 15 July 1991 concerning the placing of plant protection products on
the market. ( OJ L 230, 19.8.1991, p. 1-32)
Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild
fauna and flora. (OJ L 206, 22.7.1992, p. 7).
Council Directive 1999/105/EC of 22 December 1999 on the marketing of forest reproductive
material. (OJ L 11, 15.1.2000, p.17-40)
Council Directive 2000/29/EC of 8 May 2000 on protective measures against the introduction into the
Community of organisms harmful to plants or plant products and against their spread
within the Community. (OJ L 169, 10.7.2000, p. 1)
Council Regulation (EC) No 322/97 of 17 February 1997 on Community Statistics.
Council Regulation (EC) No 980/2005 of 27 June 2005 applying a scheme of generalised tariff
preferences. (OJ L 169, 30.6.2005, p.1-43)
Council Regulation (EC) No 1698/2005 of 20 September 2005 on support for rural development by
the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD), OJ L 277 of
21.10.2005, p. 1-40.
Council Regulation (EC) No 2173/2005 of 20 December 2005 on the establishment of a FLEGT
licensing scheme for imports of timber into the European Community (OJ L 347,
30.12.2005, p. 1-6)
Council Regulation (EC) No 732/2008 of 22 July 2008 applying a scheme of generalised tariff
preferences for the period from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2011 and amending
Regulations (EC) No 552/97, (EC) No 1933/2006 and Commission Regulations (EC) No
1100/2006 and (EC) No 964/2007. (OJ L 21, 6.8.2008, p. 1-39)
Council Resolution on a Forestry Strategy for the European Union, 15 December 1998, (1999/C 56/01)
[http://eur-lex.europa.eu/pri/en/oj/dat/1999/c_056/c_05619990226en00010004.pdf]
Decision No 1600/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2002 laying
down the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme (OJ L 242, 10.9.2002).
Decision No 1982/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006
concerning the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community for
research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007-2013) (OJ L
412, 30.12.2006, p.1-41)
Decision No 1578/2007/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2007 on
the Community statistical programme 2008 to 2012 (OJ L 344, 28.12.2007, p. 15-43)
Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing
a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (OJ L 327, 22.12.2000, p.
1-73)
Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the
promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently
repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC (OJ L 140, 5.6.2009, p. 16-62)
European Commission (2009) Report on implementation of Forestry Measures under the Rural
Development Regulation 1698/2005 for the period 2007-2013. DG Agriculture and Rural
Development, H.4, March 2009.
[http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/publi/forestry_rurdev_2007_2013_en.pdf]

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European Council (2006) Renewed EU Sustainable Development Strategy. Adopted by the European
Council on 15/16 June 2006. European Council DOC 10917/06
European Economic and Social Committee (2006) Opinion of the European Economic and Social
Committee on the Commission Communication to the Council and to the European
Parliament Reporting on the implementation of the EU Forestry Strategy (OJ C 28,
3.2.2006 p. 57-65)
European Economic and Social Committee (2006) Opinion of the European Economic and Social
Committee on the Commission Communication to the Council and to the European
Parliament on an EU Forest Action Plan (OJ C 324, 30.12.2006, p. 29-22)
European Environment Agency (2008) European Forests ecosystem conditions and sustainable use.
EEA Report 3/2008.
European Parliament (1997): Report on the European Unions forestry strategy. Rapporteur: David E.
Thomas, Committee on Agriculture and Rural development, 18.12.1996 (A4-0414/96).
European Parliament (2006): Report on the implementation of a European Union forestry strategy
(2005/2054(INI)). Rapporteur: Heinz Kindermann, Committee on Agriculture and Rural
development, 31.1.2006 (A6-0015/2006).
European Parliament Fact Sheets (2008) Forestry policy: The European Forestry Strategy: Framework
& Principles and Action.
[http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/expert/displayFtu.do?language=EN&id=74
&ftuId=index.html]
Lazdinis, M., Zimmermann, W. and Van de Velde, J. (2005): Participation in EU Forest governance:
Present institutional framework and a path for improvement. Paper presented in 2005
Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change
International Organisations and Global Environmental Governance, 2-3 December
2005, Berlin.
[http://web.fu-berlin.de/ffu/akumwelt/bc2005/papers/lazdinis_zimmermann_van-develde_bc2005.pdf]
Lazdinis, M. (2008): From the EU Forestry Strategy to the EU Forest Action Plan. Presentation in the
VI Forum on Forest Policy: Forests and Society in a Global Change Framework
Challenges and Opportunities, 4-6 November 2008, Solsona (Lleida, Spain).
[http://www.ctfc.es/forumpf08/docs/31ArticleLazdinisENG.pdf]
MCPFE (2007) State of Europes Forests 2007. The MCPFE Report on Sustainable Forest
Management in Europe. Jointly prepared by the MCPFE Liaison Unit Warsaw, UNECE
and FAO. Warsaw, 2007.
Plzl, Helga and Nussbaumer, Eva (2006) Study about "Modes of governance" for European Forest
Policy (coordination, co-operation, and communication) University of Natural Resources
and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, Institute of Forest, Environmental, and Natural
Resource Policy, Department of Economics and Social Sciences for the Federal Ministry
of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management of Austria.
Regulation (EC) 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 February 2005 on
maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin
and amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC. (OJ L 70, 16.3.2005, p. 1-16)
Regulation (EC) No 1080/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2006 on the
European Regional Development Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1783/1999.
(OJ L 210, 31.7.2006, p.1-11)
Regulation (EC) No 1905/2006 of the European Parliament and the Council of 18 December 2006
establishing a financing instrument for development cooperation. (OJ L 378, 27.12.2006,
p. 41-71)
Regulation (EC) No 614/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 May 2007
concerning the Financial Instrument for the Environment (LIFE+) (OJ L 149, 9.6.2007,
p. 1-17)
Rey, G. and Mah, M. (2005). Perspectives pour la stratgie forestire europenne Office National des
Forts, France. A study for the European Parliament Committee of Agriculture and Rural
Development. Full text in French, summary e.g. in English: Forest Strategy Outlook.

Mid-term evaluation of the implementation of the EU Forest Action Plan


Annexes of the final report Annex 6: List of materials

103

Websites
Commission web site on forest-based industries
[http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/forest_based/index_en.html]
Commission website on forestry measures [http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fore/]
Commission website on forests [http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/home_en.htm]
Convention on Biological Diversity [http://www.cbd.int/]
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
[http://www.cites.org/]
Council of the European Union document register
[http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=1279&lang=EN]
European Economic and Social Committee document register
[http://europa.eu/documents/eesc/index_en.htm]
European Parliament document register
[http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegWeb/application/registre/advancedSearch.faces]
Eurostat [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home]
EUR-LEX [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/]
FAO forest facts by country [http://www.fao.org/forestry/country/en/]
Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe MCPFE [http://www.mcpfe.org/]
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol [http://unfccc.int/]
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification [http://www.unccd.int/]
UNECE/FAO Timber section [http://timber.unece.org/index.php?id=2]
UNECE/FAO Forest Products Annual Market Reviews [http://www.unece.org/timber/mis/fpama.htm]
Statistics (ref. report Chapter 2)
Eurostat (2007) Forestry Statistics 2007 edition. Eurostat Pocket books.
Eurostat (2008) Production and trade of wood products in 2006. Eurostat statistics in focus 48/2008.
Eurostat (2008) Forest-based industries in the EU-27. Eurostat statistics in focus 74/2008.
Eurostat (2008) STAT/08/146, 20 October 2008 (press release in relation to the European Forest
Week 20-24 October 2008)
FAO (2006). Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. Main Report. FAO, Rome.
[http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra2005/en/]
MCPFE (2007) State of Europes Forests 2007. The MCPFE Report on Sustainable Forest
Management in Europe. Jointly prepared by the MCPFE Liaison Unit Warsaw, UNECE
and FAO. Warsaw, 2007.
MCPFE (2002) Relevant Definitions used. MCPFE Advisory Group Recommendations for Improved
Pan-European Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management (Supplement 2 to ELM
June 02 Document 8). Expert level Meeting, 10-11 June 2002, Vienna Austria.
[http://www.mcpfe.org/system/files/u1/meetings/02/06elm/Relevant_definitions.pdf]
UNECE/FAO (2009) Forest Products, Annual Market Review. Jointly prepared by UNECE and FAO,
New York and Geneva. [http://timber.unece.org/index.php?id=208]