Sei sulla pagina 1di 20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Listofcognitivebiases
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Cognitivebiasesaretendenciestothinkincertainwaysthatcanleadtosystematicdeviationsfroma
standardofrationalityorgoodjudgment,andareoftenstudiedinpsychologyandbehavioraleconomics.
Althoughtherealityofthesebiasesisconfirmedbyreplicableresearch,thereareoftencontroversiesabout
howtoclassifythesebiasesorhowtoexplainthem.[1]Someareeffectsofinformationprocessingrules
(i.e.,mentalshortcuts),calledheuristics,thatthebrainusestoproducedecisionsorjudgments.Sucheffects
arecalledcognitivebiases.[2][3]Biaseshaveavarietyofformsandappearascognitive("cold")bias,suchas
mentalnoise,[4]ormotivational("hot")bias,suchaswhenbeliefsaredistortedbywishfulthinking.Both
effectscanbepresentatthesametime.[5][6]
Therearealsocontroversiesastowhethersomeofthesebiasescountasuseless,irrationalorwhetherthey
resultinusefulattitudesorbehavior.Forexample,whengettingtoknowothers,peopletendtoaskleading
questionswhichseembiasedtowardsconfirmingtheirassumptionsabouttheperson.Thiskindof
confirmationbiashasbeenarguedtobeanexampleofsocialskill:awaytoestablishaconnectionwiththe
otherperson.[7]
Theresearchonthesebiasesoverwhelminglyinvolveshumansubjects.However,someofthefindingshave
appearedinnonhumananimalsaswell.Forexample,hyperbolicdiscountinghasbeenobservedinrats,
pigeons,andmonkeys.[8]

Contents
1 Decisionmaking,belief,andbehavioralbiases
2 Socialbiases
3 Memoryerrorsandbiases
4 Commontheoreticalcausesofsomecognitivebiases
5 Individualdifferencesindecisionmakingbiases
6 Debiasing
7 Seealso
8 Notes
9 References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

1/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Decisionmaking,belief,andbehavioralbiases
Manyofthesebiasesaffectbeliefformation,businessandeconomicdecisions,andhumanbehaviorin
general.Theyariseasareplicableresulttoaspecificcondition:whenconfrontedwithaspecificsituation,
thedeviationfromwhatisnormallyexpectedcanbecharacterizedby:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

2/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Name

Description

Ambiguityeffect

Thetendencytoavoidoptionsforwhichmissinginformationmakesthe
probabilityseem"unknown".[9]

Anchoringorfocalism

Thetendencytorelytooheavily,or"anchor",ononetraitorpieceof
informationwhenmakingdecisions(usuallythefirstpieceofinformationthat
weacquireonthatsubject)[10][11]

Anthropomorphism

Thetendencytocharacterizeanimals,objects,andabstractconceptsas
possessinghumanliketraits,emotions,andintentions.[12]

Attentionalbias

Thetendencyofourperceptiontobeaffectedbyourrecurringthoughts.[13]

Automationbias

Thetendencytoexcessivelydependonautomatedsystemswhichcanleadto
erroneousautomatedinformationoverridingcorrectdecisions.[14]

Availabilityheuristic

Thetendencytooverestimatethelikelihoodofeventswithgreater
"availability"inmemory,whichcanbeinfluencedbyhowrecentthememories
areorhowunusualoremotionallychargedtheymaybe.[15]

Availabilitycascade

Aselfreinforcingprocessinwhichacollectivebeliefgainsmoreandmore
plausibilitythroughitsincreasingrepetitioninpublicdiscourse(or"repeat
somethinglongenoughanditwillbecometrue").[16]

Backfireeffect

Whenpeoplereacttodisconfirmingevidencebystrengtheningtheirbeliefs.[17]

Bandwagoneffect

Thetendencytodo(orbelieve)thingsbecausemanyotherpeopledo(or
believe)thesame.Relatedtogroupthinkandherdbehavior.[18]

Baseratefallacyor
Baserateneglect

Thetendencytoignorebaserateinformation(generic,generalinformation)and
focusonspecificinformation(informationonlypertainingtoacertaincase).[19]

Beliefbias

Aneffectwheresomeone'sevaluationofthelogicalstrengthofanargumentis
biasedbythebelievabilityoftheconclusion.[20]

Biasblindspot

Thetendencytoseeoneselfaslessbiasedthanotherpeople,ortobeableto
identifymorecognitivebiasesinothersthaninoneself.[21]

Cheerleadereffect

Thetendencyforpeopletoappearmoreattractiveinagroupthanin
isolation.[22]

Choicesupportivebias

Thetendencytorememberone'schoicesasbetterthantheyactuallywere.[23]

Clusteringillusion

Thetendencytooverestimatetheimportanceofsmallruns,streaks,orclusters
inlargesamplesofrandomdata(thatis,seeingphantompatterns).[11]

Confirmationbias

Thetendencytosearchfor,interpret,focusonandrememberinformationina
waythatconfirmsone'spreconceptions.[24]

Congruencebias

Thetendencytotesthypothesesexclusivelythroughdirecttesting,insteadof
testingpossiblealternativehypotheses.[11]

Conjunctionfallacy

Thetendencytoassumethatspecificconditionsaremoreprobablethangeneral
ones.[25]

Regressivebias

Acertainstateofmindwhereinhighvaluesandhighlikelihoodsare
overestimatedwhilelowvaluesandlowlikelihoodsare

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

3/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

underestimated.[4][26][27]
Conservatism
(Bayesian)

Thetendencytoreviseone'sbeliefinsufficientlywhenpresentedwithnew
evidence.[4][28][29]

Contrasteffect

Theenhancementorreductionofacertainperception'sstimuliwhencompared
witharecentlyobserved,contrastingobject.[30]

Curseofknowledge

Whenbetterinformedpeoplefinditextremelydifficulttothinkaboutproblems
fromtheperspectiveoflesserinformedpeople.[31]

Decoyeffect

PreferencesforeitheroptionAorBchangesinfavorofoptionBwhenoption
Cispresented,whichissimilartooptionBbutinnowaybetter.

Denominationeffect

Thetendencytospendmoremoneywhenitisdenominatedinsmallamounts
(e.g.,coins)ratherthanlargeamounts(e.g.,bills).[32]

Dispositioneffect

Thetendencytosellanassetthathasaccumulatedinvalueandresistsellingan
assetthathasdeclinedinvalue.

Distinctionbias

Thetendencytoviewtwooptionsasmoredissimilarwhenevaluatingthem
simultaneouslythanwhenevaluatingthemseparately.[33]

DunningKrugereffect

Thetendencyforunskilledindividualstooverestimatetheirownabilityandthe
tendencyforexpertstounderestimatetheirownability.[34]

Durationneglect

Theneglectofthedurationofanepisodeindeterminingitsvalue

Empathygap

Thetendencytounderestimatetheinfluenceorstrengthoffeelings,ineither
oneselforothers.

Endowmenteffect

Thetendencyforpeopletodemandmuchmoretogiveupanobjectthanthey
wouldbewillingtopaytoacquireit.[35]

Essentialism

Categorizingpeopleandthingsaccordingtotheiressentialnature,inspiteof
variations.[36]

Exaggerated
expectation

Basedontheestimates,realworldevidenceturnsouttobelessextremethan
ourexpectations(conditionallyinverseoftheconservatismbias).[4][37]

Experimenter'sor
expectationbias

Thetendencyforexperimenterstobelieve,certify,andpublishdatathatagree
withtheirexpectationsfortheoutcomeofanexperiment,andtodisbelieve,
discard,ordowngradethecorrespondingweightingsfordatathatappearto
conflictwiththoseexpectations.[38]

Focusingeffect

Thetendencytoplacetoomuchimportanceononeaspectofanevent.[39]

Theobservationthatindividualswillgivehighaccuracyratingstodescriptions
oftheirpersonalitythatsupposedlyaretailoredspecificallyforthem,butarein
ForereffectorBarnum factvagueandgeneralenoughtoapplytoawiderangeofpeople.Thiseffect
effect
canprovideapartialexplanationforthewidespreadacceptanceofsomebeliefs
andpractices,suchasastrology,fortunetelling,graphology,andsometypesof
personalitytests.
Framingeffect

Drawingdifferentconclusionsfromthesameinformation,dependingonhow
thatinformationispresented
Theillusioninwhichaword,aname,orotherthingthathasrecentlycometo
one'sattentionsuddenlyseemstoappearwithimprobablefrequencyshortly

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

4/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Frequencyillusion

afterwards(nottobeconfusedwiththerecencyillusionorselectionbias).[40]
Colloquially,thisillusionisknownastheBaaderMeinhofPhenomenon.[41]

Functionalfixedness

Limitsapersontousinganobjectonlyinthewayitistraditionallyused.

Gambler'sfallacy

Thetendencytothinkthatfutureprobabilitiesarealteredbypastevents,when
inrealitytheyareunchanged.Thefallacyarisesfromanerroneous
conceptualizationofthelawoflargenumbers.Forexample,"I'veflippedheads
withthiscoinfivetimesconsecutively,sothechanceoftailscomingoutonthe
sixthflipismuchgreaterthanheads."

Hardeasyeffect

Basedonaspecificleveloftaskdifficulty,theconfidenceinjudgmentsistoo
conservativeandnotextremeenough[4][42][43][44]

Hindsightbias

Sometimescalledthe"Iknewitallalong"effect,thetendencytoseepast
eventsasbeingpredictable[45]atthetimethoseeventshappened.

Hothandfallacy

The"hothandfallacy"(alsoknownasthe"hothandphenomenon"or"hot
hand")isthefallaciousbeliefthatapersonwhohasexperiencedsuccesshasa
greaterchanceoffurthersuccessinadditionalattempts.

Discountingisthetendencyforpeopletohaveastrongerpreferenceformore
immediatepayoffsrelativetolaterpayoffs.Hyperbolicdiscountingleadsto
choicesthatareinconsistentovertimepeoplemakechoicestodaythattheir
Hyperbolicdiscounting
futureselveswouldprefernottohavemade,despiteusingthesame
reasoning.[46]Alsoknownascurrentmomentbias,presentbias,andrelatedto
Dynamicinconsistency.
Identifiablevictim
effect

Thetendencytorespondmorestronglytoasingleidentifiedpersonatriskthan
toalargegroupofpeopleatrisk.[47]

IKEAeffect

Thetendencyforpeopletoplaceadisproportionatelyhighvalueonobjectsthat
theypartiallyassembledthemselves,suchasfurniturefromIKEA,regardless
ofthequalityoftheendresult.

Illusionofcontrol

Thetendencytooverestimateone'sdegreeofinfluenceoverotherexternal
events.[48]

Illusionofvalidity

Beliefthatfurtherlyacquiredinformationgeneratesadditionalrelevantdatafor
predictions,evenwhenitevidentlydoesnot.[49]

Illusorycorrelation

Inaccuratelyperceivingarelationshipbetweentwounrelatedevents.[50][51]

Impactbias

Thetendencytooverestimatethelengthortheintensityoftheimpactoffuture
feelingstates.[52]

Informationbias

Thetendencytoseekinformationevenwhenitcannotaffectaction.[53]

Insensitivitytosample
size

Thetendencytounderexpectvariationinsmallsamples

Irrationalescalation

Thephenomenonwherepeoplejustifyincreasedinvestmentinadecision,
basedonthecumulativepriorinvestment,despitenewevidencesuggestingthat
thedecisionwasprobablywrong.Alsoknownasthesunkcostfallacy.

Lessisbettereffect

Thetendencytopreferasmallersettoalargersetjudgedseparately,butnot
jointly

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

5/20

1/18/2016

Lossaversion

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

"thedisutilityofgivingupanobjectisgreaterthantheutilityassociatedwith
acquiringit".[54](seealsoSunkcosteffectsandendowmenteffect).

Mereexposureeffect

Thetendencytoexpressunduelikingforthingsmerelybecauseoffamiliarity
withthem.[55]

Moneyillusion

Thetendencytoconcentrateonthenominalvalue(facevalue)ofmoneyrather
thanitsvalueintermsofpurchasingpower.[56]

Moralcredentialeffect

Thetendencyofatrackrecordofnonprejudicetoincreasesubsequent
prejudice.

Negativityeffect

Thetendencyofpeople,whenevaluatingthecausesofthebehaviorsofa
persontheydislike,toattributetheirpositivebehaviorstotheenvironmentand
theirnegativebehaviorstotheperson'sinherentnature.

Negativitybias

Psychologicalphenomenonbywhichhumanshaveagreaterrecallof
unpleasantmemoriescomparedwithpositivememories.[57]

Neglectofprobability

Thetendencytocompletelydisregardprobabilitywhenmakingadecision
underuncertainty.[58]

Normalcybias

Therefusaltoplanfor,orreactto,adisasterwhichhasneverhappenedbefore.

Notinventedhere

Aversiontocontactwithoruseofproducts,research,standards,orknowledge
developedoutsideagroup.RelatedtoIKEAeffect.

Observerexpectancy
effect

Whenaresearcherexpectsagivenresultandthereforeunconsciously
manipulatesanexperimentormisinterpretsdatainordertofindit(seealso
subjectexpectancyeffect).

Omissionbias

Thetendencytojudgeharmfulactionsasworse,orlessmoral,thanequally
harmfulomissions(inactions).[59]

Optimismbias

Thetendencytobeoveroptimistic,overestimatingfavorableandpleasing
outcomes(seealsowishfulthinking,valenceeffect,positiveoutcome
bias).[60][61]

Ostricheffect

Ignoringanobvious(negative)situation.

Outcomebias

Thetendencytojudgeadecisionbyitseventualoutcomeinsteadofbasedon
thequalityofthedecisionatthetimeitwasmade.

Overconfidenceeffect

Excessiveconfidenceinone'sownanswerstoquestions.Forexample,for
certaintypesofquestions,answersthatpeoplerateas"99%certain"turnoutto
bewrong40%ofthetime.[4][62][63][64]

Pareidolia

Avagueandrandomstimulus(oftenanimageorsound)isperceivedas
significant,e.g.,seeingimagesofanimalsorfacesinclouds,themaninthe
moon,andhearingnonexistenthiddenmessagesonrecordsplayedinreverse.

Parkinson'sLawof
Triviality

Thetendencytogivedisproportionateweighttotrivialissues.Alsoknownas
bikeshedding,thisbiasexplainswhyanorganizationmayavoidspecializedor
complexsubjects,suchasthedesignofanuclearreactor,andinsteadfocuson
somethingeasytograsporrewardingtotheaverageparticipant,suchasthe
designofanadjacentbikeshed.[65]

Pessimismbias

Thetendencyforsomepeople,especiallythosesufferingfromdepression,to
overestimatethelikelihoodofnegativethingshappeningtothem.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

6/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Planningfallacy

Thetendencytounderestimatetaskcompletiontimes.[52]

Postpurchase
rationalization

Thetendencytopersuadeoneselfthroughrationalargumentthatapurchase
wasagoodvalue.

Proinnovationbias

Thetendencytohaveanexcessiveoptimismtowardsaninventionor
innovation'susefulnessthroughoutsociety,whileoftenfailingtoidentifyits
limitationsandweaknesses.

Pseudocertaintyeffect

Thetendencytomakeriskaversechoicesiftheexpectedoutcomeispositive,
butmakeriskseekingchoicestoavoidnegativeoutcomes.[66]

Reactance

Theurgetodotheoppositeofwhatsomeonewantsyoutodooutofaneedto
resistaperceivedattempttoconstrainyourfreedomofchoice(seealsoReverse
psychology).

Reactivedevaluation

Devaluingproposalsonlybecausetheypurportedlyoriginatedwithan
adversary.

Recencyillusion

Theillusionthatawordorlanguageusageisarecentinnovationwhenitisin
factlongestablished(seealsofrequencyillusion).

Restraintbias

Thetendencytooverestimateone'sabilitytoshowrestraintinthefaceof
temptation.

Rhymingstatementsareperceivedasmoretruthful.Afamousexamplebeing
Rhymeasreasoneffect usedintheO.JSimpsontrialwiththedefense'suseofthephrase"Ifthegloves
don'tfit,thenyoumustacquit."
Riskcompensation/
Peltzmaneffect

Thetendencytotakegreaterriskswhenperceivedsafetyincreases.

Selectiveperception

Thetendencyforexpectationstoaffectperception.

Semmelweisreflex

Thetendencytorejectnewevidencethatcontradictsaparadigm.[29]

Socialcomparisonbias

Thetendency,whenmakinghiringdecisions,tofavourpotentialcandidates
whodon'tcompetewithone'sownparticularstrengths.[67]

Socialdesirabilitybias

Thetendencytooverreportsociallydesirablecharacteristicsorbehavioursin
oneselfandunderreportsociallyundesirablecharacteristicsorbehaviours.[68]

Statusquobias

Thetendencytolikethingstostayrelativelythesame(seealsolossaversion,
endowmenteffect,andsystemjustification).[69][70]

Stereotyping

Expectingamemberofagrouptohavecertaincharacteristicswithouthaving
actualinformationaboutthatindividual.

Subadditivityeffect

Thetendencytojudgeprobabilityofthewholetobelessthantheprobabilities
oftheparts.[71]

Subjectivevalidation

Perceptionthatsomethingistrueifasubject'sbeliefdemandsittobetrue.Also
assignsperceivedconnectionsbetweencoincidences.

Survivorshipbias

Concentratingonthepeopleorthingsthat"survived"someprocessand
inadvertentlyoverlookingthosethatdidn'tbecauseoftheirlackofvisibility.

Timesavingbias

Underestimationsofthetimethatcouldbesaved(orlost)whenincreasing(or
decreasing)fromarelativelylowspeedandoverestimationsofthetimethat
couldbesaved(orlost)whenincreasing(ordecreasing)fromarelativelyhigh
speed.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

7/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Unitbias

Thetendencytowanttofinishagivenunitofataskoranitem.Strongeffects
ontheconsumptionoffoodinparticular.[72]

WeberFechnerlaw

Difficultyincomparingsmalldifferencesinlargequantities.

Welltravelledroad
effect

Underestimationofthedurationtakentotraverseofttraveledroutesand
overestimationofthedurationtakentotraverselessfamiliarroutes.

Zeroriskbias

Preferenceforreducingasmallrisktozerooveragreaterreductioninalarger
risk.

Zerosumheuristic

Intuitivelyjudgingasituationtobezerosum(i.e.,thatgainsandlossesare
correlated).Derivesfromthezerosumgameingametheory,wherewinsand
lossessumtozero.[73][74]Thefrequencywithwhichthisbiasoccursmaybe
relatedtothesocialdominanceorientationpersonalityfactor.

Socialbiases
Mostofthesebiasesarelabeledasattributionalbiases.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

8/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Name

Description

Actorobserverbias

Thetendencyforexplanationsofotherindividuals'behaviorstooveremphasize
theinfluenceoftheirpersonalityandunderemphasizetheinfluenceoftheir
situation(seealsoFundamentalattributionerror),andforexplanationsofone's
ownbehaviorstodotheopposite(thatis,tooveremphasizetheinfluenceofour
situationandunderemphasizetheinfluenceofourownpersonality).

Defensiveattribution
hypothesis

Attributingmoreblametoaharmdoerastheoutcomebecomesmoresevereor
aspersonalorsituationalsimilaritytothevictimincreases.

Egocentricbias

Occurswhenpeopleclaimmoreresponsibilityforthemselvesfortheresultsof
ajointactionthananoutsideobserverwouldcreditthemwith.

Anexceptiontothefundamentalattributionerror,whenpeopleviewothersas
Extrinsicincentivesbias having(situational)extrinsicmotivationsand(dispositional)intrinsic
motivationsforoneself
Falseconsensuseffect

Thetendencyforpeopletooverestimatethedegreetowhichothersagreewith
them.[75]

Forereffect(aka
Barnumeffect)

Thetendencytogivehighaccuracyratingstodescriptionsoftheirpersonality
thatsupposedlyaretailoredspecificallyforthem,butareinfactvagueand
generalenoughtoapplytoawiderangeofpeople.Forexample,horoscopes.

Fundamental
attributionerror

Thetendencyforpeopletooveremphasizepersonalitybasedexplanationsfor
behaviorsobservedinotherswhileunderemphasizingtheroleandpowerof
situationalinfluencesonthesamebehavior(seealsoactorobserverbias,group
attributionerror,positivityeffect,andnegativityeffect).[76]

Thebiasedbeliefthatthecharacteristicsofanindividualgroupmemberare
reflectiveofthegroupasawholeorthetendencytoassumethatgroupdecision
Groupattributionerror
outcomesreflectthepreferencesofgroupmembers,evenwheninformationis
availablethatclearlysuggestsotherwise.
Haloeffect

Thetendencyforaperson'spositiveornegativetraitsto"spillover"fromone
personalityareatoanotherinothers'perceptionsofthem(seealsophysical
attractivenessstereotype).[77]

Illusionofasymmetric
insight

Peopleperceivetheirknowledgeoftheirpeerstosurpasstheirpeers'
knowledgeofthem.[78]

Illusionofexternal
agency

Whenpeopleviewselfgeneratedpreferencesasinsteadbeingcausedby
insightful,effectiveandbenevolentagents

Illusionoftransparency

Peopleoverestimateothers'abilitytoknowthem,andtheyalsooverestimate
theirabilitytoknowothers.

Illusorysuperiority

Overestimatingone'sdesirablequalities,andunderestimatingundesirable
qualities,relativetootherpeople.(Alsoknownas"LakeWobegoneffect",
"betterthanaverageeffect",or"superioritybias".)[79]

Ingroupbias

Thetendencyforpeopletogivepreferentialtreatmenttootherstheyperceiveto
bemembersoftheirowngroups.

Justworldhypothesis

Thetendencyforpeopletowanttobelievethattheworldisfundamentallyjust,
causingthemtorationalizeanotherwiseinexplicableinjusticeasdeservedby
thevictim(s).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

9/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Moralluck

Thetendencyforpeopletoascribegreaterorlessermoralstandingbasedonthe
outcomeofanevent

Navecynicism

Expectingmoreegocentricbiasinothersthaninoneself

Naverealism

Thebeliefthatweseerealityasitreallyisobjectivelyandwithoutbiasthat
thefactsareplainforalltoseethatrationalpeoplewillagreewithusandthat
thosewhodon'tareeitheruninformed,lazy,irrational,orbiased.

Outgrouphomogeneity Individualsseemembersoftheirowngroupasbeingrelativelymorevaried
bias
thanmembersofothergroups.[80]
Projectionbias

Thetendencytounconsciouslyassumethatothers(orone'sfutureselves)share
one'scurrentemotionalstates,thoughtsandvalues.[81]

Selfservingbias

Thetendencytoclaimmoreresponsibilityforsuccessesthanfailures.Itmay
alsomanifestitselfasatendencyforpeopletoevaluateambiguousinformation
inawaybeneficialtotheirinterests(seealsogroupservingbias).[82]

Sharedinformation
bias

Knownasthetendencyforgroupmemberstospendmoretimeandenergy
discussinginformationthatallmembersarealreadyfamiliarwith(i.e.,shared
information),andlesstimeandenergydiscussinginformationthatonlysome
membersareawareof(i.e.,unsharedinformation).[83]

Systemjustification

Thetendencytodefendandbolsterthestatusquo.Existingsocial,economic,
andpoliticalarrangementstendtobepreferred,andalternativesdisparaged,
sometimesevenattheexpenseofindividualandcollectiveselfinterest.(See
alsostatusquobias.)

Traitascriptionbias

Thetendencyforpeopletoviewthemselvesasrelativelyvariableintermsof
personality,behavior,andmoodwhileviewingothersasmuchmore
predictable.

Ultimateattribution
error

Similartothefundamentalattributionerror,inthiserrorapersonislikelyto
makeaninternalattributiontoanentiregroupinsteadoftheindividualswithin
thegroup.

Worsethanaverage
effect

Atendencytobelieveourselvestobeworsethanothersattaskswhichare
difficult[84]

Memoryerrorsandbiases
Inpsychologyandcognitivescience,amemorybiasisacognitivebiasthateitherenhancesorimpairsthe
recallofamemory(eitherthechancesthatthememorywillberecalledatall,ortheamountoftimeittakes
forittoberecalled,orboth),orthataltersthecontentofareportedmemory.Therearemanytypesof
memorybias,including:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

10/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Name

Description

Bizarrenesseffect

Bizarrematerialisbetterrememberedthancommonmaterial.

Choicesupportivebias

Inaselfjustifyingmannerretroactivelyascribingone'schoicestobemore
informedthantheywerewhentheyweremade.

Changebias

Afteraninvestmentofeffortinproducingchange,rememberingone'spast
performanceasmoredifficultthanitactuallywas[85]

Childhoodamnesia

Theretentionoffewmemoriesfrombeforetheageoffour.

Conservatismor
Regressivebias

Tendencytorememberhighvaluesandhigh
likelihoods/probabilities/frequenciesaslowerthantheyactuallywereandlow
onesashigherthantheyactuallywere.Basedontheevidence,memoriesare
notextremeenough[26][27]

Consistencybias

Incorrectlyrememberingone'spastattitudesandbehaviourasresembling
presentattitudesandbehaviour.[86]

Contexteffect

Thatcognitionandmemoryaredependentoncontext,suchthatoutofcontext
memoriesaremoredifficulttoretrievethanincontextmemories(e.g.,recall
timeandaccuracyforaworkrelatedmemorywillbelowerathome,andvice
versa)

Crossraceeffect

Thetendencyforpeopleofoneracetohavedifficultyidentifyingmembersofa
raceotherthantheirown.

Cryptomnesia

Aformofmisattributionwhereamemoryismistakenforimagination,because
thereisnosubjectiveexperienceofitbeingamemory.[85]

Egocentricbias

Recallingthepastinaselfservingmanner,e.g.,rememberingone'sexam
gradesasbeingbetterthantheywere,orrememberingacaughtfishasbigger
thanitreallywas.

Fadingaffectbias

Abiasinwhichtheemotionassociatedwithunpleasantmemoriesfadesmore
quicklythantheemotionassociatedwithpositiveevents.[87]

Falsememory

Aformofmisattributionwhereimaginationismistakenforamemory.

Thatselfgeneratedinformationisrememberedbest.Forinstance,peopleare
Generationeffect(Self
betterabletorecallmemoriesofstatementsthattheyhavegeneratedthan
generationeffect)
similarstatementsgeneratedbyothers.
Googleeffect

Thetendencytoforgetinformationthatcanbefoundreadilyonlinebyusing
Internetsearchengines.

Hindsightbias

Theinclinationtoseepasteventsasbeingmorepredictablethantheyactually
werealsocalledthe"Iknewitallalong"effect.

Humoreffect

Thathumorousitemsaremoreeasilyrememberedthannonhumorousones,
whichmightbeexplainedbythedistinctivenessofhumor,theincreased
cognitiveprocessingtimetounderstandthehumor,ortheemotionalarousal
causedbythehumor.[88]

Illusionoftrutheffect

Thatpeoplearemorelikelytoidentifyastruestatementsthosetheyhave
previouslyheard(eveniftheycannotconsciouslyrememberhavingheard
them),regardlessoftheactualvalidityofthestatement.Inotherwords,a
personismorelikelytobelieveafamiliarstatementthananunfamiliarone.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

11/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Illusorycorrelation

Inaccuratelyrememberingarelationshipbetweentwoevents.[4][51]

Lageffect

Seespacingeffect.

Levelingand
Sharpening

Memorydistortionsintroducedbythelossofdetailsinarecollectionovertime,
oftenconcurrentwithsharpeningorselectiverecollectionofcertaindetailsthat
takeonexaggeratedsignificanceinrelationtothedetailsoraspectsofthe
experiencelostthroughleveling.Bothbiasesmaybereinforcedovertime,and
byrepeatedrecollectionorretellingofamemory.[89]

Levelsofprocessing
effect

Thatdifferentmethodsofencodinginformationintomemoryhavedifferent
levelsofeffectiveness.[90]

Listlengtheffect

Asmallerpercentageofitemsarerememberedinalongerlist,butasthelength
ofthelistincreases,theabsolutenumberofitemsrememberedincreasesas
well.[91]

Misinformationeffect

Memorybecominglessaccuratebecauseofinterferencefrompostevent
information.[92]

Modalityeffect

Thatmemoryrecallishigherforthelastitemsofalistwhenthelistitemswere
receivedviaspeechthanwhentheywerereceivedthroughwriting.

Moodcongruent
memorybias

Theimprovedrecallofinformationcongruentwithone'scurrentmood.

Nextinlineeffect

Thatapersoninagrouphasdiminishedrecallforthewordsofotherswho
spokeimmediatelybeforehimself,iftheytaketurnsspeaking.[93]

Partlistcueingeffect

Thatbeingshownsomeitemsfromalistandlaterretrievingoneitemcausesit
tobecomehardertoretrievetheotheritems[94]

Peakendrule

Thatpeopleseemtoperceivenotthesumofanexperiencebuttheaverageof
howitwasatitspeak(e.g.,pleasantorunpleasant)andhowitended.

Persistence

Theunwantedrecurrenceofmemoriesofatraumaticevent.

Picturesuperiority
effect

Thenotionthatconceptsthatarelearnedbyviewingpicturesaremoreeasily
andfrequentlyrecalledthanareconceptsthatarelearnedbyviewingtheir
writtenwordformcounterparts.[95][96][97][98][99][100]

Positivityeffect

Thatolderadultsfavorpositiveovernegativeinformationintheirmemories.

Primacyeffect,Recency Thatitemsneartheendofasequencearetheeasiesttorecall,followedbythe
effect&Serialposition itemsatthebeginningofasequenceitemsinthemiddlearetheleastlikelyto
effect
beremembered.[101]
Processingdifficulty
effect

Thatinformationthattakeslongertoreadandisthoughtaboutmore(processed
withmoredifficulty)ismoreeasilyremembered.[102]

Reminiscencebump

Therecallingofmorepersonaleventsfromadolescenceandearlyadulthood
thanpersonaleventsfromotherlifetimeperiods[103]

Rosyretrospection

Therememberingofthepastashavingbeenbetterthanitreallywas.

Selfrelevanceeffect

Thatmemoriesrelatingtotheselfarebetterrecalledthansimilarinformation
relatingtoothers.

Sourceconfusion

Confusingepisodicmemorieswithotherinformation,creatingdistorted
memories.[104]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

12/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Spacingeffect

Thatinformationisbetterrecalledifexposuretoitisrepeatedoveralongspan
oftimeratherthanashortone.

Spotlighteffect

Thetendencytooverestimatetheamountthatotherpeoplenoticeyour
appearanceorbehavior.

Stereotypicalbias

Memorydistortedtowardsstereotypes(e.g.,racialorgender),e.g.,"black
sounding"namesbeingmisrememberedasnamesofcriminals.[85]

Suffixeffect

Diminishmentoftherecencyeffectbecauseasounditemisappendedtothelist
thatthesubjectisnotrequiredtorecall.[105][106]

Suggestibility

Aformofmisattributionwhereideassuggestedbyaquestioneraremistaken
formemory.

Telescopingeffect

Thetendencytodisplacerecenteventsbackwardintimeandremoteevents
forwardintime,sothatrecenteventsappearmoreremote,andremoteevents,
morerecent.

Testingeffect

Thefactthatyoumoreeasilyrememberinformationyouhavereadbyrewriting
itinsteadofrereadingit.[107]

Tipofthetongue
phenomenon

Whenasubjectisabletorecallpartsofanitem,orrelatedinformation,butis
frustratinglyunabletorecallthewholeitem.Thisisthoughtaninstanceof
"blocking"wheremultiplesimilarmemoriesarebeingrecalledandinterfere
witheachother.[85]

TravisSyndrome

Overestimatingthesignificanceofthepresent.[108]

Verbatimeffect

Thatthe"gist"ofwhatsomeonehassaidisbetterrememberedthanthe
verbatimwording.[109]Thisisbecausememoriesarerepresentations,notexact
copies.

VonRestorffeffect

Thatanitemthatsticksoutismorelikelytoberememberedthanother
items[110]

Zeigarnikeffect

Thatuncompletedorinterruptedtasksarerememberedbetterthancompleted
ones.

Commontheoreticalcausesofsomecognitivebiases
Boundedrationalitylimitsonoptimizationandrationality
Prospecttheory
Mentalaccounting
Adaptivebiasbasingdecisionsonlimitedinformationandbiasingthembasedonthecosts
ofbeingwrong.
Attributesubstitutionmakingacomplex,difficultjudgmentbyunconsciouslysubstitutingitby
aneasierjudgment[111]
Attributiontheory
Salience
Naverealism
Cognitivedissonance,andrelated:
Impressionmanagement
Selfperceptiontheory
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

13/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Heuristicsinjudgmentanddecisionmaking,including:
Availabilityheuristicestimatingwhatismorelikelybywhatismoreavailableinmemory,
whichisbiasedtowardvivid,unusual,oremotionallychargedexamples[50]
Representativenessheuristicjudgingprobabilitiesonthebasisofresemblance[50]
Affectheuristicbasingadecisiononanemotionalreactionratherthanacalculationofrisks
andbenefits[112]
Sometheoriesofemotionsuchas:
Twofactortheoryofemotion
Somaticmarkershypothesis
Introspectionillusion
Misinterpretationsormisuseofstatisticsinnumeracy.
A2012PsychologicalBulletinarticlesuggestedthatatleasteightseeminglyunrelatedbiasescanbe
producedbythesameinformationtheoreticgenerativemechanismthatassumesnoisyinformation
processingduringstorageandretrievalofinformationinhumanmemory.[4]

Individualdifferencesindecisionmakingbiases
Peopledoappeartohavestableindividualdifferencesintheirsusceptibilitytodecisionbiasessuchas
overconfidence,temporaldiscounting,andbiasblindspot.[113]Thatsaid,thesestablelevelsofbiaswithin
individualsarepossibletochange.Participantsinexperimentswhowatchedtrainingvideosandplayed
debiasinggamesshowedmediumtolargereductionsbothimmediatelyanduptothreemonthslaterinthe
extenttowhichtheyexhibitedsusceptibilitytosixcognitivebiases:anchoring,biasblindspot,
confirmationbias,fundamentalattributionerror,projectionbias,andrepresentativeness.[114]

Debiasing
Debiasingisthereductionofbiasesinjudgmentanddecisionmakingthroughincentives,nudges,and
training.

Seealso
Affectiveforecasting
Apophenia
Blackswantheory
Chronostasis
Cognitivebiasmitigation
Cognitivedistortion
Confabulation
Crossraceeffect
Dysrationalia
Feedback
Framerate
Listofcommonmisconceptions
Listoffallacies
Listofmemorybiases
Listsofthinkingrelatedtopics
Listoftopicsrelatedtopublicrelationsandpropaganda
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

14/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Logicalfallacy
Mediabias
Mindprojectionfallacy
Pareidolia
Positivefeedback
Prevalenceeffect
Publicationbias
Recallbias
Rasterscan
Saccade
Saccadicmasking
Saccadicsuppressionofimagedisplacement
Selfhandicapping
Systematicbias
Transsaccadicmemory

Notes
1. Dougherty,M.R.P.Gettys,C.F.Ogden,E.E.(1999)."MINERVADM:Amemoryprocessesmodelfor
judgmentsoflikelihood"(PDF).PsychologicalReview106(1):180209.doi:10.1037/0033295x.106.1.180.
2. Kahneman,D.Tversky,A.(1972)."Subjectiveprobability:Ajudgmentofrepresentativeness".Cognitive
Psychology3:430454.doi:10.1016/00100285(72)900163.
3. Baron,J.(2007).Thinkinganddeciding(4thed.).NewYorkCity:CambridgeUniversityPress.
ISBN9781139466028.
4. MartinHilbert(2012)""Towardasynthesisofcognitivebiases:Hownoisyinformationprocessingcanbias
humandecisionmaking"(http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/201127261001)".PsychologicalBulletin,138(2),
211237Alsoathttp://www.martinhilbert.net/HilbertPsychBull.pdf
5. Maccoun,RobertJ.(1998)."Biasesintheinterpretationanduseofresearchresults"(PDF).AnnualReviewof
Psychology49(1):25987.doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.259.PMID15012470.
6. Nickerson,RaymondS.(1998)."ConfirmationBias:AUbiquitousPhenomenoninManyGuises"(PDF).Review
ofGeneralPsychology(EducationalPublishingFoundation)2(2):175220[198].doi:10.1037/1089
2680.2.2.175.ISSN10892680.
7. Dardenne,BenoitLeyens,JacquesPhilippe(1995)."ConfirmationBiasasaSocialSkill".Personalityand
SocialPsychologyBulletin(SocietyforPersonalityandSocialPsychology)21(11):12291239.
doi:10.1177/01461672952111011.ISSN15527433.
8. Alexander,WilliamH.Brown,JoshuaW.(1June2010)."HyperbolicallyDiscountedTemporalDifference
Learning".NeuralComputation22(6):15111527.doi:10.1162/neco.2010.08091080.PMC3005720.
PMID20100071.
9. Baron1994,p.372
10. Zhang,YuLewis,MarkPellon,MichaelColeman,Phillip(2007)."APreliminaryResearchonModeling
CognitiveAgentsforSocialEnvironmentsinMultiAgentSystems"(PDF):116123.
11. Iverson,GrantBrooks,BrianHoldnack,James(2008)."MisdiagnosisofCognitiveImpairmentinForensic
Neuropsychology".InHeilbronner,RobertL.NeuropsychologyintheCourtroom:ExpertAnalysisofReports
andTestimony.NewYork:GuilfordPress.p.248.ISBN9781593856342.
12. "TheRealReasonWeDressPetsLikePeople".LiveScience.com.Retrieved20151116.
13. BarHaim,Y.,Lamy,D.,Pergamin,L.,BakermansKranenburg,M.J.,&vanIJzendoorn,M.H.(2007).Threat
relatedattentionalbiasinanxiousandnonanxiousindividuals:Ametaanalyticstudy.PsychologicalBulletin.
14. Goddard,KateRoudsari,AbdulWyatt,JeremyC.(2011)."AutomationBiasAHiddenIssueforClinical
DecisionSupportSystemUse(https://books.google.com/books?id=NsbaN_fXRe4C&pg=PA17)."International
PerspectivesinHealthInformatics.StudiesinHealthTechnologyandInformatics.IOSPress.doi:10.3233/978
160750709317(https://dx.doi.org/10.3233%2F978160750709317)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

15/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

15. Schwarz,N.Bless,HerbertStrack,FritzKlumpp,G.RittenauerSchatka,HelgaSimons,Annette(1991).
"EaseofRetrievalasInformation:AnotherLookattheAvailabilityHeuristic"Check|url=value(help)(PDF).
JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology61(2):195202.doi:10.1037/00223514.61.2.195.Retrieved
19Oct2014.
16. Kuran,TimurCassRSunstein(1998)."AvailabilityCascadesandRiskRegulation".StanfordLawReview51:
683.doi:10.2307/1229439.
17. Sanna,LawrenceJ.Schwarz,NorbertStocker,ShevaunL.(2002)."Whendebiasingbackfires:Accessible
contentandaccessibilityexperiencesindebiasinghindsight."(PDF).JournalofExperimentalPsychology:
Learning,Memory,andCognition28(3):497502.doi:10.1037/02787393.28.3.497.ISSN02787393.
18. Colman,Andrew(2003).OxfordDictionaryofPsychology.NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress.p.77.ISBN0
192806327.
19. Baron1994,pp.224228
20. Klauer,K.C.Musch,JNaumer,B(2000)."Onbeliefbiasinsyllogisticreasoning".PsychologicalReview107
(4):852884.doi:10.1037/0033295X.107.4.852.PMID11089409.
21. Pronin,EmilyMatthewB.Kugler(July2007)."Valuingthoughts,ignoringbehavior:Theintrospectionillusion
asasourceofthebiasblindspot".JournalofExperimentalSocialPsychology(Elsevier)43(4):565578.
doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.011.ISSN00221031.
22. Walker,DrewVul,Edward(20131025)."HierarchicalEncodingMakesIndividualsinaGroupSeemMore
Attractive".PsychologicalScience20(11):230235.doi:10.1177/0956797613497969.PMID24163333.
23. Mather,M.Shafir,E.Johnson,M.K.(2000)."Misrememberanceofoptionspast:Sourcemonitoringand
choice"(PDF).PsychologicalScience11(2):132138.doi:10.1111/14679280.00228.PMID11273420.
24. Oswald,MargitE.Grosjean,Stefan(2004)."ConfirmationBias".InPohl,RdigerF.CognitiveIllusions:A
HandbookonFallaciesandBiasesinThinking,JudgementandMemory.Hove,UK:PsychologyPress.pp.79
96.ISBN9781841693514.OCLC55124398.
25. Fisk,JohnE.(2004)."Conjunctionfallacy".InPohl,RdigerF.CognitiveIllusions:AHandbookonFallacies
andBiasesinThinking,JudgementandMemory.Hove,UK:PsychologyPress.pp.2342.ISBN978184169
3514.OCLC55124398.
26. Attneave,F.(1953)."Psychologicalprobabilityasafunctionofexperiencedfrequency".JournalofExperimental
Psychology46(2):8186.doi:10.1037/h0057955.PMID13084849.
27. Fischhoff,B.Slovic,P.Lichtenstein,S.(1977)."Knowingwithcertainty:Theappropriatenessofextreme
confidence".JournalofExperimentalPsychology:HumanPerceptionandPerformance3(4):552564.
doi:10.1037/00961523.3.4.552.
28. DuCharme,W.M.(1970)."Responsebiasexplanationofconservativehumaninference".Journalof
ExperimentalPsychology85(1):6674.doi:10.1037/h0029546.
29. Edwards,W.(1968)."Conservatisminhumaninformationprocessing".InKleinmuntz,B.Formal
representationofhumanjudgment.NewYork:Wiley.pp.1752.
30. Plous1993,pp.3841
31. Ackerman,MarkS.,ed.(2003).Sharingexpertisebeyondknowledgemanagement(onlineed.).Cambridge,
Massachusetts:MITPress.p.7.ISBN9780262011952.
32. WhyWeSpendCoinsFasterThanBills(http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=104063298)by
ChanaJoffeWalt.AllThingsConsidered,12May2009.
33. Hsee,ChristopherK.Zhang,Jiao(2004)."Distinctionbias:Mispredictionandmischoiceduetojoint
evaluation".JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology86(5):680695.doi:10.1037/00223514.86.5.680.
PMID15161394.
34. Kruger,JustinDunning,David(1999)."UnskilledandUnawareofIt:HowDifficultiesinRecognizingOne's
OwnIncompetenceLeadtoInflatedSelfAssessments".JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology77(6):
112134.doi:10.1037/00223514.77.6.1121.PMID10626367.CiteSeerX:10.1.1.64.2655.
35. (Kahneman,Knetsch&Thaler1991,p.193)RichardThalercoinedtheterm"endowmenteffect."
36. MariaTrochatosreviewsTheEssentialChild:OriginsofEssentialisminEverydayThoughtbySusanA.Gelman
(http://www.humannature.com/nibbs/04/gelman.html)
37. Wagenaar,W.A.Keren,G.B.(1985)."Calibrationofprobabilityassessmentsbyprofessionalblackjack
dealers,statisticalexperts,andlaypeople".OrganizationalBehaviorandHumanDecisionProcesses36(3):
406416.doi:10.1016/07495978(85)900081.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

16/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

38. Jeng,M.(2006)."Aselectedhistoryofexpectationbiasinphysics".AmericanJournalofPhysics74(7):578
583.doi:10.1119/1.2186333.
39. Kahneman,DanielAlanB.KruegerDavidSchkadeNorbertSchwarzArthurA.Stone(20060630)."Would
youbehappierifyouwerericher?Afocusingillusion"(PDF).Science312(5782):190810.
doi:10.1126/science.1129688.PMID16809528.
40. Zwicky,Arnold(20050807)."JustBetweenDr.LanguageandI".LanguageLog.
41. "There'saNameforThat:TheBaaderMeinhofPhenomenon".psmag.com.PacificStandard.22July2013.
Retrieved3May2015.
42. Lichtenstein,S.,&Fischhoff,B.(1977).Dothosewhoknowmorealsoknowmoreabouthowmuchtheyknow?
OrganizationalBehaviorandHumanPerformance,20(2),159183.doi:10.1016/00305073(77)900010
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2F00305073%2877%29900010)
43. Merkle,E.C.(2009)."Thedisutilityofthehardeasyeffectinchoiceconfidence".PsychonomicBulletin&
Review16(1):204213.doi:10.3758/PBR.16.1.204.
44. Juslin,PWinman,A.Olsson,H.(2000)."Naiveempiricismanddogmatisminconfidenceresearch:acritical
examinationofthehardeasyeffect".PsychologicalReview107(2):384396.doi:10.1037/0033295x.107.2.384.
45. Pohl,RdigerF.(2004)."HindsightBias".InPohl,RdigerF.CognitiveIllusions:AHandbookonFallacies
andBiasesinThinking,JudgementandMemory.Hove,UK:PsychologyPress.pp.363378.ISBN978184169
3514.OCLC55124398.
46. Laibson,David(1997)."GoldenEggsandHyperbolicDiscounting".QuarterlyJournalofEconomics112(2):
443477.doi:10.1162/003355397555253.
47. Kogut,TehilaRitov,Ilana(2005)."The'IdentifiedVictim'Effect:AnIdentifiedGroup,orJustaSingle
Individual?"(PDF).JournalofBehavioralDecisionMaking(WileyInterScience)18:157167.
doi:10.1002/bdm.492.RetrievedAugust15,2013.
48. Thompson,SuzanneC.(1999)."IllusionsofControl:HowWeOverestimateOurPersonalInfluence".Current
DirectionsinPsychologicalScience(AssociationforPsychologicalScience)8(6):187190.doi:10.1111/1467
8721.00044.ISSN09637214.JSTOR20182602.
49. Dierkes,MeinolfAntal,ArianeBerthoinChild,JohnIkujiroNonaka(2003).HandbookofOrganizational
LearningandKnowledge.OxfordUniversityPress.p.22.ISBN9780198295822.Retrieved9September
2013.
50. Tversky,AmosDanielKahneman(September27,1974)."JudgmentunderUncertainty:HeuristicsandBiases".
Science(AmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofScience)185(4157):11241131.
doi:10.1126/science.185.4157.1124.PMID17835457.
51. Fiedler,K.(1991)."Thetrickynatureofskewedfrequencytables:Aninformationlossaccountof
distinctivenessbasedillusorycorrelations".JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology60(1):2436.
doi:10.1037/00223514.60.1.24.
52. Sanna,LawrenceJ.Schwarz,Norbert(2004)."IntegratingTemporalBiases:TheInterplayofFocalThoughts
andAccessibilityExperiences".PsychologicalScience(AmericanPsychologicalSociety)15(7):474481.
doi:10.1111/j.09567976.2004.00704.x.PMID15200632.
53. Baron1994,pp.258259
54. (Kahneman,Knetsch&Thaler1991,p.193)DanielKahneman,togetherwithAmosTversky,coinedtheterm
"lossaversion."
55. Bornstein,RobertF.CraveLemley,Catherine(2004)."Mereexposureeffect".InPohl,RdigerF.Cognitive
Illusions:AHandbookonFallaciesandBiasesinThinking,JudgementandMemory.Hove,UK:Psychology
Press.pp.215234.ISBN9781841693514.OCLC55124398.
56. Shafir,EldarDiamond,PeterTversky,Amos(2000)."MoneyIllusion".InKahneman,DanielTversky,Amos.
Choices,values,andframes.CambridgeUniversityPress.pp.335355.ISBN9780521627498.
57. Haizlip,Julieetal."Perspective:TheNegativityBias,MedicalEducation,andtheCultureofAcademic
Medicine:WhyCultureChangeIsHard".RetrievedOctober3,2012.
58. Baron1994,p.353
59. Baron1994,p.386
60. Baron1994,p.44
61. Hardman2009,p.104

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

17/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

62. Adams,P.A.Adams,J.K.(1960)."Confidenceintherecognitionandreproductionofwordsdifficulttospell".
TheAmericanJournalofPsychology73(4):544552.doi:10.2307/1419942.PMID13681411.
63. Hoffrage,Ulrich(2004)."Overconfidence".InRdigerPohl.CognitiveIllusions:ahandbookonfallaciesand
biasesinthinking,judgementandmemory.PsychologyPress.ISBN9781841693514.
64. Sutherland2007,pp.172178
65. Forsyth,DonelsonR(2009).GroupDynamics(5thed.).CengageLearning.p.317.ISBN9780495599524.
66. Hardman2009,p.137
67. Garcia,StephenM.Song,HyunjinTesser,Abraham(November2010)."Taintedrecommendations:Thesocial
comparisonbias".OrganizationalBehaviorandHumanDecisionProcesses113(2):97101.
doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2010.06.002.ISSN07495978.LaysummaryBPSResearchDigest(20101030).
68. Dalton,D.&Ortegren,M.(2011)."Genderdifferencesinethicsresearch:Theimportanceofcontrollingforthe
socialdesirabilityresponsebias".JournalofBusinessEthics103(1):7393.doi:10.1007/s1055101108438.
69. Kahneman,Knetsch&Thaler1991,p.193
70. Baron1994,p.382
71. Baron,J.(inpreparation).ThinkingandDeciding,4thedition.NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress.
72. "PennPsychologistsBelieve'UnitBias'DeterminesTheAcceptableAmountToEat"
(http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/11/051121163748.htm).ScienceDaily(Nov.21,2005)
73. Meegan,DanielV.(2010)."ZeroSumBias:PerceivedCompetitionDespiteUnlimitedResources".Frontiersin
Psychology1.doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00191.ISSN16641078.
74. Chernev,Alexander(2007)."JackofAllTradesorMasterofOne?ProductDifferentiationandCompensatory
ReasoninginConsumerChoice".JournalofConsumerResearch33(4):430444.doi:10.1086/510217.
ISSN00935301.
75. Marks,GaryMiller,Norman(1987)."Tenyearsofresearchonthefalseconsensuseffect:Anempiricaland
theoreticalreview".PsychologicalBulletin(AmericanPsychologicalAssociation)102(1):7290.
doi:10.1037/00332909.102.1.72.
76. Sutherland2007,pp.138139
77. Baron1994,p.275
78. Pronin,E.Kruger,J.Savitsky,K.Ross,L.(2001)."Youdon'tknowme,butIknowyou:theillusionof
asymmetricinsight".JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology81(4):639656.doi:10.1037/0022
3514.81.4.639.PMID11642351.
79. Hoorens,Vera(1993)."SelfenhancementandSuperiorityBiasesinSocialComparison".EuropeanReviewof
SocialPsychology(PsychologyPress)4(1):113139.doi:10.1080/14792779343000040.
80. Plous2006,p.206
81. Hsee,ChristopherK.Hastie,Reid(2006)."Decisionandexperience:whydon'twechoosewhatmakesus
happy?".TrendsinCognitiveSciences10(1):3137.doi:10.1016/j.tics.2005.11.007.PMID16318925.
82. Plous2006,p.185
83. Forsyth,D.R.(2009).GroupDynamics(5thed.).PacificGrove,CA:Brooks/Cole.
84. Kruger,J.(1999)."LakeWobegonbegone!The"belowaverageeffect"andtheegocentricnatureofcomparative
abilityjudgments".JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology77(2):22132.doi:10.1037/0022
3514.77.2.221.PMID10474208.
85. Schacter,DanielL.(1999)."TheSevenSinsofMemory:InsightsFromPsychologyandCognitive
Neuroscience".AmericanPsychologist54(3):182203.doi:10.1037/0003066X.54.3.182.PMID10199218.
86. Cacioppo,John(2002).Foundationsinsocialneuroscience.Cambridge,Mass:MITPress.pp.130132.
ISBN026253195X.
87. Walker,W.RichardJohnJ.SkowronskiCharlesP.Thompson(1994)."EffectsofHumoronSentence
Memory"(PDF).JournalofExperimentalPsychology:Learning,Memory,andCognition(American
PsychologicalAssociation,Inc.)20(4):953967.doi:10.1037/02787393.20.4.953.Retrieved20150419.
88. Schmidt,StephenR.(2003)."LifeIsPleasantandMemoryHelpstoKeepItThatWay!"(PDF).Reviewof
GeneralPsychology(EducationalPublishingFoundation)7(2):203210.doi:10.1037/10892680.7.2.203.
89. Koriat,A.M.GoldsmithA.Pansky(2000)."TowardaPsychologyofMemoryAccuracy".AnnualReviewof
Psychology51(1):481537.doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.481.PMID10751979.
90. Craik&Lockhart,1972

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

18/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

91. Kinnell,AngelaDennis,S.(2011)."Thelistlengtheffectinrecognitionmemory:ananalysisofpotential
confounds".Memory&Cognition(Adelaide,Australia:SchoolofPsychology,UniversityofAdelaide)39(2):
34863.doi:10.3758/s1342101000076.
92. WayneWeiten(2010).Psychology:ThemesandVariations:ThemesandVariations.CengageLearning.p.338.
ISBN9780495601975.
93. WayneWeiten(2007).Psychology:ThemesandVariations:ThemesAndVariations.CengageLearning.p.260.
ISBN9780495093039.
94. SlameckaNJ(1968)."Anexaminationoftracestorageinfreerecall".JExpPsychol76(4):50413.
doi:10.1037/h0025695.PMID5650563.
95. Shepard,R.N.(1967)."Recognitionmemoryforwords,sentences,andpictures".JournalofLearningand
VerbalBehavior6:156163.doi:10.1016/s00225371(67)800677.
96. McBride,D.M.Dosher,B.A.(2002)."Acomparisonofconsciousandautomaticmemoryprocessesforpicture
andwordstimuli:aprocessdissociationanalysis".ConsciousnessandCognition11:423460.
doi:10.1016/s10538100(02)000077.
97. Defetyer,M.A.Russo,R.McPartlin,P.L.(2009)."Thepicturesuperiorityeffectinrecognitionmemory:a
developmentalstudyusingtheresponsesignalprocedure".CognitiveDevelopment24:265273.
doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2009.05.002.
98. Whitehouse,A.J.Maybery,M.T.Durkin,K.(2006)."Thedevelopmentofthepicturesuperiorityeffect".
BritishJournalofDevelopmentalPsychology24:767773.doi:10.1348/026151005X74153.
99. Ally,B.A.Gold,C.A.Budson,A.E.(2009)."ThepicturesuperiorityeffectinpatientswithAlzheimer's
diseaseandmildcognitiveimpairment".Neuropsychologia47:595598.
doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.10.010.
100. Curran,T.Doyle,J.(2011)."PicturesuperioritydoublydissociatestheERPcorrelatesofrecollectionand
familiarity".JournalofCognitiveNeuroscience23(5):12471262.doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21464.
101. Martin,G.NeilNeilR.CarlsonWilliamBuskist(2007).Psychology(3rded.).PearsonEducation.pp.309
310.ISBN9780273710868.
102. "Whencomprehensiondifficultyimprovesmemoryfortext."O'Brien,EdwardJ.Myers,JeromeL.Journalof
ExperimentalPsychology:Learning,Memory,andCognition,Vol11(1),Jan1985,1221.doi:10.1037/0278
7393.11.1.12(https://dx.doi.org/10.1037%2F02787393.11.1.12)
103. Rubin,Wetzler&Nebes,1986Rubin,Rahhal&Poon,1998
104. DavidA.Lieberman(8December2011).HumanLearningandMemory.CambridgeUniversityPress.p.432.
ISBN9781139502535.
105. Morton,Crowder&Prussin,1971
106. IanPittAlistairD.N.Edwards(2003).DesignofSpeechBasedDevices:APracticalGuide.Springer.p.26.
ISBN9781852334369.
107. E.BruceGoldstein.CognitivePsychology:ConnectingMind,ResearchandEverydayExperience.Cengage
Learning.p.231.ISBN9781133009122.
108. "Noteveryoneisinsuchaweoftheinternet".EveningStandard.EveningStandard.Retrieved28October2015.
109. Poppenk,Walia,Joanisse,Danckert,&Khler,2006
110. VonRestorff,H(1933)."berdieWirkungvonBereichsbildungenimSpurenfeld(Theeffectsoffieldformation
inthetracefield)".".PsychologicalResearch18(1):299342.doi:10.1007/bf02409636.
111. Kahneman,DanielShaneFrederick(2002)."RepresentativenessRevisited:AttributeSubstitutioninIntuitive
Judgment".InThomasGilovich,DaleGriffin,DanielKahneman.HeuristicsandBiases:ThePsychologyof
IntuitiveJudgment.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress.pp.4981.ISBN9780521796798.
OCLC47364085.
112. Slovic,PaulMelissaFinucaneEllenPetersDonaldG.MacGregor(2002)."TheAffectHeuristic".InThomas
Gilovich,DaleGriffin,DanielKahneman.HeuristicsandBiases:ThePsychologyofIntuitiveJudgment.
CambridgeUniversityPress.pp.397420.ISBN0521796792.
113. Scopelliti,IreneMorewedge,CareyK.McCormick,ErinMin,H.LaurenLebrecht,SophieKassam,KarimS.
(20150424)."BiasBlindSpot:Structure,Measurement,andConsequences".ManagementScience61:2468
2486.doi:10.1287/mnsc.2014.2096.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

19/20

1/18/2016

ListofcognitivebiasesWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

114. Morewedge,CareyK.Yoon,HaewonScopelliti,IreneSymborski,CarlW.Korris,JamesH.Kassam,Karim
S.(20151001)."DebiasingDecisionsImprovedDecisionMakingWithaSingleTrainingIntervention".Policy
InsightsfromtheBehavioralandBrainSciences2(1):129140.doi:10.1177/2372732215600886.ISSN2372
7322.

References
Baron,Jonathan(1994).Thinkinganddeciding(2nded.).CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN0521437326.
Baron,Jonathan(2000).Thinkinganddeciding(3rded.).NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN0521
650305.
Bishop,MichaelA.Trout,J.D.(2004).EpistemologyandthePsychologyofHumanJudgment.NewYork:
OxfordUniversityPress.ISBN0195162293.
Gilovich,Thomas(1993)."HowWeKnowWhatIsn'tSo:TheFallibilityofHumanReasoninEverydayLife".
NewYork:TheFreePress.ISBN0029117062.
Gilovich,ThomasGriffin,DaleKahneman,Daniel(2002).Heuristicsandbiases:Thepsychologyofintuitive
judgment.Cambridge,UK:CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN0521796792.
Greenwald,AnthonyG.(1980)."TheTotalitarianEgo:FabricationandRevisionofPersonalHistory"(PDF).
AmericanPsychologist(AmericanPsychologicalAssociation)35(7):603618.doi:10.1037/0003066x.35.7.603.
ISSN0003066X.
Hardman,David(2009).Judgmentanddecisionmaking:psychologicalperspectives.WileyBlackwell.
ISBN9781405123983.
Kahneman,DanielSlovic,PaulTversky,Amos(1982).JudgmentunderUncertainty:HeuristicsandBiases.
Cambridge,UK:CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN0521284147.
Kahneman,DanielKnetsch,JackL.Thaler,RichardH.(1991)."Anomalies:TheEndowmentEffect,Loss
Aversion,andStatusQuoBias"(PDF).TheJournalofEconomicPerspectives(AmericanEconomicAssociation)
5(1):193206.doi:10.1257/jep.5.1.193.
Plous,Scott(1993).ThePsychologyofJudgmentandDecisionMaking.NewYork:McGrawHill.ISBN007
0504776.
Schacter,DanielL.(1999)."TheSevenSinsofMemory:InsightsFromPsychologyandCognitiveNeuroscience"
(PDF).AmericanPsychologist(AmericanPsychologicalAssociation)54(3):182203.doi:10.1037/0003
066X.54.3.182.ISSN0003066X.PMID10199218.
Sutherland,Stuart(2007).Irrationality.Pinter&Martin.ISBN9781905177073.
Tetlock,PhilipE.(2005).ExpertPoliticalJudgment:howgoodisit?howcanweknow?.Princeton:Princeton
UniversityPress.ISBN9780691123028.
Virine,L.Trumper,M.(2007).ProjectDecisions:TheArtandScience.Vienna,VA:ManagementConcepts.
ISBN9781567262179.

Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_cognitive_biases&oldid=699037456"
Categories: Cognitivebiases Psychologylists Behavioralfinance Criticalthinking
Cognitivesciencelists
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon9January2016,at21:42.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmay
apply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisa
registeredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

20/20