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Anti­pumpingrelay­Powell(a­positionofAPrelayinsidecircuitbreaker)

WhatisANSIcodeforAntipumpingrelay?

ANSIcodes 94oreven52canbeused.

Howrelaysareclassifiedbasedonfunctionalcategories?

Relayscanbedividedintosixfunctionalcategoriesshownbelow:

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Protectiverelays

Detectdefectivelines,defectiveapparatus,orotherdangerousorintolerableconditions.These

relaysgenerallytriponeormore

Monitoringrelays

,butmayalsobeusedtosoundanalarm.

Verifyconditionsonthepowersystemorintheprotectionsystem.Theserelaysincludefault

detectors,alarmunits,channelmonitoringrelays,synchronismverification,andnetworkphasing.

Powersystemconditionsthatdonotinvolveopeningcircuitbreakersduringfaultscanbe

monitoredbyverificationrelays.

Reclosingrelays

Establishaclosingsequenceforacircuitbreakerfollowingtrippingbyprotectiverelays.

Regulatingrelaysareactivatedwhenanoperatingparameterdeviatesfrompredeterminedlimits.

Regulatingrelaysfunctionthroughsupplementaryequipmenttorestorethequantitytothe

prescribedlimits.

Auxiliaryrelays

Operateinresponsetotheopeningorclosingoftheoperatingcircuittosupplementanotherrelay

ordevice.Theseincludetimers,contact­multiplierrelays,sealingunits,isolatingrelays,lockout

relays, closingrelays

,andtriprelays.

Synchronizing(orsynchronismcheck)relays

Assurethatproperconditionsexistforinterconnectingtwosectionsofapowersystem.

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Manymodernrelayscontainseveralvarietiesofthesefunctions.Inadditiontothesefunctional

categories,relaysmaybeclassifiedbyinput,operatingprincipleorstructure,andperformance

characteristic.

ThefollowingaresomeoftheclassificationsanddefinitionsdescribedinANSI/IEEEStandard

C37.90(alsoANSI/IEEEC37.100“DefinitionsforPowerSwitchgear”):

Inputs
Inputs

PerformanceCharacteristics

Current

Differential

Voltage

Distance

Power

Directionalovercurrent

Pressure

Inversetime

Frequency

Definitetime

Temperature

Undervoltage

Flow

Overvoltage

Vibration

Groundorphase

OperatingPrincipleorStructures

Highorlowspeed

Currentbalance

Pilot

Percentage

Phasecomparison

Multirestraint

Directionalcomparison

Product

Currentdifferential

Solidstate

Static

Microprocessor

Electromechanical

Thermal

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Solid­state(andstatic)relays arefurthercategorizedunderoneofthefollowingdesignations:

Analog

Analogrelaysarethoseinwhichthemeasuredquantitiesareconvertedintolowervoltagebut similarsignals,whicharethencombinedorcompareddirectlytoreferencevaluesinlevel

detectorstoproducethedesiredoutput(e.g.,SA­1SOQ,SI­T,LCB,circuitshieldrelays).

Digital

Digitalrelaysarethoseinwhichthemeasuredacquantitiesaremanipulatedinanalogformand

subsequentlyconvertedintosquare­wave(binary)voltages.Logiccircuitsormicroprocessors

comparethephaserelationshipsofthesquarewavestomakeatripdecision.

Numerical

Numericalrelaysarethoseinwhichthemeasuredacquantitiesaresequentiallysampledand

convertedintonumericdataform.Amicroprocessorperformsmathematicaland/orlogical

operationsonthedatatomaketripdecisions.

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HowdoweclassifyanAntipumpingrelay?

Itisclassifiedasanauxiliaryrelay.

WhyAntipumpingrelayisused?

AntipumpingrelayingisdoneprimarilytoindicatethespringfailureofTNCswitchandaperson

needtoattendtheproblem.Thefunctionofthisrelayistocutoffthesupplyto52C(CBclosing

coil)incaseofTNCswitchspringfailureandpreventCBhuntingeffect(i.e.continuousclosing,

openingoperation).

Antipumpingisalsocalledtripfreemechanismofanycircuitbreaker.Supposethebreakerhas

beeninstructedtoclosebymanualinstructionbypressingtheTNC(tripneutralclosepush

button)switch.Theoperatingmechanismwillstartoperatingforclosingoperation.

Meanwhileafaulthastakenplaceandrelayclosesthetripcircuitofbreaker.Thetripfree

mechanism/Antipumpingfeaturepermitsthecircuitbreakertobetrippedbyprotectiverelayeven

ifitisunderprocessofclosing.Thusauxiliaryrelay(orsometimestheinbuiltfeatureofcircuit

breaker)whichpreventalternatetrippingandclosingofthecircuitbreakerifclosingpushbuttonis

heldcloseduringfaultiscalledthetripfreemechanismorantipumpingmechanism.

WhatwillhappenifAntipumpingrelaycircuitisnotpresent?

IfthecircuitbreakerisclosedusingTNCswitch,andatthesameinstantletspringofTNCswitch hasfailedanditdidnotcametoitsneutralstate,andprimaryprotectionrelayhadbeenoperated

atthisinstantandopenedtheCB,sincesupplyisbeingextendedto52C(CBclosingcoil)

becauseofTNCspringfailure,thenCBwillcloseagain,sincefaultisstillpersistingthefollowing

cycleoccurs.

CBtrip,becauseofprotection.Operation­>CBclose,becauseofTNCswitchspringfailure­>CB

trip,becauseofprotection.Operation­>CBclose,becauseofTNCswitchspringfailure­>CBtrip,

becauseofprotection.Operation­>CBclose,becauseofTNCswitchspring.

Theabovecycleistermedascircuitbreakerhunting.Circuitbreakerhuntingwillcausedamage

tobreakeranditcanbeavoidedbyusing52(CircuitbreakerAntipumpingrelay).Thefunctionof

thisrelayistocutoffthesupplyto52C(CBclosingcoil) coilincaseofTNCswitchspringfailure andpreventCBhuntingeffect(i.e.continuousclosing,openingoperation).

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Letusanalysethebehaviorofcircuitincaseantipumpingispresentandincaseitisnotpresent,

onebyone:

CASE1:ClosingCoilCircuitWithout52Relay

ThepathforCBclosewithout52relayisshowninFigure1.InthiscaseifspringofTNCswitch

fails,thensupplywillbegetextendedto52C(CBclosingcoil) coilasshowninFigure2.

coilasshownin Figure2 . Figure1­CircuitbreakerclosingcoilwithoutAntipumpingrelay

Figure1­CircuitbreakerclosingcoilwithoutAntipumpingrelay

IftheTNCswitchspringhasfailedthensupplywillbeextendedasshownbelow.

Figure2­showinghowsupplywillbeextendedtoclosingcoilbecauseofTNCspringfailure

CASE2:ClosingCoilCircuitWith52Relay

Closingcoilcircuitwith52presentisasshowninFigure3.Path1inFigure3showshow52C

(CBclosingcoil) willbeenergizedwhenwepressTNCswitchCS1.ifCS1comestoitsoriginal

stateoncewereleaseitthen52willnotcomeinpicture.ifCS1doesnotcomestoitsoriginal

statethen52willbeenergizedasshowninpath2.then52­NCcontactpresentinpath1willbe

gotopenedupandpreventsextensionofsupply.

Wehavetheconceptthatinitiallyfortheenergizationof5280%to90%of110Visrequired.But

onceafterenergization60­70%of110Vissufficienttomaintainitsenergizationstate.Thislogicis

achievedbyintroducingaresistancein52energizationmaintenancepath.Thispathisshown

inFigure4.

in Figure4 . Figure3­WithAntipumpingrelaypresent

Figure3­WithAntipumpingrelaypresent

in Figure4 . Figure3­WithAntipumpingrelaypresent Figure4­Antipumpingrelaywitharesistor

Figure4­Antipumpingrelaywitharesistor

Once52isenergizeditwillgiveanalarmandamaintenancepersoninthesubstationneedto

attendthatproblem.Thisishow52isusefulinavoidingCBhuntingeffect.

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WhatisANSIcodeforMastertriplockoutrelay?

ANSIcode86isused.

Whatisfunction&Utilityoflockoutrelay?

Whena‘‘drive­to­lockout’’inputisenergized,thereclosingrelaywillgointolockout

fromanypointinthesequence.Therelaywillstayinlockoutuntiltheinputisremoved

andthebreakerisclosedmanuallyorbysupervisorycontrol.Uponremoval,the

recloserwillgothroughitsresetsequenceandreturnto‘‘ready’state.

Allthedifferenttripsignalsfromfaultdetectiondevicesarewiredtothelockoutrelay, whichisthemastertriprelayforthecircuitbreaker.Itisusuallyamanuallyresetrelay withanindicatingflagorlamp.IncaseofDGasimilarphilosophyoftrippingisusedin theenginecontrolpanelinwhichallthemechanicalfailuresignalsarereceivedatthe

enginelockoutrelay(86­T,Tforturbine).Thislockoutrelayalsotripsthegenerator

circuitbreaker.

Wheneitherthe86­Gorthe86­Trelaysendsitssignaltothecircuit­breakertripcoil,

timeistakenbeforethecircuitbreakerbeginstomoveandfinallyreachitsfullyopen state.Thegeneratorswitchgearisrecommendedtohavetwoseparatelockoutrelays.

Onewillreceivealltheelectricalprotectionrelaytripsignals,anddenotedas86–1.

Theotherwillreceiveamastertripsignal(orseveraltripsignals)fromtheturbineunit

controlpanel,anddenotedas86–2.

Itoperateswheneveranyoftheprotectionrelayoperatesandwouldpreventanycircuit

breakeroperationuntilthelockoutrelayismanuallyrest.

Canwemanagewithoutantipumpingsinceoperationoflockoutrelaywould

preventanyfurtheroperationsofCBevencontinuousopening­closing?

Figure5­Antipumpingrelay&Lockoutrelaycontactsinclosingcoilcircuit

LetusassumethatwehaveclosedthecircuitbreakerusingtheTNCswitchCS1.Atthisinstant

TNCswitchspringfailedandfaultistherewhichissensedbyprimaryprotectionrelayandsends

trippingcommandtocircuitbreaker.Thiswouldenergizethetripcoilofbreaker;thiswillresultin

operationoflockoutrelay.

ThelockoutrelaywillgointolockoutstateasshowninFigure6below:

Figure6­Thelockoutrelaygoesintolockoutstate

Figure6­Thelockoutrelaygoesintolockoutstate

Nowletapersonhadattendedthatfaultandresetted86lockoutcontacts.Afterresettingits

statuswillbeNCandaclosedcommandwillbeextendedtoclosingcoilwithoutanyhuman

interfacewhichisamalfunction.

Soan86lockoutrelaycannotfulfillthepurposeofantipumpingrelay.

ThefunctionofantipumpingrelayistocutoffthesupplytoclosingcoilincaseofTNCswitch springfailureandpreventCBhuntingeffect(i.e.continuousclosing,openingoperation)anda

personneedstoattendtheproblem.Whereas86lockoutrelaycontactinclosingcircuitismeant

toensurethatapersonhadattendedthefaultoccurredandweareclosingthecircuitafter

clearingthecircuit.

Itisextramechanicalprotectionmeantforsafetyofequipmentsconsideringthecostand

sophisticationinvolved;itisalwaysadvisabletogoforextrahumaninterface.

REFERENCES: 1. ANSI/IEEEC37.100‘‘DefinitionsforPowerSwitchgear”. 2.
REFERENCES:
1. ANSI/IEEEC37.100‘‘DefinitionsforPowerSwitchgear”.
2. RelayAndCircuit­BreakerApplicationAuthors:E.L.HarderandJ.C.Cunningham.
3. ProtectionApplicationHandbook:ABB,TransmissionSystemsandSubstations.
4. http://www.electrotechnik.net/2009/06/what­is­anti­pumping­relay.html