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Switching and routing protocol

Spanning Tree Protocol is the switching protocol implemented in the motorcycle

company network. Spanning Tree Protocol is a layer 2 protocol which runs on
bridges and switches. STP is a Layer 2 protocol that runs on bridges and switches.
Spanning Tree Protocol has the specification of IEEE 802. This is used to avoid
redundant paths and loops occurring in network
The main purpose of STP is used by switches to prevent loops occurring on a
network and redundant paths in network. For an example, blocking ports and
disabling unwanted links. Especially these Local Area Network cables are
designed to Loops and duplicate frames can have critical consequences on a
network. Most of the LANs are designed to provide duplication so another can
change the forwarding across the LAN when a link fails.
Each switch port on a network has the possibility of detecting the MAC address.
Then it will send a message to inform other networks saying the knowledge of
getting towards a particular network. The main problem is when another switch
comes across the same hosts Media Access Control address. At this moment
messages will be passing around through switches to the same host. Moreover
there is a standard of STP that gives a higher performance of the network. STP
creates only one path between every destinations and block paths to create loops in
the network. Then to stop loop forming STP will select switch as Root Bridge and
the other switchers will select one of its port as a root port. This happens after the
port is selected
Spanning tree protocol is a layer 2 protocol passes on bridges and switches
When one that root switch is identified per-VLAN. And the root switch
Identification, these switches follow to these rules:
Rule 1 : all ports of the root switch must be in forwarding mode.
Rule 2 : The root port must be fixed to forwarding mode.
Rule 3: In one LAN section, the port of the assigned switch that join with that LAN
portion must be set in sending mode.
Rule 4: All the other ports in all the switches (VLAN- specific) must be placed in
blocking mode. The rule only applies to ports that connect to other bridges

or switches. STP does not affect ports that connect to workstations or PCs.
These ports remain forwarded.

Routing protocol
The motorcycle company is applying Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
(EIGRP) as the routing protocol. Mainly this reduces the loops that troubles when
a network is working. More over this benefits routing protocol that reduce
bandwidth usage

Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols

Routing information protocols (RIP)
(RIP) is a dynamic protocol that finds the path from source to destination over a
network by using a routing metric/hop count algorithm. This is used to identify the
shortest way from the source to destination, this allows the data to be delivered
high speed in a shortest time.
Interior gateway routing protocol (IGRP)
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a proprietary distance vector routing
protocol. This is used to have connection with routing and sending information
through host network. Its an invention by Cisco. Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol manages the movement of routing information contained by routers in the
host network. The protocol safeguards every router that has routing tables
reorganized with the best existing path. More over this avoids routing loops by
updating itself with the changes occurring over the network and by error
. Open shortest path first (OSPF)
This used in an internet protocol. Moreover it has a link that shows the routing
protocol and includes into the interior gateway protocol Open shortest path first
runs in a separate system. This system is mostly used in large companies.
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

This is an obsolete routing protocol which is used for exchanging data between
gateways. Exterior Gateway Protocol is firstly stated inRFC827 and specified in
RFC904 in the year of 1984. EGP is not like a distance vector and path protocol.
But its a topology just like a tree
Enhanced interior gateway routing protocol (EIGRP)
EIGRP is an improvement of Interior gateway routing protocol although its a
Cisco property routing protocol this is a distance-Vector Protocol.

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

This routing protocol is used to transferring data and information between different
host gateways.
Border Gateway Protocol is a Path Vector Protocol (PVP). This maintains paths to
different hosts. Moreover, between networks and gateway routers. This controls
the routing decision based on those. It doesnt use IGP metrics for routing
decisions. But only decides the route based on rule sets. In most of the times
Border Gateway Protocols described as a reachability protocol
This maintains its routing table with topologies with connecting networks
BGP was made to extend and replace (EGP).
Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS)
This is used by network devices to identify the suitable way to promote data gram
from a side to side packed switch network. This was defined as IOS/IEC 10589
2002 within IOS reference design. Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System
differentiate among level 1 and 2