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Patrick Kelvin Garcia

Consumer Decision Process


The

Need
Recognition

consumer

represents

the

decision
steps

process

that

model

consumers

go

through before, during, and after making


purchases.

The consumer decision process begins when consumers recognises they have an
unsatisfied need and want to go from their actual, needy state to a different,
desired state. The greater the discrepancy between these two states, the greater
the need recognition.

Information
Search

Functional
performance

Needs
of

pertains

product

Psychological Needs
personal

gratification

or

to

service.

pertains

consumers

the

to

the

associate

with a product or service.


Consumers search for information about the various options that exist to satisfy
that need. The lang and intensity of the search are based on the degree of
perceived

risk

associated

with

purchasing

Internal Search for Information

The

the

product

or

service.

buyer examines his or her own

memory and knowledge, about the product or service, gathered through past
experiences.

External Search for Information

The buyer seeks information outside his

or her own personal knowledge base to help make the buying decision.
Consumers might fill in their personal knowledge gaps by talking with their
friends, family, or salespersons. They can also scour commercial media for
unsponsored and unbiased information.

Factors Affecting Consumers Search Processes


Perceived Benefits versus Perceived Costs of Search
Locus of Control
Actual or Perceived Risk

Alternative
Evaluation

Once a consumer recognised a problem and explored the possible options, he or


she must sift through the choices available and evaluate the alternatives.

Consumer Decision Rules

are set of criteria that consumers us consciously

or subconsciously to quickly and efficiently select from among several


alternatives.
Compensatory Decision Rule Assumes that the consumers when evaluating
alternatives, trades off one characteristic against another, such that good
characteristics compensate for bad characteristic.
Non-compensatory Decision Rule Consumers choose a product or service on the
basis of one characteristic or one subset of characteristic, regardless of the
values of its other attributes.
Decision Heuristics These are mental shortcuts that help a consumer narrow
down choices.

Purchase

Value

is

strong

driver

of

consumers

purchase decisions. Customers seek out and


purchase the product and services that they

believe provide them with the best value.

Post Purchase

The final step of the consumer decision


process is post purchase behaviour. Marketers
are particularly interested in post purchase

behaviour because it entails actual rather than potential customers. Satisfied


customers, whom marketers hope to create become loyal, purchase again and
spread

positive

word

of

mouth.

Customer Satisfaction
Customer Loyalty

Notes:

References:
Grewal, D., Levy, M. (2010). Marketing 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill Irwin. 150-161
Edelman, D. C. (2013). HBRS 10 Must Reads on Strategic Marketing: Branding in
the Digital Age. Harvard Business Review Press. 15-28