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Jamesway Incubation Systems

Chicken Operation Manual


for Multi-Stage Systems

MANOPSC
Revision D1

Jamesway Incubator Company Inc.


30 High Ridge Court
Cambridge, Ont., Canada
N1R 7L3
tel: (519) 624-4646
fax: (519) 624-5803
email for customer service:
service@jamesway.com

This book and its contents are the property of the Jamesway Incubator Company Inc.
Reproduction in whole or in part, by any means, without permission
of Jamesway Incubator Company Inc. is prohibited.
2002 Jamesway Incubator Company Inc.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Multi-Stage Incubation ............................................................................................................................... 15
Air Flow ................................................................................................................................................. 16
The Laminar Air Flow Pattern .......................................................................................................... 16
Air Flow within an Incubator ............................................................................................................. 16
Air Flow within a Hatcher ................................................................................................................. 17
Specifications for Jamesway Incubation Systems ................................................................................. 17
Size and Capacity Options for Multi-Stage Incubators ............................................................................... 18
Size and Capacity Options for Multi-Stage Hatchers ................................................................................. 19
Cabinet, Basic ....................................................................................................................................... 20
Component Identification ........................................................................................................................... 20
Cabinet, Entrance ................................................................................................................................. 20
PT100 Controls ..................................................................................................................................... 21
Display Panel ................................................................................................................................... 21
Machine Controller ........................................................................................................................... 21
Temperature and Humidity Sensor .................................................................................................. 22
Multi-Stage Incubator with PT100 Controls ........................................................................................... 22
2-Door Hatcher with PT100 Controls .................................................................................................... 23
PX Hatcher with PT100 Controls .......................................................................................................... 23
Electro-Mechanical Controls ................................................................................................................. 24
Incubator Information Panel ............................................................................................................. 24
Incubator Control Box ...................................................................................................................... 24
Incubator Thermostat Board ............................................................................................................ 24
Hatcher Control Box and Information Panel ..................................................................................... 25
Hatcher Thermostat Board ............................................................................................................... 25
Multi-Stage Systems with E/M Controls ........................................................................................... 25
Ventilation System ................................................................................................................................. 26
Incubators ........................................................................................................................................ 26
PX Hatcher ...................................................................................................................................... 27
2-Door Hatcher ................................................................................................................................ 28
Hatcher Exhaust Plenums ............................................................................................................... 29
Compressed Air Supply ................................................................................................................... 29
Farm, Incubator and Hatcher Racks ..................................................................................................... 30
Farm Racks ...................................................................................................................................... 30
SST Egg Transport System .............................................................................................................. 30
The Automatic Incubator Rack Loader ............................................................................................. 30
Incubator Racks ............................................................................................................................... 31
Hatcher Racks ................................................................................................................................. 31
Rack Specifications ......................................................................................................................... 31
Hatcher Dollies and Plastic Baskets ................................................................................................ 32
Egg Flats .......................................................................................................................................... 33
Accessories ................................................................................................................................................ 34
Back-up Alarm System ......................................................................................................................... 34
Egg Flat Cabinet ................................................................................................................................... 35
Egg Flat Storage ................................................................................................................................... 35
Battery Operated Circuit Tester, PB3040 .............................................................................................. 35
Digital Thermometer, HA1070 ............................................................................................................... 35
Velometer Air flow Meter, HA1061 ........................................................................................................ 35
Incubator Rack Tester, HA1145 ............................................................................................................ 35

Chapter 2 - Multi-Stage Requirements


Ventilation ................................................................................................................................................... 39
The Importance of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning System .................................................. 39
Measurements that Define Air Properties ............................................................................................. 39
Dry Bulb Temperature ...................................................................................................................... 39
Wet Bulb Temperature ..................................................................................................................... 39
Dewpoint Temperature ..................................................................................................................... 39
Relative Humidity ............................................................................................................................. 40
Specific Room Considerations .............................................................................................................. 40
Egg Room ........................................................................................................................................ 40
Incubator Room ............................................................................................................................... 40
Hatcher Room .................................................................................................................................. 41
Chick Room ..................................................................................................................................... 41
Wash/Pull Room .............................................................................................................................. 41
Clean Room ..................................................................................................................................... 42
Water Requirements .................................................................................................................................. 42
Water Quality for Spray Nozzles and Humidity ..................................................................................... 42
Recommendations ........................................................................................................................... 42
Incubator Electrical Specifications ............................................................................................................. 43
PX and 2-Door Hatcher Electrical Specifications ....................................................................................... 43
Air Requirements ....................................................................................................................................... 44
Compressed Air .................................................................................................................................... 44
Compressor ..................................................................................................................................... 44
Tank ................................................................................................................................................. 44
Auxiliary Air Needs ................................................................................................................................ 44
Air Line Drops .................................................................................................................................. 44
Chapter 3 - Temperature and Humidity Specifications
Systems Using PT100 Controls ................................................................................................................. 47
Systems Using Electro-Mechanical Controls ............................................................................................. 48
Chapter 4 - Operational Procedures
Conventional Incubators versus the Hatch Commander ............................................................................ 51
Egg Handling Basics .................................................................................................................................. 51
Obtaining and Storing Eggs ....................................................................................................................... 51
Transferring the Eggs to the Incubator Racks ............................................................................................ 52
Methods for Loading Eggs into the Incubator Rack ................................................................................... 52
Preparation ........................................................................................................................................... 52
Method 1: from Farm Rack to Incubator Rack ....................................................................................... 53
Method 2: Traying Up by Hand .............................................................................................................. 53
Method 3: Automated ............................................................................................................................ 54
Loading a Full Set ................................................................................................................................. 54
Loading a Partial Set ............................................................................................................................. 54
Final Inspection of Loaded Racks .............................................................................................................. 55
Clean up ..................................................................................................................................................... 55
Preparing to Start the Incubator ................................................................................................................. 56
Left or Right Hand? ............................................................................................................................... 56
Pre Start Check ..................................................................................................................................... 56
Pre Start ..................................................................................................................................................... 56
Incubators with PT100 or PT100SMT Controls ..................................................................................... 56
Control Box ...................................................................................................................................... 56
Temperature and Humidity Sensor .................................................................................................. 57
To Install a Wick .......................................................................................................................... 57
Temperature and Humidity Settings ................................................................................................. 57

Incubators with Electro-Mechanical Controls ........................................................................................ 58


To Install a Thermostat ..................................................................................................................... 58
To Install Wicking ............................................................................................................................. 58
Start Up and 24-Hour Monitoring ............................................................................................................... 59
Loading Empty Racks into the Incubator .............................................................................................. 59
Connecting Air Lines ............................................................................................................................. 60
Connecting Turn Alarm Cables ............................................................................................................. 61
Installing Curtains ................................................................................................................................. 62
Preheating the Incubator ....................................................................................................................... 63
24-Hour Monitoring Prior to Loading .......................................................................................................... 63
Checking the Egg Turning Mechanism and the Egg Turn Alarm ........................................................... 63
If Using PT100 Controls ................................................................................................................... 63
If Using Electro-Mechanical Controls ............................................................................................... 64
Loading Eggs into the Incubator ................................................................................................................ 66
Preparing for the First Egg Setting ........................................................................................................ 66
Loading a Tunnel Incubator ................................................................................................................... 66
After Loading Racks .............................................................................................................................. 67
Additional Loading Instructions for Super J Incubators ......................................................................... 67
Charting Egg Settings ................................................................................................................................ 67
Loading the First Set into the Incubator ................................................................................................ 68
Loading the Second Set into the Incubator ........................................................................................... 68
Loading the Third to the Sixth Set into the Incubator ............................................................................ 69
Transferring the First Set Out of the Incubator ...................................................................................... 70
Coordinating Set, Transfer and Pull on a Calendar Basis ..................................................................... 70
Hatchers with PT100 or PT100SMT Controls ....................................................................................... 71
Control Box ...................................................................................................................................... 71
Preparing for Egg Transfer ......................................................................................................................... 71
Temperature and Humidity Sensor .................................................................................................. 72
To Install a Wick .......................................................................................................................... 72
Temperature and Humidity Settings ................................................................................................. 72
Hatchers with Electro-Mechanical Controls .......................................................................................... 73
To Install a Thermostat ..................................................................................................................... 73
To Install Wicking ............................................................................................................................. 73
Additional Hatcher Preparations ........................................................................................................... 74
Preparing the PX Hatcher for Egg Transfer ...................................................................................... 74
Preparing the 2-Door Hatcher for Egg Transfer ................................................................................ 75
Pre-Heating a Hatcher with PT100 Controls .................................................................................... 76
Preheating a Hatcher with Electro-Mechanical Controls .................................................................. 77
Transferring Eggs from Incubator to Hatcher ............................................................................................. 77
Big J Incubators .................................................................................................................................... 78
Big J and Super J Incubators ................................................................................................................ 78
Transfer Patterns ........................................................................................................................................ 79
Placement of Eggs within a Given Column ........................................................................................... 79
Placement of Columns in a Rack or on a Dolly ..................................................................................... 79
Transferring a Full Set ...................................................................................................................... 79
Transferring Partial Set .................................................................................................................... 79
Placement of the Rack or Dolly within the Hatcher ............................................................................... 79
Transfer Pattern for the PX Hatcher ...................................................................................................... 80
Transfer Pattern for the 2-Door Hatcher ................................................................................................ 80
Method 1: Manual Transfer .................................................................................................................... 81
PX Hatcher ...................................................................................................................................... 81
2-Door Hatcher ................................................................................................................................ 83
Method 2: Mechanical Transfer ............................................................................................................. 85

Washing and Sanitizing the Incubator ........................................................................................................ 86


Hatching the Eggs ...................................................................................................................................... 86
Taking Off the Hatch ................................................................................................................................... 87
Method 1: Manual Method .................................................................................................................... 87
PX Hatcher - Using Plastic Hatcher Baskets and Dollies ................................................................. 87
2-Door Hatcher - Using Metal Hatcher Baskets and Racks ............................................................. 88
Method 2 and 3: Semi-Automated Method or Fully Automated ............................................................. 88
Guidelines to Minimize Chick Loss ............................................................................................................. 89
Incubator ............................................................................................................................................... 89
Hatcher ................................................................................................................................................. 89
Transferring Eggs from Incubator to Hatcher ........................................................................................ 89
Egg Transfer .......................................................................................................................................... 90
Chapter 5 - Cleaning Procedures
General Guidelines for Cleaning Practices ................................................................................................ 93
For Personnel ........................................................................................................................................ 93
Specific Cleaning Practices for Incubators ................................................................................................. 93
Complete Clean-Out and Sanitation of Incubators ..................................................................................... 94
Specific Cleaning Practices for Hatchers ................................................................................................... 94
PX Hatcher ............................................................................................................................................ 94
2-Door Hatcher ..................................................................................................................................... 96
Chapter 6 - Routine Monitoring and Maintenance
Basic Guidelines for Monitoring Equipment ............................................................................................. 101
Monitoring Incubators .............................................................................................................................. 101
Temperature and Humidity Readings .................................................................................................. 101
Space Saver Intake Duct .................................................................................................................... 101
Monitoring Hatchers ................................................................................................................................. 102
Temperature and Humidity .................................................................................................................. 102
Monitoring Ventilation Equipment ............................................................................................................. 102
Environmental Conditions ................................................................................................................... 102
Routine Maintenance for Incubator PT100 Controls ................................................................................ 106
Weekly ................................................................................................................................................ 106
Reservoir ....................................................................................................................................... 106
Wick ............................................................................................................................................... 106
To Install a Wick ........................................................................................................................ 106
Every Three Months ............................................................................................................................ 106
Probes ........................................................................................................................................... 106
Calibration ...................................................................................................................................... 106
Display Panel ................................................................................................................................. 106
High Humidity ........................................................................................................................... 106
Low Humidity ............................................................................................................................ 106
High Temperature ..................................................................................................................... 106
Low Temperature ...................................................................................................................... 107
Fan Motor Off Switch ................................................................................................................ 107
Turn Failure ............................................................................................................................... 107
Power Off .................................................................................................................................. 107
Alarms ...................................................................................................................................... 107
Display Panel LEDs .................................................................................................................. 107
Control Box .................................................................................................................................... 107
Routine Maintenance for Incubator Electro-Mechanical Controls ............................................................ 108
Weekly ................................................................................................................................................ 108
Reservoir ....................................................................................................................................... 108
Wick ............................................................................................................................................... 108

To Install a Wick ........................................................................................................................ 108


Every Three Months ............................................................................................................................ 108
Thermostats ................................................................................................................................... 108
Information Panel ........................................................................................................................... 108
Control Box .................................................................................................................................... 108
Wires, Connections and Bulbs .................................................................................................. 108
High Temperature Circuit .......................................................................................................... 109
Heat Circuit ............................................................................................................................... 109
Low Temperature Circuit. .......................................................................................................... 109
Humidity Circuit ......................................................................................................................... 109
Motor Off Circuit ........................................................................................................................ 109
Power Off Check ....................................................................................................................... 109
Routine Maintenance for Incubators ........................................................................................................ 110
Before Every Set ................................................................................................................................. 110
Egg Tray Frames ............................................................................................................................ 110
Space Saver Intake Duct ............................................................................................................... 110
After Every Transfer ............................................................................................................................. 110
Incubator Racks ............................................................................................................................. 110
Weekly ................................................................................................................................................ 110
Spray Nozzles ................................................................................................................................ 110
Spray Nozzle Condition ............................................................................................................ 110
To Clean Spray Nozzles ........................................................................................................... 110
To Check the Water Pressure ................................................................................................... 111
Water Pan ...................................................................................................................................... 111
Door Seals ..................................................................................................................................... 111
Threshold Gaskets ......................................................................................................................... 111
Curtains ......................................................................................................................................... 111
Rubber Gaskets ............................................................................................................................. 111
Compressor ................................................................................................................................... 111
Monthly ............................................................................................................................................... 112
Heat Rods ...................................................................................................................................... 112
Fans ............................................................................................................................................... 112
Every Three Months ............................................................................................................................ 112
Wash and Sanitize ......................................................................................................................... 112
Damper System ............................................................................................................................. 112
Fan Motors, Switches and Blades .................................................................................................. 113
Fan Blade Spacing and Motor RPM ............................................................................................... 113
Procedure for Checking RPM ................................................................................................... 113
Every Six Months ................................................................................................................................ 113
Water Line Strainer ........................................................................................................................ 113
V-Groove Tracks ............................................................................................................................. 113
To Level Tracking ...................................................................................................................... 114
Switch Plates ................................................................................................................................. 114
Hatchers ................................................................................................................................................... 119
Routine Maintenance for PT100 Hatcher Controls ................................................................................... 119
Twice-Weekly ...................................................................................................................................... 119
Water Reservoir ............................................................................................................................. 119
Wick ............................................................................................................................................... 119
To Install a Wick ........................................................................................................................ 119
Every Three Months ............................................................................................................................ 119
Probes ........................................................................................................................................... 119
Calibration ...................................................................................................................................... 119
Display Panel ................................................................................................................................. 119
High Humidity ........................................................................................................................... 119
Low Humidity ............................................................................................................................ 120

High Temperature ..................................................................................................................... 120


Low Temperature ...................................................................................................................... 120
Power Off Alarms ...................................................................................................................... 120
Fan Motor Off and Door Open Alarms ........................................................................................... 120
For PX Hatchers ............................................................................................................................ 120
Air Cylinder ............................................................................................................................... 120
For 2-Door Hatchers ...................................................................................................................... 120
Blowers ..................................................................................................................................... 120
Auxiliary Damper ...................................................................................................................... 120
Control Box .................................................................................................................................... 121
Routine Maintenance for Electro-Mechanical Hatcher Controls ............................................................... 122
After Every Hatch ................................................................................................................................ 122
Thermostat Board .......................................................................................................................... 122
Twice Weekly ...................................................................................................................................... 122
Water Reservoir ............................................................................................................................. 122
Wick ............................................................................................................................................... 122
To Install a Wick ........................................................................................................................ 122
Every Three Months ............................................................................................................................ 122
Thermostats ................................................................................................................................... 122
Control Box .................................................................................................................................... 122
Wires, Connections and Bulbs .................................................................................................. 123
High Temperature Circuit .......................................................................................................... 123
Blower Circuit ............................................................................................................................ 123
Heat Circuit ............................................................................................................................... 123
Humidity Circuit ......................................................................................................................... 123
Motor Off Circuit ........................................................................................................................ 123
Power Off Check ....................................................................................................................... 123
Routine Maintenance for Hatchers ........................................................................................................... 124
After Every Hatch ................................................................................................................................ 124
Wash and Sanitize ......................................................................................................................... 124
Twice-Weekly ...................................................................................................................................... 124
Spray Nozzles ................................................................................................................................ 124
Spray Nozzle Condition ................................................................................................................. 124
To Clean the Spray Nozzles ...................................................................................................... 124
To Check the Water Pressure ................................................................................................... 124
Exhaust Duct ................................................................................................................................. 124
Door Seals ..................................................................................................................................... 124
Threshold Gaskets ......................................................................................................................... 125
Weekly ................................................................................................................................................ 125
All Joints ........................................................................................................................................ 125
Hatcher Racks ............................................................................................................................... 125
For 2-Door Hatchers ...................................................................................................................... 125
Blower ....................................................................................................................................... 125
Monthly ............................................................................................................................................... 126
Fans ............................................................................................................................................... 126
Heat Rings ..................................................................................................................................... 126
Cabinet .......................................................................................................................................... 126
For PX Hatchers ............................................................................................................................ 126
Air Cylinder Control Assembly .................................................................................................. 126
Every Three Months ............................................................................................................................ 127
Fan Motors and Blades .................................................................................................................. 127
Fan Blade Spacing and Motor RPM ............................................................................................... 127
Procedure for Checking RPM ................................................................................................... 127
Damper System ............................................................................................................................. 127
For 2-Door Hatchers ................................................................................................................. 128

Water Line Strainer ........................................................................................................................ 128


Routine Maintenance for Ventilation Equipment ....................................................................................... 133
As Required ........................................................................................................................................ 133
Humidifiers ..................................................................................................................................... 133
Furnaces ........................................................................................................................................ 133
Cooling Units ................................................................................................................................. 133
Weekly ................................................................................................................................................ 133
Furnaces ........................................................................................................................................ 133
Cooling Units ................................................................................................................................. 133
Evaporative Coolers ....................................................................................................................... 133
Exhaust Fans ................................................................................................................................. 133
Monthly ............................................................................................................................................... 133
Furnaces ........................................................................................................................................ 133
Cooling Units ................................................................................................................................. 133
Evaporative Coolers ....................................................................................................................... 133
Exhaust Fans ................................................................................................................................. 133
Every Six Months ................................................................................................................................ 133
Furnaces ........................................................................................................................................ 133
Cooling Units ................................................................................................................................. 133
Evaporative Coolers ....................................................................................................................... 133
Exhaust Fans ................................................................................................................................. 133
Specifications for Ventilation Components ............................................................................................... 136
Incubator Damper Positions ................................................................................................................ 136
Positioning of Spray Nozzles ............................................................................................................... 136
Space Saver Intake Duct .................................................................................................................... 136
Hatcher Damper Positions .................................................................................................................. 137
PX Hatcher .................................................................................................................................... 137
2-Door Hatcher .............................................................................................................................. 137
General Considerations for Fan Blade Spacing ....................................................................................... 138
Fan Blade Spacing for 50 Hz Area - Older Motor Mount ..................................................................... 139
Fan Blade Spacing for 60 Hz Area - Older Motor Mount ..................................................................... 140
Fan Blade Spacing for 60 Hz Area - New Motor Mount ...................................................................... 141
Fan Blade Spacing for 50 Hz Area - New Motor Mount ...................................................................... 141
Fan Blade Spacing for Hatchers ......................................................................................................... 142
Chapter 7 - Optimizing Performance
Entrance End Temperature ...................................................................................................................... 145
Procedure to Measure Entrance End Temperature ............................................................................. 146
Exit End Temperature ............................................................................................................................... 147
Procedure to Measure Exit End Temperature ..................................................................................... 147
Internal Incubator Pressure ...................................................................................................................... 148
Procedure to Measure Internal Incubator Pressure ............................................................................ 148
Damper Performance ............................................................................................................................... 149
Incubator Damper Position at Set ....................................................................................................... 149
Incubator Damper Position at Transfer ................................................................................................ 149
Electro-Mechanical Incubators ............................................................................................................ 149
Time of Transfer ....................................................................................................................................... 151
Monitoring the Hatch ................................................................................................................................ 152
Controlling Other Variables to Improve Performance ............................................................................... 152
Grouping of EggsFlock Age and Egg Size ...................................................................................... 152
Problems Caused by Incorrectly Grouping Eggs ................................................................................ 152
Optimum Grouping of Eggs ................................................................................................................ 152
Pre-incubation and Pre-warming of Eggs ........................................................................................... 153

Partial and Skipped Set ...................................................................................................................... 153


Skipped Set ......................................................................................................................................... 153
Partial Set ........................................................................................................................................... 153
General Rules for Adjusting Set Times .................................................................................................... 154
Analysing Overall Performance ................................................................................................................ 154
Variation of Air Cell Size ...................................................................................................................... 154
Hatcher Residue Breakout .................................................................................................................. 154
Fresh Egg Breakout ............................................................................................................................ 155
Troubleshooting Performance .................................................................................................................. 155
1. Uneven Temperature, Side to Side .................................................................................................. 155
2. Uneven Temperature, Top to Bottom ............................................................................................... 155
3. Dampers Not in Range .................................................................................................................... 155
4. High Early Embryo Mortality ............................................................................................................ 156
5. High Late Embryo Mortality ............................................................................................................. 156
6. Differential Pressure Out of Range ................................................................................................. 156
Chapter 8 - Chick Development and Troubleshooting Hatchability
Chicken Embryology, The Timing of Major Embryonic Developments ..................................................... 161
Before Egg Laying ............................................................................................................................... 161
Between Laying and Incubation .......................................................................................................... 161
During Incubation ................................................................................................................................ 161
Analysing Hatch Residue ......................................................................................................................... 162
1. Chicks Hatch Late ........................................................................................................................... 162
2. Fully Developed Embryo with Beak not in Air Cell .......................................................................... 163
3. Fully Developed Embryo with Beak in Air Cell ................................................................................ 163
4. Chicks Pipping Early ....................................................................................................................... 163
6. Malpositions .................................................................................................................................... 163
7. Sticky Chicks (albumen sticking to chicks) ...................................................................................... 163
8. Sticky Chicks (albumen sticking to down) ....................................................................................... 163
9. Chicks Covered with Egg Remnants ............................................................................................... 163
10. Eggs Exploding ............................................................................................................................. 164
11. Clear Eggs .................................................................................................................................... 164
12. Blood Ring (embryonic death 2 to 4 days) .................................................................................... 164
13. Dead Embryos, 2nd Week of Incubation ....................................................................................... 164
14. Air Cell Too Small .......................................................................................................................... 164
15. Air Cell Too Large .......................................................................................................................... 164
16. Chicks Hatch Early ........................................................................................................................ 165
17. Chicks Too Small ........................................................................................................................... 165
18. Chicks Too Large ........................................................................................................................... 165
19. Trays Not Uniform in Hatch or Chick Quality ................................................................................. 165
20. Soft Chicks .................................................................................................................................... 165
21. Chicks Dehydrated ........................................................................................................................ 165
22. Mushy Chicks ................................................................................................................................ 165
23. Unhealed Navel, Dry ..................................................................................................................... 165
24. Unhealed Navel, Wet and with Odour ........................................................................................... 165
25. Chicks Cannot Stand .................................................................................................................... 166
26. Crippled Chicks ............................................................................................................................. 166
27. Crooked Toes ................................................................................................................................ 166
28. Spraddle Legs ............................................................................................................................... 166
29. Short Down ................................................................................................................................... 166
30. Closed Eyes .................................................................................................................................. 166

Chapter 9 - Appendices
Appendix I - The Importance of Egg and Chick Transportation ..................................................................... 169
Bacterial Contamination ................................................................................................................. 169
Temperature Control ...................................................................................................................... 169
Avoid Temperature Shocks ............................................................................................................ 169
Relative Humidity ........................................................................................................................... 169
Motion ............................................................................................................................................ 170
Transportation of Day-Old Chicks .................................................................................................. 170
Control Temperature and Humidity ................................................................................................ 170
Giving Enough Ventilation .............................................................................................................. 170
Preparing for the Flight .................................................................................................................. 171
Appendix II - Give Day-Old Chicks the Best Start .......................................................................... 173
Arrival of the Chicks ....................................................................................................................... 173
Mortality during Brooding ............................................................................................................... 174
Hygiene and Health ....................................................................................................................... 174
Control of Wet Droppings ............................................................................................................... 174
Water before Feed ......................................................................................................................... 175
Appendix III - Hatchery Sanitation: Concepts, Logistics and Assessment .......................................... 177
Quality Control Programmes .......................................................................................................... 177
Minimise Contamination ................................................................................................................ 178
Prevention through Design ............................................................................................................ 178
Chemical Control ........................................................................................................................... 179
Airborne Contaminants .................................................................................................................. 179
Applying Sanitation Programmes ................................................................................................... 179
Appendix IV - Practical Hatchery Sanitation Guidelines to Assure Quality ......................................... 181
Prevent Problems from Entering or Multiplying .............................................................................. 181
Define an Effective Program for Each Facility ................................................................................ 181
The Effectiveness of a Sanitiser and Disinfectant .......................................................................... 182
Routinely Monitor the Process ....................................................................................................... 182
Hatchery Monitoring Program ........................................................................................................ 183
The 50 Critical Sampling Points ..................................................................................................... 183
Problem Solving if There is One .................................................................................................... 184
Determine the True Results ........................................................................................................... 184
Appendix V - What to Do with Hatchery Waste ................................................................................... 187
Systems to Remove Waste ............................................................................................................ 187
Vacuum Disposal ........................................................................................................................... 187
What to Do with Waste ................................................................................................................... 188
Premium Pet Food ......................................................................................................................... 188
Appendix VI - Breakout Analysis Guide for Hatcheries ....................................................................... 189
Fresh Egg Breakout ....................................................................................................................... 189
Candling Breakout Analysis ........................................................................................................... 190
Hatch Day Breakout ....................................................................................................................... 190
Breakout Procedure: ...................................................................................................................... 191
Embryo Mortality Determination .................................................................................................... 191
Identifying Fertility .......................................................................................................................... 192
Keep Accurate Records ................................................................................................................. 193
Glossary ................................................................................................................................................... 195

1. Introduction
overview
air flow
sizes and capacities
component identification

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 13

14 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

MULTI-STAGE INCUBATION
Jamesway Multi-Stage Incubators are precisely controlled environments for efficient chick production.
Eggs, organized in individual block settings of two incubator racks, move progressively through the incubator
cabinet as the embryos develop.

Note: Racks (total of six) in the Hatch Commander incubator are moved once per week.
Racks (total of twelve) in all other Jamesway
tunnel incubators are moved twice per week.

Jamesway Multi-Stage incubator cabinets are designed


to hold six or twelve racks. When two racks of fresh
eggs are introduced into the incubator, they are set at
the entrance, in position 1. This block of eggs will be
pushed along either once or twice weekly (six or twelve
rack machines respectively) until they arrive at the exit
end (position 3 or 6 respectively). The process, in the
incubator, takes 18 days for chicken eggs.

A distinctive feature of the Jamesway Multi-Stage Incubator is its Laminar Air Flow Pattern. This unique
air flow pattern enables hatchery managers to make
the most efficient use of energy sources. It also provides an ideal environment for eggs in each stage of
embryonic growth.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 15

AIR FLOW
The Laminar Air Flow Pattern
Laminar Air Flow, as opposed to turbulent air flow,
requires only one sensing point to maintain ambient
environmental conditions for heat, humidity, fresh air
and carbon dioxide. This air flow, combined with high
speed fans and water atomization, provides the necessary humidification and cooling. As a result, the need
for cooling coils is eliminated. Furthermore, the
Laminar Air Flow Pattern, combined with the conditioned air inside the incubator, maximizes the use of
heat and carbon dioxide produced by embryonic
development.
Air Flow within an Incubator
Within the Jamesway Multi-Stage Incubator, heat is
drawn from two sources: heat elements near the incubator fans, and the natural heat which radiates from
the eggs with the most embryological development.
As embryos develop, they require additional oxygen
and give off carbon dioxide in ever-increasing amounts.
The changing colour in the illustration shows the increasing production and release of heat by embryos as
they develop. The yellow coloured racks at the left rep-

resent the least developed embryos. These eggs produce the least amount of heat and, therefore, are the
coolest eggs in the incubator. The red coloured racks
at the right represent the most embryologically advanced eggs and, therefore, the warmest. The red and
blue arrows depict the air flow pattern within Jamesway
incubators. Fresh air enters through the intake at the
entrance to the incubator. The air blends with conditioned air already in the incubator. At the same time,
humidity is added, as required, by four spray nozzles,
operated by an electronically controlled solenoid valve.
The relative humidity of incubator air is important. It
controls egg moisture loss, which can significantly affect hatchability and chick quality. Ideally, eggs should
lose 12 to 15 percent of their weight prior to pipping.
Any less could cause edema in the chicks. Too much
water loss causes dehydration.
Six energy saver fans positioned at the entrance to the
incubator force fresh, moistened air (blue arrows) over
the closed top of the incubator racks toward the exit
end to cool the oldest eggs. Warm air and carbon dioxide produced by the most developed eggs are picked
up by the fresh air and circulated back (red arrows)
through the racks, over and around each of the newer
eggs, surrounding them with warmth and extra carbon
dioxide.

Intake
Exhaust

The Laminar Air Flow Pattern in the incubator

16 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Air Flow within a Hatcher


The Jamesway PX Hatcher is also designed with the
same Laminar Air Flow Pattern. The Laminar Air Flow
in the Jamesway PX Hatcher (illustration) works in
conjunction with a patented, pressurized exhaust system, thus the name PX. The PX system provides
uniformity in temperature, humidity, and consistency
in air velocity that results in increased hatchability and
improved day-old chick quality. Furthermore, this system eliminates the need for a blower and auxiliary
damper motor reducing electrical consumption.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR JAMESWAY


INCUBATION SYSTEMS
Parameters for temperature, humidity and component
tolerances have been established for Jamesway MultiStage Systems and can be found in this manual. They
should be followed in order to achieve maximum results. Any variation from these standards will have
adverse and questionable results.

As fresh air is added to the hatcher (represented by the


blue arrows) it circulates throughout the hatcher, and
warm air (represented by the red arrows) is exhausted.
This air flow design provides an environment that is as
close to natural conditions as possible within multistage incubation systems.

Exhaust
Intake

The Laminar Air Flow Pattern in the hatcher

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 17

SIZE AND CAPACITY OPTIONS FOR MULTI-STAGE INCUBATORS


Space Saver
Length: 24 ft. 9-3/8 in. (7553 mm)
Height: 8 ft. 3 in. (2515 mm)
Basic Width: 10 ft. 0-1/4 in. (3054 mm)
SAO Width: 9 ft. 10-1/4 in. (3004 mm)
Big J Capacity: 77,760 eggs
Super J Capacity: 90,720 eggs

Conventional Tunnel
Length: 27 ft. 8-1/4 in. (8429 mm)
Height: 8 ft. 3 in. (2515 mm)
Basic Width: 10 ft. 0-1/4 in. (3054 mm)
SAO Width: 9 ft. 10-1/4 in. (3004 mm)
Big J Capacity: 77,760 eggs
Super J Capacity: 90,720 eggs

Side Door
Length: 27 ft. 4-1/4 in. (8338 mm)
Height: 8 ft. 3 in. (2515 mm)
Basic Width: 10 ft. 0-1/4 in. (3054 mm)
SAO Width: 9 ft. 10-1/4 in. (3004 mm)
Big J Capacity: 77,760 eggs
Super J Capacity: 90,720 eggs

Hatch Commander
Length: 14 ft. 9-3/8 in. (4505 mm)
Height: 8 ft. 3 in. (2515 mm)
Basic Width: 10 ft. 0-1/4 in. (3054 mm)
SAO Width: 9 ft. 10-1/4 in. (3004 mm)
Big J Capacity: 38,880 eggs
Super J Capacity: 45,360 eggs

18 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

SIZE AND CAPACITY OPTIONS FOR MULTI-STAGE HATCHERS


PX Hatcher
Depth: 6 ft. 11-7/8 in. (2130 mm)
Height: 6 ft. 1-3/4 in. (1873 mm)
Basic Width: 9 ft. 9-3/4 in. (2991 mm)
SAO Width: 9 ft. 7-3/4 in. (2940 mm)
Big J Capacity: 12,960 eggs
Super J Capacity: 15,120 eggs

2-Door
Depth: 6 ft. 2-1/4 in. (1886 mm)
Height: 6 ft. 1-3/4 in. (1873 mm)
Basic Width: 9 ft. 0-1/4 in. (2750 mm)
SAO Width: 8 ft. 10-1/4 in. (2699 mm)
Big J Capacity: 12,960 eggs
Super J Capacity: 15,120 eggs

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 19

COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
CABINET, BASIC
Controls on the roof
eliminates interior wires
and conduits which collect
dirt and bacteria.

Walls and ceiling


smooth fibre-glass
reinforced plastic
for ease of cleaning
Joints sealed
to eliminate dirt.

CABINET, ENTRANCE
Intake Duct

Fans force fresh, moistened


air over the closed top of the
incubator racks toward the exit
end to cool the oldest eggs.

Rack curtains are


necessary for proper
air circulation.

Centre Aisle Door


Incubator Rack

Tracking

Threshold

20 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Rack Baffle

PT100 CONTROLS
The PT100 Control System provides an accurate means
of regulating temperature and humidity as well as a
complete indication of the status of all systems and
alarms.
Display Panel
Mounted externally for easy visibility and use.

Alarm status displays


high and low temperature
and high and low humidity.

Temperature and Alarm


Light warns of possible
problems.

Status of Heaters,
Sprayer and
Damper Control

Current Temperature
and Humidity

Temperature and
Humidity Setpoints

Machine Controller
A Machine Controller is located on top of each machine. This unit performs both the environmental
control and monitoring of the incubator or hatcher.
All instrumentation and control devices are connected
to the machine controller.

In older models,
make sure boards
are firmly seated.

Newer control boxes


contain one main board.

Guards in place
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 21

Temperature and Humidity Sensor


Platinum probes accurately evaluate the machines environment. This information is transmitted to the
control box.

Probe
Wick (PB4077)
Plug
Distilled Water
Reservoir

MULTI-STAGE INCUBATOR WITH


PT100 CONTROLS
Venturi
Centre Aisle Door
Air Intake

Fans
Spray Nozzles
Water Pan

Control Box
Damper Drive Box

Entrance End

Exhaust Damper
Temperature
and Humidity
Sensor (inside)

Heat Elements
Intake
Duct

PT100
Display Panel

Wall Gasket
Threshold
Rack Baffle
Exit End
Centre Aisle Doors
Incubator Racks
with Curtains
V-Groove or
U-Channel

22 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Rack Stop

PX HATCHER WITH PT100 CONTROLS


Control Box

PT100
Display Panel

Damper Drive Box


Air Cylinder Control

Temperature
and Humidity
Sensor (inside)

Exhaust Duct

Intake Duct
Door Alarm
Switch (1 of 3
mounted in front)

Baskets
Threshold
Rack Guide
Fans and Dolly Assembly

2-DOOR HATCHER WITH


PT100 CONTROLS

Control Box
Blower Motors
Intake Box

Exhaust Duct

PT100
Display Panel

Temperature
and Humidity
Sensor (inside)

Tracking
Motor Fan
Assembly

Rack and
Metal Baskets

Threshold
Rack Guide
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 23

ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CONTROLS

Incubator Information Panel


The Information Panel provides a complete visual assessment of machine status and alarms.

Incubator Control Box


The Control Box is located on the header panel at the
exit end of the incubator. (On older models, the control box may be found inside the machine at the exit
end.) This unit performs both environmental control
and monitoring of the incubator. All instrumentation
and control devices are connected to the control box.

Incubator Thermostat Board

Low Temp. Thermostat

Thermostats and humidistat accurately evaluate the


machines environment. This information is transmitted to the control box.

High Temp. Thermostat


Aux. Heat Thermostat

Humidistat with
Wick (P1507)

Main Heat
Thermostat

Plug
Distilled
Water
Reservoir

24 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Hatcher Control Box and Information Panel


The Control Box is located centrally on the front of
the header panel. This unit performs both environmental control and monitoring of the hatcher. All
instrumentation and control devices are connected to
the control box and a complete visual assessment of
machine status and alarms is provided.

Hatcher Thermostat Board

High Temp.Thermostat

Thermostats and humidistats accurately evaluate


Blower Thermostat
the machines environment. This information is
transmitted to the control box.
Heat Thermostat
Reading Thermometer
Reading Thermometer
with Wick (P1507)
Plug
Reading Humidistat
with Wick (P1507)

Distilled
Water
Reservoir

Multi-Stage Systems with E/M Controls


Control Box and
Information Panel
Control Box

Thermostat Board
located on right side

Thermostat Board
Reservoir

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 25

VENTILATION SYSTEM
Incubators
The Damper Assembly is regulated by the temperature
input to the control box. Components include the motor assembly and the drive box which control the
position of both the intake and exhaust damper baffles.
The status of the following damper positions are indicated on the PT100 display panel: damper opening,
damper closing, damper open (fully open) and damper
closed (fully closed).

Damper Drive Box

PT100 Controls

EM Controls

Incubator damper slides shown in fully closed position

Venturi
Fans
Air Intake
Entrance End

Damper Slide

Spray Nozzles
Water Pan

Exhaust
Damper Drive Box

Intake Duct
Heat Elements

Exit End

Incubator Ventilation Components

26 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

PX Hatcher
The Damper Assembly is regulated by the temperature input to the control box. Components include the
motor assembly and the drive box which control the
exhaust damper slide position.
The status of the following damper positions are indicated on the PT100 display panel: damper opening,
damper closing, damper open (fully open) and damper
closed (fully closed).

Damper Assembly
Spray Nozzle
Exhaust Duct

Damper Rod, Collar


& Set Screw
Spray Nozzle
Connection

Junction Box
Assembly
connects to
Umbilical Cable.

Damper Slide
Latch (1 of 6)

Fan and Motor


Intake Duct

Note: When the damper slide is fully


closed, there is a spatial opening of
1/8 in. (3 mm).

Fan Dolly
Kickstand

Exhaust Duct and Fans

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 27

2-Door Hatcher
Motors

Blower Box

Intake Box for Big J - one motor


Air Intake

Intake Box for Super J.

Damper Assembly
Fan Stand
Spray nozzles are mounted
through the exhaust holes in
the rear wall. They are directed
at the centre of each fan blade.
Exhaust
Openings

Heat Ring

Fan Assembly

28 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Fan and Motor

Fan and Heater


Connections to
Control Box

Hatcher Exhaust Plenums


Tower
Plenum
Flush
Plenum

Entrance
Door
Trough in plenum floor slopes towards drain and external exhaust.

In the plenum room, the floor should slope towards a


common trough that runs along the length of the back
wall. This trough should slope 1/2 in. per 10 ft.
(4mm/m) towards the drain located at the end opposite
the entrance door. These slopes will aid ease of
clean-out.

Note: This illustration is for reference purposes only. If further details are required,
please refer to The Hatchery Design Manual
for Multi-Stage or contact your Jamesway
representative.

Air Regulator

Compressed Air Supply


Drain Plug
Optional valve for
extension, capped

Optional valve to
each machine for
maintenance

Air Regulator and


Filter Assembly

Valve

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 29

FARM, INCUBATOR AND HATCHER RACKS


Farm Racks
Eggs can be loaded onto Farm Racks at the farm, delivered directly to the hatchery and used for egg storage
until incubation. The eggs are then transferred to the
incubator racks. All Farm Racks have durable nylon
wheels and are zinc electroplated. These features resist corrosion and improve ease of cleaning.
SST Egg Transport System
Jamesways SST Egg Transport System can double the
amount of eggs that a typical transport vehicle can
deliver from the farm to the hatchery. The interlocking side rails of the plastic flats stack securely on
special guides moulded into Jamesways reusable plastic pallets. Once the pallets are loaded, the flats are
secured for transport with a plastic wrap that is easily
removed when the eggs arrive at the hatchery. Safe
transport is further secured by inflatable air pillows
that are placed between the pallets and the walls as
well as between the two pallets down the length of the
trailer. This system ensures there is less breakage and
hairline cracks during transport.
The flat is constructed from resilient polypropylene
material that gently cushions eggs to protect against
breakage. The material is also highly intolerant to microorganisms, and easy to clean and disinfect, reducing
the potential for disease. Each SST egg flat holds 84
eggs and can be used in all Jamesway Incubator Racks
and if required in Jamesway Farm Racks.
Two transportation pallets are available. They are the
three column pallet (5,544 eggs) and the six column
(11,088 eggs).
The Automatic Incubator Rack Loader
The Automatic Incubator Rack Loader is for use with
the SST Egg Transport System. The Incubator Rack
Loader can off load the egg flats from the transport
pallets and load them into the incubator racks at a rate
of 100,000 eggs per hour.

30 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Incubator Racks
Jamesway Incubator Racks are constructed of 30
percent zinc electroplated and 70 percent hot-dipped
galvanized steel. Each rack is equipped with pneumatic egg turning cylinders, polyurethane (non-kink)
air lines, mercury switch-activated turning sensors,
and four injection-moulded plastic wheels. Unlike
other incubation equipment, Jamesway Incubator
Racks also have top, bottom and side panels, and
individual plastic curtains to assist the air circulation pattern. The capacity of each incubator rack
varies with the size of the egg flat.
Egg Flat
Part Number

Number of
Eggs/Flat

Number of
Flats/Rack

Total Egg
Capacity/Rack

PB4509

36

180

6,480

PB4215

42

180

7,560

PB4478

77

90

6,930

PB3179B

84

90

7,560

PB5077

84

90

7,560

PB5046

168

45

7,560

Hatcher Racks
Galvanized steel hatcher racks along with galvanized
steel hatcher baskets are for use in 2-Door Hatchers.
Rack Specifications
Type of Rack
Farm Rack
Incubator
Big J Hatcher
Super J Hatcher

Maximum Outer Dimensions


Depth

Width

Height*

46.1 in.

26.9 in.

74.5 in.

1172 mm

683 mm

1892 mm

49.4 in.

39.3 in.

79.9 in.

1254 mm

997 mm

2029 mm

46.6 in.

40.5 in.

64.5 in.

1184 mm

1029 mm

1638 mm

49.6 in.

43.5 in.

70.9 in.

1259 mm

1105 mm

1800 mm

Trays
30 trays
45 trays
45 trays
45 trays

Note: Dimensions given are for metal or glass impregnated nylon V-groove wheels.
*Add 1 in. (25 mm) for racks with polyolefin wheels.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 31

Hatcher Dollies and Plastic Baskets


Hatcher Dollies and plastic hatcher baskets are standard equipment for the PX Hatcher. All dollies have
durable polyolefin wheels and are zinc electroplated.
These features resist corrosion and improve ease of
cleaning.
Hatcher Baskets are constructed of polyethylene for
rigidity, lightweight and stability. The light colour
allows for quick visual inspection for cleanliness.
For existing 2-Door Hatchers, Jamesway offers
hatcher dolly/plastic basket conversion kits. (Conversion kits CK1127 and CK1128.) Contact a
Jamesway representative for details.

Baskets may be stacked


15-high. This allows 30
baskets in total.

Type of Dolly

Maximum Outer Dimensions


Depth
Width*
Height

Baskets

PX Hatcher, Double Dolly

50 in.

32 in.

70 in.

30 baskets

1270 mm

813 mm

1778 mm

* Note: Width measurement includes baskets. The above measurements also apply for 2-Door Hatcher
conversion kits.

32 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Egg Flats
Egg flats are constructed from resilient
polypropylene material that gently cushions eggs to protect against breakage. The
material is also highly intolerant to microorganisms, and easy to clean and
disinfect, reducing the potential for disease. They are available in a number of
sizes to suit different hatchery needs,
hatcher dollies and hatcher baskets.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 33

ACCESSORIES
BACK-UP ALARM SYSTEM
This alarm utilizes a regular mercury thermostat. It
provides a second independent monitoring system for
incubators and hatchers in case of overheating or failure of the regular alarm system.

Green & red


LEDs indicate
the state of
the circuit.
Test switch
verifies proper
functioning of the
LEDs and alarm
relay. It does not
test circuit operation.

Control Box
Thermostat
Junction Box

Rest switch cancels


the alarm.

The Back-up Alarm System


is a secondary method of
monitoring above normal
operating temperatures in
an incubator or a hatcher.

34 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Mercury thermostats
are used as the
temperature sensing
devices.
Recommended
thermostats:
for incubators 101F
for hatchers 100F.

EGG FLAT CABINET


This flat storage cart is adequate for one set* of flats.
It is used at transfer time to move empty flats to the
wash room or storage area. Generally, it is only required
for those hatcheries that transfer manually.
*(36 / 42 egg 360 flats, 60 per compartment)

EGG FLAT STORAGE


Two flat storage carts are required for one set* of flats.
It is used at transfer time to move empty flats to the
wash room or storage area. Generally, it is only required
for those hatcheries that transfer manually.
*(77/ 84 egg 90 flats, 30 per stack, 3 stacks)

BATTERY OPERATED CIRCUIT TESTER


PB3040

VELOMETER AIR FLOW METER


HA1061

DIGITAL THERMOMETER
HA1070

INCUBATOR RACK TESTER


HA1145

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 35

36 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

2. Multi-Stage
Requirements
ventilation requirements
water requirements
electrical requirements
air requirements

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 37

38 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

VENTILATION
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE HEATING,
VENTILATION AND
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
A well-designed Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) System reduces energy costs as well
as boosts both incubator and hatcher operation and
performance. It also improves hatchery sanitation, and
provides the proper environment for embryo development and quality day-old chicks.
For optimal hatchability and normal embryo growth,
the HVAC system should successfully provide incubator and hatcher rooms with fresh air of the proper
temperature, humidity and pressure. This conditioned
air enters the machine through a dampered air intake
located on the top of the machine.
Normally, the stale air from the incubators exhausts
directly to the outside atmosphere through an exhaust
in the rear roof of the hatchery, but it is equally feasible to connect the machines to a common powered
exhaust, or to provide a non-powered common exhaust
through the roof of the building.
Hatchers should be allowed to vent into a plenum behind the machines. This plenum or dust corridor can
be exhausted naturally or power-assisted. A sloping
floor with an open drain at the far end facilitates cleaning. Additionally, a spray system with a timer helps to
keep the fluff wet and contained within the plenum. If
this system is not used, each hatcher can be individually exhausted to the outside of the building. Exhaust
ducts must be provided with clean-outs at convenient
locations. See page 29.
It is also important to provide a well distributed air
supply to all rooms in the hatchery. Ideally, each room
should have its own ventilation system and there should
be as little air passage between rooms as possible. The
HVAC system should be designed to create pressure
differentials, where desired, between intake and exhaust
systems for any single area.

Note: Exhaust systems for the incubators and


hatchers should not be equipped with dampers of any kind. All fresh air intakes and
air-cooled mechanical equipment should be
at least 25 ft. (7.6 m) from the nearest hatcher
exhaust if at all possible.

Most modern hatcheries in use today will implement


an HVAC system. The sophistication and type of system will depend largely on the climate as well as the
economic conditions.
MEASUREMENTS THAT DEFINE
AIR PROPERTIES
Because air has water absorption and holding properties, these are the key variables to consider when
ventilating hatcheries. They are measured by dry bulb
temperature, wet bulb temperature, dewpoint temperature and relative humidity. Jamesway Multi-Stage
Incubators and Hatchers have specific dry bulb and
wet bulb temperatures for proper embryonic development. (See page 47, Chapter 3 - Temperature and
Humidity Specifications for Incubators and Hatchers.)
Dry Bulb Temperature
Dry bulb temperature is measured using an ordinary
thermometer.
Wet Bulb Temperature
Wet bulb temperature is measured using a thermometer where the bulb is covered with a wet wick.
The difference in the dry bulb and wet bulb temperature readings is a measure of the dryness of the air.
Dewpoint Temperature
Dewpoint temperature is the temperature at which
moisture leaves the air and condenses on objects. This
typically occurs when the dry bulb, wet bulb and
dewpoint temperatures are the same.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 39

Relative Humidity
Relative humidity is a comparison of the amount of
moisture within the air to the amount of moisture the
same air at the same dry bulb temperature could hold
if it were saturated.
SPECIFIC ROOM CONSIDERATIONS
Egg Room
Avoid all direct blasts of air on exposed eggs. Keep the
velocity of the re-circulating air to a minimum. This is
necessary to prevent dehydration of the eggs. If eggs
are held longer than seven (7) days, lower temperatures are recommended. See Obtaining and Storing
Eggs on page 51.
Egg Room
Optimum Temperature, dry bulb

General Conditions
6468F
1820C

Relative Humidity, % RH

7580%

7580%

Incubator Room
The space containing the incubator or the space above
the incubators (from top of the incubator to ceiling or
roof) should be a separate area. Continuously operating fans on the heaters and cooling units (if located in
this space) or other fans located here should continually circulate and mix the air supply. Doors into this
area should be kept closed.

Note: Fresh Air Supply and Room Pressure


given are not valid when evaporative cooling
is used. Consult your Jamesway representative for additional information.

Incubator Room
Minimum Temperature, dry bulb

General Conditions
73F
23C

Maximum Temperature, dry bulb

85F

29C

Optimum Temperature, dry bulb

80F

27C

Relative Humidity, % RH

50-60%

50-60%

Fresh Air Supply (Super J), per incubator 375 cfm*

640 m3/h

Room Pressure Differential to outside

1.03.0 Pa*

0.0050.015 in. w.g.*

* cfm (cubic feet per minute), in. w. g. (inches water gauge), Pa (Pascals)

40 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Hatcher Room
Continuously operating fans on the heaters and cooling units (if located in this space) or other fans located
in the hatcher room should continually circulate and
mix the air supply. Doors into this area should be kept
closed.

Note: Fresh Air Supply and Room Pressure


given are not valid when evaporative cooling
is used. Consult your Jamesway representative for additional information.

Hatcher Room
Minimum Temperature, dry bulb

General Conditions
73F
23C

Maximum Temperature, dry bulb

85F

29C

Optimum Temperature, dry bulb

80F

27C

Relative Humidity, % RH

5060%

5060%

Fresh Air Supply (Super J), per incubator

375 cfm

640 m3/h

Room Pressure Differential to outside

0.005-0.015 in. w.g.*

1.03.0 Pa*

* cfm (cubic feet per minute), in.w. g. (inches water gauge), Pa (Pascals)

Chick Room
It is very important to provide proper ventilation for
newly hatched chicks. This includes the appropriate
amount of outside air as well as proper heating and/or
cooling. Although the velocity of the re circulating air
should be kept to a minimum, it is crucial that all chicks
have access to sufficient circulating air and thus a necessary supply of oxygen.
Chick Room
Optimum Temperature, dry bulb

General Conditions
7080F
2127C

Relative Humidity, % RH

4050%

4050%

Fresh Air Supply per 10,000 chicks

300 cfm

510 m3/h

Wash/Pull Room
This room should have a controlled environment for
both worker and chick comfort. It is also one of the
dirtiest rooms in the hatchery and therefore should have
a negative pressure to the rest of the hatchery. This is
achieved by using an exhaust fan and an adequate fresh
air supply.
Pull/Wash
Optimum Temperature, dry bulb

General Conditions
7080F
2127C

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 41

Clean Room
This is the cleanest room in the hatchery and is used to
temporarily store recently cleaned equipment. It should
have a positive pressure to the rest of the hatchery and
an adequate fresh air supply. It is important to provide
air exchange with outside air to allow drying of the
equipment.
Clean
Optimum Temperature, dry bulb

General Conditions
7080F
2127C

WATER REQUIREMENTS
WATER QUALITY FOR SPRAY NOZZLES
AND HUMIDITY
The spray nozzles in the Jamesway incubator provide
both humidity and cooling. A system that uses spray
nozzles to atomize water requires a good clean source
of water (sediment free and minimal mineral content)
to avoid excessive scale build up.
Recommendations
1. Since most hatchery water supplies do not meet
the criteria listed below, treat the water supply to
the machines, using a reverse osmosis (RO) or other
suitable water treatment system.
2. Separate the water supply to the incubators and
hatchers from the water supply to the rest of the
hatchery.

4. Water supplied to the incubator and hatcher spray


nozzles should meet the following characteristics:
No sediment (a 10 micron filter is suggested).
TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) less than 10.0 ppm
(parts per million)
pH range of 6 to 8.
Hardness less than 2.0 ppm.
No, iron, manganese and hydrogen sulfide, or as
close to 0.0 ppm as possible.
Bacteria, zero (0) bacteria count (no detectable
amount).
Dissolved organic compounds less than 2.0 ppm.

3. The pressure at the spray nozzle must be a


minimum of 65 psig (4.5 bars) at all times. A
booster pump may be necessary on the water line
to ensure the minimum pressure is maintained. The
system must be capable of providing each incubator
with 2.7 gal. (10 L) of water per hour, and each
hatcher with 1.5 gal. (6 L) of water per hour.

42 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Reduced maintenance, cleaner machine interior, minimal scale buildup, improved sanitation, longer
equipment life and optimum machine performance are
some of the benefits gained by investing in water
quality.

INCUBATOR ELECTRICAL
SPECIFICATIONS
Total connected load at 230 V is 42 A. Power supplied
to the incubators may be in any of the following configurations:
1. 230 V, single phase, 3 wire, 60 Hz,

Note: The start-up load* is calculated using


a fresh set of eggs and bringing the incubator up to temperature.
Recommended voltage is 230, but can range
from 208 to 240 volts. If specifications outside of this range are required, please contact
Jamesway.

2. 230 V, single phase, 2 wire, 50 Hz, or


3. 230 V, single phase, 2 wire, 60 Hz.
Each incubator also requires:
1. One non-fused grounded neutral lead.
2. One 50 A (for 230 V operation), or 60 A (for 115
V operation) circuit breaker protecting ungrounded
load carrying conductors.
With 230 V motors, the start-up load* is 42 A, running
load is 27 A.
With 115 V motors, the start-up load* is 53 A, running
load is 38 A.

PX AND 2-DOOR HATCHER


ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Total operating load at 230 V is 13 A.

Note: Recommended voltage is 230, but can


range from 208 to 240 volts. If specifications
outside of this range are required, please contact Jamesway.

Power supplies to the hatcher may be in any of the following configurations:


1. 230 V, single phase, 3 wire, 60 Hz,
2. 230 V, single phase, 2 wire, 50 Hz,or
3. 230 V, single phase, 2 wire, 60 Hz.
Each hatcher requires the following:
1. One non-fused grounded neutral lead.
2. One 20 A circuit breaker protecting the ungrounded
load carrying conductor.
With 230 V motors, the running load is 13 A.
With 115 V motors, the running load is 17 A.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 43

AIR REQUIREMENTS
COMPRESSED AIR
A large compressor centrally located with piping to
the appropriate equipment is recommended. Air dryers are endorsed.
Air consumption for four Jamesway incubators
(48 cylinders) at 60 psig (4 bars) would be 2.44 cfm
(4.15 m3/h) once/hour.
Air consumption for four Jamesway PX Hatchers
(8 cylinders) at 20 psig (1.5 bars) would be 0.02 cfm
(0.03 m3/h).
The requirements for an air tank motor-compressor
outfit to handle a specific number of Jamesway incubators and hatchers would be as follows:
1. 1 to 4 incubators and hatchers 1 hp (0.75 kW)
2. 5 to 9 incubators and hatchers 3 hp (2.2 kW)
3. Over ten (10) incubators and hatchers, use a 5 hp
(3.7 kW) motor for each set of ten (10).
Compressor
The requirements for a compressor are as follows:
1. Must be oil-less type.
2. Have a displacement of 2.7 cfm (4.6 m3/h) at
1725 rpm.
3. Have a pressure switch set to cut in at 150 psig
(10 bars) and out at 175 psig (12 bars).
Tank
The air tank must be built to ASME (The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers) code requirements
and tested at 300 lb. (136 kg). It may be either horizontal or vertical. The capacity should be 44 cu. ft.
(1.25 m3) at 160 psig (11 bars). Other requirements
are a pressure gauge and shut off valve on the tank
outlet, a tank drain, a tank safety valve and tank legs.

44 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

AUXILIARY AIR NEEDS


When using an air system to the above specifications,
air must not be taken for auxiliary equipment. A separate air source must be employed or a central system
of a proportionally larger capacity must be used. The
air system for incubators must not be allowed to fall
below the above specifications.
Air Line Drops
One air line is required for each Jamesway air filterregulator assembly. Each air line drop requires a
shut-off valve and an adapter to accept plastic tubing
with an outside diameter (O.D.) of 3/8 in. (9.5 mm).
A Jamesway air filter-regulator assembly can supply
seven (7) incubators or portion thereof when used with
PT100 or Sentry Controls. With Electro-Mechanical
controls, one air line drop and one air filter-regulator
assembly is required for every four (4) incubators or
portion thereof. Jamesway air filter-regulator assemblies work well for small installations.
Large hatcheries should consider using one or two large
compressors to supply air throughout the hatchery.
Generally the required line is installed above a row of
incubators. Each row can be comprised of 15 to 20
machines. Each machine is fitted with a drop that tees
off the main line and is fitted with a shut-off valve and
a 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) tube adapter as described above.
The line diameter quoted is the minimum recommended.

3. Temperature and
Humidity
Specifications
for systems using PT100 controls
for systems using electromechanical controls

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 45

46 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Variable environments allow for improved performance


in different flocks. Multi-Stage machines can be programmed to specific settings, which in turn allows for
flexibility in the environment. The specifications shown
below are for an average flock and should be used as a
guideline when considering your particular situation
(breed, age of flock, age of eggs, etc.).

Note: If the incubator is continually full, temperature settings should not be changed.
When new settings of eggs are skipped,
temperature settings are based on days of
incubation for the oldest eggs in the
incubator.

SYSTEMS USING PT100 CONTROLS


Table 1: Big J Incubator Set Points
Stage of Incubation
Temperature

Humidity

Days 110

99.9F (37.72C)

88.0F (31.11C)

Days 10 and 11

99.6F (37.56C)

86.0F (30.00C)

Days 12 and 13

99.3F (37.39C)

86.0F (30.00C)

Day 14

99.0F (37.22C) (winter)

86.0F (30.00C) (winter)

Normal Run

99.0F (37.22C) (summer)

86.0F (30.00C) (summer)

Table 2: Super J Incubation Set Points


Stage of Incubation
Temperature

Humidity

Days 110

99.9F (37.72C)

88.0F (31.11C)

Days 10 and 11

99.6F (37.56C)

86.0F (30.00C)

Days 12 and 13

99.2F (37.33C)

86.0F (30.00C)

Day 14

98.8F (37.11C) (winter)

86.0F (30.00C) (winter)

Normal Run

98.8F (37.11C) (summer)

86.0F (30.00C) (summer)

Table 3: Super J with SST Incubation Set Points


Stage of Incubation
Temperature

Humidity

Days 110

99.9F (37.72C)

88.0F (31.11C)

Days 10 and 11

99.6F (37.56C)

86.0F (30.00C)

Days 12 and 13

99.2F (37.33C)

86.0F (30.00C)

Day 14

98.6F (37.11C) (winter)

86.0F (30.00C) (winter)

Normal Run

98.6F (37.11C) (summer)

86.0F (30.00C) (summer)

Table 4: Big J/Super J Hatcher Set Points


Stage of Incubation
Temperature

Humidity

Big J at Transfer

98.5F (36.94C)

86.0F (30.00C)

Super J at Transfer

98.5F (36.94C)

86.0F (30.00C)

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 47

SYSTEMS USING ELECTROMECHANICAL CONTROLS

Note: Use start-up thermostats whenever the


oldest eggs in the incubator have 14 days or
less of incubation.

Table 5: Big J Incubator Thermostat Settings


Stage of Incubation
Humidity
Low Temp.

High Temp.

Aux. Heat

Main Heat

Start-up

8486-88F

97.0F

100.5F

99.75F

100.0F

Day 114

29-30-31C

36.11C

38.06C

37.64C

37.78C

PB1809

PB1812

PB1437

PB1435

PB1436

Normal Run

8486-88F

97.0F

100.0F

98.8F

99.0 F

Day 1518

2930-31C

36.11C

37.78C

37.11C

37.22C

PB1809

PB1812

PB1436

PB1433

PB1434

Table 6: Super J Incubator Thermostat Settings


Stage of Incubation
Humidity
Low Temp.

High Temp.

Aux. Heat

Main Heat

Start-up

84-86-88F

97.0F

100.5F

99.75F

100.0F

Day 114

29-30-31C

36.11C

38.06C

37.64C

37.78C

PB1809

PB1812

PB1437

PB1435

PB1436

Normal Run

848688F

97.0F

100.0F

98.6F

98.8F

Day 1518

293031C

36.11C

37.78C

37.0C

37.11C

PB1809

PB1812

PB1436

PB3759

PB1433

Table 7: Super J with SST Thermostat Settings


Day in Cycle
Humidity
Low Temp.

High Temp.

Aux.Heat

Main Heat

Start-up

Normal Run

848688F

97.0F

100.5F

99.75F

100.0F

293031C

36.11C

38.06C

37.64C

36.67C

PB1809

PB1812

PB1437

PB1435

PB1436

848688F

97.0F

100.0F

98.4F

98.6F

293031C

36.11C

36.67C

36.89C

37.0C

PB1809

PB1812

PB1436

PB3760

PB3759

Table 8: Big J/Super J Hatcher Thermostat Settings


Day in Cycle
High Temp.
Blower
Heat

Temp. Read.

Humidity

Hum. Read.

Big J

99.5F

99.0F

98.8F

98100F

86.0F

8488F

Day 1821

37.5C

37.22C

37.11C

36.6737.78C

30C

2931C

PB1925

PB1434

PB1433

PB1923

PB1926

PB1924

Super J

99.5F

98.8F

98.6F

98100F

86.0F

8488F

Day 1821

37.5C

37.11C

37C

36.6737.78C

30C

2931C

PB1925

PB1433

PB3759

PB1923

PB1926

PB1924

48 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

4. Operational
Procedures
egg handling basics
obtaining and storing eggs
transferring eggs from farm
rack to incubator racks
start-up
setting procedures
guidelines for setting and
transfer procedures
transferring eggs from
incubator racks to hatcher
baskets
hatching eggs

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 49

50 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Poultry hatcheries should produce the greatest possible number of healthy chicks from fertile eggs. Proper
handling of eggs and the operation of incubating and
hatching equipment contribute to this goal.

CONVENTIONAL INCUBATORS
VERSUS THE HATCH COMMANDER
The following text and illustrations refer to conventional incubators that contain a total of twelve racks,
six on each side. If you are using a Hatch Commander
incubator, there will be only six racks in total, three on
each side.

EGG HANDLING BASICS


Store eggs small end down from the time of collection.
During transportation, keep the temperature as uniform
as possible to prevent condensation, and avoid temperature shocks. Pay particular attention during loading
and unloading.

Moving the farm rack.


Watch where you are going!

OBTAINING AND STORING EGGS


Bring eggs in cases and/or farm racks into the egg room
through the dock entrance. Place the eggs in the store
room until they are required for setting.

Note: The egg storeroom should be designed to


hold a one-week supply of eggs.

Egg rooms, including the HVAC system, should be


cleaned and sanitized every day.

Recommended storage temperature for 1 to 6


days is between 65F and 68F (18C to 20C).
A relative humidity of 75 to 80 percent is required
to avoid moisture loss.
Do not allow the eggs to be exposed to strong air
currents, as excess moisture loss will occur even
though the relative humidity remains high.
If eggs are to be stored longer than seven days,
the temperature should be lowered, but not below
58F (14C). Relative humidity should remain at
75 to 80 percent.
Turning the eggs is also beneficial if eggs are held
longer than seven (7) days.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 51

TRANSFERRING THE EGGS TO


THE INCUBATOR RACKS
When the desired number of eggs to set has been determined, transfer the appropriate quantity of egg cases
from the egg store room to the egg work room.
Bring two Jamesway incubator racks from the wash
room to the egg work room.
If farm racks were used, push the egg flats through
into the incubator racks. For further explanation, see
Method 1: from Farm Rack to Incubator Rack on the
following page.
If the eggs were collected on the farm in Jamesway
system egg flats, remove the flats from the egg cases
and place in the incubator rack. For a further explanation, see Method 2: Traying Up by Hand on the
following page.

METHODS FOR LOADING EGGS INTO


THE INCUBATOR RACK
PREPARATION
The incubator should be operational or in the process
of being preheated and monitored. Prepare two incubator racks for the eggs by thoroughly cleaning and
sanitizing.
At a testing station, connect rack air lines to check that
the egg turn is functioning properly. A regulated air
pressure of 35 to 40 psig (240 to 275 kPa) should be
available.
The transfer of the eggs should take place in the egg
room where the temperature should be between 65F
and 68F (18C and 20C).

52 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Transferring eggs from farm rack to incubator rack

METHOD 1: FROM FARM RACK TO


INCUBATOR RACK
Farm racks are the most common method of transporting and storing eggs today.
Eggs are placed directly into plastic flats from the nest
and loaded into the farm rack, which is then transported
to the hatchery.
Unload farm racks from the bottom to the top. Alternate tiers to maintain balance.
To transfer eggs from the farm rack to the incubator
rack, roll both racks up against each other so that two
of the three tiers are lined up.
In this position, slide one egg tray at a time from the
farm rack into the incubator rack or, using a broom
handle, push all egg flats in one frame, at one time,
into the incubator rack. Start at the top left corner and
work down.

Farm racks are unloaded bottom to top, alternating one


tier with the other.

Make sure that the egg flats are pushed completely into
the tray frames and do not protrude.
METHOD 2: TRAYING UP BY HAND
If eggs have been transported to the hatchery with egg
trays in cartons, traying must be done by hand.
Place a metal transfer pallet on a table.
Place a case of eggs close to the table at a convenient
height.

Transferring eggs from farm rack to incubator rack

Lift the plastic flat from the carton by using the posts
or finger holes of the flat.
After placing flats on the pallet, carefully remove the
pallet from the table and slide into the incubator rack.
While the egg trays are held in position with a thumb,
the pallet is pulled out of the rack.
Continue this process until the rack is fully loaded.
Start at the top left corner and work downwards.
Make sure that the egg flats are pushed completely into
the tray frames and do not protrude.
When traying by hand, start at the top and fill one column
before filling the next.
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 53

METHOD 3: AUTOMATED
If eggs are delivered in paper Keyes trays a vacuum
lift may be used to load eggs into the plastic egg flats.
Refer to equipment manufacturers instructions for
proper operation.
LOADING A FULL SET
Place two racks side by side.
Start with the first tray at the top left tier of the incubator rack.
Load eggs working downward until the first tier is full.
Continue loading eggs, starting at the top of the centre
tier of the same rack. Work top to bottom.
Load the right tier. Again, work top to bottom.

Fill one column at a time. Start with the left-hand tier and
work downwards.

After completely loading the first rack, repeat this process to fill the second incubator rack.
LOADING A PARTIAL SET
If the number of eggs to be loaded will not completely
fill two racks, the following procedure should be followed.
Place two racks side by side.
Start with the first tray at the top right tier of the lefthand rack.
Load the eggs working downward until the first column is full.
Continue loading the centre column top to bottom until one half of the total available eggs are loaded.
With the remaining eggs, load the right-hand rack starting at the top left tier.
Work downward and continue with the centre column
until all of the eggs are loaded.
When these racks are positioned side by side in the
incubator, the loading patterns will mirror each other.
The empty tray frames will be directly beneath the fans,
while the loaded trays will be next to the fully loaded
racks. This method of loading partial sets ensures an
even airflow through the egg mass.
54 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Partial set. Racks will mirror each other when positioned


side by side. When loading in the incubator, empty
frames will be directly beneath the fans.

FINAL INSPECTION OF
LOADED RACKS
After the racks have been loaded with eggs, check all
egg trays for proper positioning in the egg tray frames.
Push the flats as far to the back of the incubator rack
as possible to ensure proper egg turning.
At a testing station, connect rack air lines to check that
the egg turn is functioning properly. A regulated air
pressure of 35 to 40 psig (240 to 275 kPa) should be
available.
Level the eggs. This can be done by reversing the air
line connection for a short duration or by hand.

Check the position of all egg trays. Push them


firmly towards the back.

CLEAN UP
After loading incubator racks, take the farm racks to
the equipment wash room. Thoroughly clean and sanitize. Move clean farm racks to the loading dock for
return to the farm.
If eggs were trayed up by hand, discard cartons.
Note: Farm racks may be returned to the farm
loaded with, or without clean empty plastic egg
flats.

Test for correct turning

Egg frame positions

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 55

PREPARING TO START
THE INCUBATOR
After every new installation of a Jamesway incubator
or hatcher, a Jamesway technician will start each incubator to ensure it functions correctly.
Follow this procedure after every complete clean-out
and sanitation of the incubator or if the incubator has
been idle. See Chapter 5 for complete clean out and
sanitation and Chapter 6 for maintenance schedules.
LEFT OR RIGHT HAND?
Many instructions in this manual refer to left and right.
Therefore, all hatchery operators and workers must
follow a common method of determining these designations. To determine the left-right orientation, stand
in front of the machine and look into the cabinet. Your
left is the machines left. Your right is the machines
right. (If you are not sure which doors are at the entrance, remember that the fans are located at the
entrance end.)

Stand at the front entrance, facing the fans to determine


the left and right sides.

PRE START CHECK


Check that all equipment has been thoroughly washed
and sanitized.

PRE START
INCUBATORS WITH PT100 OR
PT100SMT CONTROLS

Locate the fan switch on the PT100 display. Turn off.

Turn the fan switch off. (The fan switch is located on


the PT100 Display.)
Control Box
Turn the power off - CB1, CB2 and CB3.

CB3
CB2
CB1

Warning: The PT100 controller should only be


serviced by qualified maintenance personnel.
Do not attempt to service the controller while
it is turned on. Some circuits are energized with
220 or 380 Vac. They will cause serious shocks,
injury or death if touched. Turn CB1, CB2 and
CB3 off.

CB1, CB2 and CB3 are located behind the panel door on
the front of the control box.

56 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Open the control box.


Ensure that the interior of the control box is clean and
free of debris, especially metal shavings.
If you are using PT100 Controls, check all circuit
boards for proper seating in the main board.
Turn the power back on.
Turn the fans back on.
Temperature and Humidity Sensor
Fill the humidity water reservoir with distilled water.
Using distilled water will prevent mineral build up.

PT100 Controls. Make sure the boards are firmly seated.

Replace the stopper to reduce evaporation and contamination through the reservoir hole.
Install wicking (PB4077) on the humidity probe.
Ensure it is completely covered.
To Install a Wick
Hold the top of the wicking with one hand.
Gently slide over the extended end of the probe.
Seat the wicking firmly around the probe.
Place the free end of the wicking into the reservoir,
Make sure it does not twist or bend. Any twists or bends
will interrupt the flow of water through the wicking.

Temperature and Humidity Sensor with wicking PB4077

The wicking (PB4077) should be 12 in. (30 cm) in


length.
Warning: Incorrectly sized wicking may give
inaccurate wet bulb readings.

Temperature and Humidity Settings


Determine the incubator capacity - Big J, Super J or
SST.
Set the temperature and humidity thumbwheels located
on the display panel. Specifications for each machine
can be found on page 47.

Thumbwheels on the PT100 Display


Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 57

INCUBATORS WITH
ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CONTROLS
Turn the fan switch off.
Determine the incubator capacity - Big J, Super J or
SST.
Ensure that the correct thermostats are installed. Start
up thermostats should be used whenever eggs in the
incubator are 14 days or less. This normally occurs
when the incubator is new and the initial set of eggs
are loaded, or when the incubator is restarted after being emptied and left idle for a time, e.g., during periods
of low production. For start up thermostats see page
48.

The fan switch is located on in the centre of the fan


assembly.

Fill the humidity water reservoir with distilled water


to prevent mineral build up.
Replace the stopper to reduce evaporation and contamination through the reservoir hole.
Install wicking (P1507) on the humidistat bulb.
To Install a Thermostat
The thermostat board is located on the right side of the
incubator above the 4th rack. See page 25 for location.
Insert thermostat into the clips.

Warning: The thermostat contacts are electrically live. Therefore, open the control panel to
disconnect the power to the thermostats before removing. Failure to do so could result in
injury.

To Install Wicking
Hold the top of the wicking with one hand.
Gently slide over the bottom of the bulb.
Seat the wicking firmly around the bulb.
Place the free end of the wicking into the reservoir,
Make sure it does not twist or bend. Any twists or bends
will interrupt the flow of water through the wicking.
The wicking (P1507) should be 12 in. (30 cm) in length.

58 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Incubator thermostat board for electro-mechanical controls with wicking P1507

Warning: Incorrectly sized wicking may give


inaccurate wet bulb readings.

START UP AND
24-HOUR MONITORING
You should monitor all systems for at least 24 hours
before loading eggs into the incubator. This will ensure proper functioning.
Load the empty racks, connect the air lines and turn
alarm cables, install the curtains as described on the
following pages. At this point, you will start the incubator and monitor the systems. A checklist for both
PT100 and EM controls is provided on page 65.
Note: If racks are not loaded into the incubator
and air lines and turn cables not connected, you
will not be able to check egg turning. Doing a 24
hour check without incubator racks, should only
be considered if the machine was out of operation for a short period of time, e.g., during complete
clean-out and sanitation of incubators. See page
94 for details.

LOADING EMPTY RACKS INTO


THE INCUBATOR
Open the incubator door. Turn the fans off by depressing the fan switch located at the entrance of the
incubator.
Note: The location of the fan switch varies. For
incubators with PT100 Controls, there are two fan
switches. One is located on the display panel and
the other inside the incubator at the entrance end.
Use the internal entrance end fan switch. This
switch puts the machine into maintenance mode
fans are off and the fan failure alarm is disabled.
For incubators with electro-mechanical controls,
the switch is located in the centre of the fan assembly. See illustration below.

Before loading the racks into the incubator, remove the


threshold.

Remove the threshold.


Push the empty racks in one at a time. Fill positions 1
through 5 on both sides of the incubator. (Two racks
are to remain outside so they can be loaded with eggs.)
When loading a new rack, push the new rack against
the rack presently in position 1. Gently pushing all racks
forward until the new rack is pushed through, but not
beyond, the gaskets. This will ensure that the new rack,
which is beneath the fans, has an effective seal with
the gaskets on all sides.
Note: If the rack, in position 1, is pushed beyond
the gaskets, remove the rack in position 5 from
the exit end and relocate it to position 1. Again,
make sure the rack does not pass beyond the gaskets and that there are no gaps between the racks.

PT100 Internal Fan Switch


EM Fan Switch
located centrally

Loading empty racks during start-up


Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 59

Later, when the egg-filled rack is loaded, and all 6 positions are filled, the same air-tight instructions will
apply. The rack stop at the incubator exit provides a
proper location for all racks so that the rack in position
1 is fitted against the gasket.
CONNECTING AIR LINES
Locate, on the bearing panel of each incubator rack,
the clear and black plastic hoses. These air lines are
part of the tray frame turning mechanism.
At the end of each air line is a male insert that fits into
a female disconnect on the rack directly next to it. The
black air line connects into the black air line of the
adjoining rack, while the clear air line connects into
the clear air line.

Important: Careful positioning of the rack in


position 1 is critical to the operation of the incubator. Do not push the rack in position 1
beyond the gaskets located below the fans and
down the walls. The rack must pass through,
but not beyond, these gaskets. This creates a
separation between the entrance and incubation chamber.

Racks in position 1 must fit against the gasket.

Connect clear to clear and black to black.

Position of air line connections

60 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

At the exit end, connect the air lines from the ceiling
to the nearest rack in the right bank of racks. Again,
connect black with black and clear with clear.
At the entrance end, connect the air lines from the ceiling to the rack in position 1 on the left bank of racks.
The black air line connects with black and the clear air
line connects with clear.
CONNECTING TURN ALARM CABLES
Located, on the bearing panel of each rack, are male
and female connections for the egg turning signals.
When connected, signals for egg turning status are
transmitted to the egg turn display of the PT100 display panel or the information panel of the
electro-mechanical controls.
Connect the male plug into the female plug of each
adjoining rack.

Connect the ends to the ceiling air lines.


Warning: The tray frames will turn when air
lines are connected, possibly causing injury.
Therefore, ensure that no one is working within
the tray frames or any other component of the
incubator racks when you are connecting the
air lines.

The rack below the fans in the left bank of racks is


connected to the same rack in the right bank of racks.
The male and female connections of the turn indicator
ceiling lines are connected at the exit end.
Check for proper functioning. Disconnect one plug to
simulate a failure. On PT100 systems, a light emitting
diode (LED) will flash to indicate a failure. On electromechanical controls, a failure will register on the egg
turn display light on the information panel.

Connect the turn alarm cables.

Position of turn alarm cables


Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 61

INSTALLING CURTAINS
The purpose of the curtains is to create a tunnel that
forces air to flow through the egg mass.
With the exception of the curtains for position 1 racks,
place each curtain so that the two curtain hanger brackets of each rack protrude through the slots in the hangers
of the curtain. The curtain hangers, on the curtains of
the racks in position 1, sit on top of the brackets.
If you have a newer version with no rubber gaskets,
the curtains of the incubator racks in position 1 must
overlap the curtain angle of the centre aisle door. When
you hang the curtain, in position 1, leave a clearance
of 1/4 in. (6 mm) to allow the centre aisle door to open
without damaging or curling the edges of these curtains.

With the exception of the rack in position 1, the brackets


should protrude through the slots in the curtain hanger.
Curtains on racks in position 1 sit on top of the brackets.

Important: Do not load incubator racks into,


or remove racks from the machine with the
curtains in place.
Overlap each curtain correctly as you install
it. Curtains on the position 1 racks are tucked
under the edge of curtains on the position 2
racks. Curtains on the position 2 racks are
tucked under the curtains on the position 3
racks, and so on.
Determine whether you have an older version
of the curtain angle, which has rubber gaskets,
or the newer version, which has no gaskets.

After the racks are in position, hang the curtains.

Tuck the curtains in position 1 under the curtains in


position 2 and so on.

62 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

No rubber gaskets?
Make sure the curtain overlaps the centre aisle door.

PREHEATING THE INCUBATOR


Switch the fans on.
Check for counter-clockwise rotation.
Replace the thresholds at the entrance and close the
doors.

24-HOUR MONITORING
PRIOR TO LOADING
Use the appropriate checklist (depending on whether
the controls are PT100 or EM), located on page 65, to
visually monitor the incubator.

Replace the thresholds.

To check the egg turning mechanism, refer to the following text.


CHECKING THE EGG TURNING MECHANISM
AND THE EGG TURN ALARM
After the incubator has been started, give the egg turning mechanism a final check. When the racks are first
loaded into the incubator, they should be level. After
the air lines are connected, the racks will turn to the
left or right. (The racks will turn in the opposite direction following a manual egg turn.)
If Using PT100 Controls
Press the manual egg turn button on the display panel
to activate the air valve located on the incubator roof.
The racks in all incubator racks should turn each time
this switch is depressed.
Wait approximately five (5) minutes for the turn sequence to finish.

PT100 Manual Egg Turn

If after five (5) minutes all racks have not completely


turned, the egg turn alarm should sound. Also, the visual
alarm lamp should flash.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 63

If Using Electro-Mechanical Controls


F

Note: If an EM incubator is equipped with a timer


board, there is audible and visual warning of a
turn failure. The alarm should sound and the turn
light on the information panel should also flash.

The time clock should activate a manual egg turn sequence for up to four (4) incubators.

RN KN

RN KNO

Turn the dial clockwise one (1) hour on the time clock.

Locate the time clock above the entrance end doors of


the incubator.

1
3

If using EM controls, dial the clock clockwise 1 hour to


check the Egg Turn Alarm.

64 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Note: To ensure proper functioning of the incubator, you should monitor all systems for at least 24 hours
before loading eggs into the incubator. The following checklist has been developed to assist you in determining proper function.
Checklist for Incubators with PT100 Controls
Check the following:
1

Incubator Number
3
4
5
6

Alarm System
Display Panel

Temperature Setting
Humidity Setting

LEDs
Amperage on Heaters

Main
Auxiliary

Damper Opening*
Water Reservoir
Water Line Pressure (65 psig at nozzle)
Spray Nozzles (Position and Pattern)
Fan Operation and Blade Spacing
Air Line Pressure
Egg Turning
*Note: Both dampers should be open 1/2 in. (13 mm) in the fully closed position.

Checklist for Incubators with EM Controls


Check the following:
1

Incubator Number
3
4
5
6

Alarm System
Control Box Pilot Lights

Main Heat
Auxiliary Heat
Humidity

Amperage on Heaters

Main
Auxiliary

Damper Opening*
Water Reservoir
Water Line Pressure (65 psig at nozzle)
Spray Nozzles (Position and Pattern)
Fan Operation and Blade Spacing
Air Line Pressure
Egg Turning
Motor Off Switch
*Note: Both dampers should be open 1/2 in. (13 mm) in the fully closed position.
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 65

LOADING EGGS INTO THE


INCUBATOR
The incubator has now been preheated and has been
functioning properly for at least 24 hours.
Load the eggs into clean, sanitized incubator racks.
At a testing station, connect rack air lines to check that
the egg turn is functioning properly. A regulated air
pressure of 35 to 40 psig (240 to 275 kPa) should be
available.
PREPARING FOR THE FIRST EGG SETTING
Open the incubator door.
Turn the fans off by depressing the fan switch located
at the entrance of the incubator.
Disconnect the master air line of the first rack in the
left-hand row and the turn alarm cables that connect
the left bank to the right bank of racks.

When pushing the racks, grip the side frame close to the
ends. Watch where you are going!

Note: The location of the fan switch varies. For


incubators with PT100 Controls, there are two fan
switches. One is located on the display panel and
the other inside the incubator at the entrance end.
See illustration below. Use the internal entrance
end fan switch. This switch puts the machine into
maintenance modefans are off and the fan failure alarm is disabled. For incubators with
electro-mechanical controls, the switch is located
in the centre of the fan assembly. See page 59.

Roll each row of five racks forward one rack space to


allow room for new racks. When pushing the racks,
grip the side frame close to the ends (not near the centre). Failure to do so may result in an inward-bent cross
bar that could damage eggs.
LOADING A TUNNEL INCUBATOR
Gently swing back the left entrance door as far as possible. Remove the threshold.
Using a team of two people roll an egg-filled rack into
the incubator.
The back of the rack must face the side wall of the
incubator.
Make sure the rubber gasket fits around the rack after
it is in position. See page 60.

Use two people to load the rack. Push on the side frame.
The back of the rack faces the outside wall.

The right side of the rack in position 6 will now come


in contact with the rack stop.
Close the left door and gently swing back the right
door as far as possible.
Load an egg-filled incubator rack into the right-hand
bank following the same instructions.
66 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Rack Stops for V-groove (right) and U-channel (left)

AFTER LOADING RACKS


After the egg-filled incubator racks are loaded into the
incubator:
Check all egg trays for correct positioning.
Check that the gasket and rack in position 1 create an
air-tight seal.
Connect the turn alarm cables of the position 1 racks
to the position 2 racks.
Connect the turn alarm cables for the left and right
banks.
Connect the air lines from the position 1 racks to the
position 2 racks (black to black and clear to clear).
Connect the air line drops from the ceiling to the left
bank of racks (black to black and clear to clear).
Warning: Be sure fingers, clothing and cables
are clear of the rack, as turning will occur when
the pressurized line is connected.

Install curtains on the newly set racks.


Check all curtains for correct overlapping.
Switch on the fans and check for counter-clockwise
rotation.
Replace the thresholds and close the incubator doors.
Note: Refer to page 59 for a more in depth description of the above procedure.

ADDITIONAL LOADING INSTRUCTIONS FOR


SUPER J INCUBATORS
When egg-filled racks are pushed into position 6, disconnect the air lines and turn alarm cables to the
incubator racks in position 6. Level the egg tray frames
of the position 6 incubator racks. This will create greater
air movement, thereby dissipating the heat build-up
generated by the most developed embryos.
However, do not remove the curtains from the racks
until the racks are removed from the incubator at transfer.
Connect the air lines and turn alarm cables to racks in
position 5.

CHARTING EGG SETTINGS


Three days after the first eggs are set, a new batch of
eggs can be set in the incubator.
For example, assuming the first racks were placed in
the incubator on Monday, the second pair of incubator
racks could be put in the incubator on Thursday. Again,
fresh eggs are set into position at the entrance, and the
previously set racks of eggs are pushed forward into
the second position. Continue to set racks of eggs twice
per week, every third or fourth day, until the incubator
is filled. See pages 68 to 70.
The following illustrations show how egg settings
should be coordinated on a calendar basis. On the eighteenth (18th) day of incubation, eggs in position 6 are
ready for transfer. See page 70 for further coordination of transfer and pull times.
Note: Under no circumstances should the eggs
be held in the incubator past 18- days (444
hours). Excessive heat is generated by these
embryos shortly after this time. This heat can be
harmful to the developing embryos in nearby
racks.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 67

LOADING THE FIRST SET INTO THE INCUBATOR

Entrance End

Exit End

Set 1

Set 1

LOADING THE SECOND SET INTO THE INCUBATOR

Entrance End

68 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Exit End

Set 2

Set 1

Set 2

Set 1

LOADING THE THIRD TO THE SIXTH SET INTO THE INCUBATOR

Entrance End

Exit End

Set 3

Set 2

Set 1

Set 3

Set 2

Set 1

Entrance End

Exit End

Set 4

Set 3

Set 2

Set 1

Set 4

Set 3

Set 2

Set 1

Entrance End

Exit End

Set 5

Set 4

Set 3

Set 2

Set 1

Set 5

Set 4

Set 3

Set 2

Set 1

Entrance End

Exit End

Set 6

Set 5

Set 4

Set 3

Set 2

Set 1

Set 6

Set 5

Set 4

Set 3

Set 2

Set 1

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 69

TRANSFERRING THE FIRST SET OUT OF THE INCUBATOR

Entrance End

Exit End

Set 6

Set 5

Set 4

Set 3

Set 2

Set 1

Set 6

Set 5

Set 4

Set 3

Set 2

Set 1

COORDINATING SET, TRANSFER AND PULL


ON A CALENDAR BASIS

SUN

MON

Legend
Eggs to incubator
Transfer to hatcher
Pull chicks from hatcher
Set on Monday
Set on Thursday

TUE

WED

THU

FRI

WEEK 0

WEEK 1

WEEK 2

WEEK 3

WEEK 4

10

WEEK 5

11

12

WEEK 6

13

14

WEEK 7

15

10

16

10

11

WEEK 8

17

11

12

18

12

13

WEEK 9

19

13

14

20

14

15

70 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

SAT

PREPARING FOR EGG TRANSFER


Before eggs can be transferred from the incubator to
the hatcher, prepare and start the hatcher.
Thoroughly wash and sanitize all equipment.
Place hatcher baskets in the rack. When the hatcher is
turned on, the operating temperature will rise, drying
the racks and baskets.
Note: Placing the metal hatcher baskets upside
down will assist drainage and drying.

HATCHERS WITH PT100 OR PT100SMT


CONTROLS

The fan switch is located on the PT100 Display Panel.

Turn the fans off.


The fan switch is located on the PT100 Control Display.
Control Box

CB3
CB2
CB1

Turn the power off.


Warning: The PT100 controller should only be
serviced by qualified maintenance personnel.
Do not attempt to service the controller while
it is turned on. Some circuits are energized with
220 or 380 Vac. They will cause serious shocks,
injury or death if touched. Before servicing the
control box, turn CB1, CB2 and CB3 off.

CB1, CB2 and CB3 are located behind the panel on the
front of the control box.

Open the control box.


Ensure that the interior of the control box is clean and
free of debris, especially metal shavings.
If you are using an earlier PT100 control system, check
all circuit boards for proper seating in the main board.
Turn the power back on.
Turn the fans back on.

PT100 Controls. Firmly seat boards.


Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 71

Temperature and Humidity Sensor


Fill the humidity water reservoir with distilled water.
Using distilled water will prevent mineral build up.
Replace the stopper to reduce evaporation and contamination through the reservoir hole.
Install wicking on the humidity probe.
Ensure it is completely covered.
To Install a Wick
Hold the top of the wicking with one hand.
Gently slide over the extended end of the probe.
Seat the wicking firmly around the probe.

Temperature and Humidity Sensor with wicking PB4077

Place the free end of the wicking into the reservoir,


Make sure it does not twist or bend. Any twists or bends
will interrupt the flow of water through the wicking.
The wicking (PB4077) should be 12 in. (30 cm) in
length.
Temperature and Humidity Settings
Determine the hatcher capacity - Big J or Super J.
Set the temperature and humidity thumbwheels located
on the display panel. The set point specifications for
each machine can be found on pages 47.

Thumbwheels on the PT100 Display

72 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

HATCHERS WITH ELECTRO-MECHANICAL


CONTROLS
Check the gasket on the thermostat board for possible
damage. Repair or replace if required.
Determine the hatcher capacity - Big J or Super J.
Ensure that the correct thermostats are installed. For
specifications see page 48.
Fill the humidity water reservoir with distilled water
to prevent mineral build up.
Replace the stopper to reduce evaporation and contamination through the reservoir hole.
Install wicking (P1507) on the humidistat bulb.

Thermostat Board for EM Controls with wicking P1507

To Install a Thermostat
The thermostat board is located on the centre post of
the hatcher. See page 25.
If you are working with an older machine, first remove
the cover that encloses the thermometers.
Remove wicks, unplug and carefully remove the thermostat board from the centre post.
Gently insert the thermostat(s) into the clips.
Reinstall the thermostat board and plug into socket on
the Control box.
Reinsatll wicking after the board has been plugged into
the socket.
On older machines, replace the cover.
To Install Wicking
Hold the top of the wicking with one hand.
Gently slide over the bottom of the bulb.
Seat the wicking firmly around the bulb.
Place the free end of the wicking into the reservoir.
Make sure it does not twist or bend. Any twists or bends
will interrupt the flow of water through the wicking.
The wicking (P1507) should be 12 in. (30 cm) in length.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 73

ADDITIONAL HATCHER PREPARATIONS


In addition, specific hatcher preparations must be made
depending on whether the hatcher is PX or 2-Door.
Preparing the PX Hatcher for Egg Transfer
Check that the fan switch is in the off position.
Ensure the exhaust duct assembly and both duct panels are correctly latched.
Check that the damper rod is held in the block by the
pin.
Wheel in the fan dolly and locate the front angle guides
of the dolly in the roller bracket assembly.

Wheel in the fan dolly and locate the front angle guides
of the dolly in the roller bracket assembly.

Tilt the dolly forward into position, then drop the kickstands to the floor.
Plug in the fans and heat ring.
Plug in the fan dolly. The umbilical cord from the
hatcher ceiling plugs into the socket of the junction
box located on the fan dolly. Once the umbilical cord
is plugged into the junction box, lock it into position.
Insert the spray assembly Kwik Connect into the water
line.
Switch the fans on, momentarily, to check for proper
functioning.
Fan dolly in position

Inside the PX hatcher

Insert the spray assembly Kwik Connect into the water


line.

74 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Install the rack guides, locating them on the anchor


bolts of the hatcher floor. The short rack guide should
be located in the centre position.
Roll in the dollies loaded with empty plastic baskets,
and centre the dollies on the angle guides.
Note: The baskets must be located against the
rack stop. Failure to do so will result in poor air
flow.

PX Hatcher back stop

Replace the thresholds. Make sure they are properly


located against the brackets.
Close the doors gently, applying pressure to the door
handle until the latch engages.
Turn on the fans.
Preparing the 2-Door Hatcher for Egg
Transfer
Turn fans off.
Check all spray nozzles to ensure they are centred.
Check that the exhaust duct on the back of the hatcher
is latched correctly.
Ensure that the fans and heat ring are plugged in correctly. Momentarily switch on the fans to verify proper
operation. Remember to stand clear of the fans to avoid
injury.

Inside the 2-Door Hatcher

Remove the thresholds from the hatcher doorway.


Swing out the entrance guides.
Roll in the empty racks.
Reposition the entrance guides inside the hatcher.
Replace the thresholds. Make sure they are properly
located in the brackets.
Gently close the doors, applying pressure on the door
handle until the latch engages.
Turn the fans on.

Properly latch the exhaust duct on the back of the hatcher.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 75

Note: With U-channel tracking, the rear wheels


should be as far back as possible, over the roll
back hump and against the stop. With V-groove
tracking, the rear wheels should be located as far
back as possible to the wheel tab and past the
stop bolt. Incorrect positioning of hatcher racks
will result in poor air flow.

Make sure the rack rear wheels are over the bump in the
U-channel rack stop (left) or the stop bolt in the V-groove
rack stop (right).

Pre-Heating a Hatcher with PT100 Controls


As the hatcher is heating, check the display panel for
the following:
1. Flashing system alarm LEDs for low temperature
and low humidity.
2. Activated system status LEDs for heat on and
damper closed.
3. Temperature and humidity read below set point.
4. A flashing alarm lamp.
5. Temperature should reach set point, 98.5F
(36.94C).
6. Humidity should reach set point, 86.0F (30C).
7. The hatcher is now ready for transfer.

PT100 Display Panel

76 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Preheating a Hatcher with


Electro-Mechanical Controls
Switch on the fans and let the machine preheat.
Verify that the heat light on the control panel and the
light on the thermostat board are on.
The hatcher is now ready for transfer.
Is the heat light on the control panel on?

Is the light on the thermostat board on?

TRANSFERRING EGGS FROM


INCUBATOR TO HATCHER
The hatcher is preheated and a work-place has been
prepared for transferring eggs.
The transferring of eggs from the incubator to the
hatcher can be accomplished in two ways: by manual
transfer or by mechanical transfer. Each requires a different preparation.
Remove incubator racks from position 6 by entering
the incubator from the exit end.
Set up a convenient work-place.
Note: Under no circumstance should eggs be held
in the incubator for more than 18-1/2 days (444
hours).

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 77

BIG J INCUBATORS
Note: Start and complete the procedure, on this
page, for one rack (either left or right) before proceeding to the remaining rack in position 6.

If eggs in position 6 racks have not been levelled already, use the ceiling air line to do so. Disconnect the
ceiling air line from racks in position 6.
Disconnect the air lines between the racks in positions
5 and 6.
Disconnect the turn alarm cables between racks in
positions 5 and 6.

Level the eggs in position 6.

Connect the turn alarm cables to the racks in position 5.


Connect the ceiling air lines to racks in position 5.
BIG J AND SUPER J INCUBATORS
Remove the curtains from only one of the position 6
racks.
Swing back the rack stop (if U-channel).
Open the door and remove the threshold.
Depress the rack stop (if V-groove).
Move the rack from the incubator to the transfer area.
Replace the threshold, rack stop (if U-channel) and
close the door.
Repeat the process for the remaining position 6 rack.

Work on one side only. Disconnect the airlines and turn


alarm cables between positions 5 and 6. Connect both the
ceiling turn alarm cable and the airline to the position 5 rack.

78 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Disconnect the airlines between positions 5 and 6.

TRANSFER PATTERNS
There are three components to the transfer pattern:
1. Placement of eggs within a given column.
2. Placement of columns in a rack or on a dolly.
3. Placement of the rack or dolly within the hatcher.
PLACEMENT OF EGGS WITHIN A
GIVEN COLUMN
Regardless of whether you are transferring the eggs to
metal baskets or plastic baskets, or working on the left
or right side, the following pattern for removing eggs
from the incubator rack applies. Start with frame 7 and
move up to frame 1.

Destacking the incubator rack. Start with frame 7 and


move up to frame 1. Go to frame 15 and move up to
frame 8.

Next, go to frame 15 and move up to frame 8.


All the eggs that were from this one column, will be
stacked in baskets, in one column, one on top of the
other.
PLACEMENT OF COLUMNS IN A RACK OR
ON A DOLLY
Transferring a Full Set
Eggs transferred from a full set in an incubator rack
will occupy identical columns in the hatcher rack or
dolly.

Plastic baskets for the PX Hatcher. When emptying one


column of the incubator rack, hatcher baskets will be
stacked one on top of the other.

Transferring Partial Set


Eggs transferred from a partial set in an incubator rack
will occupy identical columns in the hatcher rack or
dolly. Empty baskets will be on the left column of the
left hatcher rack or dolly and the right column of the
right hatcher rack or dolly.
PLACEMENT OF THE RACK OR DOLLY
WITHIN THE HATCHER
Eggs that were located in the column closest to the
exit end of the incubator will now be located in the
middle of the hatcher.
Eggs that were located in the middle column of the
incubator will now be located adjacent to the eggs nearest the side walls of the hatcher.

Metal baskets for the 2-Door Hatcher. When emptying


one column of the incubator rack, hatcher baskets will be
stacked one on top of the other.
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 79

Eggs that were located in the column furthest from the


exit end of the incubator will now be located near the
side walls of the hatcher.
Refer to the following illustrations for PX and 2-Door
transfer patterns.
TRANSFER PATTERN FOR THE PX HATCHER

Left-hand
Side

Exit
Door

Position 4

Position 5 Position 6

Exit
Door

Right-hand
Side

PX Hatcher

TRANSFER PATTERN FOR THE 2-DOOR HATCHER

Left-hand
Side

Exit
Door

Position 4

Position 5 Position 6

Right-hand
Side

Exit
Door

2-Door Hatcher

80 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

METHOD 1: MANUAL TRANSFER


PX Hatcher
The manual method of transfer requires two people
and must be completed within a reasonable length of
time so that the eggs do not cool excessively.
Place a work table in front of the hatcher.
Position one empty egg flat cabinet in the work area.
Place a bucket of water and disinfectant under or to
the side of the work table for discarded eggs.
Remove the rack of eggs from the left-hand side of
the incubator.
Position it in front of the hatcher. Allow easy access to
both the incubator rack and hatcher dolly by both people doing the transfer.

Start by sliding the transfer pallet under the eggs in frame


7, column 1 (left-hand side of the incubator rack). Move
to column 2 through 6.

Open the right-hand hatcher door. Remove the threshold and the dolly with hatcher baskets. Close the door.
Remove the baskets from the dolly and stack conveniently in the work area.
Person A: stand between the incubator rack and work
table. Person B: stand between the hatcher and work
table.
Person A: slide the transfer pallet into the left column,
frame 7 and remove the eggs from the incubator rack.
Place the pallet of eggs on the work table.
At the same time, Person B: remove an empty hatcher
basket from the stack, and place the basket on the work
table.
Inspect and discard cracked eggs.

Gently place the pallet on the work table.

Inspect the eggs for cracks. Discard cracked eggs.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 81

Person A and B: working together, place the hatcher


basket over the flats and pallet. With one hand on the
hatcher basket and the other under the pallet, turn the
basket, eggs and pallet upside down in a gentle, smooth,
rotating motion. Do not flip the eggs quickly as this
will cause damage.
Once the eggs have been inverted, place the basket
gently on the table. To avoid breakage, do not bang the
basket on the table.
Person A: remove the pallet.
At the same time, Person B: remove the egg flats and
place them in the storage cabinet or cart.

Place the basket over the flats and pallet.

Person A: pick up the hatcher basket filled with eggs


and place it on the right-hand side of the dolly. Use
extreme care. Avoid slamming the basket of eggs.
Person A: remove the next basket and place it on the
table. You should continue removing trays of eggs from
the left column in an upward direction, and placing
egg-filled hatcher baskets on the right-hand side of
this dolly.
The middle column of the incubator rack will be transferred to the left-hand side of the dolly.
Always follow the same sequence for removing eggs
from the incubator rack. Start with frames 7 to 1 and
then 15 to 8.

Gently turn the basket, eggs and pallet in a smooth


rotating motion.

When this dolly is full, place this dolly in right-hand


side of hatcher. Replace the threshold and gently close
the door.
Open the middle door, remove threshold, remove dolly,
replace threshold and close the door.
The right-hand column of the incubator rack will be
transferred to the right-hand side of the second dolly.
When the incubator rack is empty, remove it from the
work area. Return to the incubator for the rack that is
positioned on the right-hand side. Place it conveniently in front of the hatcher and repeating the process
this time starting with the left-hand column (frame 7)
and placing egg-filled baskets on the left-hand side of
the dolly occupying the middle position.
When this dolly is full, place this dolly in the middle
of hatcher. Replace the threshold and gently close the
door.
82 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Remove that flats and pallet.

The middle column of the incubator rack will be transferred to the right-hand side of a third dolly. This dolly
will occupy the left-hand side of the hatcher. The righthand column of the incubator rack will be transferred
to the left-hand side of this same dolly.
When the last dolly is loaded, place in hatcher, replace
the thresholds, and gently close the doors.
To ensure the alarm is functioning properly, momentarily switch off the fans. This will cause the alarm to
ring. If the alarm does not ring, locate the problem and
correct it immediately.
The transfer is now complete.

Transferring eggs to the PX Hatcher dolly

Return the two empty incubator racks to the wash room


for complete cleaning and sanitization.
2-Door Hatc her
The manual method of transfer requires two people
and must be completed within a reasonable length of
time so that the eggs do not cool excessively.
Place a work table in front of the hatcher.
Position one empty egg flat cabinet in the work area.
Place a bucket of water and disinfectant under or to
the side of the work table for discarded eggs.
Remove the rack of eggs from the left-hand side of
the incubator.
Position it in front of the hatcher. Allow easy access to
both the incubator and hatcher racks by both people
doing the transfer.

Start by sliding the transfer pallet under the eggs in frame


7, column 1 (right-hand side of the incubator rack). Move
to column 2 through 6.

Open the left-hand hatcher door and turn off the fans.
Person A: stand between the incubator rack and work
table. Person B: stand between the hatcher and work
table.
Person A: slide the transfer pallet into the right-hand
column, frame 7 and remove the eggs from the incubator rack. Place the pallet of eggs on the work table.
At the same time, Person B: remove a metal hatcher
basket from the bottom right-hand column of the metal
hatcher rack, and place the basket on the work table.
Gently place the pallet on the work table.
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 83

Inspect and discard cracked eggs.


Person A and B: working together, place the hatcher
basket over the flats and pallet. With one hand on the
hatcher basket and the other under the pallet, turn the
basket, eggs and pallet upside down in a gentle, smooth,
rotating motion. Do not flip the eggs quickly as this
will cause damage.
Once the eggs have been inverted, place the basket
gently on the table. To avoid breakage, do not bang the
basket on the table.

Inspect the eggs for cracks. Discard cracked eggs.

Person A: remove the pallet.


At the same time, Person B: remove the egg flats and
place them in the storage cabinet or cart.
Person A: pick up the hatcher basket filled with eggs
and place it into the bottom right-hand tray position
of the rack. Use extreme care. Avoid slamming the basket of eggs
Person A: remove the next basket and place it on the
table. You should continue removing trays of eggs from
the right-hand column in an upward direction, and
placing egg-filled hatcher baskets in the right-hand
hatcher rack column from the bottom to top.

Place the basket over the flats and pallet.

Always follow the same sequence for removing eggs


from the incubator rack. Start with frames 7 to 1 and
then 15 to 8.
The middle column of the incubator rack will be transferred into the middle column of the hatcher rack. The
left-hand column of the incubator rack will be transferred into the left-hand column of the hatcher rack.
When the incubator rack is empty, remove it from the
work area. Return to the incubator for the rack that is
positioned on the right-hand side. Place it in front of
the hatcher and repeating the process this time starting
with the left-hand column (frame 7) and placing eggfilled baskets in the bottom left-hand tray position.
When the hatcher racks are full, close the doors gently, and switch on the hatcher fans.

84 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Gently turn the basket, eggs and pallet in a smooth


rotating motion.

To ensure the alarm is functioning properly, momentarily switch off the fans. This will cause the alarm to
ring. If the alarm does not ring, locate the problem and
correct it immediately.
The transfer is now complete.
Return the two empty incubator racks to the wash room
for complete cleaning and sanitization.
METHOD 2: MECHANICAL TRANSFER
Refer to the manufacturers instructions.

Remove that flats and pallet.

Transferring the eggs into the metal hatcher racks. Start at


the bottom and move up.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 85

WASHING AND SANITIZING THE


INCUBATOR
Refer to Chapter 5 for washing and sanitizing instructions.
Refer to Chapter 6 for maintenance that coincides with
washing and sanitizing.

HATCHING THE EGGS


During the three days eggs are in the hatcher, record
the temperature and humidity twice per day.
Monitor the hatch closely for the 12 hours prior to pull
time. No more than 50 to 60 percent of the chicks
should be hatched at this time. Ten percent of those
chicks should be wet or just hatched.
To avoid excessive dehydration of chicks, remove the
chicks from the hatcher six (6) hours after hatching
has been completed.

During the three days eggs are in the hatcher, record the
temperature and humidity twice per day.

Once most of the chicks have pipped out, the hatcher


temperature may be lowered gradually, but no more
than 1F (0.56C) every four (4) hours, to a minimum
of 95F (35C). For each 2F (1.1C) the temperature
is lowered, the humidity should be lowered 1F
(0.56C).
Warning: Do not begin to lower the temperature in the hatcher until most of the chicks have
pipped out.

Monitor the hatch closely for the 12 hours prior to pull


time.

86 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

TAKING OFF THE HATCH


There are various methods used to pull a hatch, ranging from the traditional manual method to
semi-automated and fully automated method.
METHOD 1: MANUAL METHOD
PX Hatcher - Using Plastic Hatcher Baskets
and Dollies
Switch off the fans, open the doors, remove the thresholds and take the dollies out from machine.
Close the doors.
Place the dollies in front of machine or move to takeoff area.
Remove the lid from one plastic basket. Remove the
top basket from one column and place on the work
table.
Transfer the chicks from the hatcher basket to the chick
box.

When taking off the hatch, remove the lid from one
column. Destack that column before going onto the next.

When all the chicks have been removed from the plastic basket, put the basket with shells and unhatched
eggs onto an empty dolly.
Continue in a downward direction. When all the chicks
have been removed from the first column, go onto the
second column. When all the chicks have been removed
from the dolly, move on to another and repeat the process.
After chicks have been removed from the third dolly,
move on to another hatcher.
Dispose of the waste, thoroughly clean and sanitize
the baskets and dollies.

Carefully transfer chicks.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 87

2-Door Hatcher - Using Metal Hatcher


Baskets and Racks
Place a work table in front of the hatcher with a supply
of chick boxes near at hand.
Open one door of the hatcher. Swing it gently back out
of the way.
Leave the fans on.
Remove the bottom right-hand basket of chicks and
place on the work table.
Transfer the chicks, by hand, from the hatcher basket
to the chick box.
When all chicks have been removed from the tray, place
the basket containing shells and unhatched eggs back
into the hatcher rack.
Continue to be remove hatcher baskets from the rack
working in an upward direction.

Continue to be remove hatcher baskets from the rack


working in an upward direction.

When all of the chicks have been removed from the


baskets in the first rack, transfer chicks from the second rack.
After chicks are transferred from the second rack,
switch off the hatcher.
Remove the thresholds from the doorways, take the
racks out and roll them to the wash room. Dispose of
the waste, thoroughly clean and sanitize the baskets
and racks.
METHOD 2 AND 3:
SEMI-AUTOMATED METHOD OR
FULLY AUTOMATED
Empty the entire hatcher and take dollies to chick takeoff area. Refer to the manufacturers instructions.

88 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Carefully transfer chicks.

GUIDELINES TO MINIMIZE
CHICK LOSS
INCUBATOR
1. Use the exit doors, not the entrance doors, when
entering the incubator during daily checks. Too
much cool air is drawn into the incubator when
using the entrance doors. Use the entrance doors
only when loading eggs into the incubator.
2. While the incubator is operating, never open both
entrance and exit doors at the same time. Air
movement will cause the doors to slam shut.
3. Be sure the lower duct of Space Saver Incubators
is in its correct vertical position at all times. The
duct requires 5/8 in. (16 mm) space between the
centre post and the edge of the duct. See page 101.
4. Always switch the lights off when exiting the
incubator.
5. Do not allow film and dirt build-up on the leading
edge of the fan blades to exceed 1/16 in. (2 mm).
6. In the event of a power outage, open all incubator
doors, both exit and entrance, 6 to 8 in. (15 to 20
cm). This will prevent overheating of the eggs.
HATCHER
In the event of a power outage, open all hatcher doors.
Use your judgement. How long do you expect the power
outage to last? The amount you open the doors varies
directly to the development of the embryos. Open the
doors from a crack to halfway. If necessary, you may
elect to pull the racks out.
1. Do not slam the hatcher doors.
2. Check the alarms of all hatchers daily.
3. Position the racks so their rear wheels are against
the rack stop of the tracking.
4. Turn eggs in a smooth, gentle, rotating motion during transfer. Do not flip eggs quickly.
5. Carefully place the hatcher basket on the table after
inverting eggs during the transfer process. Avoid banging the basket onto the table.

6. Do not slam baskets into the racks.


TRANSFERRING EGGS FROM INCUBATOR
TO HATCHER
A variety of methods can be used with success as long
as some guidelines are followed.
1. It is important that eggs be grouped and identified
from farm all the way through to the hatch process.
Once the eggs are in the egg room, determine when
they will be set into the incubator. Group the total
set together, with each rack identified. Number
each rack of eggs according to its location in the
incubator. Record the location of each rack on a
set sheet.
2. At transfer time, the location and identity of the
eggs must be maintained. Once transfer from the
incubator has begun, complete the process into the
hatcher without delay. Take care not to damage the
eggs.
3. Remove one incubator rack at a time from the
incubator. Locate the new position of the eggs in
the hatcher. Transfer. When eggs are transferred
into hatcher racks or onto dollies their location and
identity must be recorded for the chick processing.
Note: It is extremely important that a balanced air
flow in the incubator and hatchers be maintained
while the transfer is in progress. Do not remove
incubator racks from position 6 and hold inside
the incubator when preparing for transfer. This may
cause air flow disruption and overheating.

4. While the incubator is operating, never open both


entrance and exit doors at the same time. Air
movement will cause the doors to slam shut.
5. Always turn the lights off when exiting the
incubator.
6. Remove the curtains from the incubator racks only
when you are ready to remove the rack from the
incubator.
7. Make sure the incubator fans continue to run during
the transfer process.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 89

EGG TRANSFER
1. Do not remove the curtain from the incubator rack
until the rack is ready to be removed from the
incubator.
2. Do not remove incubator racks from position 6 and
hold inside the incubator when preparing for
transfer.
3. Level eggs prior to removing incubator racks from
the machine.
4. After removing racks from position 6, always check
for proper egg turning.
5. During transfer, handle eggs with care.
6. Do not transfer eggs into wet hatcher baskets.
7. Do not slam or tilt baskets in the racks.
8. Transfer eggs after 18 days of incubation. Do not
transfer on the 17th or 19th days of incubation.
9. Once transfer has started, make sure both racks are
completed.
10. Do not allow eggs to cool excessively during
transfer.
11. Do position all racks and/or dollies properly in the
hatchers.

90 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

5. Cleaning
Procedures
general guidelines
complete clean-out and
sanitation of incubators
specific cleaning practices
for hatchers

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 91

92 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Diseases and infections always have been a major concern of the poultry industry, especially in the hatchery.
Fortunately, microbial contamination can be prevented
and controlled through a highly disciplined, self-regulated sanitation program. Jamesway incubators and
hatchers are designed and constructed with ease of
cleaning in mind. The walls and ceilings are constructed
of fibreglass-reinforced plastic, while joints are sealed
to eliminate trapped dirt. In addition, roof mounted
controls eliminate interior wires and conduits that collect dirt and interfere with cleaning.

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR


CLEANING PRACTICES
Follow the sequence listed below. Each step as well as
the sequence of steps is important if disease and infections are going to be controlled. Also, follow the
specific cleaning practices listed below for incubators
and hatchers.
Complete cleaning must proceed disinfecting. This includes floors, walls, incubators, hatchers, trays, chick
processing equipment, and so on.
Warning: Before commencing clean-out, turn
off the fan switch. Turn the power switch off.

SPECIFIC CLEANING PRACTICES


FOR INCUBATORS
Before each new setting of eggs, sweep or vacuum the
entrance of the incubator and the area under the position 1 rack. Wipe down with disinfectant. This is where
most foreign material, such as nest material, will accumulate as a result of the incubators air flow pattern.
After each transfer of eggs, sweep or vacuum the exit
end of the incubator. Wipe down with disinfectant.

Remove as much organic matter and debrisincluding down, egg shells, droppings and tissue residueas
possible from all surfaces to be disinfected.
Thoroughly clean all surfaces with warm water and
appropriate cleaning aids.
Thoroughly rinse all surfaces with abundant quantities of clean, sanitized water. This will remove most
lingering detergent residue, organic matter or microbial organisms.
Apply disinfectants.
FOR PERSONNEL
Follow your hatcherys bio-security procedures. This
will include appropriate laundering and disinfecting
of work clothes.

After a transfer and before a new set, clean and disinfect


the entrance and exit end of the incubator.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 93

COMPLETE CLEAN-OUT AND


SANITATION OF INCUBATORS
The best time to sanitize an incubator is after egg transfer and should be done every three months.
Follow General Guidelines for Cleaning Practices
found on the preceding page.
Remove all racks from one incubator. Relocating two
racks to position 6 in each of five adjacent incubators.
This will cause no interruption of embryonic development, and the eggs will turn routinely.
Note: Egg-filled racks placed in warm passageways instead of incubators should not remain
outside of an incubator for more than 1 hour.

transport of disease organisms. Re-contamination may


occur if water remains on the surface.
Once the incubator has reached the appropriate temperature and humidity, return the egg-filled racks, in
the correct order, to the incubator. Employees should
follow all safety procedures when reloading the incubator. See Chapter 4, Operational Procedures.

SPECIFIC CLEANING PRACTICES


FOR HATCHERS
After each hatch is pulled, clean and sanitize the entire
inner cabinet of the hatcher.
PX HATCHER

Alternatively, move the racks from the incubator and


place them together in a warm passageway to reduce
egg cooling.
To ensure each rack is returned to its proper position,
number each rack according to its original position.
Use a team of three or four people for this procedure.
Properly organized, it should take no longer than 45
minutes to one hour to complete.
When washing the incubator, do not use a high pressure washer on the motors. Do not allow water to splash
on motors and electrical connections.
Remove any excess water from the interior of the incubator using squeegees.
Clean fan motor off switches. Remove the switches
from the guards, and disconnect the terminals. Wipe
any dirt off the switches with a damp cloth. Reconnect
the terminals and replace the switches, ensuring they
are located correctly.
Clean the blades and motors with a damp sanitized cloth
or brush if required. Do not use a high pressure washer
on the motors.

Adhere to General Guidelines for Cleaning Practices


on page 93.
Use the following procedures when cleaning and sanitizing a PX Hatcher.
Remove hatcher dolly guides and place with the thresholds (already removed) in a convenient location for
washing.
Disconnect the umbilical cord from the motor frame
and dolly assembly. Plug the female insert into the receptacle mounted on the rear wall. Disconnect the spray
assembly Kwik connect insert from the body.
Tilt the frame and dolly assembly forward and lift the
kickstands. Tilt the dolly back and pull slightly to disengage it from the support bracket. The motor frame
and dolly assembly can then be rolled out of the hatcher
wheel-barrow style for cleaning.
Remove the pin from the block and lift off the damper
rod. Unlatch the two duct panels and open.
Slide the wicking off the humidity probe. Remove the
water reservoir for cleaning.
Vacuum or sweep the fluff from the hatcher floor.

Ensure that all motors and electrical connections are


dry before reconnecting. This will prevent damage to
the equipment when the incubator is started.

Unlatch and lower the exhaust duct assembly to the


floor for cleaning.

Allow all surfaces to dry thoroughly prior to reuse.


Dryness helps prevent the reproduction, spread and

Thoroughly soak the roof, walls and floor to soften


dirt.

94 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Using a high pressure washer, clean the exhaust duct


and hatcher cabinet. Remove all dirt, egg shells and
other debris. If deposits have built up on the roof or
walls, remove them with a scrubbing brush.
Rinse the interior of the cabinet thoroughly before applying disinfectants.
Check the female insert of the umbilical cord for dryness before reconnecting with the junction box.
Connecting the cord into a wet junction box receptacle
may cause damage to the unit.
Fill the water reservoir with distilled water. Locate it
on its support, and install new wicking.

Disconnect and remove the fan dolly.

To attach the damper rod, hold the bushing with the


Allen head screws facing you. Insert the damper rod
into the bushing slot with the upright part of the rod in
contact with the two self-locking pins and the rod hook
protruding toward you. Insert the safety pin into the
hole. Lock the pin into position with the arm over the
rod hooknot under it.
Wash and sanitize the motor frame and dolly assembly. Return them to the hatcher, making sure to locate
the front angle guide correctly. Tilt the assembly forward, dropping the kickstands into position. The angle
guides can be re-installed as described in the section
Preparing the PX Hatcher for Egg Transfer.
Reconnect the motor frame and dolly.
Reconnect the spray nozzle assembly.
Switch the fans on momentarily to check for proper
function.

With a high pressure hose, wash the exhaust duct


assembly.

Place the clean dollies and hatcher baskets in the


hatcher. Locate them on the angle guides and push them
to the rear against the stops.
Replace the thresholds and close the doors.

Using a high pressure washer, wash the exhaust duct and


cabinet. Do not allow water to splash on motors or
electrical connections.
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 95

2-DOOR HATCHER
Adhere to General Guidelines for Cleaning Practices
on page 93.
Use the following procedures when cleaning and sanitizing a 2-Door Hatcher.
Remove the tracking and entrance guides from the
hatcher. Place them with the thresholds (already removed) in a convenient location for washing.
Disconnect the hatcher-moulded cords from the fan
motors and the heater.
Take the spring off the latch bar at the top of the motor
frame assembly, lift the latch bar, and tilt the frame
back. The frame can then be removed from the floor
support bracket and hatcher. Place it against the hatcher
room wall for cleaning.

Remove the motor frame assembly.

Slide the wicking off the humidity probe. Remove the


water reservoir for cleaning.
Remove the exhaust duct from the rear of the machine.
Disconnect the water line from the spray nozzles by
loosening the two wing nuts on the back-up assembly.
Remove the nozzles for cleaning. Place the duct and
nozzle assembly in a handy location for washing.
Vacuum or sweep the fluff from the hatcher floor.
Thoroughly soak the interior roof, walls and floor to
soften dirt.
Using a high pressure washer, wash the exhaust duct
and cabinet. Remove all dirt, egg shells and other debris. If deposits have built up on the roof or walls,
remove them with a scrubbing brush.
Rinse the interior of the cabinet thoroughly before applying disinfectants.
Blow dry, or wipe dry with a clean cloth, the moulded
cord plug sockets. Do not connect the fans and heater
to wet sockets as this may cause damage.
Wash and sanitize the fans and floor tracks. Re-install
them in the hatcher, locating the pins correctly.
Reconnect the fans and heater. Switch on the fans
momentarily to check for proper function.

96 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Disconnect the water line by removing the Kwik connect


from the nozzle assembly.

Thoroughly clean the water reservoir. Fill it with distilled water, remount it on its support, and install a new
wicking.
Clean and replace spray nozzle and exhaust duct.
Place clean racks and hatcher baskets in the hatcher,
locating the rear wheels as far back as possible.
Replace the thresholds and close the doors.

Using a high pressure washer, wash the exhaust duct and


cabinet. Do not allow water to splash on motors and
electrical connections.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 97

98 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

6. Routine Monitoring
and Maintenance
PT100 and EM controls
incubators and hatchers
ventilation
checklists
specifications for ventilation and
fan blade spacing

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 99

100 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

The Jamesway multi-stage incubator system is an efficient material handling and incubation system,
producing strong, healthy, active chicks. Nevertheless,
in order to obtain optimal production, management
should establish and implement regular monitoring and
regular maintenance schedules. Maximum benefit will
not be obtained if one is implemented without the other.
Adapt a monitoring and maintenance program tailored
to your specific needs using this manual and the manual
for your control system.
Note: The monitoring and maintenance information contained with this chapter is the basic
requirement for good performance. To further enhance performance, refer to Chapter 7, Optimizing
Performance on page 143.

Spacing between
the intake duct and
the centre post must
be maintained at 5/8"
(15.5 mm).

BASIC GUIDELINES FOR


MONITORING EQUIPMENT
Jamesway recommends that personnel from maintenance take and record the following readings using a
checklist and the time schedule as suggested below.
Assess each item. Is it operating satisfactorily? Unsatisfactory would include variance between set points
and actual readings, equipment not functioning or
showing excessive wear, dirt build up or any other potential problem. All problems should be investigated
and corrected prior to further use.

Check Space Saver Intake Duct after each set.

TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY READINGS


Record the temperature and humidity readings. Note
any variance between actual and set points. Make necessary corrections.
SPACE SAVER INTAKE DUCT

MONITORING INCUBATORS
It is important to assess the general machine condition
as well as the temperature and humidity at prescribed
times. This time schedule varies. General machine condition which includes such items as the position of the
eggs rack, baffles, curtains, etc. should be checked
immediately after every set. Spray nozzles and audible
alarms should be checked daily. Also, temperature and
humidity should be read, recorded and compared on a
twice daily basis. Check the egg turn mechanism every
three hours.
A table for monitoring incubators, including items and
time schedules, is on page 103. Use this table, to prepare and follow a checklist suited to your hatchery.

Mixing of incoming fresh air with re-circulating air is


important to proper machine function. To ensure that
fresh air is correctly mixed, an intake duct has been
installed on the centre post between the entrance end
doors. The duct includes an upper section attached to
the roof and a lower section attached to the centre post.
The lower portion is easily removable for cleaning purposes.
Since the duct is not permanently attached and protrudes into the entrance end slightly, care must be taken
when loading eggs. Check the intake duct after each
set. Make sure it is in the proper position and if required, reposition. The correct spacing is 5/8 inches
(15.5 mm) and the duct should be parallel with the
centre post on both sides.
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 101

MONITORING HATCHERS
It is equally important to monitor hatchers. Assess the
general machine condition as well as the temperature
and humidity at prescribed times. This time schedule
varies. General machine condition which includes such
items as fan blades, heat elements, etc. should be
checked prior to transfer. Spray nozzles should be
checked daily. Also, temperature and humidity should
be read, recorded and compared on a twice daily basis.
A table for monitoring hatchers, including items and
time schedules, is on page 104. Use this table, to prepare and follow a checklist suited to your hatchery.
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
Record the temperature and humidity readings. Note
any variance between actual and set points. Make necessary corrections.

MONITORING VENTILATION
EQUIPMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Install magnehelic gauges to assist you in monitoring
the incubator and hatcher environments. Mount them
in a stationary position in the vicinity of the pressure
controllers, making sure they are level. Install a tee on
the tube running from the exterior to the controller low
pressure port. Connect a tube from the low pressure
port of the magnehelic gauge to the tee.
Both the controller and magnehelic should have similar readings. Establish a program to monitor and record
their readings, as well as the temperature and humidity readings of each room. Readings should be recorded
twice daily and twice nightly. With this type of program, you should be able to pick up any malfunction
of the ventilation equipment.
A table for monitoring the ventilation system is on
page 105.
Jamesway recommends all hatcheries maintain a catalogue of the ventilation equipment, as well as the
components of that equipment, including motor size,
pulley and belt size, etc. It is also important to become
familiar with the operations of the ventilation equipment. From this information, you can establish both a
spare parts list and a routine preventive maintenance
program.
Note: In some instances the pressure controller
may be mounted externally to the room. In these
cases the monitoring instrument must be connected to the low pressure (external reference)
and room high pressure tubes. A tee on both lines
is required.

102 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Monitoring Schedule for Incubators


All of the items mentioned below should be checked, as scheduled.
Refer to page 101 for additional notes.
Actual readings should be recorded and compared with the optimum.
All other items should be assessed as to their operating condition either satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
Unsatisfactory would include not operating properly, excessive wear, dirt or any potential problem. Items,
not in satisfactory condition, should be repaired or replaced, and/or cleaned prior to further use.
Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
Immediately
After Every
Set

Every
3 Hours
After Set

Twice
Daily

Daily

A) Temperature Calibration
1. Display reading

F or C

2. Check reading

F or C

3. Set point

F or C

B) Humidity Calibration
1. Display reading

RH FWB or CWB

2. Check reading

RH FWB or CWB

3. Set point

RH FWB or CWB

C) General Machine
1. Position of egg rack against the venturi
2. Rubber baffle condition
3. Curtain condition
4. Curtain position
5. Heat rods
6. Fan rotation
7. Motor off switches
8. Doors seal properly
9. Doors latch properly
10. Door gasket condition
11. Threshold gasket condition
12. Threshold position
13. Space Saver intake duct position
14. Egg turning mechanism
15. Audible alarms
16. Spray nozzles, no excessive dripping
17. Spray nozzle pattern 60

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 103

Monitoring Schedule for Hatchers


All of the items mentioned below should be checked, as scheduled.
Refer to page 102 for additional notes.
Actual readings should be recorded and compared with the optimum.
All other items should be assessed as to their operating condition either satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
Unsatisfactory would include not operating properly, excessive wear, dirt or any potential problem. Items,
not in satisfactory condition, should be repaired or replaced, and/or cleaned prior to further use.
Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
Pre-Transfer

A) Temperature Calibration
1. Display reading

F or C

2. Check reading

F or C

3. Set point

F or C

B) Humidity Calibration
1. Display reading

RH FWB or CWB

2. Check reading

RH FWB or CWB

3. Set point

RH FWB or CWB

C) General Machine
1. Fan blade condition
2. Fan blade spacing
3. Fan rotation
5. Heat rings
6. Hatcher rack track condition
7. Hatcher rack track position
8. Doors seal properly
9. Doors latch properly
10. Door gasket condition
11. Threshold gasket condition
12. Threshold position
13. Spray nozzles, no excessive dripping
14. Spray nozzle pattern 60

104 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Twice
Daily

Daily

Monitoring Schedule for Ventilation


All of the items mentioned below should be checked, as scheduled.
Refer to page 102 for additional notes.
Actual readings should be recorded and compared with the optimum.
Investigate any inconsistent readings.
Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
Twice Daily
and
Twice Nightly

Record in each plenum


A) Magnehelic Gauge
1. Display reading

in.w.g or Pa

2. Check reading

in.w.g or Pa

3. Optimum pressure

in.w.g or Pa

B) Temperature
1. Display reading

F or C

2. Check reading

F or C

3. Optimum temperature

F or C

C) Humidity
1. Display reading

RH FWB or CWB

2. Check reading

RH FWB or CWB

3. Optimum humidity

RH FWB or CWB

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 105

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
FOR INCUBATOR
PT100 CONTROLS
Refer to the checklist on page 115.
WEEKLY
Reservoir

Calibration
Check the accuracy of the temperature and readings. It is important that the electro-therm (HA1071)
be positioned correctly next to the PT100 probe.
Allow the shaft of the electro-therm to bend. Fit the
tip of the shaft into the plastic sleeve and as close
to the PT100 sensor as possible. They should not
touch. For the testing procedure and calibration refer to The PT100SMT Controls and System Manual,
page 85.

Clean the water reservoir with detergent and a bottle


brush to minimize the build-up of mineral deposits. If
necessary, add distilled water to the reservoir. (Filling
the reservoir with distilled water may also be required
between weekly cleaning.)
Temperature Sensor
Electro-therm Shaft

Wick
Replace the wick every seven (7) days or more frequently, depending upon the mineral content of the
water. Mineral deposits can build up in the wick, resulting in false readings.
To Install a Wick
Hold the top of the wicking with one hand. Gently slide
over the extended end of the probe. Seat the wicking
firmly around the probe. Place the free end of the
wicking into the reservoir, Make sure it does not twist
or bend. Any twists or bends will interrupt the flow of
water through the wicking. The wicking should be 12
in. (30 cm) in length.

1/4 in (6.4 mm) Plastic Tubing


Tape holds tubing together
3/8 in. (9.5 mm) Plastic Tubing

Calibration - placement of the electro-therm (HA1071)


next to the PT100 sensor

Display Panel
Check the PT100 display panel during normal incubator operation. Dial the temperature or humidity
thumbwheel switches up or down to simulate various
machine conditions.
High Humidity

EVERY THREE MONTHS


Probes
Hard water causes the probes to develop lime and calcium deposits. To clean the probes remove the probe
baffle. Wash the probes in white vinegar or other mild
acid solvent; rinse thoroughly with water. Failure to
do so may result in probe deterioration. If water quality is poor, probes may require more frequent cleaning.
Make sure that the temperature probe baffle is not out
of position or damaged. The baffle should be on a horizontal plane to protect the probe from coming into
direct contact with the spray or stray water particles.

106 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Dial the humidity thumbwheel down 2 degrees or more.


The high humidity LED and alarm lamp should flash.
Alternatively, remove the wick from the probe; remember to replace the wick after testing.
Low Humidity
Dial the humidity thumbwheel up 2 degrees or more.
The low humidity LED should flash.
High Temperature
Dial the temperature thumbwheel down 1 degree. The
high temperature LED and alarm should flash, the
damper should start opening, water should spray, and
the audible alarm should ring. Alternatively, press and
hold the Test button on the display panel until a 1
appears. This will activate the audible alarm.

Low Temperature
Dial the temperature thumbwheel switch up 2 degrees.
The low temperature LED should flash.
Note: Remember to turn the thumbwheel switches
back to their original set points once the check is
completed.

Note: On the PT100SMT display, all digits and


LEDs will light up when the Reset button is pushed.
On the PT100 display, all digits and most of the
LEDs will light up. In the System Status, only the
Damper Open and Damper Closed LEDs will light.
The heat, spray and egg turn LEDs will not light
up unless they were already lit before the Reset
button was pushed.

Fan Motor Off Switch


Turn off the fans and unplug one motor. Then, turn the
fans back on. The fan failure LED should flash and the
audible alarm should ring. Repeat the process, switching off the fans each time before each motor is
unplugged. This checks each fan motor off switch for
correct function.
Turn Failure
Disconnect the turn cables at any location. The turn
failure LED should flash after 5 to 7 minutes. If selected, the audible alarm also should ring.

Control Box
Turn the fans off. Turn the power off - CB1, CB2 and
CB3. Refer to page 56.
Warning: The PT100 controller should only be
serviced by qualified maintenance personnel.
Do not attempt to service the controller while
it is turned on. Some circuits are energized with
220 or 380 volts ac. They will cause serious
shocks, injury or death if touched. Before servicing the control box, ensure that CB1, CB2 and
CB3 are turned off.

Power Off
Turn off the power to the incubator. All of the LEDs on
the display panel should go out, causing the audible
alarm to ring.
Alarms
If the audible alarm bell does not ring for high temperature, fan off or power off, check the battery, battery
connections or alarm circuit.

Open the control box, and examine the PT100 boards


and wiring, wiring connections and relay contacts for
obvious faults such as discoloured wiring, and burned
or blackened areas. Pay special attention to terminals,
connections and relay points. Vacuum the interior if
dust, chick down or metal shavings have accumulated.
After vacuuming, ensure plug connections are snug.
In older models, check that the boards are firmly seated.
Turn the power back on. Turn the fans back on.

Display Panel LEDs


Press the Reset button for less than 3 seconds to turn
on LEDs. (See Note.) If a digit segment or LED does
not work, replace the display panel.

PT100 Display Panel


Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 107

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
FOR INCUBATOR
ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CONTROLS
Refer to the checklist on page 116.

EVERY THREE MONTHS


Thermostats
Hard water will cause lime deposits to form on the
thermostats. Wash the thermostats in white vinegar or
other mild solvent. Rinse thoroughly in cold water. The
clips also should be cleaned with a fine emery cloth to
remove mineral deposits. If water quality is poor, thermostats may require more frequent cleaning.
Warning: The thermostat contacts are electrically live. Therefore, open the control panel and
disconnect the power to the thermostats before removing. Failure to do so could result in
injury.

Information Panel
Incubator Thermostat Board

WEEKLY
Reservoir
Clean the water reservoir with detergent and a bottle
brush to minimize the build-up of mineral deposits. If
necessary, add distilled water to the reservoir.
Wick
Replace the wick every seven (7) days or more frequently, depending upon the mineral content of the
water. Mineral deposits can build up in the wick, resulting in false readings.

Check for burned wires, defective relays and burned


out bulbs.
Control Box
The best time to check the control box is after complete clean-out.
Wires, Connections and Bulbs
Turn the power off. Open the control box, the cover
interlock switch will disconnect the power to fans.
Check the wiring, wiring connections and relay contacts for obvious faults, such as discoloured wiring, or
burned or blackened areas. Pay special attention to relays points, connections and terminals. Check for burnt
out bulbs. Close the Control Box Cover, the fans will
switch on.

To Install a Wick
Hold the top of the wicking with one hand. Gently slide
over the extended end of the probe. Seat the wicking
firmly around the probe. Place the free end of the
wicking into the reservoir, Make sure it does not twist
or bend. Any twists or bends will interrupt the flow of
water through the wicking. The wicking should be 12
in. (30 cm) in length.

108 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Warning: In order to test the following circuits,


switch the power on. Jamesway recommends
that you use an insulated jumper wire with insulated alligator clips or probes to perform the
following checks.
Make sure all personnel are clear of the fans
before switching on.

High Temperature Circuit

Motor Off Circuit

Using the insulated jumper wire, connect one clip to


bottom contact of one of the thermostats. Attach the
other clip to the top contact of the High Temperature
thermostat (middle thermostat). The high temperature
light on the Information Panel comes on, the audible
alarm will sound, and the damper starts opening. If the
heat and auxiliary heat pilot light are on they will turn
off during this test. Remove jumper wire from both
contacts when test is complete.

Turn off the fans and unplug one motor. Then, turn the
fans back on. The Motor Off light on the information
panel should illuminate and the audible alarm should
ring. Repeat the process, switching off the fans each
time before each motor is unplugged. This checks each
fan motor off switch for correct function.

Heat Circuit
Main HeatAttach jumper wire to the bottom contact
of a thermostat. Connect the other insulated alligator
clip to the top contact of the Heat thermostat (5th from
left) once the heat pilot light illuminates. The heat pilot light should turn off and the damper starts to open.
Remove jumper wire from both contacts, the heat pilot
light illuminates and the damper starts to close.
Auxiliary HeatAttach jumper wire to the bottom contact of a thermostat. Connect the other insulated
alligator clip to the top contact of the Auxiliary Heat
thermostat (4th from left) once the auxiliary heat pilot
light illuminates. The auxiliary heat pilot light should
turn off. Remove jumper wire from both contacts when
test is complete.

Power Off Check


Turn off the power to the incubator. All the lights for
the machine being tested should go out on the Information Panel causing the audible alarm to ring.
Note: If the bell does not ring to indicate high temperature, motor off and/or power off, check the
battery, the battery connections or the alarm circuit. Replace pilot lights as required. Be careful
during this examination of the control box since
the power has not have been disconnected.
Warning: If rewiring or relay replacement is required, turn off the power. Failure to do so
could result in injury.

Low Temperature Circuit.


The Low Temperature circuit can be tested for proper
function immediately after fresh eggs have been loaded
into the machine. Using an insulated jumper wire, connect one clip to bottom contact of one of the
thermostats. Attach the other clip to the top contact of
the Low Temperature thermostat (2nd from left). The
Low Temperature light on the Information Panel should
go out and the humidity spray will come on. Remove
the jumper wire, the spray will stop and the Low Temperature light will come on.
Humidity Circuit
To check the High Humidity Light on the Information
Panel remove the wick from the humidistat. Replace
the wick once the test has been completed.
The Low Humidity light on the Information Panel
should be checked following each set of fresh eggs.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 109

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
FOR INCUBATORS

Check the water spray nozzles for correct distance from


the ceiling and correct positioning. Refer to page 136
for specific measurements.

Refer to the checklist on page 117.


Spray Nozzle Condition
BEFORE EVERY SET
Egg Tray Frames
Before loading egg racks, check the egg tray frame
turning mechanism. Connect the air lines to the compressed air supply. If any rubbing or binding occurs,
locate and fix the problem. Check the turn sensors and
cables by using a battery-operated tester.
Warning: The tray frames will turn when air
lines are connected, possibly causing injury.
Therefore, ensure that no one is working within
the tray frames or any other component of the
incubator racks when you are connecting the
air lines.

Space Saver Intake Duct

Both water pressure and nozzle condition affect droplet size and number, which in turn, affects how
efficiently moisture is absorbed into the air.
Inevitably, some water droplets injected into the air
stream are deposited on surfaces or objects in the flow
path. When water is laden with minerals, the solids are
left behind as the water evaporates. Nozzles block or
partially block. The spray pattern is disrupted and excessive dripping occurs. Drip pans, rack tops,
extrusions, panels and sensors quickly become encrusted with these deposits. Not only is this unsightly,
but cleaning becomes difficult, protective coatings rapidly diminish and corrosion is accelerated. Routine
maintenance becomes unpleasant and machine performance is reduced.

Check the spacing of the intake duct. The correct spacing is 5/8 inches (15.5 mm) and the duct should be
parallel with the centre post on both sides. Replace or
repair damaged parts as required.

Low water pressure, partially blocked nozzles, or poor


spray pattern can result in uneven temperature distribution, measured at the exit end of the machine, e.g.,
top section temperature is highest while the bottom
section is lowest. Therefore, maintain the spray nozzles to specifications for optimum performance.

AFTER EVERY TRANSFER

Refer to page 42 for water pressure and water quality


specifications.

Incubator Racks
Grease all castor wheels and plate bearings after sanitizing the incubator racks. One or two pumps of a grease
gun should suffice. Any more will result in forcing
grease out through the rubber seals.
WEEKLY
Spray Nozzles
Clean the spray nozzles. After cleaning, check the water nozzle spray pattern. It should be a 60 degrees fan
pattern and there should be no excessive dripping. If
the nozzles are not producing the correct spray pattern, they may need to be replaced or the water pressure
may be too low.

110 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Dismantle the spray nozzle for cleaning.

To Clean Spray Nozzles


Disconnect the nozzles at the Kwik coupler. Remove
the nozzles from the body and dismantle. Clean the
nozzle components in an ultrasonic cleaner. Alternatively, soak the parts in pure white vinegar or other
mild solvent; thoroughly rinse. Do not use a wire to
clean the orifice. This could result in damage and an
incorrect spray pattern.
Note: The spray nozzles are located in front of
the fans. To avoid injury, turn off the fans before
removing the nozzles. Use a small, narrow stiletype stepladder to stand upon when disconnecting
the nozzles.

To Check the Water Pressure


Check the water pressure at the nozzles by inserting
a gauge fitted for the Kwik connect into the coupling. The pressure should be at least 65 psi (5 bars).
Water Pan
Check the water pan level. Water pans should remain relatively dry. If not, excessive spraying
probably has occurred. If one pan is full and the other
empty, check for blocked nozzles on the empty side.
Otherwise, check for poor incubator room conditions. The optimum room temperature is 80.0F
(26.6C), with a relative humidity of 50 to 60
percent.

Threshold Gasket. Replace if worn.

Door Seals
Check door seals for torn or missing door gaskets.
Replace missing or worn gaskets. Damaged door
gaskets can result in poor air flow.
Threshold Gaskets
Check the threshold gasket for wear. If it is damaged, replace it.
Curtains
Check incubator rack curtains and brackets for damage. Any split or damaged curtains should be
replaced.
Rubber Gaskets
Check all rubber gaskets on the rack baffle, side wall
and venturi for damage. Replace any gaskets that
are torn or damaged.

Gaskets on rack baffle, side wall and venturi.


Check both sides.

Compressor
Drain the water from the air compressor and filter/
trap regularly. Older air compressor regulators are
mounted near the entrance of the incubator. The compressed air moisture trap is not self-draining. On
newer models, drain the air compressor regulator by
opening the petcock at the base of the automatic drain
trap; closing it when all water has been drained.
All compressor tanks have a drain petcock located
on the underside. Open the petcock and drain until
the escaping air is clear of water or water vapour.

Drain plug

Air Compressor Regulator

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 111

MONTHLY
Heat Rods
Use an ampere clamp (or amp probe) to check the
amperage of each heater. The reading should be between 11 and 14 amperes. If not, replace the heater
element.
Fans
Check for excessive fan vibration. If you are unable to
read the nameplate on the motor clearly or the motor
frame assembly is rattling, the fan is vibrating too much.
Before determining the cause of the excessive vibration, turn off the fans and turn off the power to the
incubator. Inspect the motor mounts for loose bolts and
connections, the motor for worn bearings, and the fan
blade for correct pitch or distortion. See pages 138 to
142 for fan specifications. If vibration continues, replace the motor or fan blade.
Note: To avoid injury, turn off the fans and turn off
power before unplugging or working with fans.
Before switching the fans on again, allow them to
stop completely. If you do not, some of the fans
may run backwards, upsetting the air flow. All fans
should run in a counter-clockwise direction when
viewed from behind the motor. If a fan does run
backwards, simply switch it off, allowing it to stop
before turning it on.

EVERY THREE MONTHS


Wash and Sanitize
Thoroughly clean the interior of the incubator. There
is no need to leave one incubator empty for this purpose, although some hatcheries prefer to do so. Eggs
can be held in other incubators (position 6) or grouped
together in a warm hallway.
The inside of the incubator can be washed and sanitized using a team of three or four people. Organized
properly, it should take no longer than 45 minutes to
one hour to complete. Refer to Chapter 5 - Cleaning
Procedures on page 93. Avoid splashing water on motors and electrical connections. All motors and electrical
connections must be dry before the incubator is restarted and warmed.
112 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Check the amperage of each heater.

Once the incubator has reached the appropriate temperature and humidity, the egg-filled racks can be
returned in their correct order to the incubator.
Proceed to check the following systems. (The best time
to check these components is after eggs have been
loaded into the incubator.)
Damper System
Checked for proper opening and closing. The arrow
on the knob on the drive box will indicate if the damper
is closing or opening.
Check for the following potential problems:
If the damper opens when the main heat is on, check
for reversed wiring (EM Controls only).
If the incubator calls for main heat, and the damper is
not moving and is open more than 1/2 in. (13 mm) the
damper drive motor may need replacing.
If the knob on the drive box is turning but the damper
is not moving, replace the plastic drive block on the
threaded rod in the damper drive. The drive motor
should be turning at 5-1/2 to 6 revolutions per minute.
Both the intake and exhaust damper slides should move
freely without binding. Also, the size of both openings
should be identical. The damper openings should be
1/2 in. (13 mm) when the damper is in the fully closed
position.

Fan Motors, Switches and Blades

EVERY SIX MONTHS

Clean fan motor off switches, blades and motors during complete clean-out and sanitation. Refer to Chapter
5 - Cleaning Procedures on page 93.

Water Line Strainer

Fan Blade Spacing and Motor RPM


Upon completion, check the fan spacing. See page 138
to 142 for fan spacing for current motor mount PB4723
as well as older motor mounts.
Note: If fan motors are repaired or rewound, it is
recommended that revolutions per minute (rpm)
be checked when the motors are reinstalled in an
incubator. Use motors of similar rpm ( 2.5%) in
each incubator. Do not mix low rpm motor with
high rpm motors and vice versa.

Clean the water line strainer, which is generally located within the incoming water line and before the
first incubator. Turn off the water, loosen the retaining
nut, and remove the strainer screen. Flush and rinse
the screen to remove debris. Replace the screen, insert
and tighten the retaining nut, and turn the water back
on. The frequency of cleaning will depend upon the
mineral content of the water.

Procedure for Checking RPM


Jamesway suggests the use of a strobe light to check
rpm, as no physical contact with the motor is required
and all motors can be checked at one time. With practice the strobe light can also be used to identify fan
blade defects.
Check the rpm when the motor is under load, i.e., when
incubator is in normal operation and filled with eggs.
Plug strobe light into power source. Stand in the entrance end of incubator. Switch on strobe light and
switch off incubator lights. Adjust the strobe flash rate
to a value similar to rpm marked on motor nameplate,
e.g., Motor PB5146: 1625 rpm at 60 Hz, 1325 rpm at
50 Hz.
Fine-tune until fan blades appear to stop. Focus on a
blade that is easily identifiable (small scratch or mark)
and ensure that its location does not change. If the blade
in the chosen position appears to be static, record the
strobe flash rate. The recorded value is the revolutions
per minute of the motor or motors. The reading taken
with strobe light should be within 2.5% of rpm specified on motor nameplate.

Water Line Strainer

V-Groove Tracks
Check the level of the V-groove tracks if the space between any two incubator racks exceeds 1/4 in.
(6.35 mm), top or bottom. If the space between two
racks is greater at the top, then the track may be high
at this point or low at the space between the preceding
or following racks.
Note: Close fit of all racks is essential for proper
air flow. Incubator racks must never have a space
between them of more than 1/4 inch (6.35 mm)
top or bottom. If shifting of the floors or a loose
levelling screw pushes the tracks out of level, adjust the tracks.

Note: If the fan blade does not appear to be static,


i.e., the mark appears, disappears, reappears, the
strobe light flash rate may be set x2, x3, x4 .
(multiple of desired rpm) too high or too low. Adjust flash rate to rpm value on the nameplate.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 113

To Level Tracking
To raise tracking, turn levelling screws clockwise. To
lower tracking, turn levelling screws counter-clockwise.
Make sure that all wheels are in contact with the track.

Racks must fit closely and evenly for proper air flow. If
shifting of the floors or a loose levelling screw pushes the
tracks out of level, adjust the tracks.

Switch Plates
In side-door entry/exit incubators, the proper alignment
of the switch plates also should be checked. Careless
handling of incubator racks, such as pushing too fast,
can cause the switch plates to become miss-aligned.
Realign all switch plates to prevent the wheels from
jamming.

Switch Plate for Side-Door Incubators

114 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Maintenance Schedule for PT100 Incubator Controls


All of the items mentioned below should be checked, as scheduled.
Refer to page 106 and your control manual for additional notes.
All other items should be assessed as to their operating condition either satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
Unsatisfactory would include not operating properly, excessive wear, dirt or any potential problem. Items,
not in satisfactory condition, should be repaired or replaced, and/or cleaned prior to further use.

Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
Weekly

Every 3 Months

A) Sensor
1. Reservoir - clean and fill as required
2. Wick - replace
3. Probes - clean
B) Calibration (See PT100SMT Controls Manual, page 86.)
C) Display Panel - check the following LEDs
1. High Humidity
2. Low Humidity
3. High Temperature
4. Low Temperature
5. Fan Motor Off Switch
6. Turn Failure
7. Power Off
8. Alarms
D) Control Box
1. Clean, vacuum if required
2. Wire condition
3. Terminal condition
4. Relay condition
5. Boards - position firmly (older models)
Warning: The PT100 controller should only be serviced by qualified maintenance personnel. Do not
attempt to service the controller while it is turned on. Some circuits are energized with 220 or 380
volts ac. They will cause serious shocks, injury or death if touched. Before servicing the control
box, ensure that CB1, CB2 and CB3 are turned off. Turn the fans off.
Voltage Checkpoints. If required, refer to page 88 in The PT100SMT Control and System Manual.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 115

Maintenance Schedule for Electro-Mechanical Incubator Controls


All of the items mentioned below should be checked, as scheduled.
Refer to page 108 and your control manual for additional notes.
All other items should be assessed as to their operating condition either satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
Unsatisfactory would include not operating properly, excessive wear, dirt or any potential problem. Items,
not in satisfactory condition, should be repaired or replaced, and/or cleaned prior to further use.

Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
Weekly

Every 3 Months

A) Thermostat Board
1. Reservoir - clean and fill as required
2. Wick - replace
3. Thermostats - clean
B) Information Panel
1. Wire condition
2. Relays and connections condition
3. Bulb condition
C) Control Box
1. Clean, vacuum if necessary
2. Wire condition
3. Relays and connections condition
4. Bulb condition
D) Check the following circuits
1. High Temperature
2. Heat
3. Humidity
4. Motor Off
5. Power Off
Warning:
1. The thermostat contacts are electrically live. Therefore, before cleaning the thermostats, open
the control panel and disconnect the power to the thermostats. Failure to do so could result in
injury.
2. Before working on the Information Panel or Control Box, disconnect the fans and heater.
3. In order to check circuitry, switch the power on. Jamesway recommends that you use an insulated jumper wire with insulated alligator clips or probes to perform the following checks. Switch
the power off after each test procedure.
For circuit checks, refer to page 109.

116 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Maintenance Schedule for Incubators


All of the items mentioned below should be checked, as scheduled.
Refer to pages 110114.
All other items should be assessed as to their operating condition either satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
Unsatisfactory would include not operating properly, excessive wear, dirt or any potential problem. Items,
not in satisfactory condition, should be repaired or replaced, and/or cleaned prior to further use.
Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
Before After Every Weekly
Every Transfer
Set

Monthly

Every 3
Months

Every 6
Months

A) Egg Turning Mechanism


1. Turn operation condition
2. Air cylinder and fittings condition
3. Turn sensor and cable condition
4. Air lines condition
5. Air connections condition
6. Turning drop cords condition
B) Space Saver Incubator
1. Intake duct position (5/8 inch or 15.5 mm)
C) Incubator Racks
1. Wash and sanitize
2. General condition
3. Castors and bearing plate - grease
D) Spray Nozzles
1. Clean, replace if required
2. Check spray pattern
3. Check position
E) Water Pan
1. Check water level
F) Doors
1. Doors seal properly
2. Doors latch properly
3. Door gasket condition
4. Threshold gasket condition
Note: The air cylinders should be checked for leaks including damaged or worn parts. When checking
racks and turning operation, look for excessive wear, binding or rubbing of any parts.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 117

Maintenance Schedule for Incubators (continued)


Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
Before After Every Weekly
Every Transfer
Set

G) Rubber Gaskets
1. Baffles condition
2. Side wall condition
3. Venturi condition
H) Compressor
1. Reading
2. Water build-up?
3. Tank drain
I)

Heat Rods

1. Check amperage (11 to 14 amp)


J) Fans
1. Fan condition (vibration?)
2. Switches, blades and motors - clean
3. Blade spacing - check
4. Motor rpm - check
K) Damper
1. Opening and closing properly
2. Slides move freely
3. Damper openings equal
4. Closed position correct
5. Damper motor (5-1/2 to 6 rpm)
L) General Machine
1. Wash and sanitize (See Chapter 5.)
2. Check joint, caulk as required
M) Water Strainer
1. Clean
N) V-Groove Tracking
1. Level as required
O) Side-Door Incubators
1. Align switch plates

118 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Monthly

Every 3
Months

Every 6
Months

HATCHERS
Routine maintenance of hatchers, while similar to that
of incubators, includes additional concerns because of
the twice-weekly cleaning and sanitizing programs.
Frequently cleaning with a high pressure washer subjects the hatcher to harsh conditions.

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE FOR


PT100 HATCHER CONTROLS
Refer to the checklist on page 129.
TWICE-WEEKLY
Water Reservoir
Clean the water reservoir with detergent and a bottle
brush to remove chick down. Fill the water reservoir
with distilled water only. This will help minimize the
build-up of mineral deposits inside the reservoir.
Wick
Change the wick after each hatch, and after cleaning
the reservoir. Mineral deposits build up in the wicking
and can cause false readings.
To Install a Wick
Hold the top of the wicking with one hand. Gently slide
over the extended end of the probe. Seat the wicking
firmly around the probe. Place the free end of the
wicking into the reservoir, Make sure it does not twist
or bend. Any twists or bends will interrupt the flow of
water through the wicking. The wicking should be 12
in. (30 cm) in length.
EVERY THREE MONTHS

Make sure that the temperature probe baffle is not out


of position or damaged. The baffle should be on a horizontal plane to protect the probe from coming into
direct contact with the spray or stray water particles.
Calibration
Check the accuracy of the temperature and readings. It
is important that the electro-therm (HA1071) be positioned correctly next to the PT100 probe. Allow the
shaft of the electro-therm to bend. Fit the tip of the
shaft into the plastic sleeve and as close to the PT100
sensor as possible. They should not touch. For the testing procedure and calibration refer to The PT100SMT
Controls and System Manual, page 85.
Display Panel
When the hatcher is empty, check the display panel.
Follow the procedures normally implemented following clean-up, such as hooking up the fans and heat ring,
locating the tracking, and installing the thresholds. Do
not load the hatcher racks. Close the doors and switch
on the machine. Wait for the hatcher to warm up to
about 90 to 95F (32 to 35C). Dial the temperature or
humidity thumbwheel switches up or down, to simulate various machine conditions.
High Humidity
Dial the humidity thumbwheel down 2 degrees or more
below the actual humidity read-out. The high humidity LED and alarm lamp should flash. Alternatively,
remove the wick from the probe.

Temperature Sensor
Electro-therm Shaft

Probes
Hard water will cause a build-up of calcium and lime
on the probes. Wash them in white vinegar or other
mild solvent, and rinse thoroughly with water. Failure
to do so may result in deterioration. If water quality is
poor, you may have to clean the probes more often.

1/4 in (6.4 mm) Plastic Tubing


Tape holds tubing together
3/8 in. (9.5 mm) Plastic Tubing

Calibration -placement of the electro-therm (HA1071)


next to the PT100 sensor

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 119

Low Humidity
The low humidity LED should be flashing since the
actual humidity is below normal set point. If it is not,
dial the humidity thumbwheel up 2 degrees or more
above the actual humidity read-out. The low humidity
LED should flash.
High Temperature
Dial the temperature thumbwheel down one degree or
more below the actual temperature read-out. The high
temperature LED and alarm lamp should flash, the
damper should start opening, the blower(s) should come
on, the auxiliary damper should start to lift, the spray
usually should come on, and the audible alarm should
ring. Alternatively, press and hold the Test button on
the display panel until a 1 appears and the audible
alarm is activated.
Note: Remember to move the thumbwheel dials
back to their original set points once the check is
completed.

Low Temperature
The low temperature LED should be flashing since the
actual temperature is below set point. If not, dial the
temperature thumbwheel switch up two degrees or more
above the actual read-out. The low temperature LED
should flash.

For PX Hatchers
Air Cylinder
Check the air cylinder function by dialling the temperature down 2 degrees or more (see the High
Temperature check.) The 1-inch (25 mm) primary auxiliary cooling cylinder will be activated first, followed
by the 2-inch (5 cm) secondary auxiliary cooling cylinder.

PX Hatcher Air Cylinder Assembly

For 2-Door Hatchers


Blowers
Check blowers by dialling the temperature down 2 degrees or more (see High Temperature). The blower(s)
should come on.

Power Off Alarms

Auxiliary Damper

Turn off the power to the hatcher. All LEDs on the


display panel should go out and the audible alarm
should ring.

Check the auxiliary damper operation (see High Temperature ). When the high temperature alarm rings, open
the hatcher door and visually check that the auxiliary
damper lifts clear of the slide.

Fan Motor Off and Door Open Alarms


Turn off the fans. The alarm should ring until a door is
opened. Close the door and open the other. The alarm
should ring momentarily. Wait until the fans stop rotating and unplug one motor. Close the door or hold
down the door switch arm to simulate a closed door.
Then turn the fan back on. The motor off LED should
flash and the audible alarm should ring. Repeat the
process, switching off the fan before reconnecting the
first motor and unplugging another. This will check
each motor off current sensing device for correct
functioning.

120 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Control Box
Turn the fans off. Turn the power off.
Warning: The PT100 controller should only be
serviced by qualified maintenance personnel.
Do not attempt to service the controller while
it is turned on. Some circuits are energized with
220 or 380 Vac. They will cause serious shocks,
injury or death if touched. Before servicing the
control box, ensure that CB1, CB2 and CB3 are
turned off.

Open the control box, and examine the PT100 boards


and wiring, wiring connections and relay contacts for
obvious faults such as discoloured wiring, and burned
or blackened areas. Pay special attention to terminals,
connections and relay points. Vacuum the interior if
dust, chick down or metal shavings have accumulated.
After vacuuming, ensure plug connections are snug.
In older models, check that the boards are firmly seated.
Turn the power back on. Turn the fans back on.

CB3
CB2
CB1

PT100 Control Box showing CB1, CB2 and CB3

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 121

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE FOR


ELECTRO-MECHANICAL
HATCHER CONTROLS
Refer to the checklist on page 130.
AFTER EVERY HATCH
Thermostat Board
Clean after every hatch. Do not use a high pressure
washer on thermostats. Instead, use compressed air to
remove fluff from all parts of the thermostat board. To
sanitize, hold the thermostat board over a basin of water with disinfectant and apply the mixture with a paint
brush. Do not get the electrical connections wet. Check
the rubber grommets that seal the angle thermometers.
The foam gasket on the thermostat assembly should
be inspected and replaced if necessary. If the gasket is
installed on the centre post, check it before installing
the thermostat assembly. If the thermostat board assembly is plugged in correctly, the bulb will illuminate
when the hatcher is switched on. If it does not light up,
replace the assembly immediately.
TWICE WEEKLY
Water Reservoir
Clean the water reservoir with detergent and a bottle
brush to remove chick down. Fill the water reservoir
with distilled water only. This will help minimize the
build-up of mineral deposits inside the reservoir.

Electro-Mechanical Hatcher Thermostat Board

EVERY THREE MONTHS


Thermostats
Hard water will cause lime deposits to form on the
thermostats. Wash the thermostats in white vinegar or
other mild solvent. Rinse thoroughly in cold water. The
clips also should be cleaned with a fine emery cloth to
remove mineral deposits. If water quality is poor, thermostats may require more frequent cleaning. The best
time to clean the thermostats is after a hatch when the
thermostat board is removed for cleaning.
Warning: The thermostat contacts are electrically live. Therefore, open the control panel and
disconnect the power to the thermostats before removing. Failure to do so could result in
injury.

Wick

Control Box

Change the wick after each hatch, and after cleaning


the reservoir. Mineral deposits build up in the wicking
and can cause false readings.

The best time to check the control box is after washing, but before transfer. (The hatcher is empty.) Vacuum
the box if dust or down has accumulated.

To Install a Wick
Hold the top of the wicking with one hand. Gently slide
over the extended end of the thermostat. Seat the
wicking firmly around the bulb. Place the free end of
the wicking into the reservoir, Make sure it does not
twist or bend. Any twists or bends will interrupt the
flow of water through the wicking. The wicking should
be 12 in. (30 cm) in length.
122 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Warning: Turn off the power. Disconnect the


fans and heater.

Wires, Connections and Bulbs

Motor Off Circuit

The check can be made with or without the thermostat


board installed. Unlatch the control box cover and
swing it down gently. If the thermostats are installed,
be careful that the latch does not damage the angle
thermometers. Check the wiring, wiring connections
and relay contacts for obvious faults, such as discoloured wiring, or burned or blackened areas. Pay special
attention to relays points, connections and terminals.
Check for burnt out bulbs.

Close the doors. Connect the alligator clips to Terminal 36 or 36A on TB2 and Terminal 2 on TB1. The
motor off pilot light should come on, and the alarm
should ring. If one door is opened, the alarm should
stop ringing. When the door is closed, the alarm should
ring. Open the other door. This should cause the alarm
to stop ringing. The heat pilot light should stay on.

Warning: For the following procedure, switch


the power on. Jamesway recommends that you
use an insulated jumper wire with insulated
alligator clips or probes to perform the following checks. Switch the power off after each test
procedure.

High Temperature Circuit


Using the jumper wire, connect one clip to Terminal
38 on TB2. Attach the other clip to Terminal 5 on TB1.
The high temperature pilot light should come on, the
damper should start opening, the auxiliary damper
should lift, and the alarm should ring. The heat pilot
light should stay on.

Power Off Check


Close the doors. Turn off the power to the hatcher. All
of the pilot lights on the control box should go out,
and the alarm should ring.
Note: If the bell does not ring to indicate high temperature, motor off and/or power off, check the
battery, the battery connections or the alarm circuit. Replace pilot lights as required. Be careful
during this examination of the control box since
the power has not have been disconnected.
Warning: If rewiring or relay replacement is required, turn off the power. Failure to do so
could result in injury.

Blower Circuit
Leave the clip connected to Terminal 38 on TB2 and
attach the other clip to Terminal 7 on TB1. The blower
light and motor (Big J) or motors (Super J) should come
on. The heat pilot light should stay on.
Heat Circuit
Connect the jumper wire to Terminal 38 on TB2 and
Terminal 11 on TB1. The heat pilot light should go
out, the damper should start opening, and the spray
should come on.
Humidity Circuit
Using a second jumper wire, bridge Terminals 38 on
TB2 and 12 on TB1. The spray should stop, and the
pilot light should go out.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 123

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
FOR HATCHERS
Refer to the checklist on page 131.
AFTER EVERY HATCH
Wash and Sanitize
Thoroughly wash and sanitize hatcher racks, dollies
and the interior of the hatcher. Refer to Chapter 5 Cleaning Procedures on page 93 for this procedure.
Avoid splashing water on motors and electrical connections. All motors and electrical connections must
be dry before the hatcher is restarted and warmed.
TWICE-WEEKLY
Spray Nozzles
Clean the spray nozzles. After cleaning, check the water nozzle spray pattern. It should be a 60 degrees fan
pattern and there should be no excessive dripping. If
the nozzles are not producing the correct spray pattern, they may need to be replaced or the water pressure
may be too low.
Spray Nozzle Condition
Both water pressure and nozzle condition affect droplet size and number, which in turn, affects how
efficiently moisture is absorbed into the air.
Inevitably, some water droplets injected into the air
stream are deposited on surfaces or objects in the flow
path. When water is laden with minerals, the solids are
left behind as the water evaporates. Nozzles block or
partially block. The spray pattern is disrupted and excessive dripping occurs. Drip pans, rack tops,
extrusions, panels and sensors quickly become encrusted with these deposits. Not only is this unsightly,
but cleaning becomes difficult, protective coatings rapidly diminish and corrosion is accelerated. Routine
maintenance becomes unpleasant and machine performance is reduced.

124 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Low water pressure, partially blocked nozzles, or poor


spray pattern can result in uneven temperature distribution, measured at the exit end of the machine, e.g.,
top section temperature is highest while the bottom
section is lowest. Therefore, maintain the spray nozzles to specifications for optimum performance.
Refer to page 42 for water pressure and water quality
specifications.
To Clean the Spray Nozzles
Remove the exhaust duct at the back of the hatcher.
Disconnect the Kwik connect coupler from the spray
nozzle assembly, loosen the wing nuts, and lift to remove. Unfasten the nozzles from the body and
dismantle. Use an ultrasonic cleaner to clean the spray
nozzle components. Alternatively, they can be soaked
in pure white vinegar or other mild acid solvent. Thoroughly rinse with water. Do not use a wire to clean the
orifice as it is likely to cause damage. This will result
in an incorrect spray pattern. When reassembling the
hatcher after clean-up, centre the spray nozzles on the
fan shafts and fastened securely.

Dismantle the spray nozzle for cleaning.

To Check the Water Pressure


Check the water pressure at the nozzles by inserting a
gauge fitted for the Kwik connect into the coupling.
The pressure should be at least 65 psi (4.5 bars).
Exhaust Duct
Check for torn or missing gaskets before installing.
Replace any gaskets if necessary.
Door Seals
Check for torn or missing door gaskets. Replace any
gaskets if necessary. Damaged gaskets will result in
poor air flow.

Threshold Gaskets
Check the threshold gaskets for tears. Torn or missing
threshold seals will result in poor hatching conditions
in the lower trays. Therefore, keep all threshold seals
in good order.
Threshold Gasket

WEEKLY
All Joints
After clean-up, check the silicone sealant used on all
joints. If new sealant is required, warm the inside of
the cabinet to remove moisture from the crevices. Using a dry clean cloth or paper towel, remove any residue
with alcohol. Re-caulk with silicone sealant.
Hatcher Racks
Grease all castor wheels and plate bearings after sanitizing the hatcher racks. One or two pumps of a grease
gun should suffice. Any more will result in forcing
grease out through the rubber seals.

After clean-up, reseal joints as required.

For 2-Door Hatchers


Blower
Unplug, unlatch and remove the blower box. Clean and
sanitize the area around the damper slide. Using an air
hose clean the fins of the blower fan. Replace the box
and plug in the blower(s).

Use only one or two pumps when greasing the castor


wheels.

Clean and sanitize the area around the damper slide.


Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 125

MONTHLY
Fans
Check for excessive fan vibration. If you are unable to
read the nameplate on the motor clearly or the motor
frame assembly is rattling, the fan is vibrating too much.
Before determining the cause of the excessive vibration, turn off the fans, turn off the power to the hatcher
and unplug the motor. Inspect the fan stand or motor
mounts for loose bolts and connections, the motor shaft
for worn bearings, and the fan blade for correct pitch
or distortion. See page 140 for fan specifications. If
vibration continues, replace the motor or fan blade.

Warning: To avoid injury, turn off the fans and


turn off power before unplugging or working
with fans.
Note: Before switching the fans on again, allow
them to stop completely. If you do not, some of
the fans may run backwards, upsetting the air flow.
All fans should run in a counter-clockwise direction when viewed from behind the motor. If a fan
does run backwards, simply switch it off, allowing
it to stop before turning it on.

Cabinet
Finally, inspect the cabinet for signs of penetrating light.
Stand inside the cabinet with the threshold installed
and the doors closed. Small areas of light around door
switch arms and at the ends of thresholds are considered normal. If other light is visible, such as along the
top or bottom corners of the doors, adjust the door
latches.
For PX Hatchers
Air Cylinder Control Assembly
After clean-up, check all air cylinders and air cylinder
control assembly fittings and fasteners. Adjust and
tighten any that are loose. If air pressure is high, above
25 psi (1.7 bars), the extreme, rapid, back and forth
movement of the piston in each cylinder can cause
buddy nuts, jam nuts and socket set screws to loosen.
The air pressure should be lowered to the recommended
20 psi (1.4 bars) by adjusting the regulator on the filter
assembly. See the PX Hatcher installation and parts
manual.

Heat Rings
Use an ampere clamp (or amp probe) to check the
amperage of each heater. The reading should be between 6 and 8 amperes. If not, replace the heater
element.
Check the heater for correct operation. The best time
to do this is immediately after transfer, when the hatcher
is calling for heat. Use an ampere clamp to check the
amperage of the heater.
Switch off the power, lift the cover off the control box,
clamp around one of the heat ring wires (either number
10 or 50), and switch the power back on. The reading
should be between 6 and 8 amperes. If it is not, replace
the heat ring. Remember that with electro-mechanical
controls only, if the damper slide is open more than 1/
8 in. (3.175 mm), the heat ring will not draw any current. With PT100 controls, the heat rings will operate
regardless of damper opening.

126 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Use an ampere clamp to check the amperage of the heater.

EVERY THREE MONTHS


Fan Motors and Blades
Clean fan motor during complete clean-out and sanitation. See pages 94 to 96. Turn off the fan motors,
Clean the blades and motors with a damp sanitized cloth
or brush. Be careful not to bend the blades when cleaning. Do not use a high pressure washer on the motors.
Check the fan spacing upon completion. Turn the
hatcher back on.
Fan Blade Spacing and Motor RPM
Upon completion, check the fan spacing. See page 140
for fan spacing for current motor mounts.
Note: If fan motors are repaired or rewound, it is
recommended that revolutions per minute (rpm)
be checked when the motors are reinstalled. Use
motors of similar rpm ( 2.5%) in each hatcher.
Do not mix low rpm motor with high rpm motors
and vice versa.

Procedure for Checking RPM


Jamesway suggests the use of a strobe light to check
rpm, as no physical contact with the motor is required
and all motors can be checked at one time. With practice the strobe light can also be used to identify fan
blade defects.

Note: If the fan blade does not appear to be static,


i.e., the mark appears, disappears, reappears, the
strobe light flash rate may be set x2, x3, x4 .
(multiple of desired rpm) too high or too low. Adjust flash rate to rpm value on the nameplate.

Damper System
The arrow on the knob of the drive box will indicate
whether the damper is closing when the machine calls
for heat. The damper should be opening when the heat
pilot light is off.
After clean-up and before egg transfer, while the
hatcher is warming, check for the following potential
problems:
If the knob on the drive box is turning but the damper
is not moving, replace the plastic drive block on the
threaded rod in the damper drive. The drive motor always should turn at 5-1/2 to 6 revolutions per minute.
The intake damper slide should move freely, without
binding. Also, the opening should be set at 1/8 in.
(3.2 mm) in the fully closed position.
If the damper is not moving but open more than 1/8 in.
(3.2 mm), the sigma relay (EM Controls only) or
damper motor should be replaced.

Check the rpm when the motor is under load, i.e., when
hatcher is in normal operation and filled with eggs.
Plug strobe light into power source. Stand in the entrance end of the hatcher. Switch on strobe light and
switch off hatcher lights. Adjust the strobe flash rate to
a value similar to rpm marked on motor nameplate,
e.g., Motor PB5146: 1625 rpm at 60 Hz, 1325 rpm at
50 Hz.
Fine-tune until fan blades appear to stop. Focus on a
blade that is easily identifiable (small scratch or mark)
and ensure that its location does not change. If the blade
in the chosen position appears to be static, record the
strobe flash rate. The recorded value is the revolutions
per minute of the motor or motors. The reading taken
with strobe light should be within 2.5% of rpm specified on motor nameplate.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 127

For 2-Door Hatchers


Check for the following potential problem:
If the damper is opening when the heat light is on, the
wiring may be reversed (EM Controls only).
Auxiliary DamperLift the auxiliary damper, check
the gasket around the opening, then release. The lid
should be under pressure from the spring in the motor
and compress the gasket slightly. If not, remove the
damper lid from the crank arm. Adjust the arm so it is
more or less parallel with the angle of the motor mount
bracket. Reattach the lid and test again. Scratch marks
on the roof of the blower box also could mean incorrect assembly. See the installation and parts manual
for more details. Replace the gasket, if necessary.
BlowerRemove the blower box and thoroughly clean
the inside of the blower. Remove dirt from hard to reach
areas using compressed air. Clean dirt from the blower
blades using a paint brush dipped in disinfectant. After thoroughly cleaning the blower and box, check the
gasket around the base. Replace it if necessary. Reinstall the blower box, oil the bearings, plug in and check.
Water Line Strainer
Clean the water line strainer, which is generally located within the incoming water line and before the
first hatcher. Turn off the water, loosen the retaining
nut, and remove the strainer screen. Flush and rinse
the screen to remove debris. Replace the screen, insert
and tighten the retaining nut, and turn the water back
on. The frequency of cleaning will depend upon the
mineral content of the water.

The frequency of cleaning the water line strainer will


depend upon the mineral content of the water.

128 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Maintenance Schedule for PT100 Hatcher Controls


All of the items mentioned below should be checked, as scheduled.
Refer to page 119 and your control manual for additional notes.
All other items should be assessed as to their operating condition either satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
Unsatisfactory would include not operating properly, excessive wear, dirt or any potential problem. Items,
not in satisfactory condition, should be repaired or replaced, and/or cleaned prior to further use.
Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
Twice
Weekly

Every 3 Months

A) Sensor
1. Reservoir - clean and fill as required
2. Wick - replace
3. Probes - clean
B) Calibration (See PT100SMT Controls Manual, page 86.)
C) Display Panel - check the following LEDs
1. High Humidity
2. Low Humidity
3. High Temperature
4. Low Temperature
D) Alarms
1. Power Off Alarm
2. Fan Motor Off and Door Open Alarms
E) PX Hatcher
1. Air Cylinder condition
F) 2-Door Hatchers
1. Blowers condition
2. Auxiliary Damper condition
G) Control Box
1. Clean, vacuum as required
2. Wire condition
3. Terminal condition
4. Relay condition
5. Boards - position firmly (older models)
Warning: The PT100 controller should only be serviced by qualified maintenance personnel. Do not
attempt to service the controller while it is turned on. Some circuits are energized with 220 or 380
volts ac. They will cause serious shocks, injury or death if touched. Before servicing the control
box, ensure that CB1, CB2 and CB3 are turned off. Turn the fans off.
Voltage Checkpoints. If required, refer to page 88 in The PT100SMT Controls and System Manual.
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 129

Maintenance Schedule for Electro-Mechanical Hatcher Controls


All of the items mentioned below should be checked, as scheduled.
Refer to pages 122 and your control manual for additional notes.
All other items should be assessed as to their operating condition either satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
Unsatisfactory would include not operating properly, excessive wear, dirt or any potential problem. Items,
not in satisfactory condition, should be repaired or replaced, and/or cleaned prior to further use.

Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
After
Every
Hatch

Twice
Weekly

Every 3 Months

A) Thermostat Board
1. Wash and sanitize
2. Grommet condition
3. Gasket condition
4. Operating properly
5. Reservoir - clean and fill as required
6. Wick - replace
7. Thermostats - clean
B) Control Box and Information Panel
1. Wire condition
2. Relays and connections condition
3. Bulb condition
C) Check the following circuits
1. High Temperature
2. Blower
3. Heat
4. Humidity
5. Motor Off
6. Power Off
Warning:
1. The thermostat contacts are electrically live. Therefore, before cleaning the thermostats, open
the control panel and disconnect the power to the thermostats. Failure to do so could result in
injury.
2. Before working on the Control Box and Information Panel, disconnect the fans and heater.
3. In order to check circuitry, switch the power on. Jamesway recommends that you use an insulated jumper wire with insulated alligator clips or probes to perform the following checks. Switch
the power off after each test procedure.
For circuit checks, refer to page 123.

130 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Maintenance Schedule for Hatchers


All of the items mentioned below should be checked, as scheduled.
Refer to pages 124 to 128.
All other items should be assessed as to their operating condition either satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
Unsatisfactory would include not operating properly, excessive wear, dirt or any potential problem. Items,
not in satisfactory condition, should be repaired or replaced, and/or cleaned prior to further use.
Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
After
Every
Hatch

Twice
Weekly

Weekly

Monthly

Every 3
Months

A) Hatcher Racks and Dollies


1. Wash and sanitize
2. General condition
3. Castors and bearing plate - grease (racks only)
B) General Machine
1. Wash and sanitize (See Chapter 5.)
2. Check joints, caulk as required
3. Check for light penetration
C) Spray Nozzles
1. Clean, replace if required
2. Check spray pattern
3. Check position
4. Check pressure - 65 psi (4.5 bars)
D) Exhaust Duct
1. Gasket condition
E) Doors
1. Doors seal properly
2. Doors latch properly
3. Door gasket condition
4. Threshold gasket condition
F) Damper
1. Opening and closing properly
2. Slides move freely
3. Damper openings equal (PX Hatcher only)
4. Closed position correct
5. Damper motor (5.5 to 6 rpm)
G) PX Hatcher
1. Air cylinder

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 131

Maintenance Schedule for Hatchers (continued)


Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
After
Every
Hatch

H) 2-Door Hatcher
1. Blower clean and sanitize
2. Blower thorough cleaning and sanitizing
3. Check auxiliary damper
I)

Heat Rings

1. Check amperage (6 to 8 amp)


J) Fans
1. Fan condition (vibration?)
2. Switches, blades and motors - clean
3. Blade spacing - check
4. Motor rpm - check
K) Water Strainer
1. Clean

132 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Twice
Weekly

Weekly

Monthly

Every 3
Months

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
FOR VENTILATION EQUIPMENT

MONTHLY

A routine maintenance program is an integral part in


keeping incubator and hatcher circulation problems to
a minimum. A suggested maintenance schedule for
ventilation equipment includes:

Grease and inspect bearings. Check damper actuation.


Inspect vents.

AS REQUIRED

Furnaces

Cooling Units
Grease and inspect bearings. Check damper actuation.
If the unit is a combination cooling and heating unit,
inspect vents.

Humidifiers
Service the humidifiers according to geographical and
climatic conditions.

Evaporative Coolers

Furnaces

Exhaust Fans

Clean or replace filters.

Grease and inspect bearings. Inspect the pulley alignment. Clean the blades.

Grease and inspect bearings.

Cooling Units
Clean or replace the filters.

EVERY SIX MONTHS

WEEKLY

Furnaces

Furnaces

Clean and lubricate the motor. Tighten mounting hardware. Inspect and tighten electrical connections. Clean
the blower.

Check the belt tension and condition.


Cooling Units
Check the belt tension and condition.
Evaporative Coolers
During the cooling season, check and adjust, as necessary, the following: float and water level, water
distribution, belt tension and condition, pulley alignment, and pad condition and placement.
Exhaust Fans
Check the belt tension and condition.

Cooling Units
Clean and lubricate the motor. Clean the blower and
cooling coils. Tighten mounting hardware and electrical connections. Replace air f ilters and check
refrigerant charge.
Evaporative Coolers
Inspect cowlings. Check and tighten electrical connections. Tighten mounting hardware and clean the
blower(s).
Exhaust Fans
Check damper actuation. Inspect and tighten electrical connections. Tighten mounting hardware.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 133

Maintenance Schedule for Ventilation


All of the items mentioned below should be checked, as scheduled.
Refer to the preceding page.
All other items should be assessed as to their operating condition either satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
Unsatisfactory would include not operating properly, excessive wear, dirt or any potential problem. Items,
not in satisfactory condition, should be repaired or replaced, and/or cleaned prior to further use.
Items to be Checked

Time Schedule
As Required

A) Humidifiers
1. Service for climatic conditions
B) Furnaces
1. Clean filters, replace as required
2. Check belt tension and condition
3. Grease and inspect bearings
4. Check damper actuation
5. Inspect vents
6. Clean and lubricate motor
7. Tighten mounting hardware
8. Inspect and tighten electrical connections
9. Clean blower
C) Cooling Units
1. Clean filters, replace as required
2. Check belt condition and tension
3. Grease and inspect bearings
3. Check damper actuation
4. Inspect vents, if combination heating/cooling unit
D) Evaporative Coolers (during cooling season)
1. Float and water level
2. Water distribution
3. Belt tension and condition
4. Pulley alignment
5. Pad condition and placement
6. Grease and inspect bearings
7. Inspect cowlings
8. Tighten mounting hardware
9. Inspect and tighten electrical connections
10. Clean blowers

134 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Weekly

Monthly

Every 6
Months

Maintenance Schedule for Ventilation (continued)


Items to be Checked
Time Schedule
As Required

Weekly

Monthly

Every 6
Months

E) Exhaust Fans
1. Belt tension and condition
2. Grease and inspect bearings
3. Inspect pulley alignment
4. Clean blades
5. Check damper actuation
6. Inspect and tighten electrical connections
7. Tighten mounting hardware

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 135

SPECIFICATIONS FOR
VENTILATION COMPONENTS
INCUBATOR DAMPER POSITIONS
Note: When the damper is in fully closed position, there is a spatial opening of 1/2 inch (13 mm).

1/2 in.
(13 mm)
fully closed

Fully closed damper position for PT100 controls

1/2 in.
(13 mm)
fully closed

Fully closed damper position for EM controls

POSITIONING OF SPRAY NOZZLES


Note: To prevent dripping, keep the nozzle tip
slightly higher than the elbow centre.

Correct measurements for locating angle of spray nozzle assembly

SPACE SAVER INTAKE DUCT


For correct spacing of the Space Saver intake duct, refer to page 101.

136 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

HATCHER DAMPER POSITIONS


PX Hatcher
Note: When the damper is in fully closed position, there is a spatial opening of 1/8 inch (3 mm).

1/8 in.
(3 mm)
fully closed

Fully closed damper position for PT100 controls

2-Door Hatcher
Note: When the damper is in fully closed position, there is a spatial opening of 1/8 inch (3 mm).

1/8 in.
(3 mm)
fully closed

Fully closed damper position

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 137

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR


FAN BLADE SPACING
1. When adjusting the fan blade spacing, use the
specifications for you particular blade and motor
mount. These specifications can be found on the
following pages.
2. Irrespective of the blade or the motor mount, all
fans should be almost centred in the venturi, i.e.,
half of the fan blade depth should be located
slightly under half of the venturi depth. See
illustration.
3. All motor mounts in a machine should be the same.
Do not mix and match motor mounts.
Note: When the blades are correctly spaced, the
solid red line and the dotted red line should meet
on the same vertical plane.

138 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Locking Flange Nut


Venturi

Motor Mount

Fan Blade

Motor

FAN BLADE SPACING FOR 50 HZ AREA - OLDER MOTOR MOUNT

Standard installation
No spacer required.

Spacer MB10513
Motor
0.125 in. (3 mm) between fan
blades and motor mount ring

A.

B.
1.75 in.
(44.45 mm)

Spacer shown
Venturi

Locking Flange Nut

Motor Mount

Correct spacing between fan blades and older motor mount

Clockwise

PB4351 32, 4 blade


Big J - 50 cycle areas
Use with spacer. See B.

PB4133 30, 5 blade


Big J - 50 cycle areas
No spacer required. See A.

Blade rotation for 50 Hz fans

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 139

FAN BLADE SPACING FOR 60 HZ AREA - OLDER MOTOR MOUNT

Standard installation
No spacer required.

Spacer MB10513
Motor
0.125 in. (3 mm) between fan
blades and motor mount ring

A.

B.
1.75 in.
(44.45 mm)

Spacer shown
Venturi

Locking Flange Nut

Motor Mount

Correct spacing between fan blades and older motor mount

Clockwise

PB4351 - 32. 4 blade


Super J 60 cycle areas
Use with spacer. See B.

PB4350 - 26. 4 blade


Big J 60 cycle areas
No spacer required. See A.

Blade rotation for 60 Hz fans

140 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

FAN BLADE SPACING FOR 50 HZ AREA - NEW MOTOR MOUNT


Locking Flange Nut
Venturi
Fan Blade

Motor Mount PB4723


0.375 in.
(9.53 mm)

Between fan blades and motor mount


for fan blades PB4351 (32 CW). Big J

Motor

0.750 in.
Between fan blades and motor mount
(19.05 mm) for fan blades PB4133 (30 CW). Super J

2.437 in.
(61.90 mm)

Correct spacing between fan blades and new motor mount

FAN BLADE SPACING FOR 60 HZ AREA - NEW MOTOR MOUNT


Locking Flange Nut
Venturi
Fan Blade

Motor Mount PB4723


0.375 in.
(9.53 mm)

Between fan blades and motor mount


for fan blades PB4351 (32 CW). Super J

Motor

0.750 in.
Between fan blades and motor mount
(19.05 mm) for fan blades PB4350 (26 CW). Big J

2.437 in.
(61.90 mm)

Correct spacing between fan blades and new motor mount

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 141

FAN BLADE SPACING FOR HATCHERS

1/8 in. (3 mm)

PX Hatcher
Correct spacing between fan and motor mount

142 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

60 cycle fans 1/2 in. (13 mm)


50 cycle fans 1/4 to 3/8 in. (6 to 10 mm)

2-Door Hatcher
Correct spacing between fan and motor mount

7. Optimizing
Performance
additional monitoring for incubators
time of transfer
monitoring the hatch
controlling other variables
general rules for adjusting set times
analysing overall performance
troubleshooting performance

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 143

144 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

The Jamesway multi-stage incubators are designed


to be low maintenance, but do require proper upkeep for optimum performance and efficiency. Basic
good performance begins with using the specifications outlined in Chapter 3 and the procedures
outlined in Chapters 4, 5 and 6, as well as any additional procedures found in your control system
manual.
Regardless of age, size or location, your hatchery is
only as good as its operational, monitoring and maintenance programs. Do not underestimate their
importance. Adapt programs tailored to your specific needs. The new procedures outlined in this
chapter can be added to your existing programs. They
will further enhance performance and efficiency. It
is suggested that these procedures be implemented
after the basic principles of running a hatchery are
firmly in place.

ENTRANCE END TEMPERATURE


A useful method to determine machine performance
is to monitor the entrance end temperatures twentyfour (24) hours after transfer.
The entrance end temperature twenty four (24) hours
after transfer in the Super J and Big J incubators should
be 100.3F (37.94C) and 100.5F (38.06C), respectively. Entrance end temperatures which vary more than
one or two tenths of a degree from the norm indicate a
problem and need correcting. Improper temperatures
contribute to an accelerated, slow or uneven hatch.
Note: The monitoring time, 24 hours after transfer, is specific. The internal conditions of the
incubator are now stable. The eggs used for this
measurement must be in an endothermic state,
i.e. requiring heat. Therefore, entrance end eggs
are used as they always require heat.

Note: A monitoring schedule for Entrance End


Temperature, Exit End Temperature, Internal Differential Pressure, and Damper Performance (both
PT100 and EM) is on page 157. Include this schedule in your existing hatchery monitoring program.

Position 2

Position 1

Monitoring entrance end temperature.


Use Electro-therm HA1071.
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 145

Entrance End Temperature Twenty-Four


(24) Hours After Transfer
Clip
Super J

100.3F

37.94C

Big J

100.5F

38.06C

Side to side temperatures not in agreement indicate an


unsuitable environmental condition. Contributing factors such as incorrect air distribution, air leakage,
incorrect humidification, egg size imbalance or other
miscellaneous problems require immediate attention.
Unsatisfactory performance may also result if side to
side temperatures are in agreement but too high or too
low, i.e., the incubator is overheating or too cool. See
Troubleshooting Performance on page 155.
Note: Once any adjustments have been made and
satisfactory machine conditions have been
achieved, it may be necessary to adjust set times.
Refer to General Rules for Adjusting Set Times
on page 154.

Electro-therm
Egg
Horizontal
Brace

Egg Flat

Diagonal
Brace

Tray Frame

Side view showing placement of Electro-therm HA1071.


The probe should be placed on the egg side of the
braces. The tip of the probe should be at the junction of
the horizontal and diagonal braces.

PROCEDURE TO MEASURE
ENTRANCE END TEMPERATURE
Clamp the probe of the electro-therm (HA1071), on
the egg side of the braces, at the cross brace of the
incubator rack beneath the fans. Centre the tip of the
probe at the junction of horizontal brace and the cross
braces.

Position 2

Position 1

For the first reading, allow 10 to 15 minutes for the probe


of the electro-therm to stabilize. For subsequent readings,
the electro-therm will stabilize in 3 to 5 minutes.
Read and record the temperature.
Repeat the procedure on the other side of the
incubator.
Note: Use a properly calibrated electro-therm. The
entrance end temperature must be taken in the
incubator twenty-four (24) hours after each
transfer.

146 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Precise placement of the electro-therm is important.

EXIT END TEMPERATURE


Monitoring temperatures at the exit end (eggs in
exothermic stage, i.e. giving off heat) requires a slightly
different technique from that used at the entrance end
of the machine. Although measurements taken at the
opposite end indicate the temperature of the air exiting the egg mass, readings taken in the 5th or 6th position
are the internal temperature of infertile eggs. The internal temperature of an infertile egg should be very
close to set point, i.e., 98.8F (37.11C) for the Super
J incubator, 99.0F (37.22C) for the Big J incubator.
Internal Temperature of Infertile Eggs
Super J

very close to 98.8F

37.11C

Big J

very close to 99.0F

37.22C

Super J & SST very close to 98.6F

37.0C

Take and record internal egg temperatures 2 to 4 hours


before removing the eggs for transfer. For approximately twelve to eighteen hours following transfer, the
internal temperature of an infertile egg in the fifth (5th)
position will normally be two or three tenths of a degree Fahrenheit (0.1C to 0.17C) lower than set point.

Large discrepancies in top to bottom and/or side to side


temperatures can lead to problems. Some of the common factors contributing to this unevenness in overall
temperature are improper humidification and incorrect
airflow and/or poor environmental conditions. See
Troubleshooting Performance on page 155.
PROCEDURE TO MEASURE EXIT END
TEMPERATURE
Use a properly calibrated electro-therm with a nonconductive sheath such as HA1071.
Probe the inside of designated infertile eggs at the top,
middle and bottom tray levels of each incubator rack,
both left and right as illustrated above.
A variation of one or two tenths of a degree Fahrenheit
(0.06C to 0.17C) is not uncommon, with the middle
giving the highest reading and the top and bottom at
set point.
Note: Once any adjustments have been made and
satisfactory machine conditions have been
achieved, it may be necessary to adjust set times.
Refer to General Rules for Adjusting Set Times
on page 154.

Electro- therm
inserted into an
infertile egg in
the middle
position

Location of the infertile eggs and placement of the


electro-therm probe

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 147

INTERNAL INCUBATOR PRESSURE


Measure incubator internal differential pressure every
third or fourth month to monitor the condition of the
rubber gaskets, curtain seal and incubator air distribution. Investigate any inconsistencies.

Move the end of the tube to a similar location on the


left side.
Record the left side pressure.
Compare both pressure readings.
Internal Machine Pressure
Super J (6th position level)

PROCEDURE TO MEASURE
INTERNAL INCUBATOR PRESSURE

0.500.55 inches of water

The pressure should be measured with a magnehelic


gauge and extension tube attached to the high pressure
port.
Locate the gauge in the entrance end of the incubator.
Run the tube through the rubber gasket surrounding
the wheels, under the racks, and locate the end between
the fifth (5th) and sixth (6th) rack position on the right
side of the incubator.

124137 Pa
Big J (all racks turned)
0.400.45 inches of water
100112 Pa
Super J and SST (5th and 6th position level)
0.600.62 inches of water
149154 Pa

Record the right side pressure.

High pressure
hose attaches
here.

X
INCHES OF WATER

0 .1
.2 .1
.2
.3
lllllllllllllllllllll .3
.4 llllllllll
llllll .4
llll .5
.5 llllll
l
ll l

MAGNEHELIC

Low pressure
hose attaches
here.

MAX. PRESSURE 15 PSIG

Position 2
CAUTION

HA1031

The extension hose from


the high pressure port
should be located underneath
the racks, between
the 5th and 6th positions.

Note: The magnehelic gauge must be held in the


vertical position in order to give a correct reading.
Hold the gauge against the wall to ensure this position.

148 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Position 1

The internal machine pressure should be in the range


described in the following chart.
Pressure imbalances can indicate any of the following:
poor ventilation, impaired air flow, negative room or
intake plenum pressure, damaged fan blades, wrong
fan blades, improperly adjusted fan blades, door(s)
sealing improperly, motors running backwards, gaskets at fan end in unsatisfactory condition or curtains
overlapping incorrectly. See Troubleshooting Performance on page 155.
Note: If the SST egg flat is used in the Super J
incubator, static pressure readings will be higher
between 0.60 and 0.62 inches of water (149 to
154 Pa). Both the 5th and 6th position racks must
be levelled. In the Big J incubator all racks must
be connected to the turning system at all times.
No levelling of racks is required.
Once any adjustments have been made and satisfactory machine conditions have been achieved,
it may be necessary to adjust set times. Refer to
General Rules for Adjusting Set Times on page
154.

DAMPER PERFORMANCE
The optimum incubator room temperature for the
Jamesway multi-stage incubator is 80F (26.67C) and
the optimum relative humidity is 55 percent. A slight
positive room pressure of 0.005 to 0.015 inches of water
(1.2 to 3.7 Pa), compared to external ambient conditions, is recommended. Jamesway has found these
conditions to be ideal, and under normal circumstances
the incubator intake and exhaust damper should open
to the optimum setting, 1.50 in. (38.1 mm) with an
operating range of 1.25 to 1.75 in. (31.8 to 44.5 mm)
for PT100 Controls and 1.25 in. (31.8 mm) with an
operating range of 1.0 to 1.50 in. (25.4 to 38.1 mm)
for Electro-Mechanical Controls.
Exhaust Damper Opening
Optimum

Range

PT100 Controls

1.50 in.

1.251.75 in.

38.1 mm

31.844.5 mm

1.25 in.

1.01.50 in.

31.8 mm

25.438.1 mm

E/M Controls

INCUBATOR DAMPER POSITION AT SET


Immediately after the eggs are set, the dampers close
to their minimum opening of 0.5 in. (12.7 mm). This is
the intake and exhaust closed position. The closed
position is maintained as long as the incubator temperature does not exceed its set point. Once the
temperature exceeds set point, approximately 1.0 to
1.5 hours after eggs have been loaded, the damper will
start to open, and continue to do so gradually, until
reaching the optimum operating range, usually within
4 to 6 hours.
INCUBATOR DAMPER POSITION AT
TRANSFER
Twelve to twenty-four hours after the eggs have been
set, eggs located in the 6th position will be transferred
into the hatcher. Following transfer, i.e., 6th position
racks removed, the damper will close to somewhere
between 0.75 and 1.0 in. (19.1 and 25.4 mm) for PT100
Controls and 0.75 in. (11.9 mm) for Electro-Mechanical Controls for approximately 30 minutes before
returning to the normal operating range. The dampers
will proceed to function within the standard operating
range for the next three or four days, until the next
eggs are set.
ELECTRO-MECHANICAL INCUBATORS
Damper performance may be adversely affected by
thermostat and humidistat calibration or old thermostats, as well as poor clip condition, causing the heat
rods and spray to cycle incorrectly. See table below for
proper sequence.
The electro-mechanical machines must cycle properly.
The correct cycling sequence is: main heat on, then
auxiliary heat on; auxiliary heat off, then main heat
off.
Heat and spray should not be on at the same time. Spray
is utilized in the Jamesway machine primarily for cooling, and if it is on with heat, it means the machine is
trying to heat and cool at the same time. If spray is on
when heat comes on, it should go off almost
immediately.
Check thermostats. All thermostats, humidistats and
clips must be kept clean if the machine is to perform
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 149

properly. A proper wick is also needed for proper cycling. Any thermostat or humidistat 5 to 7 years old
probably needs replacing due to improper calibration,
which causes the machine not to cycle or to cycle too
slowly. Even new thermostats must be matched to
achieve proper cycling. Using wrong, dirty or improperly calibrated thermostats and/or humidistats will
result in altered set points, which in turn will cause the
machines not to cycle properly.

Note: In EM controlled machines, you should see


a one Fahrenheit degree (0.6C) swing in temperature and no more than a four tenth Fahrenheit
(0.2C) swing in the wet bulb reading. With the
correct set point of 98.8F (37.11C) and 86F
(30C) the expected swing would be 98.3F to
99.3F (36.83C to 37.39C) dry bulb and 85.8F
to 86.2F (29.89C to 30.11C) wet bulb.

Improper cycling will cause the machine to overheat


or over cool, The resulting wide swings in temperature
and /or humidity will cause problems with hatch, chick
quality and performance. Use only properly calibrated
and cleaned thermostats or humidistats in clean clips,
with properly positioned and functioning spray nozzles, and operate the machine in correct environmental
conditions.
Activity

Heat Function

Spray Function

1. Heatingtemperature less than set point

Aux. Heatoff

Sprayoff

Main Heaton

(Wet bulb above set point)

Damperclosing
2. Coolingtemperature greater than set point

Aux. Heatoff

Sprayon

Main Heat off

(Wet bulb below set point)

Damperopening
3. Heatingtemperature less than set point

Aux. Heat off

Spraymay be on or off

Main Heaton
Damperclosing
4. Heatingtemperature less than 0.2 below

Aux. Heatoff

Sprayoff

Main Heaton

(Wet bulb above set point)

Damperclosing
5. Repeat cycle starting with No.1 above.

Aux. Heaton

Sprayoff

Main Heaton

(Wet bulb above set point)

Damperclosing

150 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

TIME OF TRANSFER
Jamesway recommends the transfer of eggs from the
incubator into the hatcher be done at 444 hours of incubation for Monday and Tuesday transfers and at 432
hours of incubation for Friday and Saturday transfers,
i.e., Monday & Tuesday transfer444 hours, eggs in
incubator 6th position for 12 hours, Thursday and Friday transfer432 hours, eggs in incubator 6th position
24 hours.
Most of the heat produced in the Jamesway incubator
is from embryonic development in eggs located in the
Day of Transfer

fifth (5th) and sixth (6th) rack position. If eggs are transferred too early, i.e., the sixth (6th) position removed,
the machine has to compensate for the heat lost, causing the heat rod to come on and the damper to close
more than normal.
If the eggs are transferred after eighteen and a half
days, i.e., the sixth (6th) position racks are left in the
machine longer than 444 hours, overheating will occur. The embryos in all positions will be affected and
problems, including an increase in early dead, an uneven draggy hatch and poor chick quality, may be
observed.

Time of Transfer

1. Same Day as Hatch e.g. Normally early in week


Monday (Set Thursday)

444 hours of incubation, 12 hours 6th position

Tuesday (Set Friday)

444 hours of incubation, 12 hours 6th position


e.g., Set 6:00 a.m. Transfer 6 p.m.

2. Day after Hatch e.g. Normally late in week


Friday (Set Monday)

432 hours of incubation, 24 hours 6th position

Saturday (Set Tuesday)

432 hours of incubation, 24 hours 6th position


e.g., Set 6:00 a.m. Transfer 6:00 a.m.

SUN

MON

TUE

WED

THU

FRI

WEEK 0

WEEK 1

WEEK 2

WEEK 3

WEEK 4

10

WEEK 5

11

12

WEEK 6

13

14

WEEK 7

15

10

16

10

11

WEEK 8

17

11

12

18

12

13

WEEK 9

19

13

14

20

14

15

SAT

Legend
Eggs to incubator
Transfer to hatcher
Pull chicks from hatcher
Set on Monday
Set on Thursday

Schedule for incubating, transferring and hatching of eggs

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 151

MONITORING THE HATCH


Twelve hours prior to pull time, check on the progress
of the hatch.
Sample count three traystop, middle and bottomon
each side of the hatcher. Ideally 50 to 60 percent of the
chicks should be out of the shell and 10 percent of
them still wet, or recently hatched. See Hatching the
Eggs on page 86 and Troubleshooting Performance on
page 155.
Ideal Progress of Hatch

Time

5060% out of shell

12 hours prior to pull

10% still wet/just hatched 12 hours prior to pull

If your observations differ from those above, check


hatcher temperature, humidity, calibration, equipment
specifications and ventilation.
Dehydration is likely if more than 60 percent of birds
are out twelve hours before pull. An uneven draggy
hatch is possible if less than 50 percent of the chicks
have hatched twelve hours prior to pull time.
Set time adjustments may be necessary once all other
operational criteria have been checked and proved correct. See Monitoring Schedule for Incubators and
Hatchers on pages 101 and 102, and Chapter 3, Temperature and Humidity Specifications on page 47.

CONTROLLING OTHER VARIABLES


TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
GROUPING OF EGGSFLOCK AGE AND
EGG SIZE
The supply of eggs to the hatchery, which should be
reasonably constant throughout the year, originates
from a mix of young, prime and old flocks. The ratio
of young, prime and old flocks required to maintain
this constant supply is about 20:60:20, giving a mean
flock age of between 41 and 44 weeks.
To achieve optimum results from your equipment, the
mean age of the flocks producing the eggs in the incubator should be 41 to 44 weeks and the ratio of eggs in
the incubator from young, prime and old flocks should
also be as close as possible to 20:60:20. The incubator
152 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

set point for your machines is the best temperature at


which to incubate the average fertile egg based on flock
age. Avoid grouping eggs according to size and age of
flock, a practice not recommended by Jamesway.
Recommended Grouping of Eggs
Ratio of Young/Prime/Old

20/60/20

Young Flock 20%

Age 2633 weeks

Prime Flock 60%

Age 3452 weeks

Old Flock 20%

Age 53+ weeks

Mean

Age 4144 weeks

PROBLEMS CAUSED BY INCORRECTLY


GROUPING EGGS
Continually setting complete groups of small, medium
or large eggs, or eggs from young, prime or old flocks,
is likely to produce inconsistent results. For example,
an incubator which is usually set with small eggs will
likely have increased airflow and a lower pressure differential. The reverse is true if large eggs are always
set in a machine. Under these circumstances it may be
necessary to adjust dry and wet bulb temperatures to
compensate for a lower or higher embryonic heat production.
Other problems may also arise. Air, like water, takes
the path of least resistance, and if one side of the setter
is loaded with small eggs and the other with large, more
air will flow through the side holding the smaller eggs.
This will result in a side to side airflow, temperature
and pressure imbalance, and is likely to cause a reduction in hatch and chick quality from both large and
small eggs.
OPTIMUM GROUPING OF EGGS
Following the recommendations given above will ensure that airflow, temperature gradients through the egg
mass, pressure differentials across ends (entrance and
exit) and side to side balance will be consistent from
one machine to the next.
It is easier and simpler to operate and maintain all
machines in a similar manner than it is to frequently
adjust parameters for individual incubators. In general,
any deviation from recommended parameters will result in the need to adjust incubator temperature set

points and other operational procedures, with the everpresent likelihood for errors and decline in
performance.

time between gathering and placement in the cooler,


the temperature and humidity of the cooler and the egg
grading location.

Note: Since it may not always be possible to attain the flock age ratio or recommended egg
settings, some temperature adjustments and operational changes may be required. Should this
be the case, please contact Jamesway for further
information and assistance on optimizing your
equipment.

To prevent pre-incubation and sweating of eggs, transport eggs only in a controlled environment egg truck,
and handle and store eggs properly at the hatchery. Preincubation should be eliminated at the source to achieve
desired results.

Refer to General Rules for Adjusting Set Times


on page 154.

PRE-INCUBATION AND PRE-WARMING OF


EGGS
Since most hatcheries do not provide proper facilities
in which to pre-warm eggs before placing them in the
incubators, Jamesway does not recommend pre-warming of eggs prior to set. Set eggs directly from the egg
storage area.
Placing eggs in the corridor in front of incubators several hours before setting does not allow all eggs to warm
up equally. Eggs in the centre of the incubator racks
will take longer to reach room temperature than eggs
near the outside.
Incorrect pre-warming of eggs can have a harmful effect on results, the most common being an uneven
hatch. Condensation on the eggshell surface may also
occur if the room into which the eggs are being placed
is improperly conditioned.
Proper pre-warming of eggs requires some method of
forcing air through the egg mass in order for all eggs
to warm at equal rates. Since most hatcheries do not
provide such facilities, Jamesway recommends direct
removal of the eggs from the cool room to the incubator, where adequate air movement is available. If
condensation on the eggshells does occur, the presence
of moisture on the shell surface is brief and less likely
to have a detrimental impact on embryonic growth.
Pre-incubation in the fresh eggs can amplify any observed problem with uneven or accelerated hatch. The
breeder department needs to be involved in helping to
eliminate this serious concern. Some areas to check
when determining causes of pre-incubation include the
number of time eggs are gathered from the nests, the

Note: Mottled and weak germal discs in the fresh


eggs, which can also be noted in the fresh egg
breakout, indicate some breeder flock stress.

PARTIAL AND SKIPPED SET


Jamesways multi-stage incubators rely on embryo heat
to establish an optimum energy balance inside the
machine. Any disruption of this balance results in lost
heat and a need for compensation. In general, a partial
setting or skipping a set altogether is not recommended,
although occasionally it may be unavoidable.
SKIPPED SET
If it is necessary to skip a set, the empty incubator racks
should be placed into the incubator in position one,
beneath the fans, in the usual manner, i.e., the empty
rack is treated as if it were full and loaded into the
incubator accordingly. To help compensate for the loss
of embryonic heat, the following set should be loaded
about two hours earlier than normal.
PARTIAL SET
Partial sets should be treated in a similar manner to a
skipped set. Place eggs against eggs, and the empty
column or spaces directly beneath the fans, when loading partially set racks. Depending on the number of
eggs in the racks, load the next eggs an hour or two
earlier than normal. This will compensate for some of
the embryonic heat lost when the partial set of eggs
reaches the exothermic stage.
Note: Refer to Loading a Partial Set on page 54
and General Rules for Adjusting Set Times on
page 154.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 153

GENERAL RULES FOR ADJUSTING


SET TIMES
Once any adjustments have been made and satisfactory machine conditions have been achieved, it may be
necessary to adjust set times. In general these rules
apply:
1. At machine start up or when one or more sets are
skipped, set points are based on the days of
incubation of the oldest eggs in the incubator.
(Refer to Chapter 3 - Temperature and Humidity
Specifications.)
2. Whenever the oldest eggs in the incubator have
less than fourteen (14) days of incubation,
adjustments in the set point are needed, due to the
loss of embryonic heat produced by eggs in the 5th
and 6th position.
3. If a single set is skipped it is beneficial to set the
next eggs two (2) hours earlier than normal, to help
compensate for the loss of embryonic heat.

Note: Time of set adjustments is based on the


setting time of the eggs that were transferred earlier that day or the day before and are currently in
the hatcher. Using the examples given a reading
is taken Saturday, 24 hours after a Friday morning transfer. Considering that the eggs in the
hatcher had been loaded into the incubator on a
Monday at 6 oclock in the morning, nineteen (19)
days earlier, the set times are as follows:
Temperature 100.5F (38.06C), set time Monday at 6:30 to 7:00 a.m. (later)
Temperature 100.7F (38.17C), set time Monday at 7:00 to 8:00 a.m. (later)
Temperature 100.1F (37.78C), set time Monday at 5:00 to 5:30 a.m. (earlier)
Temperature 99.9F (37.72C), set time Monday at 4:00 to 5:00 a.m. (earlier).

ANALYSING OVERALL
PERFORMANCE

4. Set eggs from young breeder flocks (26 through


33 weeks of age) two (2) hours earlier.
5. Set eggs from old flocks with low fertility
(53 weeks and older) two (2) hours earlier.
6. For each one tenth (0.1F or 0.6C) variation from
100.3F (37.94C) for the Super J or 100.5F
(38.06C) for the Big J a thirty (30) minute
adjustment is needed. For example, in a Super J
incubator with a desired entrance end temperature
of 100.3F (37.94C):
If actual temperature is 100.5F (38.06C),
set eggs 1/2 to 1 hour later.
If actual temperature is 100.7F (38.17C),
set eggs 1 to 2 hours later.
If actual temperature is 100.1F (37.78C),
set eggs 1/2 to 1 hour earlier.
If actual temperature is 99.9F (37.72C),
set eggs 1 to 2 hours earlier.
7. Eggs held in storage 0 to 7 days, no adjustment.
8. Eggs held in storage 7 to 10 days set one (1) hour
earlier.
9. Eggs held in storage for 10 days or longer set two
(2) hours earlier.
154 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

VARIATION OF AIR CELL SIZE


When candling the eggs in your incubators to take the
internal infertile egg temperature, you may notice some
variation in the size of the air cells. This indicates improper moisture loss in the eggs, which causes problems
with chick quality, performance and hatchability. As
conditions are corrected (as discussed and outlined
throughout this chapter), you should see this concern
eliminated.
Note: When doing an egg breakout and observing the hatch in the hatcher trays, you will also
notice chicks pipped both high and low, which
supports your findings during the candling that
there is a variation in air cell size.

HATCHER RESIDUE BREAKOUT


Analysis of the hatch residue is one of the most useful
tools for monitoring hatchery efficiency, but unfortunately each hatch day this information is thrown away
before it can be compiled. Although sorting through
the hatch residue is a messy job and takes some time,
the information obtained will help you recognize and

monitor problems that affect the efficient operation of


your hatchery. A hatch residue breakout can identify
breeder problems, as well as identify hatchery-related
problems. The implementation of a monthly hatch residue breakout on every flock being hatched, regardless
of hatchability or performance, is recommended. Compile and monitor the information to help make your
operation more efficient and productive. See Analysing Hatch Residue on pages 162 to 166 for further
details.

Possible Solutions:
Balance both sides of incubator. Use similar age
flock.
Check fans, gaskets, curtains
Check ventilation
Check spray nozzles
2. UNEVEN TEMPERATURE, TOP TO
BOTTOM

FRESH EGG BREAKOUT


A sample of fresh eggs from the egg room from flocks
in production can be a source of valuable information.
These eggs, when broken out, can reveal areas of concern such as fertility, pre-incubation and mottling. If
you are experiencing a high early death loss of embryos, this sampling can help pinpoint some probable
causes. Armed with this information, you can go to
the source of the problem and take the necessary
corrective action.

Possible Causes:
Improper humidification
Poor airflow
Incorrect ventilation
Possible Solutions:
Check spray nozzles
Check fans, gaskets, curtains

TROUBLESHOOTING
PERFORMANCE

Check ventilation
3. DAMPERS NOT IN RANGE

Several factors can affect the efficiency of incubator


performance. The following suggests possible observations, causes and remedies.
1. UNEVEN TEMPERATURE, SIDE TO SIDE
Possible Causes:
Improper setting
Egg size not similar
Flock age not similar
Age of eggs
Poor airflow
Incorrect ventilation
Improper humidification

Optimum Range: 1.25 to 1.75 in. (3.18 to 4.45 cm) for


PT100 Controls and 1.0 to 1.5 in. (2.54 to 3.81 cm) for
E/M Controls
Possible Causes:
Incubator too cool
Incubator too hot
Poor airflow
Poor external conditions
Improper humidification
Possible Solutions: (See Damper Performance for details.)
Check fans, gaskets, curtains
Check ventilation
Check spray nozzles

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 155

4. HIGH EARLY EMBRYO MORTALITY


Possible Causes:
Damper out of range >1.75 in. (4.45 cm) for PT100
Controls or >1.5 in. (3.81 cm) for E/M Controls

6. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE OUT OF


RANGE
Ranges:
Super J, 0.50 to 0.55 in. w. g. (124 to 137 Pa)

Poor external conditions

Big J, 0.40 to 0.45 in. w. g. (100 to 112 Pa)

Incubator too hot

SST Flat, 0.60 to 0.62 in. w. g. (149 to 154 Pa)

Insufficient humidification

Possible Causes:

Poor air flow

Poor ventilation

Transferring too late

Damaged gaskets

Possible Solutions: (See Damper Performance on page


149 for details.)
Check ventilation
Check spray nozzles
Correct transfer time

Curtain overlap
Improper setting
Motors running backwards
Possible Solutions: (See Internal Incubator Pressure
for details.)

5. HIGH LATE EMBRYO MORTALITY

Check gaskets, curtains

Possible Causes:

Check Grouping of Eggs on page 152.

Damper out of range <1.25 in. (3.18 cm) for PT100


Controls or <1.0 in. (2.54 cm) for E/M Controls
Poor external conditions
Incubator too cool
Excessive humidification
Transferring too early
Possible Solutions: (See Damper Performance on page
149 for details.)
Check ventilation
Check spray nozzles
Check heat rods
Correct transfer time

156 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Check motors

Monitoring Schedule for Incubators and Hatchers


Check all of the items below as scheduled.
Refer to pages 145 to 150 for additional notes
Assess each item. Unsatisfactory assessments include: values or performance not within
tolerance, imbalances, or any variance from the norm.
Investigate any discrepancy.
Resolve the problem to avoid loss.
Items to be Checked

Time

Entrance End Temperature


Air Temperature

24 hours post-transfer

Super J

100.3F (37.9C)

24 hours post-transfer

Big J

100.5F (38.1C)

24 hours post-transfer

Exit End Temperature


Internal Egg

24 hours pre-transfer

Super J

98.8F (37.1C)

24 hours pre-transfer

Big J

99.0F (37.2C)

24 hours pre-transfer

SST Flat 98.6F (37.0C)

24 hours pre-transfer

Internal Differential Pressure


5th/6th Position (Six racks per side)

every 3 months
th

Super J

0.500.55 in. w.g. (124137 Pa) (6 position level)

Big J

0.400.45 in. w.g. (100112 Pa) (All positions turned)

SST Flat 0.600.62 in. w.g. (149154 Pa) Super J only, 5th & 6th position level)
Damper PerformancePT100 Controls
Sequence for Ideal Conditions
0.5 in. (1.27 cm)closed position

Eggs set

Damper starts opening

1.01.5 hours after set

Range

1.251.75 in. (3.184.45 cm)

4-6 hours after set

Damper

0.751.0 in. (1.912.54 cm)

After transfer

Range

1.251.75 in. (3.184.45 cm)

0.5 hours after transfer

Range

1.251.75 in. (3.184.45 cm)

for next 34 days

Damper PerformanceE/M Controls


Sequence for Ideal Conditions
0.5 in. (1.27 cm)closed position

Eggs set

Damper starts opening

1.01.5 hours after set

Range

1.01.5 in. (2.543.81 cm)

Damper 0.75 in. (1.91 cm)

46 hours after set


After transfer

Range

1.01.5 in. (2.543.81 cm)

0.5 hours after transfer

Range

1.01.5 in. (2.543.81 cm)

for next 34 days

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 157

158 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

8. Chick Development
and Troubleshooting
Hatchability
chicken embryology
analysing chick residue

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 159

160 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

CHICKEN EMBRYOLOGY,
THE TIMING OF MAJOR
EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENTS
BEFORE EGG LAYING
Fertilization
Division and growth of living cells
Segregation of cells into groups of special function
(gastrulation)
BETWEEN LAYING AND INCUBATION
No growth, state of inactive embryonic life
Normal size of air cell at various stages of incubation

DURING INCUBATION
Day 1
Development of area pellucids and area opaca of
blastoderm
Major developments visible under microscope
18 hours, Appearance of alimentary tract
19 hours, Beginning of brain crease
20 hours, Appearance of vertebral column
21 hours, Beginning of formation of brain and
nervous system

35 hours, Beginning of formation of ear pits


36 hours, First sign of amnion
46 hours, Formation of throat
Day 3
Beginning of formation of nose, wings, legs,
allantois
Amnion completely surrounds embryo
Day 4

22 hours, Beginning of formation of head

Beginning of formation of tongue

23 hours, Appearance of blood islands

Embryo completely separates from yolk sac and


turned on left side

24 hours, Beginning of formation of eyes

Allantois breaks through amnion


Day 2
Embryo begins to turn on left side
Blood vessels appear in the yolk sac
Major developments visible under microscope:
25 hours, Beginning of formation of veins and
heart
30 hours, Second, third and fourth vesicles of brain
clearly defined, as is heart, which now starts to
beat

Day 5
Preventriculus and gizzard formed
Formation of reproductive organs - sex division
Day 6
Beginning of formation of beak and eggtooth
Main division of legs and wings
Voluntary movement begins
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 161

Day 7
Indication of digits in legs and wings
Abdomen more prominent due to development of
viscera

Day 18
Growth of embryo nearly complete
Day 19
Yolk sac draws into body cavity through umbilicus

Day 8
Beginning of formation of feathers
Day 9

Embryo occupies most of space with in egg except


air cell
Day 20

Embryo begins to look bird-like

Yolk sac completely drawn into body cavity

Mouth opening appears

Embryo becomes chick, breaks amnion, starts


breathing in air cell

Day 10

Allantois ceases to function and starts to dry up

Beak start to harden


Skin pores visible to naked aye
Digits completely separated
Day 12

Day 21
Chick hatches

ANALYSING HATCH RESIDUE

Toes fully formed


First few visible feathers
Day 13

Analysing hatch residue is a useful hatchery management tool that will provide valuable information in
isolating problems in both the breeder and the hatchery programs.

Appearance of scales and claws


Body fairly well covered with feathers

The following is a list of problems that may be observed and there possible cause(s).

Day 14
Embryo turns its heat towards blunt end of egg

1. CHICKS HATCH LATE


Possible causes:

Day 15
Small intestines taken into body

Variable room temperature


Large eggs

Day 16

Old eggs

Scales, claws, and beak becoming firm and horny


Incorrect thermometer
Embryo fully covered with feathers
Temperature too low, 1 to 19 days
Albumen nearly gone, yolk increasingly important
as nutriment
Day 17
Beak turns toward air cell, amniotic fluid decreases,
and embryo begins preparation for hatching

162 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Humidity too low, 1 to 19 days


Temperature too low in hatchery

2. FULLY DEVELOPED EMBRYO WITH


BEAK NOT IN AIR CELL

Temperature too high, 20 to 21 days


Humidity too low, 20 to 21 days

Possible causes:
Inadequate breeder ration

6. MALPOSITIONS

Temperature too high, 1 to 10 days

Possible causes:

Humidity too high, 19th day

Inadequate breeder ration


Egg set small end up

3. FULLY DEVELOPED EMBRYO WITH


BEAK IN AIR CELL
Possible causes:
Inadequate breeder ration

Odd-shaped eggs set


Inadequate turning

Incubator air circulation poor

7. STICKY CHICKS (ALBUMEN STICKING


TO CHICKS)

Temperature too high, 20 to 21 days

Possible causes:

Humidity too high, 20 to 21 days

Eggs transferred too late

Shell quality

Temperature too high, 20 to 21 days


Humidity too low, 20 to 21 days

4. CHICKS PIPPING EARLY

Down collectors not adequate

Possible causes:
Temperature too high, 1 to 19 days
Humidity too low, 1 to 19 days
5. Chick Dead After Pipping Shell
Possible causes:

8. STICKY CHICKS (ALBUMEN STICKING


TO DOWN)
Possible causes:
Old eggs

Inadequate breeder ration


Lethal genes
Disease in breeder flock
Eggs incubated small end up
Thin-shelled eggs
Eggs not turned first two weeks
Eggs transferred too late
Inadequate air circulation, 20 to 21 days
CO2 content of air too high, 20 to 21 days
Incorrect temperature, 1 to 19 days

Air speed too slow, 20 to 21 days


Inadequate air in incubator
Temperature too high, 20 to 21 days
Humidity too high, 20 to 21 days
Down collectors inadequate
9. CHICKS COVERED WITH EGG REMNANTS
Possible causes:
Nutrition
Humidity too high
Temperature too low
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 163

10. EGGS EXPLODING

Nutrition

Possible causes:

Humidity

Bacterial contamination of eggs

Fumigation

Dirty eggs

Insufficient turning of eggs

Improperly washed eggs


Incubator infection
11. CLEAR EGGS
Possible causes:
Infertile
Eggs held improperly
Too much egg fumigation
Very early embryonic mortality
Immature males
Male-female ratio
Females fat
Parasites
Nutrition
Overcrowding flock

13. DEAD EMBRYOS, 2ND WEEK OF


INCUBATION
Possible causes:
Inadequate breeder ration
Disease in breeder flock
Eggs not cooled prior to incubation
Temperature too high in incubator
Temperature too low in incubator
Electrical power failure
Eggs not turned
Too much CO2 in air (inadequate ventilation)
Genetics
Contamination
Shell quality
Humidity

12. BLOOD RING


(EMBRYONIC DEATH 2 TO 4 DAYS)

14. AIR CELL TOO SMALL

Possible causes:

Possible causes:

Heredity

Inadequate breeder ration

Diseased breeding flock

Large eggs

Old eggs

Humidity too high, 1 to 19 days

Rough handling of hatching eggs


Incubating temperature too high
Incubating temperature too low

15. AIR CELL TOO LARGE


Possible causes:

Holding temperature

Small eggs

Contamination

Humidity too low, 1 to 19 days

Shell quality
Young flock
164 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

16. CHICKS HATCH EARLY

20. SOFT CHICKS

Possible causes:

Possible causes:

Small eggs

Unsanitary incubator conditions

Leghorn eggs versus meat-type eggs

Temperature too low, 1 to 19 days

Incorrect thermometer

Humidity too high, 20 to 21 days

Temperature too high, 1 to 19 days


Humidity too low, 1 to 19 days

21. CHICKS DEHYDRATED


Possible causes:

17. CHICKS TOO SMALL

Eggs set too early

Possible causes:

Humidity too low, 20 to 21 days

Eggs produced in hot weather


Small eggs
Thin, porous eggshells
Humidity too low, 1 to 19 days
18. CHICKS TOO LARGE
Possible causes:
Large eggs
Humidity too high, 1 to 19 days

Chicks left in hatcher too long after hatching


completed
22. MUSHY CHICKS
Possible cause:
Unsanitary incubator conditions
23. UNHEALED NAVEL, DRY
Possible causes:
Inadequate breeder ration

19. TRAYS NOT UNIFORM IN HATCH OR


CHICK QUALITY

Temperature too low, 20 to 21 days

Possible causes:

Humidity too high, 20 to 21 days

Eggs from different breeds

Wide temperature variation in incubator

Humidity not lowered after hatching completed

Eggs of different sizes


Eggs of different ages when set
Disease or stress in some breeder flocks
Inadequate incubation air circulation & heat
distribution

24. UNHEALED NAVEL, WET AND WITH


ODOUR
Possible cause:
Omphalitis
Unsanitary hatchery and incubators

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 165

25. CHICKS CANNOT STAND


Possible causes:
Breeder ration inadequate
Improper temperature, 1 to 21 days, overheating
Humidity too high, 1 to 19 days
Inadequate ventilation, 1 to 21 days
26. CRIPPLED CHICKS
Possible causes:
Inadequate breeder ration
Variation in temperature, 1 to 21 days
Malpositions
27. CROOKED TOES
Possible causes:
Inadequate breeder ration
Improper temperature, 1 to 19 days
28. SPRADDLE LEGS
Possible cause:
Hatchery trays too smooth
29. SHORT DOWN
Possible causes:
Inadequate breeder ration
High temperature
30. CLOSED EYES
Possible causes:
Temperature too high, 20 to 21 days
Humidity too low, 20 to 21 days
Loose down in hatcher
Down collectors not adequate
166 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

9. Appendices
the importance of egg and chick
transportation
give day old chicks the best start
hatchery sanitation concepts,
logistics and assessment
practical hatchery sanitation
guidelines
what to do with hatchery waste
breakout analyses guide for
hatcheries
glossary

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 167

168 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

APPENDIX I - THE IMPORTANCE OF EGG


AND CHICK TRANSPORTATION

by Ron Meijerhof, Centre for Applied Poultry Research, Het Spelderholt, Beerbergen, The
Netherlands
The necessary task of transporting hatching eggs
and chicks to and from the hatchery is a very delicate process. Therefore it is wise to be familiar with
the elements which determine optimal transportation conditions.
In modern poultry production, transportation is an
important issue. It is often associated with conveying
broilers to the processing plant, and is viewed as critical. However, the transportation process of both
hatching eggs from breeder farms to hatchery and dayold chicks from hatchery to grow-out can also affect
technical results.
If breeder farms and grow-outs are located far away
from the hatchery, transportation conditions are especially important, although transport covering shorter
distances should also be given attention. To determine
optimal transportation conditions, it is important to
know the requirements of eggs or chicks and to understand how they are influenced by climactic conditions.
Bacterial Contamination
A transportation process with a high impact on technical results occurs directly after lay, in the laying nest.
At the moment of lay, an egg is wet, warm and the
shell is more or less fragile. After lay, the egg dries,
cools down and the shell gets more rigid. Under influence of the cooling process, the egg content shrinks
and a vacuum is formed, forcing an air stream into the
egg. When microorganisms are present at the surface
of the egg at this time, the risk of contamination of the
eggs is obvious. Bacterial contamination has a detrimental effect on hatchability and chick quality. For this
reason, nest material must be kept as clean as possible
and floor eggs should be avoided.
Temperature Control
After collection, eggs are stored for several days at the
farm and then transported to the hatchery. When eggs
are collected twice a week from the breeder farm, storage temperatures of 16 to 18 C are often used. During
transportation, it is important to keep the temperature

as uniform as possible in order to prevent condensation (sweating), which occurs when cold eggs are placed
in a warm environment, especially when relative humidity is high. During the summer, sweating can occur
when eggs are stored under controlled conditions but
transportation trucks are not climactically controlled.
It is also sometimes observed while setting the eggs,
especially when they are stored on cardboard trays,
which cause the eggs to adapt to temperature changes
very slowly. This may result in eggs in the centre of the
container retaining the temperature of the cold store
room, even though the eggs have already been transported and placed at another temperature for several
hours.
Avoid Temperature Shocks
Climactic control is also important during the winter
because major temperature shocks should be avoided.
It is a common occurrence for transportation vehicles
to be temperature controlled, but, during egg loading
and unloading, especially at breeder farms, mistakes
are made. Eggs adapt to temperature changes very
quickly, especially when there is much air movement.
Therefore, when eggs are loaded in wintertime, especially when the wind is blowing, the containers should
not be placed outside for long periods of time. When
weather conditions are bad, it is suggested to cover up
the containers with plastic shelters, removing them
when transportation is completed so eggs can adapt to
the new temperature. However, use of these covers is
not advisable in very sunny weather because direct sun
radiation on the cover will create a dramatic temperature rise directly under the cover.
Relative Humidity
Hatching eggs are normally stored under high relative
humidity to prevent moisture loss. Under normal conditions, it is not necessary to have high relative humidity
during transportation because, with a short transport
time, moisture loss is limited. In this situation, a high
relative humidity might even be negative because it
increases the risk of contamination by sweating when
the egg room is colder than the transportation vehicle.
Even when eggs are transported over longer distances
or by air freight, increasing the humidity is normally
unnecessary.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 169

Motion
Theoretically, vibration of the egg due to transport has
a negative effect on hatchability. In earlier experiments,
a relationship between transportation movements and
some embryonic abnormalities were reported. However, in modern transportation vehicles, this influence
will be small or non-existent if the driver is skilled and
loading and unloading is done with care. Also, the
number of cracks will be very limited when eggs are
packed and transported correctly.
Transportation of Day-Old Chicks
After pulling the hatch, the chicks are processed, packed
in cardboard or plastic boxes of 50 or 100 each, and
transported to the grower. Often, this type of transportation is done in trucks over limited distances. It is
obvious that with increasing distances and time of transportation, more demands on the transportation
conditions should be made. Although many countries
limit chick transportation time to hours, transportation
times of 24 hours or more do occurwhen the parent
stock is transported, for example.
Under optimal conditions, chicks can withstand transportation of over 48 hours without any significant
mortality increase because of energy obtained from the
yolk sac. In the first days, the yolk sacs provide chicks
with all necessary nutrients. Research has shown that
holding chicks for 24 hours without feed and water
can even improve performance, probably because the
birds have more time to utilise the nutrients from the
yolk sac. Holding the chicks for 48 hours or longer
resulted in a slightly decreased performance, although
mortality was still not significantly altered.
The two key factors that will have a negative influence
on chick quality during transportation are overheating
and dehydration. This indicates that ventilation and
climactic conditions such as temperature and humidity should be carefully considered.
Control Temperature and Humidity
The optimal transportation temperature is between 24
and 26 C. Although this is much lower than the temperature in the house, within the chick boxes, between
the birds, it is adequate for transportation. Overheating can have especially negative effects on the chicks.

170 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

As mentioned earlier, it is important to avoid dehydration and, at first glance, increasing humidity in the truck
appears to be a practical method of preventing it. In
reality, this method is ineffective because humidity in
the chick boxes is rather high, due to moisture production of the chicks and limited ventilation, and increasing
outside humidity does not improve the situation.
Increasing humidity when transporting in cardboard
boxes can have an especially negative effect because
the boxes get weak and cold and stacks may collapse.
So, in practise, humidity is often uncontrolled in transportation trucks. However, dehydration can occur if the
ventilation rate is too high. To avoid dehydration, preventing overheating is the first step. When chicks are
transported over extended periods of time, an injection of moisture is often given during chick processing.
Giving Enough Ventilation
Probably the biggest problem during transportation is
providing the chicks with enough ventilation. Boxes
containing 50 or 100 chicks produce a lot of heat and
use a lot of oxygen. Placing the stacks of boxes far
enough apart will encourage sufficient air flow, leaving only the concern of desired temperature. However,
economics forces us to increase the number of chicks
per truck and, therefore, place the stacks more tightly.
This will result in a more restricted ventilation between
and in the stacks and an increased demand for total
amount of ventilation. In this situation it is very important to pay enough attention to providing the chicks
with adequate ventilation. This begins with choosing
boxes that allow enough air flow, but also by ascertaining that the pre-stamped holes of the carton boxes
are punched out while packing. Nonoptimal transportation conditions do not always result in an increased
number of dead chicks, but will hurt the birds beginning and, therefore, performance. The transportation
truck should be designed to provide all chicks with
enough ventilation. This can be achieved by placing
ventilation ducts in the truck, providing sufficient air
flow at specific places. Also, the orientation of the
stacks of boxes in the vehicle should be taken into consideration. To prevent stacks from moving during
transportation and disturbing the desired ventilation
pattern, stacks must be fixed at the floor position. The
truck should also be equipped with an alarm system
that warns the driver if the ventilation system is down

and the temperature rises. If the trucks do not have an


adequate ventilation system and outside temperatures
are high, the number of chicks per box should be lowered.
Preparing for the Flight
Careful packing of the chicks for air transportation is
especially important, and utilisation of space is critical. This is a special situation, with very strict ways of
stacking the boxes on pallets. Another important aspect of air transportation is timing, because hatchery
managers do not want their chicks to wait at the airport for hours and so plan their hatch and transportation
as tightly as possible, given an expected departure time.
Unexpected strikes, skipped flights, delays and traffic
jams are difficult to deal with if you plan your hatch
date and hour more than three weeks in advance. It is
especially important to plan direct flights, avoiding
uncontrolled transfers at airports, where pallets with
chicks might be left in the sun or cold.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 171

172 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

APPENDIX II - GIVE DAY-OLD CHICKS THE


BEST START

by Dr. V Raghavan, Sin Heng Chan Berhad, Malaysia


Optimisation of the hatchery process is vital in producing quality day-old chicks. To maintain the
quality the chicks need a good start in life ranging
from reception at the farm, stage in brooding, stress
control, feeding and management. Aiming for the
best results in better economic return and lower production costs.
The first few days of a chicks life are very crucial,
and they need full attention and maximum care from
the farmer. If not, problems will develop at later stages.
Giving the chicks the best start in life will help it grow
into a best broiler or an efficient layer or breeder. Any
slackness or laziness may prove costly as poultry is a
timely and expensive operation. Any delay in adopting
any of the operations will increase the severity of the
problem.
Chick quality is the subject of frequent concern to the
poultry industry as field performance is often linked
to substandard chick quality. There is no national standard for routine assessment of chick quality, and actual
causes of problems are often undermined. A chick of
good quality must satisfy the following criteria:

Clean, dry and free from dirt and contamination.

Clear and bright eyes.

Free from deformities.

Completely sealed navel, clean, and dried up. No


yolk sac or dried membranes should protrude from
the naval area.

Firm body to touch.

Absence of any sign of stress - panting respiratory


distress.

Alert and interested in its environment and


responding to sound.

Normal conformation of legs, no hock swelling,


skin lesions, etc.

Well formed beak, not soft.

Straight toes.

Check dehydration by examining the skin over the


shanks and over the back. Dry skin and too loose is a
sign of dehydration. Besides physical examination, a
microbiological examination on a small number of
chicks can also be done. For this test yolk sac cultures
are used, and results recorded as either no growth or
1+, 2+. For Aspergilloses the right lung of each chick
is removed and deposited in dextrose agar for fungal
growth. For Salmonella the intestinal cleo Ceco-ColicJunction is removed and transferred to tetrathionate
brilliant green for culture of Salmonella species.
Arrival of the Chicks
You have got a date for receiving the chicks from your
hatchery. So get ready to receive them. See that the
house is properly disinfected and also all the equipment like brooders, feeders, waterers. Make sure that
the curtains are in position and the litter material is
clean and dry.
When the chicks arrive the brooding begins. The term
brooding originates from the German word Brod
which means to heat. Brooding refers to the rearing of
day-old chicks to an age of 6-8 weeks protecting them
from all inclement weather, predators and other probIt all starts with good parent stock management
The basis for a quality chick lies in the stage before the hatchery: a good parent stock is important,
so that a quality chick can be produced. Parent
breeders must be from disease free grandparent
stock. They must be grown to recommended body
weight, and of good uniformity. All required vaccinations suitable for the area must be given with
minimum stress to allow optimum disease resistance development. Do not try to push production
onset by increasing feed amounts, only increase
feed with production or the birds will be overweight
which leads to poor lay persistency. Good breeder
nutrition is essential for hatchability and chick quality, and in hot climates, more attention should be
paid to the use of a higher level of vitamins. Antibiotics should be used sparingly and only when
absolutely necessary during the entire breeder life.
Do not have more that 9.5% males in tunnel
houses and 11% in open sided houses at 25
weeks of age. Excess males and over mating
causes egg yolk peritonitis resulting in chick quality
problems.
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 173

lems. Baby chicks are homeothermic, which means that


their body temperature remains the same (unlike birds
which are poikilothermic, their body temperature
changes accordingly to environmental temperature).
The thermo-regulatory system in chicks has not developed yet, which makes them vulnerable to chilling or
wind. They need some system which can provide heat
up till the time when they can regulate their body temperature. Thereafter they will be independent.
Natural brooding is the system of rearing chicks by a
hen and is still very much practised in areas where
poultry is kept as a backyard activity. The hen provides warmth to the chicks by keeping them under her
wings, and protects them from chilling. This system
will not work on a large scale as the hen can brood a
limited number of chicks only and if she is sick the
disease will be transmitted to the baby chicks, and also
the chicks can easily be infested by ectoparasites.
So artificial brooding is needed with the help of some
sort of heater. The advantages are that a large number
of chicks can be reared at one time, temperature can
be regulated and it can be done at any time of the year.
Various methods are: Hover type brooding, hot air/gas
type brooding and battery brooding. The brooding temperature assists chicks in absorption of the yolk and
protects them from chilling. It also regulates the system of the chicks to digest the feed.
Brooder houses should be airy and protect the chicks
from wind and cold. It should be expected to be ready
by 5-7 days before arrival of the chicks. It should be
thoroughly disinfected and the required equipment
should be installed after thorough disinfection. A thin
layer (2.5 to 5 cm) of clean, soft, and dry bedding material is required to cover the floor. It should absorb
moisture from the droppings of the chicks.
Mortality during Brooding
During brooding not all chicks will survive. There are
several reasons why mortality occurs. It can be due to
exhaustion (high temperature, poor ventilation, high
intensity of light), stress of transportation, impaction
(litter eating), pasty vents (chick quality, looseness of
gut), or yolk sac infection (check with hatchery).
After arrival of the chicks take the chick boxes directly
to the brooder house. Open the boxes and put the chicks
under the brooder. Check the initial temperature of the
174 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

brooder, it should be around 90F or 32C. Due to transport chicks will be under stress, so only provide them
with clean drinking water with electrolytes or glucose.
Burn empty chick boxes. According to season and age
of the chicks brooding temperature must be maintained.
The temperature should be around 95F or 33C during the first week, then it should be reduced by 5F or
2.7C every week up to 7 weeks of age when temperature remains at 6570F or 1821C. Record the
temperature daily by hanging a thermometer at chick
level.
Hygiene and Health
The single most important factor in keeping chicks
healthy is maintaining good hygiene - it is your insurance policy. Healthy breeders and hygienic hatchery
management contribute greatly to disease free chicks.
If good hygiene standards are maintained on the farm
the chicks can achieve uninterrupted growth and production aided by appropriate vaccination and
medication. Hygiene does not mean just a choice of
the right disinfectant. It is a total concept dedicated to
maintaining the highest and cleanest standards.
Over the past 25 years an enormous amount of knowledge has been gained about control of diseases in
poultry, and it is essential that emphasis is put first and
foremost to disease prevention in chicks rather than
treatment. Once a disease has broken out on a farm
unit it may be difficult to stop. It is not always easy to
recognise the onset of a disease, diagnose the cause or
take corrective action. Treatment may be very expensive and mass medication methods inevitably treat
healthy as well as diseased flock, adding to the financial burden.
When disease does occur it is vital to begin remedial
action as soon as possible. Carefully observing the daily
routine can provide an early indication of trouble. Keep
checking on chick appearance, behaviour and general
well being, feed and water consumption and mortality
pattern.
Control of Wet Droppings
Wet droppings are a serious problem, especially in
broiler chicks during the first 10 days of their life. It
predisposes the chicks to infection by the litter moisture being too high, presence of ammonia, etc. Farmers
often have to change litter. Factors affecting wet drop-

pings are infectious agents, parasites and toxins, nutrition and husbandry.
To manage the occurrence of wet litter everything must
be done to keep moisture levels down (dry basic material, ventilation, and heating), modify salt levels in the
feed, use nipple drinkers, and check water quality. The
use of various items like zeolite, bentonite can be considered through the feed, to reduce litter moisture.
Having had a quality chick the next point is to control
the various forms of stress. Stress factors like boxing,
packing, beak trimming, vaccination, transport could
be minimised by liaising with the hatchery manager to
hold the chicks for a longer time in the hatchery in
order to allow them to settle down instead of sending
them abruptly to the farm. Care must be taken to transport the chick during the evening or during the cooler
parts of the day.
Water before Feed
Do not introduce any feed for the first four hours after
arrival of the chicks, just give clean water with electrolytes or specific liquid nutrients. Let the chicks settle
down and overcome stress. Introduce either a starter
mash or crumble. Each chick should get a minimum
of 5 cm linear space of feeding up to 2-3 weeks. The
proper feeding of the chicks contributes to a uniform
growth. The feed must be properly balanced to contain
all the nutrient requirements for growth and production, and should be free of toxins.
Pasty vents are due to poor quality chicks or looseness
in the gut. Do not pick away the pasted faecal material
- it may cause injury and encourage cannibalism. Clean
the areas gently with a moist cloth or cotton. Swab and
dip in mild antiseptic solutions like potassium permanganate. If the chicks are too small and too pasty, cull
them.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 175

176 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

APPENDIX III - HATCHERY SANITATION:


CONCEPTS, LOGISTICS AND ASSESSMENT

By M.K. Eckman, Ph.D. Professor and Avian Pathologist, ACES Department of Poultry Science, Auburn
University, Alabama, USA
Variation in sanitation programmes, product selection procedures and implementation is common
among modern day broiler hatcheries. However,
certain basic concepts, cardinal rules and facility
designs characterise the better programmes.
It is not uncommon for the hatchery labour force to
expend 70 percent of their time on various types of
sanitation activities. In contrast, the cost of sanitation
chemicals, regardless of form (i.e. sanitizers, disinfectants, detergents, etc.), is estimated to constitute only 5
percent of the total sanitation programme. Therefore,
a major consideration should be placed on purchasing
the best products available as they are a minor portion
of the total programme expenditure. Moreover, the use
of sanitation chemicals is but one phase in a comprehensive programme. Equipment, application, surface
type, product flow (chicken, eggs) traffic patterns,
ventilation, rolling stock (vehicles) and microbiological monitoring impact the selection of sanitation
chemicals with regard to their label claims and expected performance (Table 1).
Table 1 - Sanitation Chemicals:
Significant Factors
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

ph use dilution
Water hardness
Chemical compatibility
Temperature
Application method
Organic matter
Surface and porosity
Microbiological load
Product flow (hatchery)
Activity of area
Chemical concentration
Contact time
Corrosiveness

An area of great significance in hatchery sanitation is


the quality of the breeder programme. Egg pack cleanliness and shell quality determine the origin and extent
of microbiological loads that enter the hatchery on a
continual basis. Dirty eggs, marginal shell quality, aging or infected breeder flocks and weather extremes

place tremendous pressures on quality at all levels of


incubation (setters, hatchers, chick pull). In essence,
hatchery sanitation programmes, like all other areas of
live production, are expected to produce a quality product (chick) within the economic constraints of the
integrated operation. The following material will not
detail chemical selection and/or specific procedures,
but rather stress concepts, basic biological principles
and operational guidelines for developing long-term,
sound programmes in hatchery sanitation.
Quality Control Programmes
As previously mentioned, hatchery sanitation includes
more than the simple application of selected chemicals.
Operational procedures, facility design and construction, product transport and flow, from the breeder phase
through to chick placement must be considered in the
total sanitation programme. Additionally, an inclusive
quality control programme (QAC) that assesses both
the breeder and hatchery phase objectives is mandatory for the implementation of a successful programme
(Table 2). Many times, the objective of a programme
in different phases (i.e. hatching eggs, egg storage, incubation, hatching, etc.) cannot be limited to the simple
application of a sanitation product in a space, on a
Table 2 - Basic QAC Programme*
1. Egg Handling and Breakout Twice Monthly
a. 7 to 14 days and residue
b. 450750 Egg Sample
c. True Fertility
d. Embryonic Mortality
e. Culls, cracks and pips
f. Shell cleanliness
g. Internal contamination
h. Point-Spread
i. Establish standard by flock age.
2. Microbiological Monitoring Twice Monthly
a. Open plates (Non-selective agars)
b. Swabs (Transport)
c. Touch plates (Selective agars)
3. Shell Quality as needed
a. 180 egg sample
b. Specific gravity 1.075, 1.080, 1.085.
c. Establish standard by flock age.
*Detailed Programme Eckman, M.K. 1990.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 177

surface or piece of equipment, but rather involves a


blend of product application, management and operational procedures on a continual basis.
The following areas, procedures, principles, concepts
and methods of assessment are basic to and will characterize a comprehensive sanitation programme from
the hatching egg through chick placement.
Breeder Phase: Farm level
1. Egg pack cleanliness
2. Shell quality
3. Egg handling and storage
4. Egg transport
5. Egg sanitation - course spray, foaming, washing.

Hatchery Phase:
1. Egg holding room
2. Incubators (setters)
3. Setter rooms
4. Hatchers
5. Hatcher rooms
6. Chick pull area
7. Chick processing
8. Chick delivery
9. Ventilation systems
10. Wash room
11. Vaccine preparation area

Minimise Contamination
Floor and nest litter quality must be maintained in order to limit bacterial and fungal loads on fresh hatching
eggs. Automatic nest systems limit exposure to wet
faecal material but often result in a fine coat of dust on
the eggs. Prior to grading, storage, transport or sanitizing, such eggs must be blown free of dust and debris
with a pressurized air source. Plastic covers on egg
buggies are optional, however, they limit microbial
exposure during storage and transport. Washing, course
spraying and foaming are reasonably common practices and are most effective when done immediately
upon collection of eggs. A variety of chemicals are
available and label directions are best obtained from
the suppliers. However, many producers continue to
rely on quality management for a clean egg-pack and
do not sanitize hatching eggs with chemical application. Proper handling of hatching eggs limits
breakage and subsequent penetration with either bacterial or fungal species. Also, the rapid changes in
ambient temperatures during storage, transport and
hatching must be avoided to prevent sweating or
condensation on shell surfaces. The negative impact
of condensation on hatching eggs is magnified when
shell quality is marginal or below standard. Obviously,
once eggs are laid they do not remain sterile. Limiting
microbial exposure in combination with shell quality
is the key for effective hatching egg sanitation.

178 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

12. Chemical storage


Prevention through Design
The primary objectives of any hatchery sanitation programme are to limit the entry and/or multiplication of
bacterial and/or fungal populations on the premise, in
a space, on equipment, in vaccines and ultimately in
contact with eggs and chicks. Facility design and materials will impact programme effectiveness.
Explosion-proof electrical systems, non-porous surfaces and proper traffic patterns will also impact
programme effectiveness. Newer hatcheries have been
designed for maximum cleaning and disinfection; in
contrast, older facilities may compromise sanitation
procedures as a result of both inadequate design and
materials. The increased size typical of modern-day
hatcheries (i.e. 750,000 to 1,500,000 chick pull/week),
and the operational demands for scheduled chick deliveries, likewise pressure sanitation programmes and
may limit thoroughness of procedures. Operationally,
the ideal flow in any hatchery from egg to chick will
correlate from clean to dirty.
In other words, the bloom of microorganisms will increase as hatching commences and chick pull and
processing proceeds. As opposed to the incubation
phase, however, all areas from hatching through chick
processing will be eventually emptied of product and
thoroughly cleaned.

With substantial efforts and planning, the egg room


can be emptied of eggs and thoroughly cleaned and
disinfected. In contrast, most incubators are continually operational and must be sanitized while still
containing the egg (ovic embryo). Although hatchers
are thoroughly cleaned and disinfected prior to transfer of eggs, they possess the highest microbial bloom
during pipping of any location in the hatchery. Therefore, traffic flow through hatcher rooms should be
minimized when at all possible during the hatching
process. Following clean-up and disinfection, hatchers
should be allowed to dry prior to transfer.
Chemical Control
Most chemical applications for disinfection in the egg
room(s), setters, setter rooms, hatchers and hatcher
rooms are routine and a variety of active ingredients
and products are available (Table 3). However, product choice will be a blend of preferences by the hatchery
manager, and factors will include product efficacy,
safety, user friendliness and cost.
Table 3 - General Disinfectants:
Chemical Category
1. Aldehydes
2. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
3. Phenolics
4. Alcohols
5. Potassium, salts
6. Halogens
7. Peroxide
8. Ozone
9. Imidazoles
10. Others
11. Combinations

Information pertinent to product selection will originate as label claims, safety data sheets, technical
bulletins and past experience. Product selection, if done
properly, should involve a careful review of label claims
an information provided in writing by the supplier. Information on product application, disposal and user
friendliness should be readily available through the
basic supplier or distributor and will be a reflection of
product stewardship at the user level.
Chemical applications in the chick processing area are
usually less stringent as clean-up and disinfection are
conducted on an all-in, all-out basis when activities
are completed and product (i.e. chick) is not present.

Rolling stock (egg trucks, chick buses) must be considered an extension of the hatchery and should be
cleaned and disinfected at a level similar to the egg
room or incubators. Another area that is often overlooked with regard to sanitation is the water supply.
Although water hardness (i.e. mineral deposits) may
affect equipment, the primary factor is microbial load.
Water quality checks by local or state municipalities
should be routinely conducted and guidelines established.
Airborne contaminants
Incoming air via ventilation is another source of microbial contamination. This is particularly applicable
to spore forming fungal species (i.e. Aspergillus). Climatic extremes will affect ventilation rates and dilution
factors unique to each hatchery. Extremely low ambient temperatures may result in limited in-coming fresh
air and thus, increased microbial loads. In contrast,
extremely high ambient temperatures often coincide
with poor egg-shell quality due to heat stress in the
breeders. Either extreme may impact the microbial load
of the hatchery. Overall most hatcheries are typically
under constant pressure in terms of in-coming microbial loads. Therefore sanitation programmes are a
continual process that limits both the entry and microbial bloom in all key areas of operation.
Applying sanitation programmes
Methods of application of sanitation chemicals are
probably as significant as their choice of chemicals.
Methods range from direct surface application to misting, standard and thermal fogging, course spraying and
fumigation for surface and space disinfection. Broad
generalizations regarding safety in application are usually inadequate and may vary among products. It is
strongly recommended that safety procedures should
be strictly adhered to for each product on the basis of
label instructions and safety data sheets. All sanitation
programmes should be in writing and revised as necessary. Additional use of pesticides, in most instances,
should be by or under the direction of certified pesticide applicators.
The assessment of the effectiveness of sanitation programmes involves measuring operational procedures
and chemical efficacy in both the breeder and hatchery phases. Standard procedures for assessing shell
quality, egg cleanliness, shell breakage and microbioOperation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 179

logical contamination of space, surface, equipment and


vaccines have been published. In summary, an effective sanitation programme is a combination of both
chemical application and management practices that
limit the entry and magnif ication of microbial
populations in the process of producing day-old broilers. The following factors, procedures and principles
should be considered the most significant:
1. Hatching egg quality
Shell
Cleanliness
2. Facility design and materials
3. Chemical selection
4. Chemical application
5. Chemical safety and product stewardship
6. Labour education - product application
7. Basic programme in-writing
8. QAC programme for assessment
Management must support the implementation of comprehensive sanitation programmes and their
assessment. Although cost will always be a consideration in all phases of live production, quality
programmes in terms of sanitation will continue to pay
dividends in the hatching and delivery of the modernday broiler chick. The role of the broiler-hatchery
phases with regard to food-safety in the processed
broiler will increase as microbial reduction and assessment will be expected to commence with the day-old
placement of parent breeders and continue through the
hatchery phase and broiler grow-out.

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 180

APPENDIX IV - PRACTICAL HATCHERY


SANITATION GUIDELINES TO ASSURE
QUALITY

By Donna Hill, DVM, MAM, Dilplomate ACPV,


Maryland, USA.
An effective hatchery sanitation program is the cornerstone to maximising chick quality, performance
and hatchability. There are sound financial reasons
for maintaining consistent chick quality, and a good
sanitation and monitoring program proves this.
The purpose of the sanitation/disinfection program is
to maintain an environment that consistently minimises
detrimental bacterial or mould impacts on the egg or
the chick. This definition leads to the concept that a
sanitation program should include more than just which
disinfectant to use and how to use it. In this vein, a
sanitation program should:

Institute practices that prevent problems from


entering or multiplying in the hatchery, such as
incoming egg standards.

Define an effective program for each facility. This


should include not only the types of products used,
but also how they are to be used.

Routinely monitor the process for consistent


efficacy and identify problems before they are
evident in the field.

Problem solving if the monitoring process indicates


a problem.

Correlate hatchery baselines with bottom line field


performance measures to determine the true results
of your sanitation program.

Prevent Problems from Entering or


Multiplying
The success of a hatchery sanitation program is equally
dependent of the sanitation and egg handling program
of the hatching egg producer. There is no disinfection
program that will return a dirty or sweated egg to the
quality that is necessary to hatch a quality chick. Yolk
sac infection will be high in chicks hatched from these
eggs no matter how good the hatchery sanitation program is. In addition to the impact that these eggs have
on the chicks that hatch from them, they are also a

source of contamination to the hatchery and all other


hatches.
Bacteria that are able to penetrate the egg shell, multiply in the last phase of incubation. You can significantly
decrease egg borne contamination by instituting hatching egg quality standards. Once the guidelines are
established and agreed to by the breeder manager and
the hatchery manager, each load of eggs should be inspected before they are set. If they do not meet the
agreed upon standard, they are rejected. The hatchery
manager should notify the breeder manager immediately so that action can be taken at the flock level. The
specific egg pack guidelines that are agreed to are not
as critical as communication is to the success of this
program. A program that provides an assessment of
the quality of all egg lots, both good and bad, will over
time, prevent incoming egg quality from compromising the hatchery sanitation program. Since cracked eggs
are an ideal environment for bacterial and mould
growth, they need to be removed at set and transfer.
Institute programs that monitor cracked eggs. A cracked
egg is much more of a problem than just a decrease in
hatch.
Site selection is another area of outside influence on
the bacteria and mould levels within a hatchery. A
hatchery that is near a feed mill or a processing plant
will always have a more difficult time controlling bacterial and mould challenges. Hatcheries should not be
sited near these facilities.
Since incoming air is a source of contamination in any
facility, proper cleaning and disinfection of any air
handling equipment is critical to any hatchery sanitation program. These areas are often the source of a
bacterial and mould bloom when they are not properly
cleaned before utilization with seasonal changes.
Another common problem in hatchery design is a dirty
area exhaust that is not adequately isolated from a clean
area air intake. These problems must be rectified to
prevent recontamination of clean areas.
Define an Effective Program for Each Facility
There are many effective sanitisers and disinfectants
on the market today. The choice of sanitising/ disinfecting products is based on matching the job that must
be done and the properties of the products available. A
knowledgeable salesperson can provide products that
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 181

fit your sanitation program and are compatible with


each other. The effectiveness of the disinfectant/sanitiser is dependent on a number of factors:

Absence of organic matter from the area to be


sanitised.

The type of surface that the sanitiser is applied to.

The diluent properties that the sanitiser/disinfectant


is diluted to in working strength

The length of time that the sanitiser/disinfectant is


in contact with the surface to be sanitised

The temperature of the disinfectant solution and


surface to be cleaned.

Use of an effective concentration of disinfectant/


sanitiser to insure proper killing action.

Compatibility between the cleaners and


disinfectants which are used.

The hardest part of any sanitation program is to consistently remove all organic matter from the surfaces
to allow exposure of microorganisms to the disinfectant and sanitiser. Organic matter, such as fluff, blood,
shells, meconium, and dirt render disinfectants
inactive.

sanitiser and disinfectant is influenced by the compatibility of the cleaner used with it. This is critical when
the surface is not completely rinsed prior to application of the sanitiser. For best results there should be
ionic compatibility between the detergent or cleaner
and the sanitiser. If they are not compatible, the sanitiser is ineffective.
Many hatcheries will spray disinfectants into hatchers
during hatch. This should only be done if it doesnt
add excess humidity to the machine. With the decreased
shell conductance in todays high yielding breeds, anything that adds extra humidity during hatch or disrupts
air flow negatively impacts chick quality. A better solution is to fog the room and allow the machines to
pull the disinfectant in as normal airflow.
There is some work demonstrating the need for a sanitation program to incorporate a system of rotational
sanitisers to prevent the development of resistant microbes. They demonstrated that microorganisms
become resistant over time when exposed to the same
disinfectant continually. When different compounds
(acidic and alkaline) which were chemically compatible were rotated, less resistance developed. This
research also showed that this strategy may be more
effective in combating biofilms.

To have a consistent sanitation program, establish very


specific standard operating practices for all cleaning,
sanitising, and disinfecting activities in each facility.
When exact procedures and time schedules are outlined, people will not need to interpret what they think
is the best method. The ideas of the associates actually
performing the job should be used to develop the operating procedures. Take the ideas that have been
offered and test them in the facility. Are they the best
way to get an effective job done? Provide rodac plates
and swabs to associates to test the effectiveness of their
procedures. This way you develop in the associate a
confidence and an understanding of the process.

Standard operating procedures for vaccine mixing,


administration, and equipment sanitation must be instituted to prevent contamination of the chick via
vaccine administration.

The Effectiveness of a Sanitiser and


Disinfectant
The method of disinfection application is critical. Always follow manufacturers recommendations. This
ensures efficacy and safety during use. Many hatcheries are using foaming techniques to increase the
exposure time. Not all disinfectants have been formulated to be used with a foamer. The effectiveness of a
182 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Routinely Monitor the Process


A routine monitoring program is necessary to ensure
that the sanitation program is consistently effective.
Monitoring should be done on a monthly basis at a
minimum.

A monitoring program should:

Not be complicated.

Be objective.

Quick.

Easy to evaluate, understand and track over time.

Be random within a system of priortization.

Have clear goals

Able to be carried out in a hatchery by hatchery


personnel.

Be done at the appropriate time in the cycle to


check cleaning and disinfection.

There are many different suggestions for sanitation


monitoring programs in the literature. I have adopted
many of these ideas and developed a sanitation index
that can be applied in an objective manner. This allows
hatcheries to compare their performance with other
hatcheries in the same company system. It also allows
them over time to develop a pass/fail performance
standard within their system. In conjunction with field
chick mortality surveys and one-week mortality over
time, you can determine the scores that will insure that
hatchery sanitation is not a part of a chick mortality or
performance problem.
Hatchery Monitoring Program
The sanitation index includes a microbiological sampling of fifty critical control points in the hatchery
(Figure 1). The sampling includes twenty-five air samples, ten vaccine samples (1cc), and fifteen contact
samples. Air samples are done with TSA plates exposed for ten minutes. Vaccine sampling is done with
TSA plates and 1 cc of vaccine. Contact sampling is
done with Rodac Deneutralizing agar plates exposed
to the surface being tested for 15 seconds. Incubate all
Figure 1: Sanitation index of 50 bacteria
and mould sampling points
Three Mareks vaccine at mix samples.
One spray vaccine at mix sample.
Six Mareks vaccines at injection samples.
Two setter hall air samples.
Nine setter air samples.
One hatcher hall air sample.
Nine hatcher air samples.
Five hatching tray contact samples.
One hatcher wall contact sample.
One hatcher door contact sample.
One hatcher ceiling contact sample.
One hatcher nozzle contact sample.
One hatcher fan contact sample.
One vaccine room air sample.
Two chick room air samples.
Three chick belt samples.
Two chick slide samples.
One egg room air sample.

plates for 48 hours at 100F for total bacterial colony


counts. Then leave all plates at room temperature for
an additional 24 hours for total mould colony counts.
All plates are counted for total plate count and mould
numbers (see Table 1). The total score is based 50/50
on mould and bacteria counts. The total number of
plates ranked as heavy growth are weighted with a factor of four, moderate growth with a factor of three,
light growth with a factor of two and no growth with a
factor of one. With this scoring system, a perfect score
would be a sum total of 100 since there are 100 plate
assessments and no growth has a weight of one. A perfect score would mean that there was no bacterial or
mould growth in any critical control point sampled in
the hatchery.
The 50 Critical Sampling Points
By using 50 critical control points a generic monitoring program could be developed that has worked well
in a field situation. You will probably want to customise your own system to emphasise critical points that
you have identified in your program. With a system
that uses a weighted index, a simple line graph can be
used to share the results with associates on a monthly
basis. When you begin a monitoring program, you will
probably find that there is fairly large spread between
the top and the bottom hatcheries. With time on the
program, the hatcheries on the bottom will learn how
to use the system to improve their sanitation program.
The program is a success when there is a very small
spread between all hatcheries on the program and yolk
sac infection is not a significant cause of mortality in
the chicks.
With the movement away from formaldehyde disinfection, Pseudomonas spp. have emerged as the most
challenging of bacterial microorganisms to control.
Since this is primarily a water borne problem, it is prudent to monitor water sources independently of your
normal hatchery sanitation program. Since finding
pseudomonas in a water source is a significant finding
in a hatchery, the objective of this program is to identify it before it becomes a problem and the hatchery is
forced to resume using formaldehyde. At least once a
month all humidifiers, the incoming water supply,
evaporative coolers, and a representative sampling of
the hatcher and setter spray nozzles and moisture pans
in the incubators should be sampled for pseudomonas.
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 183

Any finding of pseudomonas in the water testing or


the routine hatchery monitoring should be investigated
as a problem.
Problem Solving if There is One
If there is a deviation to the normal seasonal baseline
or a problem area is noted in the routine monitoring
program, the program needs to be expanded to investigate the problem. Key diagnostic questions are:

Is the program effective?

Is the program being applied consistently?

Is there a problem in the process such as the tray


washer or the correct mixing of disinfectant?

Are the associates adequately removing organic


debris in all areas consistently? * Has the incoming
egg quality changed?

Is there a sweating egg problem?

Has the water supply become contaminated?

Is the problem recontamination?

A good monitoring program can be expanded to answer these questions, it is usually just an expansion in
sample numbers over time that is needed.

Determine the True Results


The ultimate measure of your process is in the chicks
in the field. A chick mortality survey will give you an
unbiased assessment of your performance. In a chick
mortality survey, a representative sample of the mortality in chicks from 1 to 7 days is evaluated. In general,
causes of mortality are yolk sac infection, dehydration, trauma, bacteria other than yolk sac infection, and
leg problems. This mortality profile needs to be done
seasonally to establish a baseline of performance as it
relates to your hatchery scores. If the one week mortality is high and yolk sac is a large percentage of the
mortality, then the hatchery or egg sanitation needs to
be improved. If dehydration is the primary cause of
mortality, then set/pull times and hatchery ventilation
need to be investigated, not sanitation.
Culturing the yolk sacs of field mortality can also be a
very good problem solving tool in a hatchery sanitation investigation. In some cases, such as pseudomonas,
the hatchery and the chick cultures will be the same.
Maintaining chick quality is an investment that pays
off in performance. Commonly hatcheries are not
thought of a profit centers, but rather cost centers, in
integrated broiler production. Despite the fact that the
return on investment is not as directly measurable as
in a processing plant, there is a handsome pay-back in
maintaining consistent chick quality. To do this requires
an investment in monitoring and effective sanitation
programs. Chick quality pays, it doesnt cost. A good
sanitation and monitoring program proves this.

Table 1: Determining the final sanitation index score


Colony ranking:
None
Light
Moderate
Heavy

Bacteria
0 colonies
110 colonies
1149 colonies
>50 colonies

184 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Mould
0 colonies
12 colonies
35 colonies
>5 colonies

Weight Factor
1
2
3
4

Hatchery Audit

Hatchery

Day

# Plates

Bacterial Growth

Date

Time

Weight Factor

Heavy

x4=

Medium

x3=

Light

x2=

None

x1=

Total

Colony Ranking
0 = None
1-10 = light
11- 49 = Moderate
>50 = Heavy

Total

# Plates

Mould Growth

Weight Factor

Heavy

x4=

Medium

x3=

Light

x2=

None

x1=
Total

Total

Colony Ranking
1-2 = light
3-5 = Moderate
>5 = Heavy

Score
Bacteria Score

x.50=

Mould Score

x.50=
Total Score

Example Worksheet for Hatchery Sanitation Audit

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 185

186 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

APPENDIX V - WHAT TO DO WITH


HATCHERY WASTE

By Eddie Loftin, Division Manager and Anthony


DeLee, Breeder/Hatchery Manager, Sanderson Farms,
Inc., McComb, Mississippi, USA
The beauty of hatching eggs is that, after awhile,
many tiny, yellow, fluffy birds emerge from their
shells. A significant drawback is the waste they leave
behind. How can waste be processed and what can
be done with it?
Handling and disposal of hatchery waste continues to
be a problem for the hatchery manager. One problem
is the large volume of waste accumulation - one pound
of hatchery waste (egg shell, unhatched eggs, cull
chicks) results from each 38 chicks placed in the field.
In todays huge hatcheries, there is consistently 10,000
to 12,000 pounds of hatchery waste per pull. Of this
weight, approximately 60% is liquid and 40% solid.
Another problem with hatchery waste is its obviously
odorous and unsanitary qualities. It needs to be removed
from the hatchery as quickly as possible, stored with
minimal leakage and spreading of odour, and dumped
into a transport vehicle quickly and with minimal human contact.
Systems to Remove Waste
The systems used to remove hatchery waste from the
hatchery to some type of holding container can be
broadly grouped into three categories: manual system,
auger system, and vacuum system.
In using the manual system, chicks are removed from
the tray, and the waste is dumped into a trash can,
bucket, rolling bin, etc. When this container is full, it
is manually moved into the holding container. This
dumpster is then either picked up and dumped into a
transport vehicle or augered into it. This system is necessarily labour intensive and not very efficient. The
only hatcheries that are still using this system are those
which hatch out a small number of birds. They cannot
justify the costs of upgrading their disposal systems
due to the small numbers of birds they hatch.
The auger system utilizes dump hoppers at the transfer window. After the chicks are taken off and thrown
through the window, the hatchery waste is dumped into
the dump hopper immediately below the window. The

hatchery waste then runs through the pipe and auger at


the bottom of the dump hopper into the holding container outside the hatchery. While much better than the
manual system, the auger system requires more maintenance than the vacuum system and, because of this,
more and more people are going to the vacuum system
for waste removal.
Vacuum Disposal
The best system for hatchery waste removal and storage is vacuum waste removal. The main components
of such a vacuum disposal system are as follows:

Dump hopper with gate valve (air operated) at each


transfer window.

Stainless steel transport pipe (4-1/2 inch O.D.) to


carry waste from dump hopper to holding
container.

Outdoor holding container.

6 inch PVC pipe running from the holding


container to the vacuum pump.

20 HP vacuum pump.

After the chicks are thrown through the take-off window, the hatchery waste is dumped into the dump
hopper. With two or more take-off stations, the gate
valves at the bottom of the hopper alternately open and
close to remove waste from each hopper. This waste
travels to the holding container where it is stored. The
transport air travels out of the holding tank, through
the 6" PVC tubing and into the vacuum pump, which
creates the vacuum.
As long as paper and other foreign objects are kept out
of the dump hopper, the system will transport the hatchery waste to the holding container relatively
trouble-free. There can, however, be some problems in
emptying the holding container after it is full.
It is important that the holding container be emptied
completely each day. Any eggshells or yolk left adhering to the side of the container will continue to trap
waste product on each successive day. In order to prevent this occurrence, whoever is responsible for
emptying the holding container must closely observe
for sticking material. If sticking does occur, the hatchery waste must be removed and the holding container
washed down to prevent sticking next time. Some
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 187

hatcheries utilize an automatic washing system so that


a person does not have to climb to the top of the holding container and manually wash down the container.
What to Do with Waste
The decision of what to do with hatchery waste - either landfill dumping or rendering - is an economic or
regulatory decision. In most cases, rendering the hatchery waste will be the most economical if a rendering
operation is available for the hatchery to utilize. Using
a rendering process will require a hatchery manager to
take better care of his hatchery waste than if he was
dumping in a landfill. The biggest problem for the
hatchery waste renderer is heat, which causes explosive bacterial growth and coagulation of waste liquids.
The problem is not in the bacteria themselves (the product undergoes a Pasteurization process during
rendering), but the liquid coagulation, which interferes
with the filtering that is necessary during processing.
To keep this spoilage to a minimum, hatchery waste
should be collected as quickly as possible after chicks
are pulled. In addition, any hatchery waste generated
on days that chicks arent pulled (transfer cracks, eggs
broken during traying, dropped cases) should be stored
in a sealed container and kept under refrigeration, not
to be put into the hatchery waste system until just before collection of hatchery waste for rendering.
Hatchery management must also keep all paper and
foreign objects out of the hatchery waste in order to
utilize rendering.
Premium Pet Food
The rendered hatchery waste products are utilized in
premium pet foods. This market will remain healthy
and rendering will continue to be an outlet for hatchery waste.
The question of hatchery waste disposal need not be a
dilemma for hatchery management. If the hatchery is
equipped to remove hatchery waste quickly and efficiently to the outside; if it is stored outside in a container
preventing leakage and spread of odour; and if it is
transported from the hatchery in a timely manner, then
hatchery waste disposal will not be a tremendous burden on hatchery management.

188 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

APPENDIX VI - BREAKOUT ANALYSIS


GUIDE FOR HATCHERIES
By Dr. Joseph M. Mauldin, University of Georgia,
Cooperative Extension Service, Athens, USA

Breakout analyses are useful hatchery management


procedures that provide valuable information in isolating problems in the breeder and hatchery
program. The brief amount of time involved in performing breakouts will pay large dividends by
increasing reproductive efficiency. There are three
procedures for breakout analysis which can easily
be implemented by a quality control person to trouble shoot hatchery or breeder flock problems. Each
method has advantages and disadvantages when
compared to other methods.
Problems in the breeder and hatchery program can be
isolated by using breakout analyses from the hatchery.
There are three types of breakout analyses that can be
performed on hatching eggs. The first opportunity for
a breakout analysis is with fresh hatching eggs. The
second opportunity occurs with candling eggs at 7 to
12 days of incubation. The final breakout comes at
hatch time. All three methods are fairly simple, and
each one provides a powerful means of problem solving that can strengthen a hatchery-breeder quality
control program.

analysis will not gain valuable information on other


important sources of reproductive failure such as embryonic mortality, contamination, pips, hatch of fertiles,
and many others. A second disadvantage is the loss of
valuable hatching eggs due to the procedure. However,
a relatively small sample size is normally used for fresh
egg breakouts. Because valuable hatching eggs must
be used, the sample size rarely exceeds 100 eggs, resulting in the third disadvantage, errors of prediction.
Rarely are samples of fresh eggs large enough to provide an adequate sample size, leading to sampling error.
The other two methods of breakout require the evaluation of several hundred eggs, but only problem eggs in
a sample are evaluated. A fourth disadvantage of a fresh
egg breakout is that it is more difficult to distinguish
between fertility and infertility in fresh eggs than when
eggs have been incubated for several days. Distinguishing fertiles from infertiles is certainly not impossible
after a little practice. To correctly distinguish the differences in fertile and infertile eggs, the egg contents
must be poured out and the germinal disc must be
found.
The germinal disc in an infertile egg will contain a
white, opaque area inside the circular disc. The opaque
area may or may not be in the centre of the disc. Refer
to illustration below.

Fresh Egg Breakout


The fresh egg breakout has the advantage of being the
quickest way to estimate fertility in the breeder flock.
It is useful when a flock begins to lay eggs or if a flock
has been treated for a disease or fertility problem. Fertility cant be determined on the day the eggs are laid
rather than having to wait until after the egg storage
time and the incubation time for the opportunity for
candling or hatch day breakout. For example, if there
is a storage time of one week and fertility is determined by hatch day breakout analysis, then the
information regarding flock fertility is four weeks behind the flock performance. Management changes, in
this case, will take a long time to incorporate. However, there are numerous disadvantages associated with
the fresh egg breakout.
The most serious disadvantage of a fresh egg breakout
is that it only provides information on fertility estimates. A company relying on the fresh egg breakout

Infertile egg - arrow denotes germinal disc


which appears white and opaque.

Sometimes the white, opaque area is granulated. The


germinal disc of a fertile egg will appear as a doughnut with a thick, white circle around the outer perimeter
of the disc. Although this thick circle is white, it is
never as bright as the white, opaque material found in
the germinal disc of an infertile egg. During a fresh
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 189

egg breakout, it is important to have a sample size of


at least 100 eggs per flock. Because of the disadvantages involved in the fresh egg breakout, use of this
procedure is not recommended unless a quick fertility
check is desired. Candling and/or hatch day breakouts
should be done more routinely (every one or two
weeks).

Fertile egg - arrow denotes germinal disc which


appears as a donut with an opaque outer circle.

Candling Breakout Analysis


The candling breakout analysis offers the most accuracy in determining fertility. It is also useful in
determining other sources of breeder flock or hatchery failures, such as percentages of eggs set upside
down, cracked, and embryos that have died early. Many
hatchery managers incorporate the candling breakout
procedure into their quality control program to monitor the week-to-week status of their breeders throughout
the life of the flocks. Candling can be done as early as
five days of incubation, but errors in candling often
occur at this time. Because of the rapid growth rate of
the embryos during the second week of incubation, very
few, if any, candling errors are made on the ninth or
tenth day of incubation. There are two methods of
candling that may be used. The fastest method involves
the use of a table or mass candler. An entire tray of
hatching eggs may be placed on the mass candler and
examined with one observation. Clear eggs consist of
infertiles and eggs with early dead embryos and emit
more light than eggs with viable embryos. Clear eggs
are removed from the tray to be broken out. Candling
with a spot candler is a little slower, but it is more accurate for several reasons. By examining each egg
individually with a spot candler, less errors are com190 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

mitted, and eggs set upside down or cracked are much


easier to distinguish than with the mass candler. It is
important to record the information of eggs set upside
down, farm cracks and cull eggs. All companies have
varying qualities of hatching egg producers. The producers that are not careful about sending the hatching
eggs to the hatchery with the blunt end up cost the
company a lot of money in lost hatchability and chick
quality. It is important to identify these individuals with
a candling breakout analysis so that they can be encouraged to be more careful. The knowledge that a
hatchery is enumerating upside down eggs will, in many
cases, be enough to justify more careful egg collection.
For the candling and breakout procedure to be accurate, a sufficient sample size of eggs must be used for
candling. A minimum of four trays per breeder flock is
needed to ensure that estimates for fertility, eggs set
upside down, farm cracks, and cull eggs are meaningful. Also, it is often suggested that candling estimates
of fertility are the true fertility. This is not correct.
Candling samples of eggs only provides an estimate of
true fertility. The only way to obtain the information
of true fertility would be to candle every tray in a setting of a breeder flock. To do this would not be time
efficient. Table 1 is an example form that may be used
for the candling procedure. Included is an example of
a candling breakout analysis. Examining these data it
is revealed that fertility was excellent at 97.69 percent
and that early embryonic mortality was good at 2.47
percent.
However, egg collection and selection on the breeder
farm appeared to be a little sloppy because farm cracks,
upside down and cull egg percentages were all greater
than 0.50 percent.
Hatch Day Breakout
The hatch day breakout analysis involves sampling
unhatched eggs from breeder flocks, and classifying
them into the various causes of reproductive failure.
The procedures for this valuable management tool are
described below.
The hatch day breakout analysis should be performed
at least once every two weeks on samples of eggs from
all breeder flocks, regardless of hatchability performance or flock age. Even good hatching flocks should
be monitored to get a true picture of hatchery and

Breakout Procedure:

reproductive efficiency. Breakout analysis on all


breeder flocks is critical in pinpointing problems in
setters and hatchers; comparing breeder companies;
evaluating flock or farm management; and compiling
flock histories for production, fertility, hatchability and
reproductive failure. Breakouts are also beneficial for
trouble-shooting problems in production, egg handling
and storage. For example, high numbers of early deads
may indicate prolonged storage or storage at elevated
temperatures, or inadequate egg collection procedures.
In most hatcheries, the breakout should be performed
on two consecutive hatch days to ensure that all breeder
flocks are sampled.

1. Immediately after the chicks are pulled, collect a


minimum of four trays of eggs per breeder flock
from different parts of a single setter.
2. Remove all unhatched eggs, including pips, from
the hatching tray. Place them in filler flats with the
large end up and record the flock number.
3. Record the number of cull and dead chicks left in
the tray.
4. Break out the eggs and classify them into the
appropriate categories of reproductive failure listed
in Table 2 and Table 5.

Table 1 - 7-12 Day Candling and Breakdown Analysis Form


Date: 10/14/96

Company: Big Bird

Hatchery Location: Athens

Breeder Flock
Flock #: 24

Breed:

Test: No Test

Hatch Date: 12/27/95

Male

Female

Age (wks): 38

Tray #

eggs/tray

infertile

early
dead

farm
racks

upside
down

cull eggs

162

162

10

162

15

162

Totals:

648

15

16

2.31

2.47

0.62

0.62

0.77

Persents:

Fertility = 100 - % infertile = 97.69%

The best procedure is to break and


peel the large end of the eggs since
embryonic development will most
often be located there. The alternative method of cracking the eggs over
a pan is not as accurate because the
embryo or germinal disc often rotates
beneath the yolk and is difficult to
locate. Cracking eggs also increases
the likelihood of rupturing the yolk
membrane (these membranes are
weak after 21 days of incubation).
When the yolk membrane ruptures,
it is difficult to know if that egg contained an early dead embryo or was
infertile.

Embryo Mortality
Determination
There are some cases when the embryo or the blastodisc will not appear
on the top of the yolk. When this occurs, rotate the egg and pour off some
albumen so that the germinal disc
(fertile or infertile) will appear at the
top. If the embryonic development
is still not found, the yolk may then
be poured into an empty pan and examined.

Other Observations

The classifications of embryonic


death may be as detailed as the hatchery manager wishes. It must be kept
in mind when starting a breakout
program that the quality control perOperation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 191

Table 2 - Data Collection Hatch Day Breakout


General
Flock number
Flock age
Male breed
Female breed
Sample size, sample index
Setter number
Management type (test)
Hatchability

Reproductive
Failures
Infertiles
Embryo mortality
Pipped, unhatched
Cull eggs
Farm and transfer
cracks
Contaminated eggs
Cull chicks
Upside down

son need not be an embryologist. In most cases, sufficient information is obtained by classifying the dead
embryos by the week that death occurred (i.e., first,
second, or third). This is easily done after a few practice runs.
The clarity of the development is not as good in eggs
broken after 21 days of incubation as when eggs are
broken while the embryos are still alive. However, with
practice one can conduct an accurate breakout analysis by judging the embryos according to size and
looking for some of the obvious changes in the developmental sequence (Table 3). A good training technique
for someone not previously involved in breakout analyses would be to examine live embryos at different stages
of development and compare them to the dead embryos
obtained from unhatched 21-day incubated eggs, or
embryos pictured in poster publications.
Identifying Fertility
Fertility of a 21-day incubated egg can be identified
by looking for signs of development, and by examining yolk colour and albumen consistency. The two
statements that follow relate to the identification of
very early deads, positive development, and infertile
eggs after 21 days of incubation.

sify the egg, the presence or absence of early embryonic development must be established. Most eggs can
be classified as soon as the tops of the shells are peeled
back. Others require closer inspection. Be careful not
to let blood spots, meat spots, or yolk mottling result
in classifying an infertile egg as fertile.
Table 3 - Signs of Embryonic Development
Day

Signs

1. Appearance of primitive streak and first


somite.
2. Appearance of amniotic folds; heart beats;
blood circulation.
3. Amnion completely encircles embryo;
embryo rotates to left side.
4. Eye pigment; leg buds larger than wing.
5. Appearance of elbows and knees.
6. Appearance of beak; voluntary movement;
demarcation of digits and toes.
7. Comb growth begins; appearance of
eggtooth.
8. Feather tracts prominent; upper and lower
beak equal in length.
9. Bird-like appearance; mouth opening
appears.
10. Digits completely separated; toe nails.
11. Comb serrated clearly; tail feathers
apparent; eye lid oval.
12. Eyelids almost closed and elliptical.
13. Appearance of overlapping scales; embryo
covered with down; eye lid slit opening.
14. Embryo aligned with long axis.
15. Small intestines taken into abdomen.
16. Feathers cover body.
17. Head between legs.

Generally speaking, an infertile yolk will be a


brighter yellow than a fertile yolk.

18. Head under right wing.

The albumen of infertile eggs is thicker than the


albumen of fertile eggs. An infertile yolk is held
in the centre of the egg while a fertile yolk will
sink near the point end.

20. Yolk sac completely drawn into body; beak


pips into air cell.

Although these statements are correct, there may be


instances when they are not fail safe. To accurately clas192 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

19. Amniotic fluid disappears (embryo swallows


it); yolk sac half withdrawn.

21. Shell pipping; normal hatching.

Another pitfall is that most embryos that die during


the second week of incubation look dark and are often
mistaken for contaminated eggs. The dark appearance
results from the breakdown of the blood in the tremendous vascular system of the extraembryonic
membranes. Most contaminated eggs will be malodorous which will help to classify them. Second week
embryonic mortality may look contaminated; however,
they should only be classified as contaminated when
they emit an odour.
Keep Accurate Records
It is necessary to collect general and reproductive failure data to provide a basis for analysis. Building a data

base of information enables the evaluation of reproductive efficiency by flock and breeder, and it is an
excellent diagnostic tool when problems arise in the
hatchery or breeder flocks. Also, the influences of flock
management, field and incubation equipment can be
measured by studying their effects on fertility,
hatchability, and reproductive failure.
The Hatch Day Breakout Analysis form is basic for
the evaluation of reproductive performance (Table 4).
In this data collection form all the reproductive failures are enumerated, totalled and the percentages are
calculated. From these data reproductive efficiency
measures such as fertility, percent hatch of fertiles,
spread, estimated hatchability, and the sample index

Table 4 - Hatch Day Breakout Analysis Form


Date: 10/14/96

Company: Big Bird


Male

Female

% Egg

Hatchery

Production 73.8

Location: Athens

Breeder Flock

Actual

Hatch date:

#Set: 28,600

#
eggs/trayup

infer tile

dead
embryos
1-7

168

20

168

Flock #: 42 Test: No Test

Breed: X

Hatch %: 80.98

dead
embryos
8-14

Age (wks): 38

Setter #: 16

dead
embryos
15-21

pipped
unhatched

13

168

11

168

16

Totals:
676

50

28

14

Percents:

7.44

4.17

2.08

2.08

1.04

0.74

0.30

cull
chicks

cracks
farm

cracks
transpor t

cont

cull
eggs

small
end

0.30

0.74

0.74

0.30

Other Observations
Fertility: 92.56

Estimated Hatch: 81.85

Sample Index: 0.87

% Hatch of Fertiles: 87.49

Spread: 11.58

Shell Quality: OK

Malformations: None

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 193

can be generated (Table 5). The example calculations


generated in Table 5 were taken from the example data
provided in Table 4.
By examining the results of the example provided, an
analysis of the problem areas of Flock #42 can be understood. This 38 week old flock should have hatched
considerably higher than 80.98 percent. First, the fertility of 92.56 percent should be about 4 percent higher
for this age flock. Also, the percent hatch of fertiles
was too low at 87.49 percent. This was caused by the
elevated percentages noted for early deads (4.17 percent); contaminated (0.74 percent); and cull eggs (0.74
percent). It is obvious that the problems of low
hatchability of Flock #42 stem from both breeder flock
and hatchery. The low sample index of 0.87 reveals
that the sample was reliable in providing an estimate
of true performance.

The sample index listed in Table 5 is a valuable measure of how representative your sample is of the true
reproductive performance of the entire setting of eggs.
A large sample index (greater than 3.0) would indicate
that the sample was not a good representation of actual performance. Small sample sizes will result in
greater variation in the sample index. Calculating these
measures is necessary in interpreting results and taking corrective action.

Figures 1 and 2 depict how building a data base on the


life of the flock can be useful in evaluating reproductive efficiency. Notice how the age of a flock causes
considerable variation in fertility, hatchability and
embryonic mortality. Plotting these data enables flock
evaluations over time, and enables a manager to determine the genetic potential of breeding stock by using
the best hatching flocks as examples.

Table 5 - Examples for Calculating


Reproductive Efficiency Values
Formula:
% Fertility = 100 (# infertiles sample
size) x 100
Example:
100 (50 672) x 100 = 92.56%
Formula:
% Hatchability = (# Hatched # Set) x 100
Example:
(23,160 28,600) x 100 = 80.98%
Formula:
% Hatch of Fertiles = (Hatchability
Fertility) x 100
Example:
(80.98 92.56) x 100 = 87.49

Figure 1: Influence of flock age on reproductive


performance

Formula: Spread = Fertility - Hatchability


Example: 92.56 80.98 = 11.58
Formula:
% Estimated Hatchability = 100 - % Reproductive Failures
Example:
100 (7.44 + 4.17 + 0.30 + 2.08 + 1.04 +
0.74 + 0.30 + 0.30 + 0.74 + 0.74 + 0.30) =
81.85%
Formula:
Sample Index = % Estimated Hatchability % Hatchability
Example: 81.85 80.98 = 0.87

194 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Figure 2: Influence of flock age on embryo


mortality

GLOSSARY
Air Space: in eggs, is critical for the hatching chick.
The air space is located at the broad end of the
eggs, between shell membranes and provides the
chick with air prior to chipping of the shell. It also
is a measure of quality in table eggs.
Albumen: The chief protein constituent of plant and
animal tissues. The white of an egg, which is
secreted around the yolk in the oviduct, is almost
pure albumen. When an egg is broken out it can be
seen as two layers, inner and outer albumen. This
is an important measure of quality. Both the inner
and outer albumen should be free from inclusions.
In fresh eggs, from healthy stock, they should
stand up well, only spreading out over a small
area. Watery whites are indicators of staleness
and/or respiratory diseases. The albumen
represents about 60 percent by weight of an egg.
Blood Ring: This usually refers to the candled
appearance of an egg in which the embryo has died
at a young age.
Breed: A population of a species that have distinct
characteristics that differentiate them from other
populations in that species. Individuals within that
population that reproduce with another individual
of the population will produce offspring that are
recognizable as members of that population. Breeds
can further be divided into varieties based on
differences within the breed. (See Species.)
Breeder Flock: A flock of chickens used to produce
fertile eggs intended for hatching.
Broiler: This term normally applies to young chickens,
but is also used to describe other forms of livestock
that are reared intensively for meat. Due to their
efficient conversion of about 2:1, chickens can
undercut other high-quality meats. Most are killed
between 35 to 42 days and weights, expected by
major breeders, range from 3.3 to 6.8 lb. (1.5 to
3.1 kg) for males and 2.6 to 5.3 lb. (1.2 to 2.4 kg)
for females. Separate-sex growing enables more
precise weights to be achieved and allows more
efficient use of feed. This term is also applied to a
chicken that is 35 days old or older. Fryer is old
terminology.

Candling: is the process of examining eggs with a


bright light for the purpose of detecting flaws.
Candling will show cracks in the shell, some
internal faults, like blood spots, and meat spots. In
the case of incubated eggs, detected infertile clears
and dead-in-shell can be removed after 8 to 10 days
or during the transfer from incubator to hatcher.
Large candling booths are darkened and the eggs
are rotated automatically over a group of electric
lights. All eggs should be candled to remove cracks,
before being sold to consumers and to remove
infertile eggs during incubation.
Chick: The young of birds, particularly chickens and
gamebirds.
Cracks: indicate cracked eggs and is the main cause
of downgrading. Cage floor design and slope,
calcium intake, age and breed of bird, packaging
and handling are all critical factors in determining
the percentage of cracks.
Day Old: An abbreviation to describe day-old chicks.
Chicks normally leave the hatchery on the day they
are hatched. Before leaving, they are culled, sexed
and vaccinated as appropriate. The main brooding
requirements of all day-olds are clean, draught-free
quarters, temperatures of 90 to 100F (32 to 38C)
under the brooder, easy access to clean water and
balanced feed in the form of crumbs. Chicks, which
are sent out not separated by sex, are termed as
hatched.
De-Beaking: is a rather less extreme measure than its
name suggests. It is the trimming of the end of the
upper and lower beak by a red-hot blade which cuts
and cauterizes in one movement.
Dry Bulb Temperature: The temperature measured
with a standard thermometer or electronic sensor.
Egg: The reproductive element of birds. Millions of
chicken eggs are produced each year in the United
States for human consumption. (See Hatching
Eggs.)
An averaged-sized chicken egg weighs about 62 g
of which the shell accounts for about 12 percent
by mass. Its contents consist of 12.1 percent
protein, 10.5 percent fat, 65.6 percent water and
11.8 percent minerals, vitamins and carbohydrates.
The weight of the white (albumen) is about twice
Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 195

the weight of the yolk. Vitamins contained, A, B,


D, E and K, are mainly in the yolk. Egg protein is
of the highest quality and is the standard against
which all other proteins are judged. (See Air Space
and Albumen)
Embryo: Development of the embryo in the egg starts
at 80.6F (27C) for chickens. Therefore, hatching
eggs should normally be kept cool before
incubation. Development to hatching normally
takes 21 days for chickens. (See Incubation).
Fertility: Normal range of the percentage of fertile eggs
produced is from 70 to nearly 100 percent. The
percentage rises through broilers, brown layers and
white layers. Main factors affecting fertility are
heredity, health, age, nutrition and ratio of males
to females. In heavy breeds, breeding and thus
fertility is achieved by artificial insemination.
Fumigation: Formaldehyde is the gas given off during
fumigation of housing, equipment or eggs. It is
active against a wide range of pathogens and is
produced by heating paraformaldehyde crystals or
adding formalin to potassium permanganate.
Green: describes chicks which have recently hatched
and are still wet or at least plump.
Hairline Crack: Fine cracks in the egg shell. In fresh
eggs, they can only be detected by candling. As
they get older, they become more apparent.
Hatching Eggs describes fertile eggs that will be set
by a hen or hatched in an incubator. A chicken egg
must be incubated for 21 days.
Hatch of Fertiles: The percentage of fertile eggs which
hatch (hopefully above 90 percent).
Hatch, Percent Hatch, Hatching Percent, or Hatch
of Total: The percentage of all eggs set which
hatch, whether they were fertile or not. A typical
hatch might be 80 to 90 percent.
Hatcher: A machine used to maintain proper
conditions for embryos during the final few
(usually three) days before hatching.
Hatchery: A facility in which eggs are hatched.
Modern hatcheries are usually equipped with large
incubators (setters) and hatchers for incubation and
hatching. As well as sexing and boxing the saleable
chicks, many hatcheries now vaccinate as required.
196 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens

Hen: after 12 months of lay a pullet becomes a hen.


This is the current definition for censuses and has
superseded "after the first moult", as the length of
the first laying period varies widely.
Humidity: This is the amount of moisture in the air.
During incubation humidity is an important factor
and should be adjusted to obtain optimum moisture
loss from the egg.
HVAC System: Heating, Ventilation and Air
Conditioning System.
Hybrid: also known as a crossbred. A hybrid is the
result of purposeful crossing of two species to
produce offspring with a unique set of
characteristics. Hybrids often exhibit hybrid vigour
and thus are superior to either of their parents. But
the effect of crossing pure lines is variable, and
breeders have and do experiment with many
different crosses to find the best combination.
Today, most commercial stock is hybrid. Mating
two hybrid birds will not produce offspring with
the same characteristics of the parents. (See Breed).
Incubation Time: The time between setting of eggs
and pulling of chicks.
Incubation: The process of warming and maintaining
eggs, under conditions favourable for embryonic
development or hatching. Small still-air incubators
are operated at the higher temperature of 101F
(38.4C) whereas 98.6F (37C) is the norm for
chicken eggs in cabinet incubators. In cabinet
incubators, eggs are trayed broad end up and turned
automatically to 45 degrees each side of the
vertical. Incubator and hatcher are usually separate
and air flow is controlled. In still-air machines, eggs
are usually placed on their sides and rolled an odd
number of times daily through 180 degrees. (See
Embryo.)
Incubator: A machine designed for warming and
maintaining eggs under conditions favourable for
embryonic development. See incubation above.
Also known as setter.
Keyes Trays: These trays are made of moulded pulp or
plastic, most are for 30 eggs. Used mainly for
transporting eggs from the farm to storage area.

Layer: A bird kept for egg production. Most are


hybrids. Common layer breeds such as Leghorn
chickens have been developed to lay many eggs
and generally do not set a nest well. They perform
best in laying cages and their average production
improves every year through genetic selection and
better management techniques. (See Meat Breeds.)
Malpositions: An embryo in any position except head
under right wing positioned in the large end of the
shell. Examples of malpositions are head under left
wing or head between legs.
Meat Breeds: Breeds of chickens developed for their
quick growth and heavy muscles. These breeds are
developed for eating.
Pip: An egg in which the chick has broken the shell in
an attempt to hatch.
Pipping: Breaking of shell by the chick to allow it to
escape.
Pre-Incubation: Premature development of the
embryo before storage.
Pre-Warming: Warming of eggs after storage but
before setting in incubators.
Pull: Removal of chicks from hatchers when the hatch
is complete.
Relative Humidity (RH): The amount of moisture in
the air at a given temperature compared to the
maximum amount of moisture the air, at the same
temperature, can hold. It is expressed as a
percentage.
Set: Group of eggs placed in an incubator at one time.
Setter: Incubator used for first 18 to 19 days of
incubation. (See Incubator.)
Setting: Placing of a group of eggs in the incubator.
Sexing: Males and females can be sexed at a day-old
by vent sexing, feather development or down
colour. The first can be applied to all day-olds;
slow/fast feathering is a sex-linked characteristic
bred into some broiler stocks; and most brown
eggers have sex-linked feather colour. An
increasing number of meat birds are reared sex
separate to improve feed efficiency and for control
over final weights.

Sex-link: A genetic trait that creates a difference,


(usually in colour) between males and females.
Most often this is used to refer to traits that make
chicks of different genders visibly distinct for ease
of sexing. The term may apply to the gene or
characteristic, or is often applied to hybrid crosses
that display this characteristic such as the Golden
Sex-link.
Soft-Shelled Eggs: occur mainly when pullets are
coming into lay rapidly before the egg-shelling
mechanism has settled down. But if they occur in
association with thinner and weaker shells in older
birds, then calcium intake may be too low or a
respiratory disease present.
Species: A distinction for a specific type of animals.
For example, chickens are a species. There may be
many breeds of each species. Typically, species
cannot interbreed successfully, for example a
chicken and a goose cannot produce offspring
together. If species can cross, the offspring are
typically sterile like a mule (horse x donkey).
Spread: The difference between, fertility and hatch. A
10 to 12 percent spread is typical for chicken eggs.
Sweating: Condensation of water vapour on surface
of eggs which are cooler than the dew point of
ambient air.
Transfer: Movement of eggs from incubators (setters)
to hatchers. This process may also involve candling.
True Fertility: The percentage of hatching eggs which
are fertile. This can only be determined by
incubation, candling and breakout of the clears to
determine which eggs were fertile or by breaking
out potentially fertile eggs to examine the germinal
disc (e.g. a sample might be examined to estimate
fertility of a flock).
Washing Eggs: Machines range from batch/bucket
types to continuous flow, spray-wash designs
handling thousands an hour.
Wet Bulb Temperature: The temperature measured
by a standard thermometer equipped with a wet
sock over the bulb. For accurate measurements air

Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens 197

must be moving over the wet sock to provide


evaporation. A sling psychrometer can be used to
measure wet and dry-bulb temperature. Electronic
sensors are now available to measure humidity of
air in incubators and egg storage rooms.
Yolk: (See Eggs.)

198 Operation Manual for Multi-Stage - Chickens