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DATA SURVEY

MAPPING GIS DATA


Applied GIS
Spatial
DATA
GIS DATA GIS MAPPING
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Introduction
W essex Archaeology has been developing an integrated
GIS and database framework for use on projects
utilising spatial information. At the core of this approach
1

is a reusable database that can be easily and rapidly


adapted for use in a range of projects and tasks.

1 The Stonehenge Landtrain Transit Route Impact


Assessment was an early example of the combination of
GIS and database functionality where the GIS was used to
map the project gazetteer and geoprocess landscape data.

2 During the Stansted EIA a more sophisticated approach


was applied with increased GIS and database
integration. Spatial queries of data, based upon different 1
development option boundaries, were carried out to
identify direct and indirect impacts. Details of these
selections were fed back into the project database.

3 The Historic Environment Strategy for the Thames


Gateway region again applied an integrated GIS and
database approach. This process involved the generation
of spatial entities that were assigned a Monument
Importance Value based upon documentary evidence.
Along with historic mapping and other digital
data sources, these were used to aid definition
of zones of heritage character and potential.
2

4 The Salisbury Plain Training Area monument


condition survey has utilised Pocket GIS to facilitate
data collection in the field. In this case each table
Framework project joint venture between Wessex Archaeology and Oxford Archaeology

of information held within the database had a


corresponding GIS layer accessible during
data collection.

4
Reproduced from Ordnance Survey mapping with permission of the controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office
© Crown copyright, Wessex Archaeology. Licence Number: AL 100006861.
Design by K.Nichols Wessex Archaeology

Wessex Archaeology
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MAPPING GIS DATA
techniques
GIS DATA in
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Thames Gateway
1 Monument locations are displayed within the
GIS directly from the database. The extents of
monuments are derived from historic and modern
2 Monuments are scored within the project
database using the Monument Importance
Value system. This consists of the aggregated
mapping sources and aerial photography scores of eight separate categories; Group
guided by HER descriptions and grey Value (association), Survival, Potential,
literature. This has allowed Documentation (archaeological),
erroneous points to be Documentation (historical),
identified, addressed Group Value (clustering)
and corrected. Diversity (features),
and Amenity Value.

Workflow
Model

4 Historic Environment Character


Zones are created by merging adjacent
polygons generated by the union process.
3 The digitised monument extents
are mapped thematically by their
MIV scores along with an environmental
This process operates by identifying character layer generated using a
the level of commonality within the inherited deductive modelling approach, using
attributes of the polygons and merging these historic mapping and a layer mapping broad
Design by K.Nichols Wessex Archaeology

based upon a hierarchy of value, or significance, potential for Palaeolithic archaeological


established for the different data sources. resources. The extent of each of these
For example, HER information has greater layers is mapped individually and then
significance than environmental character. combined using a union function.
DATA SURVEY
MAPPING GIS DATA
Cultural GIS
Heritage
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GIS DATA GIS MAPPING
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A Flexible Database
T he system is applied to a diverse range of projects
and therefore needs to be flexible and robust.
Projects often have a very short lead in time but may
continue for several years.

1 Concept and Framework - Base data is sourced from


SMR, NMR and proprietary HER, so the MIDAS data
structure (mon-event) is used as a unifying standard.
Inscription or other thesauri are used for controlled terms.

2 Extra data objects have been developed to meet the


needs of individual projects - often these come to
be reused e.g. Impacts, Condition assessments, MIV.

3 Stansted presented many challenges - the management


of assessment information for hundreds of monuments
across multiple and frequently changing scheme options
in a very short turnaround time. The solution was
to use a database to collate data from various sources.
Conflicting monument records were compared, a master
record updated and marked as "prime". The definitive
Gazetteer has then been mapped in a GIS.

4 GIS spatial queries are used to generate a "first pass"


selection of impacted monuments. Direct and indirect
impacts are distinguished through buffering. Database
queries are used to extract definitive impact lists by
scheme option and severity.

For field data capture, a relational database structure has


been mapped to flat file shape files, these represent the
real world objects. Relational links are maintained by
dropdown lists of "related features". This means field
workers have access to all the previous assessment
information so they can make informed decisions and
recommendations in the field. The setup ensures a
uniqueness of new records across field teams. Field data
can easily be reintegrated into the project database.
Design by K.Nichols Wessex Archaeology

Wessex Archaeology
DATA SURVEY
MAPPING GIS DATA
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Design by K.Nichols Wessex Archaeology

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Design by K.Nichols Wessex Archaeology

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Design by K.Nichols Wessex Archaeology

GIS
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