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Experiment No. 03

 

TIME RESPONSE OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

1.

Objective(s):

This activity aims to

 

1. demonstrate the use of computer aided tools to determine the poles and zeros, and the response of the system to various inputs of dynamic systems;

2. equip the students with the knowledge and skills in obtaining the pole-zero plot, time response plot and information, and determining the relationship of the time response parameters of the system in relation to its pole location; and

3. provide the students with the knowledge of designing component values to meet time response objectives and simulating the design to verify its correctness.

2.

Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

At the end of this activity, the students shall be able to:

 

1. determine and, on the complex s-plane, plot the poles and zeros of a dynamic system;

2. plot the time response of, and interpret the time response characteristics of dynamic systems represented as transfer functions; and

3. design components of dynamic systems to achieve time response parameter objectives.

3.

Discussion

After obtaining a model of the system, the system is analyzed for its transient and steady-state responses. It was learned in the discussion that the response of the system is highly dependent on the location of the system poles. Thus, the location of the poles gives a vivid picture of the form of the response, as well as how fast the response is.

For first-order system, or system with only one pole and no zero, the response has only one form and is given as c(t) = A + Be

whereA and B are the residues of the partial fraction expansion of the rational Laplace transform of the response of the system. In the discussion, the parameters time constant, rise time and settling time are defined, which are all dependent on the pole location – a.

For second-order system, the response depends on the location of the poles also. In the discussion, a second-order system with no zeros can have an overdamped, underdamped, undamped, or critically damped response depending on the location of the poles. Two related specifications: the damping ratio and the natural frequency are defined in order to relate these to the type of the response of the system.

Higher-ordered systems containing dominant complex poles as well as with zeros can be approximated as second- order system when certain conditions are met. These approximations can be validated using computer aided tools. This activity shows the use of MATLAB and LabVIEW in obtaining the time response parameters of dynamic systems.

4.

Resources:

To perform this activity, a computer workstation with MATLAB R2012a or higher and LabVIEW 8.6 or higher installed is required. For MATLAB, the control systems toolbox is required and for LabVIEW, the control design and simulation module.

5.

Procedure:

Activity 2.1 – Poles and Zeros

1. MATLAB. Use the command pzmap()to determine the poles and zeros, as well as plot the pole-zero map of a system whose transfer function is defined in the object sys. Use the following format:

>> [p z] = pzmap(sys)

and MATLAB will return the location of the poles in vector p and the zeros in vector z, as well as a figure will show the pole-zero map.

2. LabVIEW. Create a VI called act02-01.vi. Build the FP and BD as shown below.

VI called act02-01.vi . Build the FP and BD as shown below.  For the Pole-Zero
VI called act02-01.vi . Build the FP and BD as shown below.  For the Pole-Zero

For the Pole-Zero Map, set the upper and lower limits of the imaginary axs to +10 and -10 respectively, and the real axis from +10 to -20. Then disable the autoscaling of the plot.

3. Manually compute for the poles and zeros of the transfer function given in the table below, then plot them on the complex s-plane. Complete the table below.

Transfer Function

Poles and Zeros

Pole-Zero Plot

G(s) =

s + 2s + 2

s + 6s + 4s + 7s + 2

4. Use MATLAB and LabVIEW to determine the poles and zeros and to plot them on the complex s-plane. Record the results below.

 

Transfer Function

Poles and Zeros

Pole-Zero Plot

In MATLAB:

s

+ 2s + 2

   

G(s) =

s + 6s + 4s + 7s + 2

In LabVIEW:

s

+ 2s + 2

   

G(s) =

s + 6s + 4s + 7s + 2

Q1.4(a)Complete the table below, using MATLAB and LabVIEW. Verify the results using hand calculations on separate sheets of paper. Q1.4(b) Using the poles and zeros obtained in the previous questions, write the general form of the step responses of the system whose transfer functions are given below.

Q1.4(c) How does the location of the poles and zeros relate to the general form of the step response of the system? Activity 2.2 – Time Response of Dynamic Systems

1. MATLAB. To obtain the step response parameters of systems represented by transfer function sys use the command step() and stepinfo()which plots the step response of the system, and provides the step response parameters of the system such as the settling time, rise time, peak time and percent overshoot. Enter the commands in the following formats >> step(sys) >>stepinfo(sys) The command damp()gives information on the poles of the transfer function, as well as the associated damping ratio and natural frequencies. Enter the command in the following format >> damp(sys) The command ltiview() can also be used to plot the time response of linear systems. On the command window, type in >> help ltiview

for more information on this command. In this case, use the following forma >>ltiview({‘step’,’pzmap’},sys) to display the step response, as well as the pole-zero map of the transfer function sys.

2. LabVIEW. Replicate act02-01.vi and name the other copy as act02-02a.vi. Add components as shown below.

sys. 2. LabVIEW. Replicate act02-01.vi and name the other copy as act02-02a.vi . Add components as
sys. 2. LabVIEW. Replicate act02-01.vi and name the other copy as act02-02a.vi . Add components as

Q2.1(a) Use the MATLAB commands and the LabVIEW VI to complete the table below. On a separate sheet, roughly sketch the time response of each of the system.

Q2.1(b) Comment on the results for the system (a) and (b). Check the values obtained using the VI with the results of the formula. Are the values for the damping ratio and the natural frequencies valid? Comment also on the validity of the values for the peak time and percent overshoot. Q2.1(c) Comment on the results for the systems (c) through (f). Determine the form of the response with respect to the value of the damping ratio. Q2.1(d) Systems (g) through (i) have additional real poles, aside from two complex poles. Comment on the results. Which exhibits a near second-order response? What is the relationship between the dominant complex poles and the real third pole for a third-order system to exhibit an approximate second-order response? Q2.1(e) Systems (j) and (k) have zeros. Which of the system exhibit non-minimum phase behavior? Discuss the non-minimum phase behavior based on the time response plot. Q2.1(f) Systems (l) through (o) are systems with additional poles and with zeros. Which of these can be approximated into a second-order response using pole-zero cancellation? What general rule can be established which will allow such approximation? Q.2.1(g) Plot the responses of systems (a) through (o) on separate sheets of paper. Screenshots for such plots may be provided.

3. Complex systems can also be modeled and simulated in MATLAB and LabVIEW. As an example the system whose

block diagram is shown below has the transfer functions G(s) =

(

) and H(s) =

.

transfer functions G(s) = ( ) and H(s) = . 4. MATLAB. To obtain the closed-loop

4. MATLAB. To obtain the closed-loop equivalent the above transfer function, use the command feedback(), as in the following format

>> T = feedback(G,H)

whereT is the object representing the closed-loop transfer function, G is the forward transfer function and H the feedback transfer function. Read more on the commandsfeedback(), as well as on the commands parallel() and series() by using the help command of MATLAB. Q4.1(a) Using MATLAB, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.

5. LabVIEW. Modify act02-02a.vi and rename this as act02-02b.vi. Add a CD Construct Transfer Function.vi block to define H(s) and connect G(s) with H(s) using the CD Feedback.vi. Use the Help to obtain more information about the Model Interconnection palette.

Q5.1(a) Using LabVIEW, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.

Course: Experiment No.: Group No.: Section: Group Members: Date Performed: Date Submitted: Instructor: 6. Data
Course:
Experiment No.:
Group No.:
Section:
Group Members:
Date Performed:
Date Submitted:
Instructor:
6. Data and Results:
Q1.4(a)Complete the table below, using MATLAB and LabVIEW. Verify the results using hand
calculations on separate sheets of paper.
Transfer Function
Poles and Zeros
Pole-Zero Plot
2
G(s) =
s
+ 2
5
G(s) =
(s + 3)(s + 6)
s
+ 5
G(s) =
(s + 10)
s + 7s + 24s + 24 G(s) = s + 10s + 35s +
s + 7s + 24s + 24
G(s) =
s + 10s + 35s + 50s + 24
G(s)
s + 2s + 10
=
s + 38s + 515s + 2950s + 6000
Q1.4(b) Using the poles and zeros obtained in the previous questions, write the general form of the
step responses of the system whose transfer functions are given below.
Transfer Function
General Form of the Step Response
s + 2s + 2
G(s) =
s + 6s + 4s + 7s + 2
2
G(s) =
s
+ 2
5
G(s) =
(s + 3)(s + 6)
s
+ 5
G(s) =
(s + 10)
s + 7s + 24s + 24 G(s) = s + 10s + 35s +
s + 7s + 24s + 24
G(s) =
s + 10s + 35s + 50s + 24
G(s)
s + 2s + 10
=
s + 38s + 515s + 2950s + 6000
Q1.4(c) How does the location of the poles and zeros relate to the general form of the step response
of the system?
Q2.1(a) Use the MATLAB commands and the LabVIEW VI to complete the table below. On a separate
sheet, roughly sketch the time response of each of the system.
Damping
Time Response Parameters
Ratio /
Transfer Function
Natural
%
Frequency
a)
5
G(s) =
s + 5
b)
20
G(s) =
s + 20
c)
20
G(s) =
s + 6s + 144
d)
9
G(s) =
s + 9s + 9
e) 100 G(s) = s + 100 f) 225 G(s) = (s + 15) g)
e)
100
G(s) =
s + 100
f)
225
G(s) =
(s + 15)
g)
24.542
G(s) =
s + 4s + 24.542
h)
245.42
G(s) =
(s
+ 10)(s + 4s + 24.542)
i)
73.626
G(s) =
(s + 3)(s + 4s + 24.542)
j)
s
+ 2
G(s) =
s + 3s + 36
k)
s
− 2
G(s) =
s + 3s + 36
l)
s
+ 3
G(s) =
(s + 2)(s + 3s + 10)
m)
s
+ 2.5
G(s) =
(s + 2)(s + 4s + 20)
n)
s
+ 2.1
G(s) =
(s + 2)(s + s + 5)

Q2.1(b) Comment on the results for the system (a) and (b). Check the values obtained using the VI with the results of the formula. Are the values for the damping ratio and the natural frequencies valid? Comment also on the validity of the values for the peak time and percent overshoot.

Q2.1(c) Comment on the results for the systems (c) through (f). Determine the form of the response with respect to the value of the damping ratio.

Q2.1(d) Systems (g) through (i) have additional real poles, aside from two complex poles. Comment on the results. Which exhibits a near second-order response? What is the relationship between the dominant complex poles and the real third pole for a third-order system to exhibit an approximate second-order response?

Q2.1(e) Systems (j) and (k) have zeros. Which of the system exhibit non-minimum phase behavior? Discuss the non-minimum phase behavior based on the time response plot.

Q2.1(f) Systems (l) through (o) are systems with additional poles and with zeros. Which of these can be approximated into a second-order response using pole-zero cancellation? What general rule can be established which will allow such approximation?

Q.2.1(g) Plot the responses of systems (a) through (o) on separate sheets of paper. Screenshots for such plots may be provided.

Q4.1(a) Using MATLAB, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.

Closed-loop Transfer Function

Poles and Zeros

Pole-Zero Plot

Time Response Characteristics

%

Time Response Plot

Q5.1(a) Using LabVIEW, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response characteristics
Q5.1(a) Using LabVIEW, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response
characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.
Closed-loop Transfer Function
Poles and Zeros
Pole-Zero Plot
Time Response Characteristics
%
Time Response Plot
7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment:

1. In typical conventional aircraft, longitudinal flight model linearization results in transfer functions with two pairs of complex conjugate poles. Consequently, the natural response for these airplanes has two modes in their natural response. The “short period” mode is relatively well-damped and has a high-frequency oscillation. The “plugoid mode” is lightly damped and its oscillation frequency is relatively low. For example, in a specific aircraft the transfer function from wing elevator deflection to nose angle (angle of attack) is (McRuer, 1973)

θ(s)

26.12(s + 0.0098)(s + 1.371)

δ (s) = (s + 8.99 × 10 s + 3.97 × 10 )(s + 4.21s + 18.23)

a. Determine the poles and zeros of this system and plot them on the complex s-plane.

b. Sketch the step response of the wing elevator deflection to a step nose angle input. Determine the time response parameters.

c. On the plot of the response, label which is the short period mode and which is the phugoid mode. Which of the poles cause the short period and the phugoid responses, respectively?

2. Assume that the motor whose transfer function is G(s) =

( ) is used in a position control system.

a. Obtain the system’s pole-zero plot, the type of the response of the system to the step input, the plot of the step response, and obtain the system’s damping ratio and natural frequency, and if applicable, the settling time, percent overshoot, rise time and peak time.

b. It is wanted that the time response of the position control system be improved. In order to do just that, an amplifier and a tachometer are inserted into the loop, as shown in the figure below. Investigate the effects of the addition of the amplifier and the tachometer on the response of the system.

amplifier and the tachometer on the response of the system. c. Find the values of K

c. Find the values of K and K to yield a16% overshoot and a settling time of 0.2 seconds. Determine the rest of the time response parameters

COURSE:

MEMBERS:

SECTION:

INSTRUCTOR:

EXPERIMENT NO.:

TITLE:

PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

 

PROFICIENT

 

SCORE

INDICATORS

1

2

3

LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

Experimental Se -up

Members are unable to set-up the materials.

Members are able to setup the materials with supervision.

 

Members are able to setup the material with minimum supervision.

 

Time Management Conduct of Experiment

Members do not finish on time with incomplete data.

Members finish on time with incomplete data.

 

Members finish ahead of time with complete data and time to revise data.

 

Cooperative and Teamwork

Members do not know their tasks and have no defined responsibilities. Group conflicts have to be settled by the teacher.

Members defined responsibilities most of the time. Group conflicts are cooperatively managed most of the time.

Members are on tasks and have defined responsibilities at all times. Group conflicts are cooperatively managed at all times.

 

Neatness and Orderliness

Messy workplace during and after the experiment.

Clean and orderly workplace with occasional mess during and after the experiment.

Clean and orderly workplace at all times during and after the experiment.

 

Ability to do independent work

Members require supervision by the teacher.

Members require occasional supervision by the teacher.

 

Members do not need to be supervised by the teacher.

 

Student Outcomes ( d1)

Conduct experiments in accordance with good and safe laboratory practice. (x2)

Members do not follow good and safe laboratory practice in the conduct of experiments.

Members follow good and safe laboratory practice most of the time in the conduct of experiments.

Members follow good and safe laboratory practice at all times in the conduct of experiments.

 

Operate equipment and instruments with ease. (x2)

Members are unable to operate the equipment and instruments.

Members are able to operate equipment and instrument with supervision.

 

Members are able to operate the equipment and instruments with ease and with minimum supervision.

 

Analyze data, validate experimental values against theoretical values to determine possible experimental errors, and provide valid conclusions.

The group has incomplete data.

The group has complete data but has no analysis and valid conclusion.

The group has complete data, validates experimental values against theoretical values, and provides valid conclusion.

 

(x2)

Discussion of Results, Conclusion and Assessment Task

 

Discussion of Results (x2)

Ideas are not in reference to the result/data gathered during experiment. Not clear, incomplete and too short.

Ideas are in reference to result/data gathered during experiment. Clear, but not complete and too short.

Ideas are taken from the result/data gathered during the experiment. Very clear, complete and sufficient to form a discussion.

 
     

Ideas are

very much

 

Conclusion (x3)

Ideas are inappropriate to the experiment objectives and intended learning outcomes. Not clear, incomplete and too short.

Ideas are somehow appropriate to the experiment objectives and intended learning outcomes. Clear but not complete and too short.

appropriate to the experiment objectives and intended learning outcomes. Very clear, complete and sufficient to form a conclusion.

Assessment Task

Answers to questions were incorrect.

Majority

of

the

questions

were

All

questions

were

correctly

 

answered correctly.

 

answered.

 

Total

       

Mean score

Total score/17

     

Percentage score

(Total score/51) x 100%

     

Evaluated by:

CAYETANO D. HIWATIG

Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member

Date