VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:
CHAPTER
11
Kinematics of Particles
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Contents
Introduction
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration Determination of the Motion of a Particle Sample Problem 11.2 Sample Problem 11.3 Uniform RectilinearMotion
Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear
Motion
Motion of Several Particles:
Relative Motion Sample Problem 11.4
Motion of Several Particles:
Dependent Motion
Sample Problem 11.5
Graphical Solution of Rectilinear Motion Problems Other Graphical Methods
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity
& Acceleration Derivatives of Vector Functions
Rectangular Components of Velocity
and Acceleration
Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation Tangential and Normal Components
Radial and Transverse Components
Sample Problem 11.10 Sample Problem 11.12
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Kinematic relationships are used to
help us determine the trajectory of a golf ball, the orbital speed of a satellite, and the accelerations
during acrobatic flying.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Introduction
• Dynamics includes:
Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion.
Kinetics: study of the relations existing between the forces acting on
a body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is
used to predict the motion caused by given forces or to determine the forces required to produce a given motion.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Introduction
• Particle kinetics includes:
• Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a
particle as it moves along a straight line.
• Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it moves along a curved line in two or three
dimensions.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Rectilinear motion: particle moving
along a straight line
• Position coordinate: defined by
positive or negative distance from a fixed origin on the line.
• The motion of a particle is known if
the position coordinate for particle is
known for every value of time t.
• May be expressed in the form of a function, e.g.,
x 6t
2
t
3
or in the form of a graph x vs. t.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Consider particle which occupies position P at time t and P’ at t+Dt,
Average velocity
Instantaneous velocity
D x
D t
v lim
D0
t
D x
D
t
• Instantaneous velocity may be positive or
negative. Magnitude of velocity is referred
to as particle speed.
• From the definition of a derivative,
e.g.,
v
lim
D0
t
D
x
D
t
dx
dt
x
v
6 t
2
dx
dt
t
3
12 t 3 t
2
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Consider particle with velocity v at time t and v’ at t+Dt,
Instantaneous acceleration
a
lim
D0
t
D v
D
t
• Instantaneous acceleration may be:
 positive: increasing positive velocity or decreasing negative velocity
 negative: decreasing positive velocity
or increasing negative velocity.
• From the definition of a derivative,
e.g.
a
lim
D 0
t
v
a
12 t
dv
dt
D
v
D
3 t
t
2
dv
dt
12 6 t
d
2
x
dt
2
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• From our example,
2
x 6t t
3
dx 

v 


dt 

dv 

a 


dt 
12t
d
2
x
dt
2
3t
2
12
6 t
• What are x, v, and a at t = 2 s ?
 at t = 2 s,
x = 16 m, v = v _{m}_{a}_{x} = 12 m/s,
a = 0
• Note that v _{m}_{a}_{x} occurs when a=0, and that the slope of the velocity curve is zero at this point.
• What are x, v, and a at t = 4 s ?
 at t = 4 s,
x = x _{m}_{a}_{x} = 32 m, v = 0,
a = 12 m/s ^{2}
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Concept Quiz
What is true about the kinematics of a particle?
a) The velocity of a particle is always positive
b) The velocity of a particle is equal to the slope of the positiontime graph
c) If the position of a particle is zero, then the velocity must zero
d) If the velocity of a particle is zero, then its
acceleration must be zero
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Determination of the Motion of a Particle
• We often determine accelerations from the forces applied (kinetics will be covered later)
• Generally have three classes of motion
 acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)
 acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)
 acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)
• Can you think of a physical example of when force is a
_{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{?}
When force is a function of velocity?
a spring
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drag
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Acceleration as a function of time, position, or velocity
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.2
Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity from window 20 m above ground.
Determine:
• velocity and elevation above ground at time t,
• highest elevation reached by ball and
corresponding time, and
• time when ball will hit the ground and corresponding velocity.
SOLUTION:
• Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
• Solve for t when velocity equals zero
(time for maximum elevation) and evaluate corresponding altitude.
• Solve for t when altitude equals zero
(time for ground impact) and evaluate
corresponding velocity.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.2
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.2
• Solve for t when altitude equals zero and evaluate
corresponding velocity.
y t
y

20 m 

20 m 

10
10
m
s
m
s
t
4.905
m
s
2
t
2
1.019s
4.905
m
s
2
1.019s
y 25.1m
^{2}
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.2
• Solve for t when altitude equals zero and evaluate corresponding velocity.
y t
20m
^{}
10
m t 4.905
s
m
s
2
t
2
0
t 
1.243s 
meaningless 

t 
3.28s 
v 
t 10 

v 

3.28s 

m
s
9.81
m
s
2
t
10
m
s
9.81
m
s
2
3.28s
v 22.2
m
s
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.3
a kv
Brake mechanism used to reduce gun recoil consists of piston attached to barrel moving in fixed cylinder filled with oil.
As barrel recoils with initial velocity v _{0} , piston moves and oil is forced through
orifices in piston, causing piston and cylinder to decelerate at rate proportional to their velocity.
Determine v(t), x(t), and v(x).
SOLUTION:
• Integrate a = dv/dt = kv to find v(t).
• Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
• Integrate a = v dv/dx = kv to find v(x).
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.3
SOLUTION:
•
a
•
Integrate a = dv/dt = kv to find v(t).
dv
dt
kv
v
v 0
dv
v
k
t
0
dt
ln
v
t
v
0
kt
v t
v
0
e
kt
Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
v
x
0
t
dx
dx kt
dt
v e
0
v
0
t
0
e
kt
dt
x
t
v
0
1
k
t
e
kt
0 

x t 

v 0 k 
1 e 
kt 

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.3
• Alternatively,
with
and
then
x t
v t
x t
v
0
k
1 e
kt
v
0
e
kt
or
v
0
k
1
v t
v
0
e kt
v t
v 0
dv
k
x
0
dx
v 
v 
0 
kx 
v 
v 
0 
kx 
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
The car starts from rest and accelerates
according to the relationship
a 30.001v
2
It travels around a circular track that has a radius of 200 meters. Calculate the velocity of the car after it has travelled halfway around the track. What is the car’s maximum possible speed?
SOLUTION:
• Determine the proper kinematic
relationship to apply (is acceleration
a function of time, velocity, or
position?
• Determine the total distance the car travels in onehalf lap
• Integrate to determine the velocity
after onehalf lap
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Given:
a 30.001v
2
v _{o} = 0, r = 200 m
Find:
Choose the proper kinematic relationship
Acceleration is a function of velocity, and
we also can determine distance. Time is not
involved in the problem, so we choose:
v
dv
dx
a
v
x
x
0
dx
v
v
0
v dv
a
v
Determine total distance travelled
x r 3.14(200) 628.32 m
v after ½ lap Maximum speed
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Determine the full integral, including limits
x
x
0
dx
v
v
0
v dv
a
v
628.32
0
dx
v
0
v
3 0.001 v
2
dv
Evaluate the interval and solve for v
628.32
1
0.002
ln 3
0.001 v
2
v
0
628.32(0.002) ln 30.001v
2
ln 30.001(0)
_{l}_{n} 30.001v
2 1.25661.0986= 0.15802
Take the exponential of each side
3 0.001v
2 e
0.15802
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Solve for v
v
2 3 e
0.15802
0.001
3
0.001v
2
2146.2
e
0.15802
How do you determine the maximum speed the car can reach?
Velocity is a maximum when acceleration is zero
This occurs when
v
max
a 30.001v
0.001v
2
3
2
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
During freefall, a parachutist reaches terminal velocity when her weight equals the drag
force. If motion is in a straight
line, this is uniform rectilinear motion.
For a particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is zero and the velocity is constant.
dx
dt
x
v constant
dx v
t
dt
x
0
0
x
x
x
0
x
0
vt
vt
Careful – these only apply to
uniform rectilinear motion!
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion
If forces applied to a body are constant (and in a constant direction), then you have uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.
Another example is free
fall when drag is negligible
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion
For a particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the acceleration of the particle is constant. You may recognize these constant acceleration equations from your physics courses.
dv
dt
dx
_{d}_{t}
a
v
0
constant
at
x
x 0
dx
v
dv
_{d}_{x}
a
constant
v
v 0
dv
a
t
0
t
0
v
0
at
dt
dt
v
v
0
vdv
a
x
x
0
dx
v
v
0
x
v
2
x
0
at
v t
0
2
v
0
2
a
1
2
at
2
x
x
0
Careful – these only apply to uniformly
accelerated rectilinear motion!
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion of Several Particles
We may be interested in the motion of several different particles, whose motion may be independent or linked together.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion
• For particles moving along the same line, time should be recorded from the same starting instant and displacements should be measured
from the same origin in the same direction.
x x B B v B 
A A 
x x A B x A x B A v B v A 

v B a B 
A 
v A v B A a a B A 

a B 

a A 
a B A 
relative position of B
with respect to A
relative velocity of B
with respect to A
relative acceleration of B with respect to A
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.4
Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level
in elevator shaft with initial velocity of
18 m/s. At same instant, openplatform elevator passes 5 m level moving upward at 2 m/s.
Determine (a) when and where ball hits
elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball and elevator at contact.
SOLUTION:
• Substitute initial position and velocity and constant acceleration of ball into
general equations for uniformly
accelerated rectilinear motion.
• Substitute initial position and constant velocity of elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.
• Write equation for relative position of
ball with respect to elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
• Substitute impact time into equation
for position of elevator and relative
velocity of ball with respect to elevator.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.4
SOLUTION:
• Substitute initial position and velocity and constant
acceleration of ball into general equations for
uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.
v
y
B
B
v
0
y
0
at
18
v t
0
1
2
m
s
at
9.81
m
s
2
t
2
12 m
18
m
s
t
4.905
m
s
2
t
• Substitute initial position and constant velocity of elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.
v
E
y
E
m
s
0
y
2
v t 5m
E
2
m
s
t
2
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.4
y
E 5 23.65
v
18 9.81 t
2
16 9.813.65
y 12.3m
E
v
B E
19.81
m
s
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion
• Position of a particle may depend on position of one or more other particles.
• Position of block B depends on position of block A.
Since rope is of constant length, it follows that sum of lengths of segments must be constant.
x
A
2x
B
constant (one degree of freedom)
• Positions of three blocks are dependent.
2x
A
2x
B
x
C
constant (two degrees of freedom)
• For linearly related positions, similar relations hold between velocities and accelerations.
2
2
dx
A
dt
dv
A
dt
2
2
dx
B
dt
dv
B
dt
dx
C
dt
dv
C
dt
0 or 2 v
A
2 v
B
0
or
2 a
A
2 a
B
v
C
a
C
0
0
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Slider block A moves to the left with a
constant velocity of 6 m/s. Determine the
velocity of block B.
Solution steps
• Sketch your system and choose
coordinate system
• Write out constraint equation
• Differentiate the constraint equation to get velocity
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Given: v _{A} = 6 m/s left
This length is constant no matter how the blocks move
Find: v _{B}
Sketch your system and choose coordinates
Define your constraint equation(s)
x
A
3
y
B
constants L
Differentiate the constraint equation to get velocity
6 m/s + 3 v
B 0
Note that as x _{A} gets bigger, y _{B} gets smaller.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Graphical Solution of RectilinearMotion Problems
Engineers often collect position, velocity, and acceleration data. Graphical solutions are often useful in analyzing these data.
Acceleration data
from a head impact
during a round of
boxing.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Graphical Solution of RectilinearMotion Problems
• Given the xt curve, the vt curve is equal to the xt curve slope.
• Given the vt curve, the at curve is equal to the vt curve slope.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Graphical Solution of RectilinearMotion Problems
• Given the at curve, the change in velocity between t _{1} and t _{2} is equal to the area under the at curve between t _{1} and t _{2} .
• Given the vt curve, the change in position between t _{1} and t _{2} is equal to the area under the vt curve between t _{1} and t _{2} .
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
The softball and the car both undergo
curvilinear motion.
• A particle moving along a curve other than a straight line is in curvilinear motion.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• The position vector of a particle at time t is defined by a vector between origin O of a fixed reference frame and the position occupied by particle.
• Consider a particle which occupies position P defined by
and P’ defined by
r
at
t + Dt,
r
at time t
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
Instantaneous velocity (vector)
D 0
t
D t
dt
Instantaneous speed (scalar)
v lim
D 0
t
D s
D t
ds
dt
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Consider velocity
v
of a particle at time t and velocity
v
at t + Dt,
D 0
t
D t
dt
instantaneous acceleration (vector)
In general, the acceleration vector is not tangent to the particle path and velocity vector.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
• When position vector of particle P is given by its
rectangular components,
r
xi
yj
zk
• Velocity vector,
v
dx
dt
i
v
x
i
dy
dt
j
v
y
j
dz
k
dt
v
z k
xi
• Acceleration vector,
a
d
2
x
dt
2
i
a
x
i
a
d
2
y
dt
2
j
2
z
d
k
dt
2
y
j a
z
k




yj 
zk 






xi 

yj 
zk 
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
• Rectangular components particularly effective
when component accelerations can be integrated
independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,
a
x
x 0
a
y
y g
a z 0
z
with initial conditions,
x
0
y
0
z
0
0
v
x
0
,
v
y
0
Integrating twice yields
v
x
x
v
v
x
x
0
0
t
v
y
v
y
v
y
y
0
0
y
gt
1
2
gt
2
,
v
z
v
z
z
0
0
0
0
• Motion in horizontal direction is uniform.
• Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.
• Motion of projectile could be replaced by two independent rectilinear motions.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.7
A projectile is fired from the edge
of a 150m cliff with an initial velocity of 180 m/s at an angle of
30° with the horizontal. Neglecting air resistance, find (a) the horizontal
distance from the gun to the point
where the projectile strikes the ground, (b) the greatest elevation above the ground reached by the projectile.
SOLUTION:
• Consider the vertical and horizontal motion separately (they are independent)
• Apply equations of motion in ydirection
• Apply equations of motion in xdirection
• Determine time t for projectile to hit the
ground, use this to find the horizontal distance
• Maximum elevation occurs when v _{y} =0
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.7
SOLUTION:
_{G}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n}_{:}
(v) _{o} =180 m/s
(a) _{y} =  9.81 m/s ^{2}
(y) _{o} =150 m _{(}_{a}_{)} _{x} _{=} _{0} _{m}_{/}_{s} 2
Vertical motion – uniformly accelerated:
Horizontal motion – uniformly accelerated:
Choose positive x to the right as shown
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.7
SOLUTION:
Horizontal distance
Projectile strikes the ground at:
Substitute into equation (1) above
Solving for t, we take the positive root
Substitute t into equation (4)
Maximum elevation occurs when v _{y} =0
Maximum elevation above the ground =
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
A baseball pitching machine “throws” baseballs with a horizontal velocity v _{0} . If you want the height h to be 42 in., determine the value of v _{0} .
SOLUTION:
• Consider the vertical and horizontal motion separately (they are independent)
• Apply equations of motion in ydirection
• Apply equations of motion in xdirection
• Determine time t for projectile to fall to 42 inches
• Calculate v _{0} =0
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Given: x= 40 ft, y _{o} = 5 ft,
y _{f} = 42 in. Find: v _{o}
Analyze the motion in the ydirection
y
f
1
y (0)
0
t
1
2
2
gt
2
3.5
5
gt
2
1.5 ft
1
2
2
(32.2 ft/s )
t
2
t 0.305234 s
Analyze the motion in the xdirection
x 0
(
v
x
)
0
t v t
0
40 ft (v )(0.305234 s)
0
© 2013 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
2  48
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation
A soccer player must consider
the relative motion of the ball
and her teammates when
making a pass.
It is critical for a pilot to
know the relative motion of his aircraft with respect to the aircraft carrier to make a safe landing.
© 2013 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
2  49
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation
• Designate one frame as the fixed frame of reference. All other frames not rigidly attached to the fixed reference frame are moving frames of reference.
• Position vectors for particles A and B with respect to
the fixed frame of reference Oxyz are
r
A
and r
B
.
• Vector
r B
A joining A and B defines the position of
B with respect to the moving frame Ax’y’z’ and
r
B
r
A
r
B
A
• Differentiating twice,
v
B
a
B
v
A
a
A
v
A
velocity of B relative to A.
a
B
A
acceleration of B relative
a
B A
to A.
• Absolute motion of B can be obtained by combining motion of A with relative motion of B with respect to moving reference frame attached to A.
© 2013 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
11  50
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tangential and Normal Components
If we have an idea of the path of a vehicle, it is often convenient
to analyze the motion using tangential and normal components
(sometimes called path coordinates).
© 2013 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
2  51
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Tangential and Normal Components
y
r= the instantaneous
radius of curvature
a
v v e
t
dv
dt
e
t
v
2
r
e
n
• The tangential direction (e _{t} ) is tangent to the path of the particle. This velocity vector of a particle is in this direction
• The normal direction (e _{n} ) is perpendicular to e _{t} and points towards the inside of the curve.
• The acceleration can have components in both the e _{n} and e _{t} directions
© 2013 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
11  52
^{T}^{e}^{n}^{t}^{h}
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.8
SOLUTION:
• Define your coordinate system
• Calculate the tangential velocity and tangential acceleration
• Calculate the normal acceleration
A motorist is traveling on a curved section of highway of radius 2500 ft
at the speed of 60 mi/h. The motorist
suddenly applies the brakes, causing
the automobile to slow down at a constant rate. Knowing that after 8 s the speed has been reduced to 45 mi/h, determine the acceleration of
the automobile immediately after the
brakes have been applied.
• Determine overall acceleration magnitude after the brakes have been applied
© 2013 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
11  53
^{T}^{e}^{n}^{t}^{h}
Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 11.8
SOLUTION:
• Define your coordinate system
• Determine velocity and acceleration in
the tangential direction
• The deceleration constant, therefore
• Immediately after the brakes are applied, the speed is still 88 ft/s
a
© 2013 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
11  54
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Edition
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
The tangential acceleration of the centrifuge cab is given by
a
t
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