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Tenth Edition
Tenth Edition

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

CHAPTER

11

DYNAMICS Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Phillip J. Cornwell Lecture Notes: Brian P.
DYNAMICS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
Phillip J. Cornwell
Lecture Notes:
Brian P. Self
California Polytechnic State University

Kinematics of Particles

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Polytechnic State University Kinematics of Particles © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Contents

Introduction

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration Determination of the Motion of a Particle Sample Problem 11.2 Sample Problem 11.3 Uniform Rectilinear-Motion

Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear-

Motion

Motion of Several Particles:

Relative Motion Sample Problem 11.4

Motion of Several Particles:

Dependent Motion

Sample Problem 11.5

Graphical Solution of Rectilinear- Motion Problems Other Graphical Methods

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity

& Acceleration Derivatives of Vector Functions

Rectangular Components of Velocity

and Acceleration

Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation Tangential and Normal Components

Radial and Transverse Components

Sample Problem 11.10 Sample Problem 11.12

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Kinematic relationships are used to

help us determine the trajectory of a golf ball, the orbital speed of a satellite, and the accelerations

during acrobatic flying.

a satellite, and the accelerations during acrobatic flying. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights
a satellite, and the accelerations during acrobatic flying. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

and the accelerations during acrobatic flying. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
and the accelerations during acrobatic flying. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2

2 - 3

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Introduction

Dynamics includes:

Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion.

Relates displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference to the cause of motion. F thrust
Relates displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference
to the cause of motion.
F thrust
F
drag
F
lift

Kinetics: study of the relations existing between the forces acting on

a body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is

used to predict the motion caused by given forces or to determine the forces required to produce a given motion.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Introduction

Particle kinetics includes:

Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a

particle as it moves along a straight line.

of a particle as it moves along a straight line. • Curvilinear motion : position, velocity,
of a particle as it moves along a straight line. • Curvilinear motion : position, velocity,

Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it moves along a curved line in two or three

dimensions.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • Rectilinear motion: particle moving along a straight
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • Rectilinear motion: particle moving along a straight
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • Rectilinear motion: particle moving along a straight

Rectilinear motion: particle moving

along a straight line

Position coordinate: defined by

positive or negative distance from a fixed origin on the line.

The motion of a particle is known if

the position coordinate for particle is

known for every value of time t.

May be expressed in the form of a function, e.g.,

x 6t

2

t

3

or in the form of a graph x vs. t.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • Consider particle which occupies position P at time
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • Consider particle which occupies position P at time
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • Consider particle which occupies position P at time
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • Consider particle which occupies position P at time

Consider particle which occupies position P at time t and P’ at t+Dt,

Average velocity

Instantaneous velocity

D x

D t

v lim

D0

t

D x

D

t

Instantaneous velocity may be positive or

negative. Magnitude of velocity is referred

to as particle speed.

From the definition of a derivative,

e.g.,

v

lim

D0

t

D

x

D

t

dx

dt

x

v

6 t

2

dx

dt

t

3

12 t 3 t

2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • Consider particle with velocity v at time t and
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • Consider particle with velocity v at time t and
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • Consider particle with velocity v at time t and

Consider particle with velocity v at time t and v’ at t+Dt,

Instantaneous acceleration

a

lim

D0

t

D v

D

t

Instantaneous acceleration may be:

- positive: increasing positive velocity or decreasing negative velocity

- negative: decreasing positive velocity

or increasing negative velocity.

From the definition of a derivative,

e.g.

a

lim

D 0

t

v

a

12 t

dv

dt

D

v

D

3 t

t

2

dv

dt

12 6 t

d

2

x

dt

2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration • From our example, 2 x  6 t 

From our example,

2

x 6t t

3

 

dx

v

 

dt

dv

a

 

dt

12t

d

2

x

dt

2

3t

2

12

6 t

What are x, v, and a at t = 2 s ?

- at t = 2 s,

x = 16 m, v = v max = 12 m/s,

a = 0

Note that v max occurs when a=0, and that the slope of the velocity curve is zero at this point.

What are x, v, and a at t = 4 s ?

- at t = 4 s,

x = x max = 32 m, v = 0,

a = -12 m/s 2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Concept Quiz

What is true about the kinematics of a particle?

a) The velocity of a particle is always positive

b) The velocity of a particle is equal to the slope of the position-time graph

c) If the position of a particle is zero, then the velocity must zero

d) If the velocity of a particle is zero, then its

acceleration must be zero

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Determination of the Motion of a Particle

We often determine accelerations from the forces applied (kinetics will be covered later)

Generally have three classes of motion

- acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)

- acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)

- acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)

Can you think of a physical example of when force is a

function of position?

When force is a function of velocity?

o s i t i o n ? When force is a function of velocity? a

a spring

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

? When force is a function of velocity? a spring © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

drag

11 - 11

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Acceleration as a function of time, position, or velocity

If…. Kinematic relationship Integrate v t a  at dv a ( t ) 
If….
Kinematic relationship
Integrate
v
t
a  at
dv
a ( t )
dv 
a

t
dt
dt 
v
0
0
dx
dv
dt 
and a
v
x
a  ax
v
dt
v dv 
a
x
dx
vdv  axdx
v
x
0
0
dv
v
t
dv
 a ( v )
dt
dt
a
v
a  av
v
0
0
dv
v
x v dv
v
a
v
 dx 
dx 
a
v
x
v
0
0

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.2

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.2 Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity from

Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity from window 20 m above ground.

Determine:

velocity and elevation above ground at time t,

highest elevation reached by ball and

corresponding time, and

time when ball will hit the ground and corresponding velocity.

SOLUTION:

Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).

Solve for t when velocity equals zero

(time for maximum elevation) and evaluate corresponding altitude.

Solve for t when altitude equals zero

(time for ground impact) and evaluate

corresponding velocity.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.2

SOLUTION: • Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t). dv 2  a  9.81m
SOLUTION:
Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
dv
2
a  9.81m s
dt
v t

t
dv

9.81 dt
vt
 v
 9.81 t
0
v
0
0
m vt  10 m   9.81  t  s 2  
m
vt
 10
m   9.81
 t 
s
2
 
s
dy
v 
10
9.81 t
dt
y t

t
2
1
dy
10
9.81 t dt
y t

y
10
t
9.81
t
0
2
y
0
0
y t

2
 20m   10
m s    t 
4.905
m  t
2
 
s

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.2

• Solve for t when velocity equals zero and evaluate corresponding altitude. m  v
• Solve for t when velocity equals zero and evaluate
corresponding altitude.
m
v

t
10
  9.81
m   t  0
s
2
s
t 1.019s

Solve for t when altitude equals zero and evaluate

• Solve for t when altitude equals zero and evaluate corresponding velocity.  y t y

corresponding velocity.



y t

y

20 m

20 m

10

10

m

s

m

s

t

  4.905

m

s

2

 

t

2

1.019s

  4.905

m

s

2

1.019s

y 25.1m

2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.2

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.2 • Solve for t when altitude equals zero

Solve for t when altitude equals zero and evaluate corresponding velocity.



y t

20m

10

m   t   4.905

s

m

s

2

t

2

0

t

 1.243s

meaningless

t

3.28s

v



t

10

v

3.28s

m

s

  9.81

m

s

2

t

10

m

s

  9.81

m

s

2

3.28s

v  22.2

m

s

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.3

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.3 a  kv Brake mechanism used to reduce

a kv

Brake mechanism used to reduce gun recoil consists of piston attached to barrel moving in fixed cylinder filled with oil.

As barrel recoils with initial velocity v 0 , piston moves and oil is forced through

orifices in piston, causing piston and cylinder to decelerate at rate proportional to their velocity.

Determine v(t), x(t), and v(x).

SOLUTION:

Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t).

Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).

Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.3

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.3 SOLUTION: • a • Integrate a = dv/dt
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.3 SOLUTION: • a • Integrate a = dv/dt

SOLUTION:

a

Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t).

dv

dt



kv

v

v 0

dv

v



k

t

0

dt

ln

v



t

v

0

 kt



v t

v

0

e

kt

Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).

v

x

0



t

dx

dx kt

dt

v e

0

v

0

t

0

e

kt

dt

x



t

v

0


1

k

t

e

kt

 

0



x t

v

0

k

1e

kt

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.3

• Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x). v dv a 
Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).
v
dv
a
v

kv
dv

k dx
dx
v
0
v
v

kx
0

Alternatively,

with

and

then



x t



v t



x t

v

0

k

k

1e

kt

v

0

e

kt

or

v

0

k

1



v t

v

0

e kt



v t

v 0

dv



k

x

0

dx

v

v

0

kx

v

v

0

kx

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving The car starts from rest and accelerates according to

The car starts from rest and accelerates

according to the relationship

a 30.001v

2

It travels around a circular track that has a radius of 200 meters. Calculate the velocity of the car after it has travelled halfway around the track. What is the car’s maximum possible speed?

SOLUTION:

Determine the proper kinematic

relationship to apply (is acceleration

a function of time, velocity, or

position?

Determine the total distance the car travels in one-half lap

Integrate to determine the velocity

after one-half lap

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Given:

a 30.001v

2

v o = 0, r = 200 m

Find:

Choose the proper kinematic relationship

Acceleration is a function of velocity, and

we also can determine distance. Time is not

involved in the problem, so we choose:

v

dv

dx

a

v

x

x

0

dx

v

v

0

v dv

a

v

Determine total distance travelled

x r 3.14(200) 628.32 m

v after ½ lap Maximum speed

 3.14(200)  628.32 m v after ½ lap Maximum speed © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies,
 3.14(200)  628.32 m v after ½ lap Maximum speed © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Determine the full integral, including limits

x

x

0

dx

v

v

0

v dv

a

v

628.32

0

dx

v

0

v

3 0.001 v

2

dv

Evaluate the interval and solve for v

628.32 

1

0.002

ln 3

0.001 v

2

v

0

628.32(0.002) ln 30.001v

2

 ln 30.001(0)

ln 30.001v

2    1.25661.0986= 0.15802

Take the exponential of each side

3 0.001v

 Take the exponential of each side 3  0.001 v 2  e  0.15802

2 e

0.15802

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Solve for v

v

2 3 e

0.15802

0.001

3

0.001v

2

2146.2

e

0.15802

 0.001 3  0.001 v 2  2146.2  e  0.15802 v  46.3268
v  46.3268 m/s
v  46.3268 m/s

How do you determine the maximum speed the car can reach?

Velocity is a maximum when acceleration is zero

This occurs when

v

max

3 0.001
3
0.001

a 30.001v

0.001v

2

3

 54.772 m/s v max
 54.772 m/s
v max

2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Uniform Rectilinear Motion

During free-fall, a parachutist reaches terminal velocity when her weight equals the drag

force. If motion is in a straight

line, this is uniform rectilinear motion.

is in a straight line, this is uniform rectilinear motion. For a particle in uniform rectilinear

For a particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is zero and the velocity is constant.

dx

dt

x

v constant

dx v

t

dt

x

0

0

x

x

x

0

x

0

vt

vt

Careful these only apply to

uniform rectilinear motion!

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion

If forces applied to a body are constant (and in a constant direction), then you have uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.

then you have uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion. Another example is free- fall when drag is negligible
then you have uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion. Another example is free- fall when drag is negligible

Another example is free-

fall when drag is negligible

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion

For a particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the acceleration of the particle is constant. You may recognize these constant acceleration equations from your physics courses.

dv

dt

dx

dt

 

a

v

0

constant

at

x

x 0

dx

v

dv

dx  

a

constant

v

v 0

dv

a

t

0

t

0

v

0

at

dt

dt

v

v

0

vdv

a

x

x

0

dx

v

v

0

x

v

2

x

0

at

v t

0

2

v

0

2

a

1

2

at

2

x

x

0

Careful these only apply to uniformly

accelerated rectilinear motion!

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Motion of Several Particles

We may be interested in the motion of several different particles, whose motion may be independent or linked together.

whose motion may be independent or linked together. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights
whose motion may be independent or linked together. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion

Dynamics Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion • For particles moving along the same line, time

For particles moving along the same line, time should be recorded from the same starting instant and displacements should be measured

from the same origin in the same direction.

x

x

x x B B v B

B

B

v

x x B B v B

B

A

A

x

x

A

B

x

A

x

 x x A B  x  A  x B A  v B

B

A

v

B

v

A

v

B

a

v B a B

B

A

v

A

v

v A  v B A  a  a  B A

B A

a a

B

A

a

B

a

A

a

 a B A

B

A

relative position of B

with respect to A

relative velocity of B

with respect to A

relative acceleration of B with respect to A

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.4

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.4 Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level in

Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level

in elevator shaft with initial velocity of

18 m/s. At same instant, open-platform elevator passes 5 m level moving upward at 2 m/s.

Determine (a) when and where ball hits

elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball and elevator at contact.

SOLUTION:

Substitute initial position and velocity and constant acceleration of ball into

general equations for uniformly

accelerated rectilinear motion.

Substitute initial position and constant velocity of elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.

Write equation for relative position of

ball with respect to elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.

Substitute impact time into equation

for position of elevator and relative

velocity of ball with respect to elevator.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.4

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.4 SOLUTION: • Substitute initial position and velocity and

SOLUTION:

Substitute initial position and velocity and constant

acceleration of ball into general equations for

uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.

v

y

B

B

v

0

y

0

at

18

v t

0

1

2

m

s

at

  9.81

m

s

2

t

2

12 m

18

m

s

t

  4.905

m

s

2

t

s    t    4.905  m  s 2  t

Substitute initial position and constant velocity of elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.

v

E

y

E

m

s

0

y

2

v t 5m

E

2

m

s

t

2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.4

• Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to elevator and solve for
• Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to
elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
 5
y
12 18 t 
4.905
t
2
 t  0
2
B E
t
 0.39s
meaningless
t
 3.65s
• Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevator
and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator.

y

E 523.65

v

  B E
B E

18 9.81 t

2

16 9.813.65

y 12.3m

E

v

v B E   19.81 m s

B E

 19.81

m

s

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion

Dynamics Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion • Position of a particle may depend on position
Dynamics Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion • Position of a particle may depend on position

Position of a particle may depend on position of one or more other particles.

Position of block B depends on position of block A.

Since rope is of constant length, it follows that sum of lengths of segments must be constant.

x

A

2x

B

constant (one degree of freedom)

Positions of three blocks are dependent.

2x

A

2x

B

x

C

constant (two degrees of freedom)

For linearly related positions, similar relations hold between velocities and accelerations.

2

2

dx

A

dt

dv

A

dt

2

2

dx

B

dt

dv

B

dt

dx

C

dt

dv

C

dt

0 or 2 v

A

2 v

B

0

or

2 a

A

2 a

B

v

C

a

C

0

0

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving Slider block A moves to the left with a

Slider block A moves to the left with a

constant velocity of 6 m/s. Determine the

velocity of block B.

Solution steps

Sketch your system and choose

coordinate system

Write out constraint equation

Differentiate the constraint equation to get velocity

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

x A y B
x A
y B

Given: v A = 6 m/s left

This length is constant no matter how the blocks move

Find: v B

Sketch your system and choose coordinates

Define your constraint equation(s)

x

A

3

y

B

constants L

Differentiate the constraint equation to get velocity

6 m/s + 3 v

B 0

constraint equation to get velocity 6 m/s + 3 v B  0 Note that as

Note that as x A gets bigger, y B gets smaller.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

Engineers often collect position, velocity, and acceleration data. Graphical solutions are often useful in analyzing these data.

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 47.76 47.77 47.78 47.79 47.8
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
47.76
47.77
47.78
47.79
47.8
47.81
Time (s)
Acceleration (g)

Acceleration data

from a head impact

during a round of

boxing.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

Dynamics Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems • Given the x-t curve, the v-t curve is equal

Given the x-t curve, the v-t curve is equal to the x-t curve slope.

Given the v-t curve, the a-t curve is equal to the v-t curve slope.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

Dynamics Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems • Given the a-t curve, the change in velocity between
Dynamics Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems • Given the a-t curve, the change in velocity between
Dynamics Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems • Given the a-t curve, the change in velocity between

Given the a-t curve, the change in velocity between t 1 and t 2 is equal to the area under the a-t curve between t 1 and t 2 .

Given the v-t curve, the change in position between t 1 and t 2 is equal to the area under the v-t curve between t 1 and t 2 .

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

The softball and the car both undergo

curvilinear motion.

The softball and the car both undergo curvilinear motion. • A particle moving along a curve
The softball and the car both undergo curvilinear motion. • A particle moving along a curve

A particle moving along a curve other than a straight line is in curvilinear motion.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

The position vector of a particle at time t is defined by a vector between origin O of a fixed reference frame and the position occupied by particle.

Consider a particle which occupies position P defined by

and P’ defined by

r

at

t + Dt,

r

at time t

P’ defined by r   at t + D t ,  r at time

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Instantaneous velocity (vector)

D r dr v  lim 
D r
dr
v  lim

D 0

t

D t

dt

velocity (vector) D r dr v  lim  D 0 t D t dt Instantaneous

Instantaneous speed (scalar)

v lim

D 0

t

D s

D t

ds

dt

speed (scalar) v  lim D 0 t D s D t  ds dt ©

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Consider velocity

v

of a particle at time t and velocity

v

at t + Dt,

D v dv a  lim  
D v
dv
a  lim

D 0

t

D t

dt

instantaneous acceleration (vector)

 D 0 t D t dt instantaneous acceleration (vector) • In general, the acceleration vector
•

In general, the acceleration vector is not tangent to the particle path and velocity vector.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration

Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration • When position vector of particle P is given by
Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration • When position vector of particle P is given by

When position vector of particle P is given by its

rectangular components,

r

xi

yj

zk

Velocity vector,

v

dx

dt

i

v

x

i

dy

dt

j

v

y

j

dz

k

dt

v

z k

xi

Acceleration vector,

a

d

2

x

dt

2

i

a

x

i

a

d

2

y

dt

2

j

2

z

d

k

dt

2

y

j a

z

k

 

yj

zk

 

 xi

 yj

 zk

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration

Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration • Rectangular components particularly effective when
Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration • Rectangular components particularly effective when

Rectangular components particularly effective

when component accelerations can be integrated

independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,

a

x

 x 0

a

y

 y g

a  z 0

z

with initial conditions,

x

0

y

0

z

0

0

v

x

0

,

v

y

0

Integrating twice yields

v

x

x

v

v

x

x

0

0

t

v

y

v

y

v

y

y

0

0

y

gt

1

2

gt

2

,

v

z

v

z

z

0

0

0

0

Motion in horizontal direction is uniform.

Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.

Motion of projectile could be replaced by two independent rectilinear motions.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.7

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.7 A projectile is fired from the edge of

A projectile is fired from the edge

of a 150-m cliff with an initial velocity of 180 m/s at an angle of

30° with the horizontal. Neglecting air resistance, find (a) the horizontal

distance from the gun to the point

where the projectile strikes the ground, (b) the greatest elevation above the ground reached by the projectile.

SOLUTION:

Consider the vertical and horizontal motion separately (they are independent)

Apply equations of motion in y-direction

Apply equations of motion in x-direction

Determine time t for projectile to hit the

ground, use this to find the horizontal distance

Maximum elevation occurs when v y =0

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.7

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.7 SOLUTION: G i v e n : (
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.7 SOLUTION: G i v e n : (

SOLUTION:

Given:

(v) o =180 m/s

(a) y = - 9.81 m/s 2

(y) o =150 m (a) x = 0 m/s 2

Vertical motion uniformly accelerated:

m / s 2 Vertical motion – uniformly accelerated: Horizontal motion – uniformly accelerated: Choose
m / s 2 Vertical motion – uniformly accelerated: Horizontal motion – uniformly accelerated: Choose

Horizontal motion uniformly accelerated:

Choose positive x to the right as shown

accelerated: Choose positive x to the right as shown © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All
accelerated: Choose positive x to the right as shown © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.7

SOLUTION:

Horizontal distance

Dynamics Sample Problem 11.7 SOLUTION: Horizontal distance Projectile strikes the ground at: Substitute into equation

Projectile strikes the ground at:

Substitute into equation (1) above

strikes the ground at: Substitute into equation (1) above Solving for t, we take the positive

Solving for t, we take the positive root

(1) above Solving for t, we take the positive root Substitute t into equation (4) Maximum
(1) above Solving for t, we take the positive root Substitute t into equation (4) Maximum
(1) above Solving for t, we take the positive root Substitute t into equation (4) Maximum

Substitute t into equation (4)

t, we take the positive root Substitute t into equation (4) Maximum elevation occurs when v
t, we take the positive root Substitute t into equation (4) Maximum elevation occurs when v

Maximum elevation occurs when v y =0

into equation (4) Maximum elevation occurs when v y =0 Maximum elevation above the ground =

Maximum elevation above the ground =

occurs when v y =0 Maximum elevation above the ground = © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving A baseball pitching machine “throws” baseballs with a

A baseball pitching machine “throws” baseballs with a horizontal velocity v 0 . If you want the height h to be 42 in., determine the value of v 0 .

SOLUTION:

Consider the vertical and horizontal motion separately (they are independent)

Apply equations of motion in y-direction

Apply equations of motion in x-direction

Determine time t for projectile to fall to 42 inches

Calculate v 0 =0

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Given: x= 40 ft, y o = 5 ft,

y f = 42 in. Find: v o

Analyze the motion in the y-direction

y

f

1

y (0)

0

t

1

2

2

gt

2

3.5

5

gt

2

1.5 ft



1

2

2

(32.2 ft/s )

t

2

t 0.305234 s

gt 2 1.5 ft  1 2 2 (32.2 ft/s ) t 2 t  0.305234

Analyze the motion in the x-direction

x 0

(

v

x

)

0

t v t

0

40 ft (v )(0.305234 s)

0

 ( v x ) 0 t  v t 0 40 ft  ( v

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation

A soccer player must consider

the relative motion of the ball

and her teammates when

making a pass.

motion of the ball and her teammates when making a pass. It is critical for a

It is critical for a pilot to

know the relative motion of his aircraft with respect to the aircraft carrier to make a safe landing.

with respect to the aircraft carrier to make a safe landing. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation

Dynamics Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation • Designate one frame as the fixed frame

Designate one frame as the fixed frame of reference. All other frames not rigidly attached to the fixed reference frame are moving frames of reference.

Position vectors for particles A and B with respect to

the fixed frame of reference Oxyz are

r

A

and r

B

.

Vector

r B

Oxyz are  r A and r  B . • Vector  r B A

A joining A and B defines the position of

B with respect to the moving frame Ax’y’z’ and

r

B

r

A

r

frame Ax’y’z’ and  r B   r A   r B A •

B

A

Differentiating twice,

v

B

a

B

v

A

a

A

v

A v B  a B   v A  a  A  

velocity of B relative to A.

a

   v A  velocity of B relative to A . a  B

B

A

acceleration of B relative

a

to A . a  B A  acceleration of B relative a B A 

B A

to A.

Absolute motion of B can be obtained by combining motion of A with relative motion of B with respect to moving reference frame attached to A.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tangential and Normal Components

If we have an idea of the path of a vehicle, it is often convenient

to analyze the motion using tangential and normal components

(sometimes called path coordinates).

and normal components (sometimes called path coordinates). © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
and normal components (sometimes called path coordinates). © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
and normal components (sometimes called path coordinates). © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Tangential and Normal Components

y

e v= v t e t n e t x
e
v= v t e t
n
e
t
x

r= the instantaneous

radius of curvature

a

v v e

t

dv

dt

e

t

v

2

r

e

n

The tangential direction (e t ) is tangent to the path of the particle. This velocity vector of a particle is in this direction

The normal direction (e n ) is perpendicular to e t and points towards the inside of the curve.

The acceleration can have components in both the e n and e t directions

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.8

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 11.8 SOLUTION: • Define your coordinate system • Calculate

SOLUTION:

Define your coordinate system

Calculate the tangential velocity and tangential acceleration

Calculate the normal acceleration

A motorist is traveling on a curved section of highway of radius 2500 ft

at the speed of 60 mi/h. The motorist

suddenly applies the brakes, causing

the automobile to slow down at a constant rate. Knowing that after 8 s the speed has been reduced to 45 mi/h, determine the acceleration of

the automobile immediately after the

brakes have been applied.

Determine overall acceleration magnitude after the brakes have been applied

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 11.8

e t e n
e t
e n

SOLUTION:

Define your coordinate system

Determine velocity and acceleration in

the tangential direction

velocity and acceleration in the tangential direction • The deceleration constant, therefore • Immediately

The deceleration constant, therefore

direction • The deceleration constant, therefore • Immediately after the brakes are applied, the speed is
direction • The deceleration constant, therefore • Immediately after the brakes are applied, the speed is

Immediately after the brakes are applied, the speed is still 88 ft/s

after the brakes are applied, the speed is still 88 ft/s a  a a 

a

a a  2.75 2  3.10 2 n 2 t 2
a
a 
2.75
2  3.10
2
n 2
t 2
88 ft/s a  a a  2.75 2  3.10 2 n 2 t 2
88 ft/s a  a a  2.75 2  3.10 2 n 2 t 2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving The tangential acceleration of the centrifuge cab is given

The tangential acceleration of the centrifuge cab is given by

a

t