Sei sulla pagina 1di 55

MAINTENANCE & SAFETY

Anil Jindal
BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Department of Mechanical Engineering


BITS Pilani

BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM)


and
Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)
Lecture 5

Effectiveness improvement through


condition monitoring

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Condition Monitoring Techniques


Visual
Temperature
Vibration
Lubricant monitoring
Leakage monitoring
Cracks monitoring
Thickness monitoring
Corrosion monitoring
Noise / Sound monitoring
Smell / Odour monitoring

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Alignment of shafts

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Alignment of shafts

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Alignment of shafts

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

ELECTRIC MOTOR ANALYSIS


Evaluation of electric motors and other electrical equipment
is critical to a total plant predictive maintenance program.
To an extent, vibration data isolate some of the
mechanical and electrical problems that can develop in
critical drive motors. However, vibration cannot provide
the comprehensive coverage required to achieve
optimum plant performance. Therefore, a total plant
predictive maintenance program must include data
acquisition and evaluation methods that are specifically
designed to identify problems within motors and other
electrical equipment.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

ELECTRIC MOTOR ANALYSIS


1. Insulation Resistance
Normally these tests are conducted using (1) megger, (2)
Wheatstone bridge, (3) Kelvin double bridge, or (4) a
number of other instruments.
2. Other Electrical Testing
Total plant program should also include (1) dielectric loss
analysis, (2) gas-in-oil analysis, (3) stray field monitoring,
(4) high voltage, switchgear discharge testing, (5)
resistance measurements, (6) Rogowski coils, and (7)
rotor bar current harmonics.
BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Thickness Monitoring
Thickness monitoring is very effective and useful technique
for assessing the thickness (and thus condition) of the
pipelines, pressure vessels, tanks, bottles, cylinders, radar
domes, aircraft wings and body panels etc.
Most thickness monitoring equipment work on
ultrasonic system.
A sound pulse, generated by a probe, travels through the
material, bounces-off the back surface of the material and
returns to the probe.
By accurately measuring the time taken between the
transmission and reception of the pulse, the instrument
calculates the thickness using the velocity formula.

Thickness Monitoring

Crack Monitoring
Crack monitoring is more used for quality assurance and
metallographic analysis to assess the quality of metals and
quality of procedures during making, shaping and treating
of metals in industries.
Crack monitoring programmes measures not total crack
depth and width but change in crack width. This change in
crack width is called crack displacement. The crack
displacement measured by the sensors may be driven by
any combination of the factors listed below
Differential thermal expansion,
Structural and machine overloading,
Chemical changes in various components of machine,

Crack Monitoring
Shrinkage arid twisting of different components
temperature and humidity changes etc.
Fatigue and aging of components, etc

Various techniques used for crack monitoring areDye-penetrant Test,


Magnetic flux (Magna-flux),
Electric resistance,
Eddy current,
Ultrasonic and Radiographic tests etc

Corrosion Monitoring
The principles of corrosion monitoring equipment is based
on corrosion or chemical wear of the material. The use of
such techniques for condition monitoring of machines/
components is very limited and selective.
Few common corrosion monitoring techniques are
enumerated below
Weight Loss Method,
Electrical Resistance Method,
Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) Method,
Galvanic or Zero Resistance Method,
Hydrogen Monitoring Method: etc.

NOISE / SOUND (ACOUSTIC)


MONITORING
Acoustic is a general word for noise and sound. Noise
and sound are basically the same except that noise is
considered as harsh, unpleasant and undesirable sound.
The human ear can detect frequencies between 20 Hz
and 20 kHz. This range is referred to as the audible, or
sonic, range. Frequencies above this range are referred to
as ultrasonic or ultrasound.
Noise monitoring is very important for controlling noise
pollution and environmental protection as noise affect
human-being both ways, physically and psychologically
and prolonged exposure to high noise level can lead to
permanent hearing loss.

NOISE / SOUND (ACOUSTIC)


MONITORING
Noise monitoring can also be used, to some extent, to
monitor the health and condition of machines. For,
identifying the noise sources, following techniques may
be used
Subjective assessment,
Acoustic ducts (such as horn etc),
Surface intensity approach (using accelerometer on
vibrating surface and a microphone),
Acoustic intensity approach and sound-pressure
monitoring (using microphone devices),
Impulsive noise monitoring,
Infrasonic noise monitoring and microbarograph; etc.

Radiography
Deep penetration for several inches and thickness of steel
and other metals.
According to strength of radiation, defects detected to quite
a depth.

Ultrasonic Testing
Based on the strength of ultrasonic sound waves getting
reflected to the source.
Complementary to radiography or X-Ray.
Can investigate several inches depth in metals.

Magnetic Particle Inspection


Used for shallow sub surface defects.
Used for materials which are magnetic, particularly for steel
welds.
Portable and cheaper technique.

Hydrostatic Technique
Pressure testing of a system having boundaries prior to
operation.
Usually carried out with water as medium for a specified
period of time for testing leakage.

Electro magnetic Induction


Coil surround the component and are magnetize which
induce current .
Used in testing thickness of sheets especially in tube
thickness.
Portable and can be used for detecting defects on the
surface and sub surface.

Acoustic Emission Technique


Similar to ultrasonic testing, but basically used for detection of
crack growth through piezoelectric crystal placed on the
member to be inspected.
The electric current from the transducer is proportional to the
energy disseminated by crack development.

Dye Penetration Inspection


It also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) or penetrant
testing (PT), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection
method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all nonporous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics).
The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials
and ferrous materials, but for inspection of ferrous
components magnetic-particle inspection is also preferred
for its subsurface detection capability.
LPI is used to detect casting, forging and welding surface
defects such as cracks, suface porosities, and leaks in new
products, and fatigue cracks on in-service components.

Dye Penetration Inspection

Typical case study

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Reliability Centered Maintenance


(RCM)
Chapter 4:Part-1

Reliability
Reliability provides the means to estimate the likelihood that a
system will achieve its mission in a given duration and operating
conditions.
Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A test is
considered reliable if we get the same result repeatedly.
For example, if a test is designed to measure a trait, then each
time the test is administered to a subject, the results should be
approximately the same.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to calculate reliability exactly, but it
can be estimated in a number of different ways.
the probability that no (system) failure will occur in a given time
interval
A reliable system is one that meets the specifications.
BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Various aspects of
reliability centered maintenance

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Practical steps towards achieving


reliabilitycentered maintenance
Step 1: Educate from Top to Bottom on ReliabilityCentered Maintenance
Shatter the old myths
Presentation to the staff the better way
Use multiple formats
Make the employees understand the importance of
their benefit in following the new techniques
Planting lots of small seeds

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Practical steps towards achieving


reliabilitycentered maintenance
Step2: Benchmarking the Present position
Companies will realize that once they are bench-marked,
they will realize that how far they are behind. The realities
will provide the necessary attitude adjustment.
For safety, the International Standards Organization has
defined to calculate lost time incident rate (LTIR) and
recordable incident rate (RIR).
It is understood that an RIR of 0.5 and LTIR of 0.05 are
considered to be high. Similar norms are not available for
reliability centred maintenance

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Practical steps towards achieving


reliabilitycentered maintenance

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Practical steps towards achieving


reliabilitycentered maintenance
Step 3: Establishing Long Term Vision
Once the benchmark is established, the next challenge is to define
where to proceed further.
The key to establish a vision is to begin with a goal in mind.
The metrics from benchmark are used to set specific, measurable
targets for the performance outcomes with in 3-5 years in future.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Practical steps towards achieving


reliabilitycentered maintenance
Step4: Building up of a Business Case
The reason to carry out RCM is to improve the net profit by
reducing the maintenance costs.
Some examples of improvement are given below:
A 5 percent increase in availability = 5 percent increase in revenue
for a continuous process plant that can sell all that it makes. For
example, a plant that produces Rs. 1,000 crore per year generates
another Rs. 50 crore in revenue.
Reducing overtime from 20 to 10 percent moves 10 percent of
labour from overtime rates to straight time rates. If the overtime
multiplier is 1.5 and a plant has a Rs. 10 crore labour budget
towards overtime Rs. 1 crore is saved.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Practical steps towards achieving


reliabilitycentered maintenance
Step5: Conducting a Pilot Program
It may be necessary to conduct a pilot programme so as
to get the real feel of the benefits of following an
organized maintenance scheme.
The pilot serves the following critical functions:
Reduce initial investment.
Business case need approval
Test Lab.

Selecting a pilot project is critical, i.e. an operationally


important yet small-sized project which can be fulfilled
in 3-6 months.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Practical steps towards achieving


reliabilitycentered maintenance

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

System Reliability
Reliability of the product (made up of a number of components) is
determined by the reliability of each component and also by the
configuration of the system consisting of these components
Product design, manufacture, maintenance influence reliability, but
design has a major role
One common approach for increasing the reliability of the system is
through redundancy in design, which is usually achieved by placing
components in parallel.
As long as one component operates, the system operates

Systems with components in series


For the system to operate, each component must operate
It is assumed that the components operate independently of each
other (Failure
of one component has no influence on the failure of any other
component)
A

Systems with components in


series contd..
If there are n components in series, then system reliability is given
by Rs = R1 x R2 x - - - - - - Rn
System reliability decreases as the number of components in series
increases
Manufacturing capability and resource limitations restrict the
maximum reliability of any given component
Product redesign that reduces the no. of components in series is the
viable alternative
Use of the Exponential Model
If the system is in chance failure phase, a constant failure rate
could be justified based on which we can calculate failure rate,
mean time to failure and system reliability

Systems with components in


series contd..
Use of the Exponential Model
Suppose the system has n components in series
Each component has exponentially distributed time-to-failure
with failure rates given by
1, 2 n
The system reliability is given by

R s e 1t X e 2 t X e 3 t X e n t

n
i
i1

Thus if each component that fails is replaced immediately with


another that has the same failure rate, the mean time to
1
failure for the system is given by
MTTF n

i1

When all components have same failure rate, If


then

M T TF

1
n

System with components in parallel


System reliability can be improved by placing components in parallel as system will operate as

long as at least one of the components operates.


The only time the system fails is when all the parallel components fail
All components are assumed to operate simultaneously.
A system having n components in parallel, with the reliability of the ith component denoted by
Ri, i=1, 2, ----- n.
Also assume that the components operate randomly and independently of each other.
The probability of failure of each component is given by

Fi = 1-Ri.

System fails only if all the components fail and hence the probability of system failure is

Fs 1 R1 1 R2 1 Rn (1 Ri ) n
i1

Systems with components in


parallel contd..
Reliability of the system is the complement of Fs and
is given by Rs = 1-Fs
Use of Exponential model
If the time to failure of each component can be modelled by the exponential
distribution, each with a constant failure rate i, then the system reliability, assuming
independence of component operation is
Time to failure of the system is not exponentially distributed
In the special case, where all the components have the same failure rate

the system reliability is Rs = 1- (1-e- t)n


Mean time to failure for a system of n components in parallel is given by

1
1 1
MTTF 1/ 1
n
2 3

Reliability block diagrams


Once the reliability of the subsystems is determined, the overall system can
be effectively modeled from the reliability perspective. Once modeled, the
weak links usually become evident and can be addressed with reliability
growth measures to eliminate the deficiencies. Figure illustrates blockdiagrammed examples of simple serial, parallel and combination systems.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Reliability while active and


standby

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Reliability while active and


standby

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Reliability while active and


standby

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Reliability centered
maintenance
RCM is a process to optimize reliability and associated
maintenance tactics with respect to operational
requirement.
Economic optimization of machine reliability with
organizational goal is the primary objective of RCM.
RCM guides the reliability investment with improvement
measures and techniques including lubrication
management and analysis such that the economic
optimization is realized.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Reliability centered maintenance

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Law of diminishing marginal


returns
The implementation of RCM follows the law of diminishing
marginal returns.
The money invested in reliability improvement tends to
yield a higher return on investment than any money
subsequently invested.
The objective is to reach the point of optimization at which
the benefits of reliability expresses as total operating cost,
are maximized through cost reduction.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Law of diminishing marginal


returns

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Plot between time & condition


The warning in advance of a functional failure that a
monitoring technique provides is called the P-F interval.
P refers to the time at which the potential failure occurs.
F refers to the time at which actual failure occurs.
Longer the P-F interval, more time one has to make a
good decision and plan action.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Example
An amplifier has an exponential time to failure distribution
with a failure rate of 8% per 1000h. What is the reliability
of the amplifier at 5000 h? Find the mean time to failure.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Solution:

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Example
What is the highest failure rate for a product if it is to have a
probability of survival (that is, successful operation) of
95% at 4000h? Assume that the time to failure follows an
exponential distribution.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Solution:

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Example
A module of a satellite monitoring system has 500
components in series. The reliability of each component
IS 0.999. Find the reliability of the module. If the number
of components in series is reduced to 200. What is the
reliability of the module?

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Solution:

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus