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ENGG ZC242

Maintenance & Safety


BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Anil Jindal
Department of Mechanical Engineering

BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Introduction to Maintenance
Systems
Chapter 1, Lecture -2

Learning Objectives
Maintenance Objectives/Scope and Benefits/Policies
Maintenance as Business Proposition
Maintenance Philosophy
Types of Maintenance Systems

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Maintenance Objectives
Operational

Maximum operating efficiency of plant


Maximum availability of plant
High Quality performance
Safety
To maintain a plant clean & good appearance
To extend Plant life to the last limit
To reduce environmental impact due to machinery etc
To provide service that will avert all breakdowns at all times at any cost.

Cost
Minimize maintenance expenditure and maximize profits
To provide activities with in the limits of budgetary control

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Maintenance Benefits
Financial
Organizational
Technical
Human
Customer relations

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Financial Benefits
Extended Plant Life
Uninterrupted production
Improved quality of production
Reduced production delays
Reduced cost of repairs

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Organizational Benefits
Co-ordination between production and maintenance
Man power planning
Planning of deliveries

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Technical Benefits
Improved equipment suitability
Build up of technical data
Improved maintenance schedules
Improved plant condition

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Human considerations
Benefits
Increased Safety
Improved House keeping
Less friction between relationships

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Customer relationship
Benefits
Reliable delivery calls
Show case house keeping

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Maintenance Policy
Scope and limits of maintenance
Type and level of service expected
Responsibilities to management
Personal Practices
Trade union contracts
Budget and financial controls

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Maintenance Functions
Primary Functions

Maintenance of existing plant equipment


Maintenance of existing plant buildings and grounds
Equipment inspection and lubrication
Utilities generation and distribution
Alterations and new installations

Secondary Functions

Storekeeping
Plant protection
Waste disposal
Salvage
Insurance
Other services

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What does maintenance really


do?
Repair, lubrication, overhaul, inspection, replacement of
parts
Training of the maintenance staff
Training of the production staff
Testing parts for suitability
Planning of servicing schedules
Improvement and modifications of plant
Production of spare parts

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Maintenance as Business
Proposition
The maintenance costs continue to capture the attention
of senior management as the investment as reliability in
assets become increasingly greater.
In some companies, maintenance cost is becoming a
larger percentage of total cost.
For example, a company recently identified maintenance
cost as in excess of 40 percent of their total cost of
conversion,
representing
significant
scope
for
improvement.
Hence it is essential to run maintenance as business.

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The Business Unit Concept


Some organizations have centralized which are responsible for all
aspects of asset management.
The responsibilities of these centralized departments include:
specifying, acquiring, installing, and commissioning new plant,
managing spare parts, planning and control of maintenance system
etc.
But in most companies engineering is separated from maintenance.
Engineering department looks for specification, acquisition and
deployment of new plant, while the maintenance department looks for
all aspects of maintenance after the plant has been commissioned.
The concept of business unit started to emerge about two decades
ago.

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Business Unit Concept


The concept has sub-divided larger undertaking into business units,
usually centered on specific product or service
Maintenance department is often broken up and its personnel
allocated to the business units.

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Automation
Huge leap in automation in last two decades.
The number of operators have shrunk and the machines
are taking over.
Incase of some systems there are no operators.
Computer programs drive these systems with occasional
additional guidance from people in distant control room.
More machines replacing men means, more
maintenance activities.

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Maintenance cost reduction


Senior executives think that if it were possible to reduce
expenditure on operation, it should be possible to reduce
maintenance cost by similar amount.
Companies have achieved an increase in production by
replacing men by machines and this increases the cost
of maintenance.
So decrease in operating cost is accompanied by
increase in maintenance cost.
Maintenance manager should be aware of the following
Safe minimum to be spent on proactive maintenance
o Consequences of not spending enough on maintenance
o

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Maintenance Philosophy
Most people think of the maintenance function as:
o

Fixing things that break.

Keeping things looking good.

Keeping things from breaking.

But for a structured maintenance, the following questions


have to be answered
o Is it that staff and supply are planned only to address breakdown?

o What is the cost of equipment downtime?


o How much time is required for routine maintenance activities?
o Whether focus needs to be on activities to reduce breakdown or allow
things to break down?
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Different Maintenance Systems

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Difference between Reactive and


Planned Maintenance

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Values in improving
maintenance practices
Without planning and scheduling, resources are primarily
in reactive mode and are only 30 to 40 percent effective.
Loading resources by planning and scheduling on daily
basis can increase the effectiveness to over 60
percent.
Program Driven Maintenance(PDM) increases the OEE
(Overall Equipment Efficiency) significantly.
Moving to PDM approach yields up to 40 percent
decrease in maintenance cost.
Human stress levels are dramatically reduced.

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Planned Maintenance
It includes concepts of essential care, fixed time
maintenance and condition monitoring.

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Planned Maintenance
Essential Care(EC): This includes preventing failures
from occurring with tasks such as detailed cleaning,
lubrication, alignment, balancing, operating procedures,
adjustments, and installation procedures.
Fixed-Time Maintenance(FTM): It constitutes all
replacements that are done on a fixed schedule
regardless of condition, e.g. programmed replacements
and overhauls
Condition monitoring(CM): It constitutes all inspections
from simple subjective tasks such as look, listen, feel,
smell etc. to objective tasks such as vibration analysis,
oil-sampling, ultrasonic leak detection, pressure checks,
current readings etc.
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Preventive Maintenance
It is a planned maintenance of plant and equipment to
improve equipment life and to prevent unplanned
maintenance activity.
To minimize breakdown and excessive depreciation.
It can include
o Non destructive testing
o Periodic inspection like checking the lubricant level in engine.

o Pre planned maintenance activities like servicing, lubrication, greasing.


o Maintenance of correct deficiencies found through testing or inspection.

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Why Preventive Maintenance?


A breakdown could be catastrophic.
An unexpected breakdown is more difficult to manage
than a planned shutdown.
PM not only prevents breakdown but also extends
equipment life.
Reduced production downtime, resulting in fewer
machine breakdowns.
Timely, routine repairs circumvent fewer large scale
repairs.

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Preventive Maintenance
Programme Risks
Damage to an adjacent equipment during a PM task.
Damage to the equipment receiving the PM task.
Damage during the performance of an inspection,
repair, adjustment or installation of a replacement part.
Installing material that is defective, incorrectly installing
a replacement part or incorrectly reassembling material.
Reintroducing infant mortality by installing new parts or
materials.
Damage due to an error in reinstalling equipment into its
original location.

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Preventive Maintenance
Execution
Traditionally it was based on concept of
bathtub cure.
Bathtub curve has 3 stage
o Infant mortality stage
o Fairly long run stage
o Wear out stage

According to concept of PM, parts should


be replaced before they entered the
wear out phase.
But recent research in reliability centered
maintenance show that 72 percent of the
components show infant mortality
characteristics.
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Preventive Maintenance
Program
Identify the critical equipments
List the subsystems and parts for the identified
equipments
Determine the preventive maintenance procedure for
each of the subsystem and parts
Prepare a details work instruction for each procedure
Fix the frequency for each activity
Prepare a PM Calendar for the plant

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Preventive Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance Flow chart


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Key Machine Elements

Bush bearing
Roller / Ball bearing
Gear assembly
Belt & Pulley
Chain & Sprocket
Key
Spline
Clutch
Lead-screw & Nut
Coolant system
Lubrication system
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Key Machine Elements

Compressed air system


Chip conveyer system
Machine spindle
Guide surfaces
Work holding devices
Tool holding devices
Fasteners
Hydraulic system
Seals & Gaskets
Pumps
Motors
Contactors
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Predictive Maintenance
The condition of the equipment or machinery is predicted
by observing the signals it emits based on which the
maintenance action is taken
This maintenance is also called condition monitoring
The monitoring can be done online or offline
Some of the technologies that can be used to predict the
condition are
o
o
o
o

Vibration measurement
Thermography for measurement of heat
Oil an lubrication monitoring
Ultrasonic methods for leak detection, etc.

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Predictive Maintenance

Predictive Maintenance Flow chart

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Proactive Maintenance
If a disease is pinpointed and eliminated long before any
symptoms occur in your body, it would save your money
in doctor bills and keep you out of hospital in the long
run.
Proactive maintenance commissions corrective action
aimed at the source of failure.
Main difference between predictive and condition based
maintenance is that condition based maintenance uses
predicting tools long before the failure occurs and
predetermined intervals.

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Comparative analysis between proactive,


predictive and preventive maintenance.

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Man Management Issues in


Maintenance
Role of supervisor is very important to carry out
directions of management particularly in the field of
maintanence.
Supervisors are expected to be dynamic person who
has the ability to push to achieve corporate goals.
They should also build future supervisors or leaders.
Supervisors are generally people who have substantial
amount of shop floor experience coupled with training
to execute, schedule and maintain status quo.
Supervisor should keep the employee morale at peak.

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Organizational chart of a Water treatment and


supply plant intended for a city.

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Summary
Comment on the following statements
Maintenance is a necessary evil
Maintenance is a bottomless pit for expenses

Maintenance is known as Time lag effect


Maintenance is a composite function

Lesser the demand better the service


What type of conditions prevailing with in the company that
affect the demand upon the maintenance department?
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Thanks

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