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# Applications of Derivatives

## Jack L. Jackson II, Ph.D.

1. Contents

1.

Contents ......................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.

## Theorems Concerning Differentiable Functions ........................................................................................ 3

Rolle's Theorem.............................................................................................................................................. 3
Mean Value Theorem .................................................................................................................................... 5
Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem .................................................................................................................... 9

4.

## l'Hospital's Rule .......................................................................................................................................... 10

Indeterminate Form 0/0 ............................................................................................................................... 14
Indeterminate Form / ........................................................................................................................... 18
Indeterminate Form 0. .............................................................................................................................. 20
Indeterminate Form - ........................................................................................................................... 22
Indeterminate Forms 1, 00, and 0........................................................................................................... 26
End Behavior and Function Dominance .................................................................................................... 31

5.

## Newton's Method ......................................................................................................................................... 32

Overview of Newton's Method .................................................................................................................... 32
Approximating Zeroes with Newton's Method on a Calculator .............................................................. 36
Approximating Intersections and Solving Equations ............................................................................... 39
Approximating Extrema .............................................................................................................................. 42
Approximating Inflection Points................................................................................................................. 43

6.

## Analyzing Graphs of Functions ................................................................................................................. 44

Derivative and Graph Shapes ..................................................................................................................... 44
Polynomial Functions................................................................................................................................... 46
Rational Functions ....................................................................................................................................... 52
Trigonometric Functions ............................................................................................................................. 56

7.

## Transformations of Graphs ........................................................................................................................ 67

Translations .................................................................................................................................................. 68
Vertical and Horizontal Strains .................................................................................................................. 71
Dilations ........................................................................................................................................................ 73
Reflections ..................................................................................................................................................... 74
Rotations ....................................................................................................................................................... 77
Even and Odd Functions ............................................................................................................................. 78
Transformations Summary ......................................................................................................................... 79
Effect of Transformations of a Graph on the Graph of the Derivative ................................................... 80
Symmetry and Derivatives .......................................................................................................................... 84
Applications of Derivatives, Page 1

8.

## Families of Functions .................................................................................................................................. 85

Normal Probability Distribution Function ................................................................................................ 90
Logistics Functions ....................................................................................................................................... 97

## 9. Basic Derivative Interpretation Examples ................................................................................................ 106

10. Related Rates Applications ........................................................................................................................ 118
11. Optimization Problems .............................................................................................................................. 123
Position, Velocity, and Acceleration ......................................................................................................... 124
Geometric Problems................................................................................................................................... 127
Cost, Revenue, and Profit .......................................................................................................................... 135
Average Cost ............................................................................................................................................... 140
Elasticity of Demand .................................................................................................................................. 148
Physical Sciences ........................................................................................................................................ 153
Biological Sciences...................................................................................................................................... 153

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 2

2. Introduction
Calculus Video 4.1 Derivative Applications Introduction Contents
In this set of notes we will examine several applications of derivatives. We will begin with l'Hospital's Rule for
finding limits of functions with certain indeterminate forms, and we will then introduce Newton's Method for
approximating zeroes of differentiable functions. Next we will review the relationships among the graphs of the
original function and its first and second derivative. We will combine these ideas with our knowledge of limits,
algebra, and trigonometry and the table and graphing capabilities of our graphing calculators and computer
software to fully analyze graphs of functions. We will also use these skills to analyze families of functions with
given parameters.
After further developing these skills we will turn our attention to using derivatives to solve many real world
applications. These will include basic derivative interpretation problems, applications of the local linearity
property of differential functions, related rate applications, and optimization problems of various types including
some arising in the physical sciences and in economics.
It is important that we understand how the derivative shortcut rules work, and we gain some useful skills in
learning to apply them, but if that is all we know about derivatives then our derivative knowledge is worth less
than a calculator with a computer algebra system which can compute any derivative formula. In fact, with an
internet connection which you probably already have on your cell phone and a little facility with typing in formulas
you can easily find the derivative formula for any given function for free. So if this is all we know of calculus
then what we know is worth about \$0. What is much more important is knowing and being able to do what
calculators and computers cannot do including truly understanding the basic concept of what a derivative means
and how it can be applied. Ultimately what makes the concept of a derivative so powerful is in its application to
real world situations in a vast number of contexts. All we have done in this class thus far has been in preparation
for gaining skills in applying what we have learned in real world applications. In this set of notes and the
accompanying playlist on YouTube we will see a few ways of applying derivatives in application problems. Even
though we will look at dozens of example problems and exercises we will only scratch the surface of the many
possible applications of derivatives. Hopefully the skills you learn here will allow you to solve problems in a
wide variety of contexts including those in your chosen field of study or work.
As usual these notes will often present problems followed by solutions. In order to get the most out of these notes
you should read the problem, try to solve it yourself, and only then proceed to reading the provided solution. In
each of the problems in this unit be sure to give your final answer in a sentence relating to the context of the
original problem. Also be sure to include appropriate units.
There is a set of lecture videos over these notes on Dr. Jackson's YouTube Channel in the following playlist:
Calculus Unit 4: Applications of Derivatives.

## 3. Theorems Concerning Differentiable Functions

Calculus Video 4.2 Rolle's Theorem Contents
In this section we go over some important theorems which hold for differentiable functions.

Rolle's Theorem
Rolle's Theorem was first published in 1691 by the French mathematician Michel Rolle. This result is the key
tool in proving the Mean Value Theorem below and is also important in the proof of the existence of Taylor series
which is an important topic in Calculus II. Basically Rolle's Theorem says that for a differentiable function on an

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 3

interval with the same y-values at the ends of the interval there must be at least one point in the interval where the
function has a zero derivative and thus a horizontal tangent line. Here is the precise statement followed by a proof.

Rolle's Theorem
Let f be a function such that
1. f is continuous on [a, b],
2. f is differentiable on (a, b), and
3. f(a) = f(b)
then there exists at least one number c (a, b) such that f '(x) = 0.
Proof:
(Note that at least one of the following three cases must hold, but cases 2 and 3 could both hold simultaneously.)
Case 1: f(x) is a constant function on [a, b].
In this case we see that c can be taken to be any number c (a, b) since the derivative of a constant
function is always 0.
Case 2: f(x) > f(a) for some x (a, b).
In this case since the function is continuous on [a, b] we can apply the Extreme Value Theorem and f must
have an absolute maximum somewhere on the interval [a, b] which must occur at an endpoint, a place
where the derivative is undefined or a place where the derivative is zero. Since we know the function f
attains a value above each endpoint we know that the maximum occurs at some point c (a, b).
Furthermore we are given that the function f is differentiable on (a, b) so the maximum occurs where the
derivative is zero and f '(c) = 0.
Case 3: f(x) < f(a) for some x (a, b).
Here the function must have a minimum at some c (a, b) where f '(c) = 0. The reasons are very similar
to those for Case 2.
Note that if the hypotheses are satisfied Rolle's Theorem guarantees the existence of at least one c (a, b) where
f '(c) = 0. However, in some cases there is more than one such value. In the illustration below we see that a = 0 ,
b = 4 and f(0) = f(4) = 0. There are two appropriate values of c one near 0.85 where the function has an absolute
maximum and one near 3.15 where the function has an absolute minimum.

## Mean Value Theorem

Calculus Video 4.3 Mean Value Theorem Contents
The Mean Value theorem is a generalization of Rolle's Theorem. In Rolle's Theorem we required the function to
be at the same height at the ends of the interval and then asserted that under the hypothesis of the theorem there
was a place where the function had a zero derivative (which is the same as the slope of the secant line between
the endpoints of the interval). In the Mean Value Theorem we do not require the function to be at the same height
at both ends of the interval, but then we conclude that there is a place in the interval where the slope of the tangent
line is the same as the slope of the secant line between the endpoints. Recall that in our unit introducing the
meaning of the derivative we approximated the derivative at a point with a symmetric difference quotient. We
claimed that the slope of the secant line over this interval is approximately the same as the derivative at the
midpoint of the interval. In fact the Mean Value Theorem says that the slope of the secant line is exactly equal to
the derivative at some point in the interval (though not necessarily at the midpoint). The Mean Value Theorem
was first published by the French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange. Lagrange developed many important
theorems and techniques in calculus. Following is the precise statement of the Mean Value Theorem and a proof.

## Mean Value Theorem

Let f be a function such that
1. f is continuous on [a, b] and
2. f is differentiable on (a, b)
then there exists c (a, b) such that
f ' c

f b f a
ba

First note that the Mean Value Theorem is a generalization of Rolle's Theorem. If f(b) = f(a) then the Mean Value
Theorem reduces to Rolle's Theorem. We will use Rolle's Theorem to prove the Mean Value Theorem. The
basic outline of the following proof is that we find the formula for the secant line to the function across the interval
and then subtract the secant line from the function to obtain a new function. This new function satisfies the
hypothesis of Rolle's Theorem and we then show that the value of c guaranteed by Rolle's Theorem applied to this
new difference function is the c we need to satisfy the Mean Value Theorem.
Proof:
Let f be a function such that f is continuous on [a, b] and f is differentiable on (a, b). Notice that the function has
endpoints at (a, f(a)) and (b, f(b)). The equation of the secant line to the graph of the original function through
these two points has the equation:
f b f a

s x ba x a f a .
We define a new function by subtracting the y-values of the original function and the y-values of the secant line.
D x f x s x
D x f x

f b f a
ba

x a f a

f b f a

D x f x f a ba x a
Now we want to apply Rolle's Theorem to the function D so we need to verify that it satisfies the three conditions
in the hypothesis of Rolle's Theorem.
A. Since f is continuous on the interval [a, b] and the linear function s is continuous everywhere the function D
is also continuous on the interval [a, b] since the difference of two continuous functions is continuous.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 5

B. Since f is differentiable on the interval (a, b) and the linear function s is differentiable everywhere the function
D is also differentiable on the interval (a, b) since the difference of two differentiable functions is
differentiable.
C.
f b f a
D a f a f a ba a a 0
and
D b f b f a

f b f a
ba

b a f b f a f b f a 0

For the function D the three conditions in the hypothesis of Rolle's Theorem are satisfied. Therefore, we can
apply Rolle's Theorem to conclude that there exists at least one number c (a, b) such that D'(c) = 0. We now
use the derivative shortcut rules to find the derivative of D, set it equal to zero, and solve for f '(x) to get the desired
result.
D x f x f a
D ' x f ' x 0
D ' x f ' x

f b f a
ba

x a

f b f a
ba

f b f a
ba

D ' c 0
0 f 'c
f ' c

f b f a
ba

f b f a
ba

## We can see parts of the proof illustrated in the following graph.

Notice that the height of the difference curve, D(x) (in purple), is the same as the vertical distance between the
graphs of the original function, f(x) (in blue), and the secant line, s(x) (in green), as indicated by the pink line
segments. The same value of c which makes the graph D have a horizontal tangent line makes the tangent line to
the original curve have the same slope as the secant line, s(x). (c = 3 in this example.) So we see that the red
tangent line and the green secant line segment are parallel. So there is some place in this interval where the tangent
line to the original function has the same slope as the secant line to the original function from the ends of the
interval.
Contents
Applications of Derivatives, Page 6

1. Verify that the following function satisfies the hypothesis of the Mean Value Theorem, find all values of c
satisfying the theorem, and illustrate graphically.
f x ln x on 1, 4

We know that the natural logarithm function is differentiable on its entire domain of (0, ) so this function
satisfies the hypothesis of the Mean Value Theorem. Therefore, there exists at least one value c (1, 4) with
f 4 f 1 ln 4 ln 1 ln 4
f ' c

4 1
3
3
1
f ' c
c
1 ln 4

c
3
3
c
2.164042561
ln 4
Notice below that the graph of y = f(x) is in blue. The green secant line segment is y
The red point of tangency is

3
ln 4

,ln

.
3
ln 4

## the tangent line and secant line both have slope

ln 4
3

ln 4
3

ln 4
3

x 1 ,

x 1,4 .

x ln . Note that
3
ln 4

3
ln 4

Why is this theorem called the Mean Value Theorem? The word mean refers to the statistical mean or average.
The Mean Value Theorem says that the instantaneous rate of change at some point on an interval must be the same
as the mean rate of change over the interval.
2. Suppose that one makes a 30 mile trip in 25 minutes. What does the Mean Value Theorem tell us about the
speed we traveled?
Notice that the average rate of change for the trip is

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 7

30mi 60min
mi

72 hr .
25min 1hr
The Mean Value Theorem indicates that for at least one point in the trip the instantaneous rate of speed was
exactly 72 miles per hour.

Another interpretation of the Mean Value Theorem is that a function cannot increase or decrease over an interval
at an average rate more than the maximum absolute value of its derivative on that interval.
3. Suppose that f(3) = 5 and f '(x) 4 for all values of x what can we say about f(6)?
Notice that the derivative is defined everywhere so the hypothesis of the mean value theorem is satisfied on
the interval [3, 6]. According to the mean value theorem for some value c (3, 6) we have
f 6 f 3
f ' c
63
f 6 f 3
f ' c 4
3
f 6 f 3 12
f 6 12 f 3
f 6 12 5
f 6 17 .

4. If a speedometer always registered between 65 and 75 miles per hour for a 2 hour trip how far could the car
have traveled?
Notice that the position is a differentiable function so the hypothesis of the Mean Value Theorem is satisfied.
So the distance traveled is d = p where p is the position. The slope of the secant line is then d/2. According
to the Mean Value Theorem at some point t = c in the trip d/2 = p'(c) = v(c). But we are told that
65 v(t) 75 so 65 d/2 75 and thus 130 d 150. So the car traveled between 130 miles and 150 miles.
The Mean Value Theorem is used to prove some other important theorems about derivatives.
5. Use the Mean Value Theorem to prove that if the derivative of a function is zero everywhere on an interval
then that function is constant on that interval.
Proof:
We are given that f '(x) = 0 for all x [a, b]. Since the derivative exists on this interval the hypothesis of the
Mean Value Theorem is satisfied. Let u and v be elements of [a, b] with u < v. By the Mean Value Theorem
applied to f on the interval [u, v] there exists at least one value c (u, v) with
f v f u
f ' c
u v
However, f '(x) = 0 for all x [a, b], so
f v f u

0
u v
f v f u 0
f v f u

## Therefore, f is constant on [a, b].

Applications of Derivatives, Page 8

6. Prove that two functions have the same derivative on an interval if and only if they differ by a constant and
thus their graphs are vertical shifts of each other.
Proof:
A. Suppose f(x) = g(x) + C for some constant C. By the Sum Rule and Constant Rule for derivatives we see
that f '(x) = g'(x)
B. Suppose that for all x [a, b] f '(x) = g '(x). Let h(x) = f(x) g(x).
Note that by the Sum and Constant Multiple Rules h'(x) = f '(x) g'(x) = 0 for all x [a, b] so by the
previous exercise we see that h is a constant function on [a, b]. Therefore there exists a constant C such
that
h x C

f x g x C
f x g x C
Therefore, f and g differ by a constant and their graphs are vertical shifts of each other.

## Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem

Calculus Video 4.4 Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem

Contents

Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem was discovered first proved by Augustin-Louis Cauchy. After the
invention/discovery of calculus there was a nearly a century of rapid development of its application to a wide
variety of problems by Newton and Leibnitz and their students such as several member of the Bernoulli family,
Euler, and Lagrange. In particular Euler, who produced more mathematical research papers than anyone in
history, did much to establish many standard notations and applications of calculus and other areas of mathematics.
By the time the nineteenth century came around the focus of research into calculus became on shoring up its
theoretical basis and writing rigorous proofs of its foundational ideas. Cauchy was certainly in the forefront of
this effort. His published output was second only to Euler.
In Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem we are concerned with the ratio of the derivatives of two different functions.
Notice in the statement of the theorem below if we take the function g(x) = x then g'(c) = 1 and the conclusion is
the same as the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem. So we see that just as the Mean Value Theorem is a
generalization of Rolle's Theorem, Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem is a further generalization of the Mean Value
Theorem.

## Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem

Suppose that functions f and g are continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b) and g'(x) 0 for all x in (a, b)
then there exists c (a, b) such that
f ' c f b f a

g ' c g b g a
The proof of Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem is extremely like the proof of the Mean Value Theorem. We just
replace the function D in that proof with the function h below.
Proof:
Suppose that functions f and g are continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b) and g'(x) 0 for all x in (a, b).
Define the following function:
Applications of Derivatives, Page 9

f b f a

g x g a
g b g a
Now we want to apply Rolle's Theorem to the function h so we need to verify that it satisfies the three conditions
in the hypothesis of Rolle's Theorem.
A. Since f and g are continuous on the interval [a, b] and the function h is formed by multiplying g(x) by a
constant and adding constants the resulting function h continuous functions is continuous.
B. Since f and g are differentiable on the interval (a, b) and the function h is formed by multiplying g(x) by a
constant and adding constants the resulting function h is also differentiable on (a, b).
C.
h x f x f a

ha f a f a

f b f a

g b g a

g a g a 0

and
f b f a

g b g a f b f a f b f a 0
g b g a
For the function h the three conditions in the hypothesis of Rolle's Theorem are satisfied. Therefore, we can apply
Rolle's Theorem to conclude that there exists at least one number c (a, b) such that h'(c) = 0. We now use the
derivative shortcut rules to find the derivative of h, set it equal to zero, and solve for f '(x)/g'(x) to get the desired
result.
f b f a
h x f x f a
g x g a
g b g a
h b f b f a

h ' x f ' x

f b f a

g b g a

g ' x

h ' c 0
0 f ' c

g 'c

g b g a

f b f a

f ' c
f ' c

f b f a

g b g a

g 'c

g 'c

f b f a

g b g a

Note that Rolle's Theorem, the Mean Value Theorem, and Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem are all existence
theorems. They guarantee the existence of a number c with certain properties. However, they do not guarantee
that such a value is unique nor do they explicitly show how to find such a value. These three theorems are very
important in the theoretical foundation of calculus. Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem is a key step in proving the
very useful l'Hospital's Rule which we will cover next.

4. l'Hospital's Rule
Calculus Video 4.5 l'Hospital's Rule

Contents

In this section we will exam a theorem known as l'Hospital's Rule. This rule was first made public in the first ever
calculus textbook which was published in 1696 by Marquis de l'Hospital. The "s" is silent and is sometimes left
out in some printings of his name. However, it was not l'Hospital (l'Hpital) who developed the rule but rather
the great Swiss mathematician Johann (John) Bernoulli who had sold rights to publish the result to l'Hospital. The
Bernoulli family included at least eight very important mathematicians and scientists over a few generations
Applications of Derivatives, Page 10

including several who made significant contributions to the early development and application of calculus. Jacob
Bernoulli completed his doctoral dissertation under Gottfried Leibnitz, and he in turn directed the dissertation of
his younger brother John Bernoulli.
We can apply l'Hospital's Rule to compute the limit of certain functions which can be manipulated to have the
indeterminate form 0/0 or /.
Before we formally state l'Hospital's Rule and give a proof of the result let's informally consider the following
situation. We are given functions f and g which each have a limit of 0 as x approaches a. We are interested in
f x
computing lim
which has the indeterminate form 0/0. We know from experience that such a situation may
x a g x
have any real number as a limit or the limit might not exist, so some form of further investigation is certainly
needed. The following graph illustrates such a situation with a = 3.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 11

Notice that, as with any differentiable function, the graphs of these functions look like non-vertical tangent lines
when we zoom in close. Recall that for x values near a each function is approximately equal to its tangent line to
the point (a, 0)) so:
f x f ' a x a 0 f ' a x a f ' a f ' x
.

## g x g ' a x a 0 g ' a x a g ' a g ' x

Notice that it is important that each of these graphs approach the point (a, 0) so that the y-value of the point in
common with their tangent lines is 0 so that the (x-a) is actually a factor of the numerator and denominator which
will cancel as we see above. When we take the limit as x approaches a the approximately equal to becomes equal
to.
This suggests that under these conditions

lim
x a

f x

g x

lim
x a

f ' x

g ' x

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 12

L'Hospital's Rule
Let f and g be differentiable functions and g ' (x) 0 on an open interval I that contains a, except that these
conditions do not necessarily hold at x = a. Further suppose that
lim f x 0 and
x a

or that

lim f x and
x a

lim g x 0
x a

lim g x
x a

then

lim
x a

f x

g x

lim
x a

f ' x

g ' x .

## Proof (when the form is 0/0):

Let f and g be differentiable functions and g ' (x) 0 on an open interval I that contains a, except that these
conditions do not necessarily hold at x = a. Further suppose that
lim f x 0 and lim g x 0 .
x a

x a

## Therefore, f/g has the form 0/0.

Note that the value of f and g at x = a if they even exist have nothing to do with the limit. Define the following
related functions:
f x x I a
g x x I a
and G x
F x
xa
xa
0
0
So lim F x lim f x lim G x lim g x 0 F a G a . So both F and G are continuous at x = a.
x a

x a

x a

x a

Furthermore, both F and G are continuous on a, x I and are differentiable on (a, x). So by Cauchy's Mean
Value Theorem there exists a number y such that a < y < x and
F ' y F x F a F x 0 F x
.

G ' y G x G a G x 0 G x
Note that such a y exists for every choice of x subject to the conditions above. So if we let x approach a from the
right the resulting y-values also approach a from the right since a < y < x. So for such a choice of y for each x we
have:

lim

x a

f x

g x

lim
x a

## Similar steps show that for the same L

lim

x a

F x

G x

f x

g x

lim
y a

lim
y a

F ' y

G ' y

f ' x

g ' x

lim
x a

f ' x

g ' x

L.

L.

This proves l'Hospital's rule if a is a finite number, and we have the form 0/0.
If a = then we let t = 1/x and note that as t approaches 0 from one side x approaches . In this case,
Applications of Derivatives, Page 13

1t
x g x
t 0 g 1
t
f ' 1t t1
lim
t 0
g ' 1t t1
f ' 1t
lim
t 0 g ' 1
t
f ' x
lim
x g ' x
lim

f x

lim

## So we have proved l'Hospital's Rule if f/g has the form 0/0.

It turns out that the theorem also works if the form is /. It also works if instead of a limit the limit approaches
. Proofs of these variations are omitted here.
Warnings
Note that it is very important that you check to see that you have the form 0/0 or / in order to apply
l'Hospital's Rule. (There are some other forms such as - , 0 . , 1, 0, and 0 which can be
manipulated to the form 0/0 or /, but they must be manipulated to the required form in order to apply
l'Hospital's Rule.) As with any theorem if the assumptions of the theorem are not all true then we cannot
assume that the conclusion is true.
Note that this is NOT the Quotient Rule. In l'Hospital's Rule we take the derivative of the numerator and
denominator as separate functions. This is NOT the derivative of the quotient which is given by the
Quotient Rule. Be sure that you apply the correct rule in the correct context. Use the Quotient Rule where
it applies and use l'Hospital's Rule where it applies.
Let's apply this rule in several examples. As usual try to work these out yourself before reading on to see the
provided solutions.

## Indeterminate Form 0/0

Calculus Video 4.6 l'Hospital's Rule Examples Form 0 over 0 Contents
Note that the indeterminate form 0/0 is one of the two forms where we can directly apply l'Hospital's Rule.
7.

1 ex
lim

x 0
x

First we notice that if we have the form 0/0 since lim 1 e x 0 lim x . Notice that as separate functions both
x 0

x 0

the numerator and denominator have a limit of 0 and are differentiable near x = 0 so we can apply l'Hospital's
Rule.
dxd 1 e x
1 ex
e x
lim
lim
lim d
ex 1

lim
x 0
x 0
x 0
x 0

x
x
1

dx

In this section we will also illustrate the limit by showing an appropriated portion of the relevant graph.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 14

sin ax
8. Compute lim
for real constants a and b.
x 0 sin bx

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 15

We found this limit using different techniques earlier. Notice here that when considered as individual functions
the numerator and denominator are differentiable near x, and they each approach 0 as x approaches 0 so we have
the form 0/0 and we can apply l'Hospital's Rule.
sin ax
dxd sin ax
a cos ax a cos a 0 a
lim

lim

lim

x 0 sin bx
x 0 d sin bx
x 0 b cos bx

dx

b cos b 0 b
Here is an illustration with a = 7 and b = 5. Notice that the limit is 7/5 = 1.4.

x2
9. Compute lim
for real constants a and b.
x 0 1 cos x

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 16

We again see that when considered as individual function the numerator and denominator are differentiable near
x = 0 and both approach 0 as x approaches 0 so we have the form 0/0 and we can apply l'Hospital's Rule. Notice
in this case that after applying l'Hospital's Rule once the resulting function still has the form 0/0 so we can again
apply l'Hospital's Rule. After this second application we can find the limit of the resulting function by direct
substitution since it is continuous at x = 0.

x2

lim

lim

x 0 1 cos x
x 0

dx 1 cos x
2x
lim

x 0 sin x

d 2x
lim d dx

x 0

dx sin x
d
dx

2
lim

x 0 cos x

cos 0
2
This time Graphmatica does not correctly show the hole in the graph at (0, 2) but rather shows a point there.
However notice that the table shows that the function is undefined for x = 0.

sin t
10. Compute lim 3t
.
t 0 e 1

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 17

We again see that when considered as individual function the numerator and denominator are differentiable near
x = 0 and both approach 0 as x approaches 0 so we have the form 0/0 and we can apply l'Hospital's Rule.
dtd sin t
sin t
0

lim 3t

lim
form
t 0 d 3t
t 0 e 1

dt e 1
cos t
lim
3t
t 0
3e
cos 0

3e3 0
1

Indeterminate Form /
Calculus Video 4.7 l'Hospital's Rule Examples Form infinity over infinity Contents
Even though it is not proved with the proof given above l'Hospital's Rule also works in the case the form of the
limit is /, and it also works if the limit on the right does not exist but rather approaches or -.
Notice that when we have the form / it is a matter of which function approaches more quickly. If the
absolute values of the numerator function and denominator functions are each growing at about the same rate then
the limit will be a non-zero real number. If the absolute value of the numerator is growing much faster than the
denominator then the limit approaches . If the absolute value of the denominator is growing much faster than
the numerator then the limit approaches 0.
ln z 2
11. Compute lim
z
z

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 18

We again see that when considered as individual function the numerator and denominator are differentiable for
large values of x and both approach as x approaches so we have the form /, and we can apply l'Hospital's
Rule. After applying l'Hospital's Rule we see that we again have the form /, and we can apply l'Hospital's Rule
a second time. Then we have the form 2/ so the final limit is 0. So ultimately the denominator grows
significantly faster than the denominator.
ln z 2
d ln z 2
lim dz

lim
z
z
z dzd z

1
2 ln z z
lim

2 ln z
lim

d
dz 2 ln z

lim
d
z

dz

1
2 z
lim

2
lim
z z

cot x 1
12. Compute lim
.
x 1
ln x 1

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 19

We again see that when considered as individual function the numerator and denominator are differentiable for
values of x close to but above 1and both approach - as x approaches 1 from the right so we have the form /,
and we can apply l'Hospital's Rule. After applying l'Hospital's Rule we see that we again have the form /, and
we can apply l'Hospital's Rule a second time.

cot x 1
lim
lim
x 1
ln x 1 x 1

d
dx

cot x 1
ln x 1

d
dx

csc2 x 1
lim

1
x 1
x 1

1 x
lim 2

x 1
sin x 1
d

dx 1 x

lim
2
x 1 d sin x 1

dx

form

form

0
0

1
lim

x 1
2sin x 1 cos x 1

form

1
0

Indeterminate Form 0.
Calculus Video 4.8 l'Hospital's Rule form 0 time infinity

Contents

When we have a limit with the indeterminate form 0. we cannot apply l'Hospital's Rule directly. However, we
can rewrite one of the terms as the reciprocal of the reciprocal of the original so that we are looking for the limit
of a fraction of the form 0/0 or /. We can then apply l'Hospital's rule to this new fractional function.
13. Compute lim sin x ln x .
x 0

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 20

We again see that when considered as individual functions sin(x) approaches 0 and ln(x) approaches - as x
approaches 0 from the right. Therefore we have the form 0. we cannot apply l'Hospital's Rule directly. However
we can use a little algebra and trigonometry to rewrite the function as a fraction with the form -/.
lim sin x ln x

x 0

form 0

ln x
lim
form

x 0
csc x
dxd ln x
lim d

x 0
dx csc x

x
lim

x 0
csc x cot x

sin 2 x
lim

x 0
x cos x

form

0
0

dxd sin 2 x

lim d
x 0
x cos x

dx

2sin x cos x
lim

x 0
x sin x cos x
2sin 0 cos 0

0 sin 0 cos 0

2 0 1

0 0 1

0
1
0

x

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 21

Both of these factors are differentiable where they are defined and the limits has the form .0.
lim x tan 1x
form 0
x

tan 1
lim 1 x

x
x
dxd tan 1x

lim d 1
x

dx x
sec 2 1x 12
x
lim
1
x
x2

form

0
0

lim sec
2

1
x

sec 2 lim 1x
x

sec 0
2

1
It is impossible to accurately draw this graph near x = 0 since it goes up and down infinitely many times between
-1 and 1and it take on every real output value infinitely many times on this interval. However the for large values
of x with which we are interested here we see that the graph has a horizontal asymptote of y = 1 on the far right
(and the far left as well).

Indeterminate Form -
Calculus Video 4.9 l'Hospital's Rule Form infinity - infinity Contents
Another form which can be manipulated into a form where l'Hospital's Rule can be applied is the form - . To
manipulate the form get a common denominator and combine the functions into a single fraction where the form
is 0/0 or / and then apply l'Hospital's Rule.
x
1
15. Compute lim

.
x 1 x 1
ln x

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 22

1
x
x
Notice that this function is undefined at x = 1 and for x 0. lim
, lim
, lim

x 1
x 1 x 1
x 1 x 1
ln x
1
, and lim
so this has the form . We must combine the expression into a single fraction with
x 1
ln x
the form 0/0 or / in order to be able to apply l'Hospital's Rule.

x
1
lim

x 1 x 1
ln x

form

x ln x
1 x 1
lim

x 1 x 1 ln x
x 1 ln x

x ln x x 1
lim

x 1
x 1 ln x

0
0

form

dxd x ln x x 1
lim d

x 1

1
ln
x

dx

1
x ln x 1 1 0
lim x

x 1 x 1 1 ln x 1
x

1 ln x 1
lim

x 1 1 1 ln x
x

ln x
lim

x 1 1 1 ln x
x

form

0
0

dx ln x
lim d

1
x 1

dx 1 x ln x
1

x
lim

x 1 0 1 1
2
x
x

1
1
1
12

11

1
2
So there is a hole in the graph at (1, ). We also notice that there is an open dot endpoint at (0, 0). Because
x
1
1
x
lim

lim
lim
0 0 0 .

x 0
x 1 ln x x 0 x 1 x 0 ln x

In the following graph from Graphmatica we can easily see the hole at (1, ) = (1, 0.5). It doesn't represent the
graph well near the origin. Actually the graph continues to an open dot endpoint at the origin.

x 0

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 24

Here we get the form -, combine into one fraction with the form 0/0 and end up applying l'Hospital's Rule
twice.
lim 1x csc x
x 0

form

1
1
lim

x 0 x
sin x

1sin x

x
lim

x 0 x sin x
x sin x

sin x x
lim
form 00

x 0
x
sin
x

d
dx sin x x
lim d

x 0

dx x sin x

cos x 1
lim
form 00

x 0 x cos x sin x

dx cos x 1
lim d

x 0

dx x cos x sin x

sin x
lim

sin 0

0
0 11
0

## Indeterminate Forms 1, 00, and 0

Calculus Video 4.10 l'Hospital's Rule Form 0^0, 1^infinity, infinity^0 Contents
The indeterminate forms 1, 00, and 0 present a new challenge. Like the other indeterminate forms these forms
could lead to any possible real value for the limit or could diverge to . They definitely require more
investigation. In order to change them into the form 0/0 or / so that we can apply l'Hospital's Rule we need to
bring the power down. How do we achieve this? We have a power up high so we through a log at it to knock it
down. Specifically, we use the property of logarithms ln bu u ln b to bring the power down. So we start by
letting y = the limit we are trying to find. We then take a natural logarithm of each side. We bring the logarithm
inside the limit side and apply ln bu u ln b . Then we may have the form 0. so we combine into a single
fractional form of the form 0/0 or / and apply l'Hospital's Rule. However, be sure that you remember that after
you compute this limit you have found ln(y) so there is one additional step. We have to solve for y by rewriting
in exponential form. Recall that by definition ln y L y e L .

x 0

## Note that this has the form 00.

y lim x
x 0

form 00

ln y ln lim x

x 0

ln y lim ln x
x 0

ln y lim
x 0

x ln x

form 0

ln x

ln y lim 1
form
2
x 0

x
d ln x

dx
ln y lim
1
x 0 d
dx x 2

1
ln y lim x 3
x 0 1 x 2
2

x 1 2 x 32
ln y lim
3
3
x 0 1 x 2 2 x 2

ln y lim 2 x 2
x 0

ln y 0
y e0
y 1

lim x

x 0

Warning!: Don't forget that when we compute the limit on the right we are not finished. We have only found
ln(y), and we still have to solve for y by rewriting as an exponential expression. It is easy to get so involved with
the right side of this process that we forget the last step.
Applications of Derivatives, Page 26

Notice that because of the square root the domain of this function is limited to non-negative numbers. As we see
0 is also eliminated from the domain since we get the undefined indeterminate form 0/0 for x = 0. So the domain
of this function is strictly the positive numbers. From the limit above we see that there is an open dot endpoint to
the function at (0, 1).

Notice that this function has one global minimum. Let's locate this point, which will occur when the derivative is
equal to 0.
f x x

xx

f ' x x 2 x x
1

f ' x x

1
2

12 1
x 2

12
x

f ' x 12 x

1
2

1 ln x x x
ln x x

12

1
2

1
2

12

12 1
x 2

1
2

2 ln x

f ' x 0 2 ln x 0
ln x 2
x e 2
f e

e
2

1
2 2

Minimum : e 2 , e

2e

e 2

e
1

2e

0.1353352832, 0.4791417088

x

x 0

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 27

Notice that this function is actually defined for values where the base is negative and the power is a rational
number which can be expressed as a reduced fraction with an odd number denominator. For example, if x = 3
then we have 1 2 x x 1 2 3 3 5 3 5 3 3 5 . However if the base is negative and the power is a
1

rational number which can be expressed as a reduced fraction with an even number denominator or the power is
irrational then the function is undefined (as a real number). For example, if x = 2 the function is undefined since

1 2 2 2 3 2 3 . So when the base is negative the graph will be full of undefined places.
So as usual with functions with a variable exponent we will limit the domain to x-values that make the base
positive, especially when graphing the function. So we are limiting the graph to 1 - 2x 0, i.e.
x .
Furthermore the exponent is undefined if x = 0. Therefore, we will consider the domain to be ,0 0, 12 .

1 2x

1
x

Further note that lim 1 2 x x has the form 0 and lim 1 2 x x has the form 1. The steps to the solutions
x

## of these two limits are similar.

y lim 1 2 x x
x

x 0

ln y lim ln 1 2 x
ln y ln lim 1 2 x

x 0

x 0

1
x

x 0

ln y lim 1x ln 1 2 x

ln y lim 1x ln 1 2 x

x 0

ln 1 2 x

ln y lim
form

x
x

dxd ln 1 2 x
ln y lim

d
x

dx x

112 x 2
ln y lim

2
ln y lim

x 1 2 x

ln 1 2 x
0
ln y lim
form

x 0
x
0

dxd ln 1 2 x
ln y lim

d
x 0

dx

1
1 2 x 2
ln y lim

x 0

2
ln y lim

x 0 1 2 x

ln y 2

ln y 0

lim 1 2 x
x

ln y ln lim 1 2 x x

1
x

1
x

ln y lim ln 1 2 x

1
x

y e0
y 1

y lim 1 2 x x

y e 2

lim 1 2 x x e 2
x 0

So we see that there is a horizontal asymptote of y = 1 on the far left and there is a hole in the graph at (0, e-2)
(0, 0.1353). Notice that there is a solid dot endpoint at (, 0). This function approaches the asymptote rather
slowly so we look at a second window going out to x = -1000 to see the asymptote illustrated.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 28

19. Recall that periodically compounded interest is an example of exponential growth. Let
r = the periodic interest rate
n = the number of periods
P = the principal (initial amount invested)
A = the amount in the account
Then we have A P 1 r .
n

Further let:
c = the number of conversions per year
t = time in years
i = the nominal interest rate
so
r = i/c
n = ct
Applications of Derivatives, Page 29

Therefore,

A P 1 ci

ct

Now let us consider what happens when we let the number of conversions per year approach infinity.
Compute lim P 1 ci .
ct

## Note that this time we have the form 1.

A lim P 1 ci
c

A P lim 1 ci
c

ct

ct

A
ct
lim 1 ci
P c
ct
A
ln ln lim 1 ci
c

P
ct
A
ln lim ln 1 ci
P c
A
ln lim ct ln 1 ci
P c
ln 1 ci
0
A
ln t lim
form

1
c

0
P
c

dcd ln 1 ci
A

ln t lim
d 1

P c
dc c

d 1
1
1 i i dc c

A

ln t lim c d 1
c

P

dc c

i
A
ln t lim

P c 1 ci
A
ln it
P
A it
e
P
A Peit

A Pe kt

So this is the formula for interest compounded continuously where the constant k is the nominal rate for interest
compounded continuously.

## End Behavior and Function Dominance

Calculus 4.11 End Behavior and Function Dominance Contents
Notice that several types of functions may approach infinity as x approaches infinity, but they do so at significantly
different rates. We can compare these rates of growth by computing the limit of their quotient as x approaches
infinity using l'Hospital's Rule. If we have right end behavior of the form / then both the numerator and
denominator function are growing without bound as x approaches . The denominator growing has a tendency
to push the limit toward 0, but the numerator growing has a tendency to push the limit toward . Where the
function ultimately ends up depends on the relative rates of growth of these two sub-functions and which one ends
up dominating the other. Let's look at a couple of standard examples.
20. Notice that an exponential growth function will eventually grow faster than any power or polynomial function.
So we say that an exponential function dominates a power function. One way to see this is with repeated
application of l'Hospital's Rule. When we apply l'Hospital's Rule notice that the derivative of the exponential
stays the same but the constant power decreases by 1 each time we take a derivative in the denominator. If
power is still positive then we still have the form / and we apply l'Hospital's Rule again. When the power
becomes negative or zero then the overall limit is . The details follow for a power function with a natural
number power where we apply l'Hospital's Rule n times.
ex
lim n
x x

dxd e x

lim
x d n

dx x
ex
lim n 1
x nx

d
dx e x

lim
x d nx n 1

dx

ex
lim

2
x n n 1 x

ex
lim

x n n 1
1

21. On the other hand a logarithmic function approaches infinity slower than any positive exponent power
function. For any constant n > 0:
dxd x n
xn
nx n 1

lim
lim

lim
nx n

lim
1
x ln x
x d ln x
x

dx

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 31

5. Newton's Method
Calculus Video 4.12 Newton's Method Introduction Contents
Calculus Video 4.13 Newton's Method and Calculators

## Overview of Newton's Method

Newton's method is used to find approximations of real zeroes of functions (i.e. x-coordinates of the x-intercepts
of the graph of a function). Although there are algebraic techniques for finding exact solutions to several standard
types of equation, the solutions to these equations are often irrational and it is difficult to find decimal
approximations for them. Furthermore, there are many types of equations for which no method exists for finding
exact solutions. In all of these cases we are often interested in finding decimal approximations to these solutions.
Newton's method gives a very powerful technique for finding these approximations.
Newton's Method is also known as the Newton-Raphson method. Newton used a special case of this method as
early as 1669. The more general method was published in 1685 by John Wallis. Joseph Raphson published a
simplified version in 1690, and the modern version of the method was published in 1740 by Thomas Simpson.
22. We will illustrate Newton's Method graphically as well as numerically with the following example.
x2 2 0
x2 2
x 2

Notice that, as we see in the steps above, we can easily find exact solutions to this equation, but suppose that we
want a decimal approximation to the solution 2 . Note that this is the x-coordinate of the point where the graph
of f x x 2 2 touches the x-axis to the right of the y-axis.
We begin by graphing the function. The graphs below are from s dynamic sketch created by Dr. Jackson in
To use Newton's Method we begin by giving an initial approximation of the solution for which we are looking.
in this case we will begin with a poor first guess of 0.8.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 32

Newton's Method

2.6

fx = 2 x2

2.4

x0 = 0.8

2.2
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

0.5

0.5
0.2

x0

1.5

2.5

0.4

y = f(x)

Next we find the point on the graph of the function with this x coordinate. In general this is (x0, f(x0)) and in this
particular case it is (0.8, 1.36) since f(0.8) =2 - 0.82 = 2 0.64 = 1.36.

Newton's Method

2.6

fx = 2 x2

2.4

x0 = 0.8

2.2
2
1.8
1.6

(x0, f(x0))

1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

0.5

0.5
0.2

y = f(x)

x0

1.5

2.5

0.4

Next we want to find the tangent line to the function at the point (x0, f(x0)). Recall that the slope of the tangent
line is f ' (x0), so we need to find the formula of the derivative function using techniques from last unit. In this
case we see that f ' (x) = -2x so f ' (x0) = f ' (0.8) = -2(0.8) = -1.6. So in this case the equation of the tangent line is
y = -1.6(x - 0.8) + 1.36
which we see graphed below. In general, the equation of this tangent line is
y f ' x0 x x0 f x0 .

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 33

Newton's Method

2.6

fx = 2 x2

2.4

x0 = 0.8

2.2

f'x = 2x

2
1.8
1.6

(x0, f(x0))

1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

0.5

0.5
0.2

y = f(x)

x0

1.5

x1

2.5

0.4

Now we find the x-coordinate of the x-intercept of this tangent line and call it x1. In this particular case we have
0 1.6 x1 0.8 1.36
1.36 1.6 x1 0.8
1.36
1.6
1.36
x1 0.8
1.6
x1 0.8 0.85

x1 0.8

x1 1.65

In general we have

0 f ' x0 x1 x0 f x0
f ' x0 x1 x0 f x0
x1 x0

f x0
f ' x0

x1 x0

f x0
f ' x0

Notice that this gives us a relatively simple formula for finding a first approximation based upon our initial guess.
The idea here is that the differentiable function is locally linear so we hope that the tangent line will not deviate
too much from the function where we are looking. A linear equation is easy to solve exactly making the
computation of x1 relatively simple. So we should see that x1 is a closer approximation of the value we are looking
for than our initial guess.
Now we simply repeat this process with x1 as our guess and obtain a second approximation x2 which is closer still
to the value we are trying to approximate. Here is the graphical illustration of finding x2.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 34

Newton's Method
fx = 2 x2

x0 = 0.8

f'x = 2x

2.5

(x0, f(x0))

1.5

y = f(x)
0.5

x2
1

0.5

0.5

x0

1.5

x1

2.5

0.5

Notice visually how quickly this process leads to a point quite close to the one we want to find. Numerically the
computation for x2 in this case is
f x1
x2 x1
f ' x1
x2 1.65

2 1.652
2 1.65

2 2.7225
3.3
0.7225
x2 1.65
3.3
x2 1.65 0.21893
x2 1.65

x2 1.43106

Now we just use this process with x2 as our guess to produce a better approximation x3. Then we use the process
again with x3 to produce x4 and so on. Notice in general we have a relatively simple recursive formula for
obtaining the next successive approximation from the previous approximation.

xn 1 xn

f xn
f ' xn

We can use this formula to iteratively find better and better approximations. In this particular example when we
substitute the appropriate formulas for f(x) and f '(x) we get the following formula

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 35

3.5

xn 1 xn

f xn
f ' xn

2 xn
xn 1 xn
2 xn

The following table shows the results of the computations for several successive approximations.

f ' xn 2 xn

xn

f xn 2 xn

0.8

2 (0.8)2 = 1.36

-2(0.8) = -1.6

1.65

2 (1.65)2 =
-0.7225

-2(1.65) = -3.3

1.4306060606

2 (1.4306060606)2
-0.0479344582

-2(1.4306060606)
-2.862121212

1.4143127528

2 (1.4143127528)2
= -0.0002804914

-2(1.4143127528)
= -2.828625455

1.414213566

2 (1.414213566)2
0.000000009833

-2(1.414213566)
-2.828427132

1.414213562

2 (1.414213562)2
0.000000000000

2(1.414213562)
-2.828427125

xn 1 xn

f xn
f ' xn

1.36
1.65
1.6
0.7225
x2 1.65
1.43106
3.3
0.1479344582
x3 1.4306060606
1.4143127528
2.862121212
0.0002804914
x4 1.4143127528
1.414213566
2.828625455
0.000000009833
x5 1.414213566
1.414213562
2.828427132
0.0000000000
x6 1.414213562
1.414213562
2.828427125
x1 0.8

Notice that each successive approximation adds more and more significant digits of accuracy in the approximation
of the actual zero. In this case even though we started with a poor first guess we obtained 2 significant digits of
accuracy after the second iteration, four significant digits of accuracy after the 3 iteration, and 8 digits of accuracy
after the fourth iteration. Notice that to the number of decimal places calculated the fifth and sixth approximations
were the same so we are confident that all of these digits are accurate and the function value at this input is 0 to
many decimal places. We were able to obtain all of the digits that your calculator would give after only five
iterations. With a better first guess we could lower this by at least one iteration. Notice that all of these
calculations can be completed without the aid of a calculator or computer, which is of course what the
mathematicians of the seventeenth-nineteenth centuries would have had to do.

## Approximating Zeroes with Newton's Method on a Calculator

Contents
Fortunately today we have computers and calculators which can perform these calculations quickly, accurately,
and painlessly. Furthermore, iterative processes such as Newton's Method lend themselves very nicely to
computer or calculator programs. Let's take a look at Newton's Method using a graphing calculator.
23. Let's start with the same example we have already examined using aTI-84 calculator. Enter the formula for
the function whose zero we want to approximate in y1. Compute the formula for the derivative function and
enter it in y2.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 36

Go to the home screen and save your initial guess as x. Here we again use the guess of 0.8. Remember that we
get the arrow by pressing the store key
.

Now we just complete the calculation of Newton's Method and store the answer back as x.

Note that the last line used the value of 0.8 for x. However, since we stored the new value of 1.65 as x if we
reexecute the last command it will evaluate it with this new value of x, we will obtain the value for the next
approximation, and store it as x. If we simply press the ENTER key the calculator will execute the previous
command so all we have to do is press enter until the output does not change to get all of the successive
approximations generated by Newton's Method in the table above. How slick is that?

If you have the older operating system the screen above is exactly what you will see. If you have the newer
operating system the calculator may reshow the top line between each output value.
Notice that if we start with a more reasonable better approximation then this method converges even faster. An
initial guess of 1.5 gives an answer accurate to the limits of the calculator in only three iterations. Newton's
Method is a very simple and powerful method of approximating zeroes of functions.

Of course this requires us to be able not only to enter the formula for the function in y1 but also to compute the
formula for the derivative and put it into y2 or does it? Recall that this is an approximation technique after all.
We could just use a symmetric difference quotient (i.e. the calculator's numerical derivative) for y2 instead so that
we do not actually have to compute a derivative. Since this is a quadratic function there is no difference in these
values. For other functions the values may be slightly different but the end result will be the same.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 37

Of course the designers of your calculator know this and actually have Newton's Method using symmetric
difference quotients (or perhaps a slight variation) preprogrammed into the calculator. To access this zero finder
graph the original function:
Press CALC (2nd TRACE)
Select 2. zero.
You will choose the appropriate function from the ones you have graphed (up and down arrows cycle
through the graphed functions).
You will identify a left and a right bound. You can type a value and press ENTER or use the left and
right arrows to move to a value and press ENTER.
You will enter an initial guess. Again either type in a value and press ENTER or use the left and right
arrows to move to a value and press ENTER.
The calculator will return a value of 0 (or approximately so) for y and a decimal approximation for x. It
will also store these values as y and x respectively so x can be used in further calculations on the home
screen if desired.

24. Use Newton's Method and a calculator to approximate to the limits of your calculator by finding an
appropriate zero of f(x) = sin(x).
Recall that

d
dx

So 3.141592654.

## Approximating Intersections and Solving Equations

Calculus Video 4.14 Doing More with Newton's Method

Contents

Newton's Method can also be used to find the intersection of two graphs. Consider two graphs of y = f(x) and
y = g(x). At their point of intersection the two y-values are equal so to find the x-coordinate of the intersection
point we are finding a solution to f(x) = g(x). Equivalently we are finding a solution to f(x) g(x) = 0, i.e. a zero
of v(x) = f(x) g(x). So we can apply Newton's Method to the function v to find an x value. We can then evaluate
either f or g at this x-value to find the corresponding y-value of the intersection point. In general we can use
Newton's Method to find approximate solutions to equations by first setting the equation equal to zero and then
apply the method to the resulting function.
25. Approximate all of the solutions to

x4 4x

There are actually three solutions to this equation. It is difficult to see all three of them in a single graphing
window. We know that for the second quadrant y = x4 is decreasing and approaching the origin while y = 4x has
a horizontal asymptote and grows to (0, 1). These graphs cross each other with an x-value between 0 and -1.
When they get to the first quadrant they are both increasing concave up. Notice that the exponential function
starts on top but is soon exceeded by the power function. However we know that the exponential function will
eventually dominate so they cross twice in the first quadrant. Both of these intersections have nice values. Note
that clearly 44 = 44 = 256 so (4, 256) is one obvious point of intersection. The other intersection in the first
Applications of Derivatives, Page 39

quadrant is found as we note that 24 = 42 = 16 so (2, 16) is another point of intersection. However, there is no
algebraic method to find the point of intersection in the second quadrant exactly so we will approximate it with
Newton's Method.
Notice that the solutions to the original equation are the x-intercepts of the function
f x 4x x4

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 40

Here I started with an initial guess of -0.7 and Newton's Method generated an approximation of x -0.766664696
after 4 iterations. To find the corresponding y-value on each of the original function we substitute this value into
either of the original functions.

## So the solution to x 4 is x = 4, x = 2, or x -0.766664696. The intersections of y = 4x and y = x4 are

(4, 256), (2, 16), and approximately (-0.766664696. 0.3454791638).
4

Once again the programmers of graphing calculators know of this way to apply Newton's Method and they have
built this process into the calculators. For example, to use the built-in intersection calculator on a TI-84:
Enter the formulas for the two functions into y1 and y2 respectively.
Adjust the graphing window until the point of intersection you want is visible on screen.
Press CALC (2nd TRACE)
Select 5: intersect
Identify the two curves. Use the up or down arrow if needed to get on the curves and press ENTER.
Provide an initial guess. Use the left of right arrows and move the cursor near the intersection and press
ENTER.
The calculator will provide both the x and y coordinates of the intersection point.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 41

Approximating Extrema
Contents
26. How can we use Newton's Method to approximate extrema of a function?
Recall that local extrema of a function occur when the derivative is zero and the graph of the derivative passes
through the x-axis from one side to the other side of the axis. (Local extrema can also happen at endpoints
and places where the derivative is undefined, but Newton's Method will not work at these places.) So we can
just find the formula for the derivative and approximate its zeroes using Newton's Method, or with a calculator
we can just apply Newton's Method to the numerical derivative (symmetric difference quotient).
27. Use Newton's Method to approximate the local maximum of f(x) = (x+2)(x+3)(x-4).
f ' x 1 x 3 x 4 x 2 1 x 4 x 2 x 31
x 2 x 12 x 2 2 x 8 x 2 5 x 6
f ' x 3x 2 2 x 14
f " x 6 x 2

So the local minimum occurs when x = 1.852479508 and y = -40.1459153. We can similarly approximate the
coordinates of the local maximum.

28. Approximate the maximum of the following function with the smallest x-value.
f x 2ln x sin x
Here we graph the original function (y1) and its numerical derivative (y2). We also put the calculator
approximation of the second derivative in y3.

## It looks like the point we are looking for is around x = 2.

Applications of Derivatives, Page 42

## The local maximum we are looking for is approximately at (2.127615791, 1.281903228).

Once again this process is built into the TI-84. To approximate the coordinates of a local maximum on the TI-84:
Enter the function in y1 and graph.
Adjust the window if necessary so that the maximum is visible in the graphing window.
Press CALC (2nd TRACE)
Choose 4: maximum (similarly choose 4: minimum to approximate a local minimum).
Identify the correct curve using the up or down arrows if needed and press ENTER.
Identify a left bound by using the left or right arrow to move to the left of the maximum and press ENTER.
Identify a right bound by using the left or right arrow to move to the right of the maximum and press
ENTER.
Enter an initial guess by using the left or right arrow to move the cursor close to the maximum point and
press ENTER.
The calculator will return the approximate x and y coordinates of the local maximum.

## Approximating Inflection Points

Contents
We can use a similar technique to approximate inflection points which occur when the second derivative is zero.
Notice this requires a third derivative or at least an approximation of the third derivative which we place in y4.
Looking at the graph of the original function from the previous example there is an inflection point near x = 1.
Let's approximate it.

## However, look what happens when we try to use y4:

Applications of Derivatives, Page 43

Basically what is happening here is that there are too many nested operations in finding the symmetric difference
quotient of a symmetric difference quotient of a symmetric difference quotient. That is just too much for the
calculator to handle. So we can't do this without computing at least one derivative. This is why there is no builtin inflection point calculator on the TI-84. However, if we can just replace y2 with the actual formula for the first
derivative then we can proceed as above.
f x 2ln x sin x
f ' x 2 ln x cos x sin x 1x

.
So this particular inflection point is approximately at (1.101436925, 0.1723348758). Of course, we can
equivalently calculate the x-coordinate of the corresponding local maximum of the first derivative using the builtin maximum calculator once we have found the formula for the derivative to obtain the same x-value.

## 6. Analyzing Graphs of Functions

Calculus Video 4.15 Derivative and Graph Shapes Contents

## Derivative and Graph Shapes

Let's review a few things we know about the relationships among the graphs of the original function and its first
and second derivatives.
29. What do the values of the first and second derivatives tell us about the shape of the graph of the original
function?
Recall that the y-values of the derivative are the slopes of the original curve. Remember that a function that
has a positive slope on an interval is increasing on that interval, so we say that a function which has a positive
derivative at a point is increasing at that point. It turns out that knowing information about the first and second
derivatives of a function tells us a great deal about the shape and features of the graph of the original function.
30. What does the first derivative tell us about the shape of the graph of the original function? Be as complete
and as specific as possible.
The derivative tells us the slope of the original curve at each point on the curve.
The first derivative tells us about the direction of the graph of the original function.
If the first derivative is positive at a point then the original function is increasing at that point.
If the first derivative is negative at a point then the original function is decreasing at that point.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 44

If the first derivative is zero at a point then the original function has a horizontal tangent line at that
point (we call this a stationary point). This point may be a local extremum.
o

## This point is a local minimum if the second derivative is positive.

If the second derivative is also zero the point may be a local extremum or it may be an
inflection point.

If a function has a local extremum at a point then the derivative is either zero at the point or undefined
or it is at an endpoint.
If the derivative is defined at a point then the graph is continuous (one connected piece, no breaks of
any kind) and smooth (no sharp corners) near that point. If we zoom in near the point on the original
graph it will look approximately like the tangent line (a non-vertical line) near that point.
31. What does the second derivative tell us about the shape of the graph of the original function? Be as complete
and as specific as possible.
The second derivative tells us the concavity of the original function.
If the second derivative is positive at a particular x-value then the first derivative is increasing and
the original function is concave up at that x-value.
If the second derivative is negative at a point then the first derivative is decreasing and the original
function is concave down at that point.
If the second derivative is zero the original function may have an inflection point.
o

If the first derivative is non-zero and the second derivative is zero then the original function
has an inflection point at that point.

If the first derivative and the second derivative are both zero then the original function has
either a local extremum or an inflection point at the point.

If the original function has an inflection point then the second derivative is zero or undefined at that
point.
32. In the following graphic we see the graph of a function f(x) in red, the graph of its first derivative in green,
and the graph of the second derivative in purple. You should notice the following relationship among these
graphs and be able to see them on the graph below.
When the first derivative is positive (above the x-axis) the original function is increasing.
When the first derivative is negative (below the x-axis) the original function is decreasing.
When the first derivative is zero (on the x-axis) the original function has an extremum (one maximum and
two minima).
When the second derivative is positive (above the x-axis) the first derivative function is increasing and
the original function is concave up (like a right side up bowl).
When the second derivative is negative (below the x-axis) the first derivative function is decreasing and
the original function is concave down (like an upside down bowl).
When the second derivative is zero (on the x-axis) the first derivative function has a relative extremum
and the original function has an inflection point (change in concavity).

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 45

We have examined these relationships in many examples in these notes and accompanying videos. We can use
our knowledge of derivatives along with concepts and skills from arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry and our
skills with the table and graphing features of calculators to thoroughly analyze and illustrate various characteristics
of the graphs of functions. Bringing both graphing technology and knowledge of calculus and precalculus together
allows us to be sure that we have investigated and explained the important and interesting features of the graph.
Some of the interesting features of graph we should identify when they are present are:
Domain and Range
Endpoints
Isolated Points
Any type of discontinuity
Holes in the Graph
Vertical, Horizontal, and Oblique Asymptotes
Local and Global Extrema
Inflections Points
Sections which are increasing, decreasing, or constant
Sections which are concave up, concave down, or linear
Places where the derivative is undefined
Symmetry: Reflective, Rotational, Translational
Representative table of values patterns in the table
Representative graph or graphs showing interesting features
Graph of the function with the graphs of its first and second derivatives
For families of functions what is the effect of changing the values of the parameters.

Polynomial Functions
Calculus Video 4.16 Polynomial Functions and Derivatives Contents
We know that the derivative of a non-constant polynomial function is another polynomial function with degree
one less than the degree of the original polynomial function. Therefore, not only are all polynomial defined and
continuous for all real number inputs they are also differentiable everywhere. Thus their graphs are one connected
piece with no vertical tangent lines or sharp corners. Furthermore derivatives of all orders (first, second, third
derivative etc.) all exist for polynomials, and we say that they are infinitely differentiable.
Recall that the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra states that any polynomial of degree n can be factored into n
(not necessarily distinct) linear polynomials with complex number coefficients. Each factor with a real zero
corresponds to a real zero and x-intercept of the original polynomial function. So a polynomial of degree n has at
most n x-intercepts. However some of the factors may be repeated and some may have non-real zeroes so there
are sometimes fewer than n x-intercepts for a polynomial of degree n. Furthermore if the polynomial starts with
Applications of Derivatives, Page 46

real coefficients it can be factored into a product of linear and quadratic factors with real coefficients. If this
factorization can be obtained then we can find exact values of all of the roots using the quadratic formula and
solutions to linear equations. Although for a degree five or bigger polynomial there is no guarantee that such a
factorization can actually be found even though it must exist.
Since the first derivative of an nth degree polynomial function is an n-1 degree polynomial function there are at
most n 1 x-values where the first derivative is zero, and thus a polynomial function of degree n has at most
n 1 local extrema. Similarly the second derivative of an nth degree polynomial function is an n-2 degree
polynomial function, and thus a polynomial function of degree n has at most n 2 inflection points.
Notice that if for some real number r, (x r)m is a factor of a polynomial function p(x) but (x r)m+1 is not a factor
of p(x) then we have say that r is a root of multiplicity m of p(x), (r, 0) is an x-intercept of the graph of f(x), and
there exists some polynomial q(x) where

f x x r q x
m

f ' x x r q ' x q x m x r
m

f ' x x r

m 1

m 1

x r q ' x mq x .

Note that in this case (x r)m-1 is a factor of f '(x) and r is a root of multiplicity m -1 of f '(x).
If m = 1 then notice the f '(r) 0 so the point (r, 0) is an x-intercept of the graph of f(x), but is not a local extremum
of the function. It may or may not be an inflection point.
If m is even then we see that not only is the point (r, 0) is an x-intercept of the graph of f(x), but it is also a place
with a horizontal tangent line. Furthermore, notice that for values of x very close to r x r q ' x mq x has
the same sign and so f ' x x r

m 1

x r q ' x q x has opposite sign for x just above and x just below

## r. Therefore, (r, 0) is a local extremum of f(x).

On the other hand if m is odd and at least 3 then again for values of x very close to r
the same sign but f ' x x r

m 1

x r q ' x mq x has

x r q ' x q x has the same sign for x just above and x just below r,

and thus (r, 0) is NOT a local extremum of f(x). However, if m is at least 3 then f "(r) = 0 also. Therefore, if m is
odd and at least 3 then (r, 0) is an inflection point and a stationary point of f(x).
33. We can see this illustrated in the following function with a multiplicity 1 root at 1, a multiplicity 2 root at 2
and a multiplicity 3 root at 3. Note the shape of the graph near the x-intercepts (1, 0), (2, 0), and (3, 0).
2
3
f x x 1 x 2 x 3

Contents

## 34. Analyze the graph of the following function.

f x x3 3x 2 2 x 6
As with any polynomial function the domain is all real numbers, the function is continuous, and the graph has no
vertical or horizontal asymptotes. It also has not holes in the graph, no sharp corners, and no vertical tangent lines.
Since the degree (3) is an odd number we know that the range is all real numbers.
lim f x and lim f x
x

## Note that the y-intercept is (0, -6).

We can graph the function with our calculators.

Let's approximate the zeroes (roots) with the built-in CALC Zero (which uses Newton's Method).

So the zeros are approximately -3, -1.414214, and 1.414214. We can use synthetic division to factor our (x + 3).
3 1

3 2 6
3 0 6
0 2

So we see that

f x x 3 3x 2 2 x 6
x 3 x 2 2

x 3 x 2 x 2
So the x-intercepts are:

3,0

2,0 1.414213562,0
2,0 1.414213562,0
Applications of Derivatives, Page 48

We find the extrema by taking the derivative, setting it equal to zero, and solving.
3
2

f x x 3 3x 2 2 x 6
15
15
15

15
f 1
1
3 1
2 1
6
3
3
3
3

f ' x 3x 2 6 x 2
3x 2 6 x 2 0
6
x

2 3

f ' x 0
4 3 2
2 3

2
15
15
1
3 1
3
3

15 8 2 15 8 2

3
3
3 3
3

15 5
15
2 1
6
3
3
3
15
15
2 1
6
3
3

8 2 15 8 15 10
2 15

8 2 15 2
6
3
3
9
3
3
24 6 15 8 15 30 72 18 15 18 6 15 54

9
18 10 15

9
2 10 915

36 24
6
60
x 1
6
2 15
x 1
6
15
x 1
3
x 1

15
15
15
15
f 1
1
3 1
2 1
6
3
3
3
3

2 15 5
15
15
15
2 1
1
3 1
6

3
3
3
3
3

15 8 2 15 8 2 15
15

3
2 1
6

3 3
3 3
3
3

8 2 15 8 15 10
2 15

8 2 15 2
6
3
3
9
3
3
24 6 15 8 15 30 72 18 15 18 6 15 54

9
18 10 15

9
2 10 915

Local Extrema of f x :

Local Maximum:
Local Minimum:

1
1

0.2909944487, 6.303314829

15
3

15
3

,2

10 15
9

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 49

We find the inflection points by finding the second derivative, setting it equal to zero, and solve for x.
f x x 3 3x 2 2 x 6
f ' x 3x 2 6 x 2
f " x 6 x 6 6 x 1
f " x 0
x 1
f 1 1 3 1 2 1 6
3

1 3 2 6
2

1, 2

Inflection Point:

The following table summarizes this information and what it says about the graph of f(x).
x
f(x)
f '(x)
f "(x)
Graph
of

, 3

-3

+
-

0
+
-

Below
x-axis

xintercept

Increasing

3, 1 1
15
3

+
+
-

15
3

2 10 915

15
3

+
-

0
Above
x-axis
Local
Maximum

, 2

0
-

2, 1

-1
-2
0

xintercept

1, 1
15
3

15
3

+
+

2 10 915

0
+

Below
x-axis

, 2

2,

0
+
+

+
+
+

xintercept

Above
x-axis

Local
Minimum

Decreasing

Concave Down

15
3

Inflection
Point

Increasing
Concave Up

In the days before graphing calculators we would make such a table and use it to assist in drawing the graph of
the function. Now we use it along with a computer or calculator generated graph to summarize key features of
the graph of the original function.
Here is a graph on a square scale showing all of these features.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 51

Rational Functions
Calculus Video 4.18 Rational Function Analysis Contents
Rational functions are fractional functions where the numerator and denominator are polynomial functions. They
actually include polynomial functions and have many characteristics in common with polynomial functions.
However they often also have some interesting properties that are not found in polynomial functions. Here is a
list of some of their characteristics.

Rational Functions have as their domains the entire set of real numbers except for inputs which make the
denominator equal to zero. Each of the finitely many roots of the denominator corresponds to a
discontinuity of the function.
Discontinuities are either holes in the graph (removable discontinuities) or are vertical asymptotes.
If one factors the numerator and denominator then one can easily identify the inputs which are not in the
domain. After factoring cancel out factors in common in the numerator and denominator to obtain a
reduced version. If an input not in the domain makes the reduced version undefined then it corresponds
to a vertical asymptote. If the input produces an output from the reduced version then that ordered pair is
a hole in the graph.
Between the discontinuities the function is continuous and infinitely differentiable so its shape is
somewhat similar to a polynomial function there.
A linear factor of the numerator that is not a factor of the denominator corresponds to an x-intercept. If
this factor occurs multiple times in the numerator then it will also be a factor of the derivative so that the
shape of the graph near the x-intercepts depends on the multiplicity of the root in a manner similar to
polynomial functions. E.g. an even multiplicity root will also be the location of a local extremum.
The end behavior is the same as the end behavior of the power function formed by the ratio of the leading
terms of the numerator and denominator.
o If the degree of the numerator is larger than the degree of the denominator then the function
approaches positive or negative infinity as x approaches positive or negative infinity.
o If the degree of the numerator and denominator are the same then the function has the same nonzero horizontal asymptote on both ends with a value equal to the ratio of the leading coefficients.
o If the degree of the numerator is smaller than the degree of the denominator then the function has
a horizontal asymptote of the x-axis on both ends.
Notice that we find the derivative via application of the quotient rule. The derivative of a rational function
is a rational function with the same domain. Further notice that the degree of the numerator of the
derivative is at most one less than the sum of the degrees of the numerator and denominator.
p x q x p ' x p x q ' x
d
dx
2
q x
q x

Contents

## 35. Rational Function Example:

Use calculus, precalculus, and graphing technology to completely analyze and describe the following function:

x 3 x 2 8 x 12
f x
2 x 2 10 x 12
Clearly and carefully graph the function. Also compute its first and second derivatives and graph them on the
same grid. Then comment on important features of the graphs.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 52

We can enter the original formula in the calculator and get a graph and a table to help plot the points on the graph
above.

Notice error messages at x = 2 and x = 3 so (x-2) and (x-3) should be factors of the denominator. We can see the
vertical asymptote at x = 2, but there is not a vertical asymptote at x = 3 so this must be a hole in the graph and (x3) is a factor of the numerator as well. We can then factor and reduce the original function as follows:
2
2
2
x 2 , x 3
x 3 x 2 8 x 12 x 3 x 4 x 4 x 3 x 2
f x

2 x 2 10 x 12
2 x 3 x 2 2 x 2
2 x 2 5x 6
Note that we can factor out the (x-3) in the numerator using synthetic division:
3 1 1 -8 -12
3 12 12
1 4 4 0

3 2 25 12.5
.
2 3 2 2
2

## So we see the domain is all real numbers except 2 and 3.

There is a vertical asymptote at x = 2 and there is hole in the graph at (3, 12.5).

We can check the factoring and the y-value of the hole with the calculator.

Note that the only x-intercept is (-2, 0) and -2 is a multiplicity 2 root so this point is also a local maximum.
There is a local minimum at (6, 8) which we can find with the CALC Minimum feature of the calculator.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 53

f x

x 3 x 2 8 x 12 x 2

,x 3
2 x 2 10 x 12
2 x 2
2

2
1 x 2 2 x 2 1 x 2 1
f ' x
, x 3
2

2
x 2

1 x 2 2 x 2 x 2
f ' x
, x 3
2

2
x 2

1 x 2 2 x 4 x 2
f ' x
, x 3
2

2
x 2

f ' x
f " x

x 2 x 6 , x 3 x 2 x 6 x 3
2
2
2 x 2
2 x 2 x 3
x 2 4 x 12

1 d
2 dx

,x 3

x 2
2
x 2 2 x 4 x 2 4 x 12 2 x 2 1
1
f " x 2
,x 3
4
x 2
x 2 x 2 2 x 4 2 x 2 4 x 12
f " x
,x 3
4
2 x 2
2

2x
f " x
f " x
f " x

8 x 8 2 x 2 8 x 24
2 x 2

32
2 x 2
16

x 2

,x 3

,x 3

,x 3

16 x 3

x 2 x 3
3

Note that f ' (x) = 0 when x = -2 or x = 6. f "(-2) < 0 so (-2, 0) is a local maximum and f "(6) > 0 so (6, 8) is a local
minimum.
f "(x) > 0 when x > 0 so the original function is concave up there. f "(x) > 0 when x < 0 so the original function
is concave down there.

## So we see that the range is (-, 0] [8, ).

Notice that the function is concave down to the left of the vertical asymptote at x = 2 and it is concave up
to the right of x = 2.
The function is increasing on (-, -2) and on (6, ) and is decreasing on x-values of (-2, 2), (2, 3), and
(3, 6).
Since the degree of the numerator is one larger than the degree of the denominator there is an oblique asymptote
which we can find by long division.
1
x3
2
2x 4 x2 4x 4

x 2 2 x
6x 4

6 x 12
16

## So y x 3 is an oblique (slant) asymptote.

1
2

Please refer to Dr. Jackson's YouTube playlist Algebra Unit 9: Rational Relations for more examples of rational
functions and more details of their characteristics. The examples presented in these videos demonstrate several
interesting graph characteristics present in many rational functions. Note that no calculus is covered in the videos
in this playlist, but you can find first and second derivative on your own to better explain the features of the graphs
presented there.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 55

Trigonometric Functions
Calculus Video 4.19 Trigonometric Function Analysis Contents
When working with trigonometric functions in calculus always put your calculator in RADIAN mode!
Like rational functions the six basic trigonometric functions are differentiable where they are defined. The sine
and cosine functions are defined everywhere, but tan, cot, sec, and csc all have infinitely many places where they
are undefined, and they have vertical asymptotes at these places. Unlike rational functions the basic trigonometric
functions are periodic. Therefore, if the function has one x-intercept then it has infinitely many x-intercepts, if the
function has one local extrema then it has infinitely many local extrema, if it has one vertical asymptote then it
has infinitely many vertical asymptotes, etcetera. When we analyze trigonometric functions we must be sure to
clearly identify all of these infinitely many interesting points.
If you need review of trigonometric functions you are referred to Dr. Jackson's Trigonometry videos. In particular
the following playlists give background information relevant to the following example problem.

Playlist: Trigonometry Unit 2: Circular Trigonometry introduces the definitions of the circular trigonometric
functions and visualizes these on a unit circle and via Cartesian graphs. There are also videos going over the
trigonometric values for certain special angles.
Playlist: Trigonometry Unit 4: Identities, Equations, & Inverses gives examples of solving equations such as
those in the following problem.

The following example has many details that use finding first and second derivatives, solving polynomial and
trigonometric equations, quadratic formula, using special triangles and trigonometric functions of special angles,
approximation techniques of zeroes and extrema using a TI-84 calculator and other algebraic, numerical, and
graphical techniques.
36. Trigonometric Function Example Analyze the following function.

## f x 2sin 3 3x sin 2 3x 2sin 3x 1

Notice that this is the composition of a polynomial function, a sine function, and a linear function all of which
are differentiable everywhere so this function has a domain of all real numbers and is actually infinitely
differentiable on all real numbers. Therefore, the graph will be continuous and smooth everywhere. It will
NOT have any holes, vertical asymptotes, or breaks of any kind. Notice that

f x 2u 3 u 2 2u 1 where u sin 3x .
Since sin(x) is periodic with period 2, u= sin(3x) is periodic with period
2
3

2
3

## , and f is also periodic with

2
3

period
. So if we graph the function for x [0,
] then the rest of the graph is infinitely many copies of
this portion shifted horizontally. Summarizing information about the function f that we have thus far:

Domain:
Continuity:
Differentiability:

Period:

## All real numbers

Continuous on all reals
Infinitely differentiable on all reals
2
3

The following graph of this function is on a square scale and shows a few periods so that we see the periodic

## nature of the function. The vertical gridlines are space at a distance of 36

apart.
Applications of Derivatives, Page 56

Within each period there appear to be four x-intercepts, three local maxima, three local minima, and six inflection
points.
Let's compute some intercepts.

f x 0
2sin 3 3x sin 2 3x 2sin 3x 1 0
2u 3 u 2 2u 1 0,

u sin 3x

Using our graphing calculators we can see where the graph of y 2 x3 x2 2 x 1 crosses the x-axis. Each zero
corresponds to a factor so we can use this to factor the polynomial function of u.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 57

So we see that the zeroes (roots) are x {-1, , 1}. Therefore we see that we have the following factorization

y 2 x3 x 2 2 x 1 2 x 1 x 12 x 1
We can verify this by multiplying the factors out by hand or by checking with our calculator.

## Therefore we see that:

f x 0
2sin 3 3 x sin 2 3 x 2sin 3 x 1 0
2u 3 u 2 2u 1 0,

u sin 3 x sin , 3 x

2 u 1 u 12 u 1 0
u 1 0 or u 12 0 or u 1 0
u 1 or u 12

or u 1

sin 1 or sin 12

or sin 1

To find appropriate values of in each of the three cases we turn our attention to the definition of the sine function
and circles centered at the origin.

sin 1

1
1

y
r

requires that if the input is the radian measure of an angle in standard position then the
terminal side of that angle intersects a circle centered at the origin with a radius r = 1 at a point with y-coordinate
y = -1. So this terminal side points down along the negative portion of the y-axis. One such angle is = -/2
another is 3/2. The other angles have additional rotations in integer multiples of 2. So one way to indicate this
infinite set of angles is 32 2n | n . See the graphic on the following page.
Similarly, sin 1 11 r indicates that the angle of measure radians in standard position has a terminal side
which intersects a circle of radius r = 1 centered at the origin in a place with y-coordinate y = 1. This indicates
that the terminal side of the angle points straight up along the positive portion of the y-axis. One such angle is
= /2, and the other angles have additional rotations in integer multiples of 2. So one way to indicate this
infinite set of angles is 2 2n | n . See the graphic on the following page.
y

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 58

/2 = 90 (-3/2 = -270)
x = 0, y = 1, r = 1
cos(/2) = 0, sin(/2) =1, tan(/2) is undefined.
sec(/2) is undefined, csc(/2) = 1 and cot(/2) =0

= 180 (- = -180)
x = -1, y = 0, r = 1
cos() = -1, sin() =0, tan() =0
sec() = -1, csc() and cot() are undefined.
6

(0, 1)

(-1, 0)

sin 12

0 = 0
x=1, y = 0, r = 1
cos(0) = 1, sin(0) =0, tan(0) =0
sec(0) = 1, csc(0) and cot(0) are undefined.
(1, 0)

6
Initial Ray

## (0, -1) -/2 = -90 (3/2 = 270)

x = 0, y = -1, r = 1
cos(-/2) = 0, sin(-/2) =-1, tan(-/2) is undefined.
sec(-/2) is undefined, csc(-/2) = -1 and cot(0) =0

y
r

indicates that the angle of measure radians in standard position has a terminal side which
intersects a circle of radius r = 2 centered at the origin in a place with y-coordinate y = 1. This indicates that the
terminal side of the angle is in either the first or second quadrant. Notice that this corresponds to a reference
triangle with sides of length 1, 2, and 3 . We can find the length of the remaining side via the Pythagorean
Theorem. One should recognize this as one of our special triangle which is found by bisecting one of the angles
of an equilateral triangle. Therefore it has angles of size /6, /3, and /2. The reference angle is the one opposite
the shortest leg so it has measure /6.
So one such rotational angle in standard position with terminal side in the first quadrant has measure = /6, and
the other angles have additional rotations in integer multiples of 2. So one way to indicate this infinite set of
angles is 6 2n | n .
One such rotational angle in standard position with terminal side in the second quadrant has measure = 5/6,
and the other angles have additional rotations in integer multiples of 2. So one way to indicate this infinite set
5
of angles is 56 2n | n .
4

## Circle x^2 + y^2 = 22

=5/6, x = - 3, y = 1 , r = 2

=/6, x = 3, y = 1 , r = 2

## cos(5/6) = - 3/2, sec(5/6) = -2/ 3

sin(5/6) = 1/2 ,
csc(5/6) = 2
tan(5/6) =- 1/ 3, cot(5/6) = - 3

## cos(/6) = 3/2, sec(/6) = 2/ 3

sin(/6) = 1/2 ,
csc(/6) = 2
tan(/6) = 1/ 3, cot(/6) = 3

2
3

- 3
6

=-5/6, x = - 3, y = -1 , r =2

-1

## cos(-5/6) = - 3/2, sec(-5/6) = -2/ 3

sin(-5/6) = -1/2 ,
csc(-5/6) = -2
tan(-5/6) = 1/ 3, cot(-5/6) = 3

(1, 0)

1
2

-1

6
Initial Ray

=-/6, x = 3, y = -1 , r = 2

## cos(-/6) = 3/2, sec(-/6) = 2/ 3

sin(-/6) = -1/2 ,
csc(-/6) = -2
tan(-/6) =- 1/ 3, cot(-/6) = - 3

Therefore, there are four infinite sets of possible angles. The solution for can be any of these so taking the union
of the four sets we see that
3

6 2n ,

2n ,

5
6
5

2n ,

3
2

2n | n

However, recall that we are looking not for values of but rather for the corresponding values of x so since
= 3x:
Applications of Derivatives, Page 59

10

3 x 6 2n ,
x 18 23 n,

2n ,
23 n,

5
6
5
18

2n ,

23 n,

3
2

2n | n

23 n | n

f x 0.

So there are infinitely many x intercepts with these x-coordinates in this set:

x-intercepts

x, y 18 23 n, 0 , 6 23 n, 0 , 518 23 n, 0 , 2 23 n, 0 | n
0.1745 2.0944n, 0 , 0.5236 2.0944 n, 0 , 0.8727 2.0944n, 0 , 1.5708 2.0944n, 0 | n

## Being a function there is exactly one y-intercept:

f 0 2sin 3 3 0 sin 2 3 0 2sin 3 0 1

## 2sin 3 0 sin 2 0 2sin 0 1

0 0 0 1
1

y-intercept: (0, 1)

Now let us find the local extrema. To do this we need to find the derivative, set it equal to zero, and solve for x.
Notice that we can use the same substitutions as above. We have to apply the chain rule with two substitutions.
We place the factored form of the derivative equal to zero and then set each factor equal to zero. Note that one
factor is a quadratic polynomial in u which we can find the zeroes of via the quadratic formula. Since there are
two solutions this gives two different possible values for u arising out of the quadratic factor. At this point we
have one possible value for cos() and two possible values for sin() each of these corresponds to two different
possible terminal sides for an angle with measure placed in standard position. Each of these terminal sides leads
to infinitely many values for differing from each other by multiples of 2. Note that the values where
cos() = 0 are angles which can easily be expressed in terms of rational numbers and by using a unit circle
approach similar to that used above. On the other hand, the solutions for the portions involving sin() can only
be expressed exactly using an inverse trigonometric function. This is the much more typical situation since there
are only some very special angles that we can exact values of trigonometric functions as algebraic expressions.
As we saw above, once we find the set of possible values for then we still have to substitute 3x back in for and
divide everything by 3 to get the corresponding values for x.

## f x 2u 3 u 2 2u 1 where u sin 3x sin

f ' x 6u
f ' x 2

2u

2 du
dx

du
dx

3u

du
dx

u 1

du
dx

du
dx

cos

3x

3cos

d
dx

d
dx

f ' x 2 3 cos 3u 2 u 1
f ' x 6cos 3u 2 u 1 6cos 3 x 3sin 2 3 x sin 3 x 1
f ' x 0
cos 0 or 3u 2 u 1 0
cos 0 or u

12 4 3 1
2 3

cos 0 or u 1 613
cos 0 or sin 1 613

or sin 1 613

2 2n ,

or arcsin

2n | n
or arcsin
2n , arcsin 2n | n
2n , arcsin
2n , arcsin 2n , arcsin 2n , arcsin 2n | n
2n , arcsin
2n , arcsin 2n , arcsin 2n , arcsin 2n | n
n, arcsin
n, arcsin n, arcsin n, arcsin n | n

3
2

2n | n

1 13
6

2n , arcsin

1 13
6

1 13
6

2n ,
3 x 2n ,
x n,

2
3

1 13
6

1 13
6

3
2

1 13
6

3
2

2
3

0.5236 2.0944n,

1
3

1 13
6

1 13
6

1 13
6

2
3

1
3

1 13
6

1 13
6

1 13
6

1 13
6

2
3

1
3

1 13
6

1 13
6

2
3

1
3

1 13
6

2
3

1.5708 2.0944n, 1.9447 2.0944n, 1.1969 2.0944n, 0.2917 2.0944n, 0.7555 2.0944n | n

We can examine a close up graph of only one period of the function to identify which of these are local minima
and which are local maxima. Here is the function f graphed for one period with x 0, 23 . The red dots are xintercepts. The point at

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 61

The point at

36

apart.

2 ,0 is both a local

The following table gives the approximate values to four decimal places of the x-intercepts and local a nd global
extrema only for those values with x 0, 23 which are on the graph above. All of these points except for one
are found by letting n = 0 in the set notation for the exact answers above. (1.9447, 1.5162) is found by letting
n = 1.
x-intercepts
Local Maxima
Global Maxima
Local Minima
Global Minima

## (0.1745, 0), (0.5236, 0), (0.8727, 0), (1.5708, 0)

(0.5236, 0), (1.1969, 1.5162), (1.9447, 1.5162)
(1.1969, 1.5162), (1.9447, 1.5162)
(0.2917, -0.2199), (0.7555, -0.2199), (1.5708, 0)
(0.2917, -0.2199), (0.7555, -0.2199),

We can obtain or verify these approximations with CALC Zero, Max, and Min on the calculator:

In general we have the following extrema and range, first given exactly and then with decimal approximations to
four decimal places.
Applications of Derivatives, Page 62

Local Minima:

2 1 ,
1 | n

2 n, 0 , 1 arcsin 1 13 2 n, 2 1 13 3
3
6
3
6
2 3
x, y
3
2
3 13 arcsin 1 613 23 n, 2 1 613 1 613 2

1 13
6

2 1 ,
1 | n

1 13
6

1 13
6

2 n, 0 , 1 arcsin 1 13 2 n, 2 1 13 3
3
6
3
6
2 3

3
2
3 13 arcsin 1 613 23 n, 2 1 613 1 613 2

1 13
6

1 13
6

1 13
6

Global Minima:

x, y

arcsin
1 13
6

1
3

13 arcsin

1 13
6

2
3

## sin arcsin 2sin arcsin 1 ,

n, 2sin arcsin
sin arcsin 2sin arcsin 1 | n

n, 2sin 3
2
3

1
3

arcsin

1 13
6

1 13
6

1
3

1 13
6

1
3

1 13
6

1
3

1 13
6

1
3

1 13
6

1
3

## 0.2917 2.0944n, 0.2199 , 0.7555 2.0944n, 0.2199 | n

Local Maxima:
2 n, 0 ,
6 3
x, y
3 13 arcsin

arcsin
1 13
6

1
3

1 13
6

2
3

0.5236 2.0944n, 0 ,

n, 2sin 3

n, 2sin 3

1
3

1 13
6

1
3

arcsin

arcsin

1 13
6

sin

sin
arcsin
2

1
3

1
3

2sin
2sin arcsin

arcsin

1 13
6

1 13
6

1
3

1
3

arcsin

1 13
6

1 13
6

1 ,

## 1 arcsin 1 13 2 n, 2sin 3 1 arcsin 1 13 sin 2 1 arcsin 1 13 2sin 1 arcsin 1 13 1 ,

6
3
3
6
3
6
3
6
3
x, y
3 13 arcsin 1 613 23 n, 2sin 3 13 arcsin 1 613 sin 2 13 arcsin 1 613 2sin 13 arcsin 1 613 1 | n

1.9447 2.0944n,1.5162 ,

Range

0.2199, 1.5162

1
3

arcsin

1 13
6

sin
2

1 | n

## 1.9447 2.0944n,1.5162 , 1.1969 2.0944n,1.5162 | n

Global Maxima:

2
3

1
3

arcsin

1.1969 2.0944n,1.5162 | n

1 13
6

2sin

1
3

arcsin

1 13
6

1, 2sin
3

1
3

arcsin

1 13
6

sin
2

1
3

arcsin

1 13
6

2sin

1
3

arcsin

1 13
6

Here is a graph of the original function in blue with a graph of its derivative in red. This shows two periods with
x 23 , 23 .

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 63

As is always the case, note that when the derivative is zero the original function has a horizontal tangent line and
in this case these are all local extrema. When the derivative is at a local extremum the original function has an
inflection point. To find exact and approximate values of the inflection points we need to find a formula for the
second derivative, set it equal to zero, solve for x, and substitute into the original function to find the corresponding
second coordinates.
f x 2u 3 u 2 2u 1 where u sin 3x sin
du
dx

cos 2 1 sin 2 1 u 2

d
dx

## f ' x 6cos 3u 2 u 1 6cos 3 x 3sin 2 3 x sin 3 x 1

f " x 6 cos dxd 3u 2 u 1 3u 2 u 1 dxd cos
f " x 6 cos 6u 1 du
3u 2 u 1 sin ddx
dx

## f " x 6 cos 6u 1 3cos 3u 2 u 1 sin 3

f " x 18 1 u 2 6u 1 u 3u 2 u 1

f " x 18 6u 3 u 2 6u 1 3u 3 u 2 u
f " x 18 9u 3 2u 2 7u 1

f " x 18 9u 3 2u 2 7u 1
f " x 18 9sin 3 2sin 2 7sin 1
f " x 18 9sin 3 3 x 2sin 2 3 x 7sin 3 x 1
f " x 0
9u 3 2u 2 7u 1 0

Without using the cubic formula which is typically not taught in precalculus we are unable to find exact solutions
to this cubic polynomial and thus can only find approximate x-coordinates of where the second derivative is zero.
We can approximate these however by either approximating the x-coordinates of the local extrema of the first
derivative or approximating the zeroes of the second derivative. We can use the calculator in either case. Here
we will use the calculator to approximate the x-coordinates of the extrema of the derivative using CALC Maximum
and CALC Minimum and then evaluate the original function at these points to find the corresponding approximate
Applications of Derivatives, Page 64

y-coordinate of the inflection points. We will do this for values of x 0, 23 . Since the original function is
periodic with period 23 all of its derivatives of any order are also periodic with the same period. Each of the
following points found on the home screens are approximately inflection points of the original function. Shifts of
these by integer multiples of 23 give all of the inflection points.

The following graph of one period of the function (in blue), its first derivative (in red), and its second derivative
(in green) shows these particular inflection points as purple dots. Note that they have the same first coordinates
as the local extrema of the first derivative and the same first coordinates as the x-intercepts of the second
derivative.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 65

Zooming out and showing two periods of the function and its first two derivatives:

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 66

7. Transformations of Graphs
Calculus Video 4.20 Transformation of Graphs Intro Contents.
Recall from our study of precalculus that we can easily perform certain basic geometric transformations to the
graphs of relations by making simple changes to the formula and table for the relation. Recall that the change to
the formula involves the inverse of the change to the table and graph so that the change to the formula is opposite
of what happens elsewhere. For example, replacing x by (x h) in the formula results in a horizontal translation
so that h is actually added to all of the pre-image x-values to find their corresponding images and the graph is
shifted to the right if h is positive and to the left if h is negative.
See Dr. Jackson's video playlist Algebra Unit 5: Transformations of Graphs to see these ideas developed and
illustrated with algebraic functions. See Trigonometry 2.7.1 Project Investing Transformations, Trigonometry
2.7.2 Transformations of Trig Functions Video 1, and Trigonometry 2.7.3 Transformations of Trigonometric
Functions Video 2 to see applications of these ideas to trigonometric functions. Below we provide a very brief
summary of our conclusions about basic transformations of graphs, formulas, and tables of relations. A table
summarizing the basic transformations covered in these videos follows. Following this summary we will consider
how these transformations to a function affect the corresponding derivative function.
Transformations are functions that take each preimage point of a plane and send it to an image point in the plane.
We are currently concerned with the effect of several transformations when we restrict our attention to how the
transformations affect points from a relation both individually and collectively.
Transformations will take an input relation and generate a new output relation, so transformations are functions.
In the summary notes below we will describe changes in the formula, table, and graph due to several standard
types of transformations. We will illustrate each of these with two examples detailing the changes in the
formulas, tables, and graphs.
Notice that the tables in all examples have been constructed so that the images of each point in the table of the
original relation align with their corresponding images.
A one-page table summarizing all of these transformations is given at the end of these notes.
In general, the formula is backwards from the actual change in the table in the graph in the sense that the inverse
operation is applied.
A fixed point of a transformation is an individual point whose image is the same as its preimage.
When we have a relation (set of points) for which a transformation collectively maps the preimage set of points
to the same image set of points (even though all points may not be individually fixed) we say that the relation
has symmetry with respect to that transformation.
Applications of Derivatives, Page 67

Translations

## Calculus Video 4.21 Translations Contents

Horizontal Translation: If we replace x by (x-h) in the formula of a relation then we leave the y-values
alone and add the constant h to all of the x-values in the table and the graph is translated (shifted)
horizontally by |h| units. It goes to the right if h > 0 and to the left if h < 0.
2
3
y x2
y
x 5
y x3
y
x 6
Formula: Replace x by (x 5)
Formula: Replace x by (x + 6)
Leave y alone
Leave y alone
Table:
Table:
Subtract 6 from x values
Leave y values alone
Leave y values alone
x
y
x
y

-4
16
1
16

-3
9
2
9

-2
4
3
4

-1
1
4
1

0
0
5
0

1
1
6
1

2
4
7
4

3
9
8
9

4
16
9
16
Graph is shifted to the right 5 units:
10
y=x^2

x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

y
x
y
-10
-64
-64

-27
-9
-27

-8
-8
-8

-1
-7
-1

0
-6
0

1
-5
1

8
-4
8

27
-3
27

64
-2
64
Graph is shifted to left 6 units:
10

y=(x-5)^2
y=(x-6)^3

0
-15

-10

-5

y=x^3

10

15

-15

-10

-5

-5

-5

-10

-10

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 68

10

15

Vertical Translation: If we replace y by (y - k) in the formula of a relation then we leave the x-values
alone and add k to all of the y-values in the table and the graph is translated (shifted) vertically by |k|
units. It goes up if k > 0 and down if k < 0.
y x2
y 3 x2
y x3
y 2 x3
Formula: Replace y by (y 3)
Leave x alone

y x3 2
Formula: Replace y by (y + 2)
Leave x alone

Table:

Table:

x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

Leave x values alone

y
16
9
4
1
0
1
4
9
16

x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

y
19
12
7
4
3
4
7
12
19

x2

x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

## Subtract 2 from y values

Leave x values alone
y
-64
-27
-8
-1
0
1
8
27
64

x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

y
-66
-29
-10
-3
-2
-1
6
25
62

10

10

y=x^2+3
y=x^3

y=x^2
0
-15

-10

-5

0
0

10

15

-15

-10

-5

5
y=x^3-2

-5

-5

-10

-10

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 69

10

15

General Translation: If we replace x by (x-h) and y by (y-k) in the formula of a relation then we add h
to the x-coordinate of each preimage point and k to the y-coordinate of each preimage point to find the
coordinates of its image point and the graph is translated (shifted) by the vector <h, k>.
y

x2

y
y

2
2

y
16
9
4
1
0
1
4
9
16

x
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

## Formula: Replace x by (x 2) and

Replace y by (y 3)
Table:
x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

x3

5
3

## Formula: Replace x by (x + 5) and

Replace y by (y +2)
Table:
Subtract 5 from x-values and
Subtract 2 from yvalues

y
19
12
7
4
3
4
7
12
19

x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

## Graph: translated by the vector <2, 3>

i.e. shift right 2 and up 3

y
-64
-27
-8
-1
0
1
8
27
64

x
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

y
-66
-29
-10
-3
-2
-1
6
25
62

## Graph: translated by the vector <-5, -2>

i.e. shift left 5 and down 2

15
5

10
-20

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

25

5
-5

-20

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

25
-10

Defining Parameters: Notice that a general translation requires that we identify the vector by which
each point is transformed.
Congruent Image: A translation maps any preimage to a congruent image so that all corresponding
distances and angles are preserved. The figure (graph) is simply moved around while maintaining the
same size, shape, and orientation.
Fixed Points: A translation has no fixed points. Every preimage point is mapped to a different image
point.
Translational Symmetry: Some graphs of functions have translational symmetry. Since every point is
moved, these graphs must have all real numbers for their domain. One example is translating a line along
a vector that goes in the direction of the line. For example when we translate y = x by the vector <2, 2>
notice that each point is moved to a new point on the same line and since the line goes on forever in both
direction there is always a point to take the place of the one that moved and the image set of points is the
same function y 2 = x 2 y = x. In Trigonometry we study several functions that have horizontal
translational symmetry, we say that functions with horizontal translational symmetry are periodic.

## Calculus Video 4.22 Vertical and Horizontal Strains Contents

Horizontal Strain about the y-axis: If we replace x by (x/a) in the formula of a relation with constant a
> 0 then the graph is has a horizontal strain by a factor of a. If a >1 then we have an expansion (stretch)
and if a <1 then we have a compression. Image points are a times as far from the y-axis as their
corresponding preimage points.
y

x2

2x

x3

x 3
3

## Formula: Replace x by (2x) and

Leave y alone
Table:
Divide x-values by 2 and
Leave yvalues alone

## Formula: Replace x by (x/3) and

Leave y alone
Table: Multiply x-values by 3 and
Leave yvalues alone

x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

y
16
9
4
1
0
1
4
9
16

x
-2
-1.5
-1
-.5
0
.5
1
1.5
2

y
16
9
4
1
0
1
4
9
16

(1/2 as wide)

y
-64
-27
-8
-1
0
1
8
27
64

10
y=x^3

y=x^2

y=(x/3)^2

0
-15

-10

-5

-5

y
-64
-27
-8
-1
0
1
8
27
64

## Graph: Points are 3 times as far from the y-axis

(3 times as wide)

y=(2x)^2

10

x
-12
-9
-6
-3
0
3
6
9
12

10

15

0
-15

-10

-5

-5

-10

-10

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 71

10

15

Vertical Strain about the x-axis: If we replace y by (y/b), in the formula of a relation with constant b >
0, then the graph has a vertical strain by a factor of b. If b > 1 then we have an expansion (stretch) and if
b < 1 then we have a compression. Image points are b times as far from the x-axis as their corresponding
preimage points.
y
y x2
x2
y x3
3 y x3
2
y

## Formula: Replace y by (y/2) and

Leave x alone
Table:
Multiply y values by 2 and
Leave xvalues alone

2 x2

y x3
Formula: Replace y by (3y) and
Leave x alone
Table:
Divide y-values by 3 and
Leave xvalues alone

x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y

-4
16
-4
32
-4 -64
-4
-21.333

-3
9
-3
18
-3 -27
-3
-3

-2
4
-2
8
-2 -8
-2
-2.66666

-1
1
-1
2
-1 -1
-1
-.3

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
2
1
1
1
.3

2
4
2
8
2
8
2
2.6666.

3
9
3
18
3 27
3
3

4
16
4
32
4 64
4
21.33333
Graph: Points are 2 times as far from the x-axis. Graph: Points are 1/3 as far from the x-axis.
(2 times as tall)
(1/3 as tall)
10

10

y=x^3

y=2x^2

5
y=(1/3)x^3
y=x^2

0
-15

-10

-5

0
0

10

15

-15

-10

-5

-5

-5

-10

-10

10

15

Defining Parameters: Notice that a general strain requires that we specify a line, l, which is the axis of
the strain and a positive strain factor, c. We then we move points perpendicularly toward (c < 1) or away
(c > 1) from the line l, so that the distances of the image points from the line are c times the distances of
the distances of their corresponding preimage points from the line and points stay on the same side of the
line.
We are only considering strains about the x and y axes.
Non-Similar Image: The image of a vertical or horizontal strain is neither congruent nor similar to the
preimage. Many of the graph characteristics are the same so the basic shape remains the same. However,
both distances and angles are changed from the preimage to the image, so there is definitely some
distortion in the figure.
Fixed Points: The fixed points of a strain are the points on the axis of the strain. Points on the y-axis are
fixed in a horizontal strain about the y-axis and points on the x-axis are fixed in a vertical strain about the
x-axis.
Symmetry: An example of a graph with symmetry with respect to a horizontal strain is a horizontal line.
Similarly, a vertical line has symmetry with respect to a vertical strain. We will not study other graphs
with symmetries with respect to these transformations.

Dilations

## Calculus Video 4.23 Dilations Contents

If we apply vertical and horizontal strains by the same factor we obtain a dilation.
Dilation (Size Transformation) about the origin: If we replace x by (x/c) and y by (y/c) in the formula
of a relation with c > 0 then the graph has a dilation by a factor of c. If c > 1 then we have an expansion
and if c < 1 then we have a compression. Image points are c times as far from the origin as their
corresponding preimage points. The origin, a preimage point, and its image point are in a straight line.
3
y
x 2
y x2
y x3
3y
3x
2
2
y

x 2
2

## Formula: Replace x by (x/2) and

Replace y by (y/2)
Table:
Multiply x values by 2 and
Multiply y values by 2
x

3x
3

Table:

## Formula: Replace x by (3x) and

Replace y by (3y)
Divide x values by 3 and
Divide y values by 3

-4
16
-8
32
-4 -64
-1.3333
-21.333

-3
9
-6
18
-3 -27
-1
-3

-2
4
-4
8
-2 -8
-0.6666
-2.66666

-1
1
-2
2
-1 -1
-0.333
-.3

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
2
2
1
1
0.333
.3

2
4
4
8
2
8
0.666
2.6666.

3
9
6
18
3 27
1
3

4
16
8
32
4 64
1.3333
21.33333
Graph: Points are 2 times as far from the origin.
Graph: Points are 1/3 as far from the orign.
(2 times as big)
(1/3 as big)
5

-20

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

25

-20

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

25

-5

-5

-10

Defining Parameters: A general dilation requires that we specify a point for the center of the dilation
and a positive dilation factor, c. We then we move points along the line containing the preimage point
and this center of dilation so that the distance from the image point to the center of dilation is c times the
distance from the preimage point to the center.
We are only considering dilations about the origin.
Similar Image: The image of a dilation is not congruent to the original preimage but is similar to the
preimage. Angles between points in the preimage remain the same in the image, but all distances in the
image are proportional to the corresponding distances in the preimage, with the proportionality constant
being the same as the dilation factor. The image is the same shape but a different size than the original
preimage.
Fixed Points: The only fixed point in a dilation is the center of the dilation. So a dilation about the origin
will only fix the origin.
Symmetry: An example of a graph with symmetry with respect to a dilation about the origin would be a
line through the origin. We will not study other graphs with symmetries with respect to these dilations.

Reflections

## Calculus Video 4.24 Contents

Reflection About the y-axis: If we replace x by (-x) in the formula of a relation then the graph is reflected
about the y-axis. So if we replace x by (-x) and the graph stays the same then the relation is symmetric
with respect to the y- axis.
2
3
y x2
y
x
y x3
y
x
y

x2

x3

## Formula: Replace x by (-x) and

Formula: Replace x by (-x) and
Leave y alone
Leave y alone
Table:
Change the sign on the x values and Table:
Change the sign on the x values and
Leave the y values alone
Leave the y values alone

x
y
x
y

-4
16
4
16

-3
9
3
9

-2
4
2
4

-1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0

1
1
-1
1

2
4
-2
4

3
9
-3
9

4
16
-4
16
Collectively the points stay the same so
it is symmetric with respect the y-axis

x
y
x
y

-4 -64
4
-64

-3 -27
3
-27

-2 -8
2
-8

-1 -1
1
-1

0
0
0
0

1
1
-1
1

2
8
-2
8

3 27
-3
27

4 64
-4
64
(Not symmetric with respect to the y-axis)
10

10

y=x^3

y=(-x)^3
5

0
-15

-10

-5

10

15

-15

-10

-5

-5

-5

-10

-10

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 74

10

15

Reflection About the x-axis: If we replace y by (-y) in the formula of a relation then the graph is reflected
about the x-axis. So if we replace y by (-y) and the graph stays the same then the relation is symmetric
with respect to the x- axis.
y x2
y x2
y x3
y x3

y
x3
Formula: Replace y by (-y) and
Formula: Replace y by (-y) and
Leave x alone
Leave x alone
Table:
Change the sign on the y values and Table:
Change the sign on the y values and
Leave the x values alone
Leave the x values alone
y

x2

x
y
x
y

-4
16
-4
-16

-3
9
-3
-9

-2
4
-2
-4

-1
1
-1
-1

0
0
0
0

1
1
1
-1

2
4
2
-4

3
9
3
-9

4
16
4
-16
Graph: Reflect about the x-axis: (upside-down)
Not symmetric wrt x-axis:

x
y
x
y

-4 -64
-4
64

-3 -27
-3
27

-2 -8
-2
8

-1 -1
-1
1

0
0
0
0

1
1
1
-1

2
8
2
-8

3 27
3
-27

4 64
4
-64
Graph: Reflect about the x-axis: (upside-down)
Not symmetric wrt x-axis:
01

10

3^x=-y

y-=x^2

0
-15

-10

-5

10

15

51

01

5-

5-

-5

-y=x^2
-10

3^x=y01-

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 75

01-

51-

Inverse Relation: Reflection Over the Line y = x: If we switch x and y in the formula for a relation
we reflect the graph about the line y = x and we have the inverse relation.
y x2
x y2
y x3
x y3

y 3x
Formula: Replace x by y and
Replace y by x
Table:
Switch the order on each point

y
x
Formula: Replace x by y and
Replace y by x
Table:
Switch the order on each point
x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

y
16
9
4
1
0
1
4
9
16

x
16
9
4
1
0
1
4
9
16

y
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

y
-64
-27
-8
-1
0
1
8
27
64

x
-64
-27
-8
-1
0
1
8
27
64

y
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

## Graphs are reflected about y = x:

10

y=x^2

y=x^3

10

y=x

y=x

x=y^2
x=y^3

0
-15

-10

-5

-5

-10

10

15

-15

-10

-5

10

15

-5

-10

Defining Parameters: Notice that a general reflection requires that we specify a mirror line, l. We then
we move preimage points to the same distance on the other side of the line so that the line connecting the
preimage and image points is perpendicularly bisected by the mirror line.
General reflections require more work than we are going to do this semester. We are only considering 3
specific reflections: about the x-axis, y-axis, and the line y = x.
Congruent Image: The image of a figure under any reflection is congruent to the original image. All
distances and angles in the image are the same as the corresponding measurements in the preimage. The
image is exactly the same size and shape as the original image, but the orientation has been reversed.
Fixed Points: Points on the mirror line are fixed in a reflection.
Symmetry: A figure that has line symmetry is its own mirror image. We will examine many graphs with
symmetry with respect to the one of the three reflections that we are studying. Of course any symmetry
is a special property and most relations do not have any symmetry.

Rotations

## Calculus Video 4.25 Rotations Contents

Defining Parameters: Notice that a general rotation requires that we specify a point that is the center of
rotation and an angle of rotation. We then we move preimage points along part of a circular path to the image
point so that the image and preimage points are the same distance from the center point and the angle from
preimage to center to image is the angle of rotation.
Composition of Reflections: In general when we perform two reflections about intersecting lines the net
result is a reflection about the intersection of the two lines through an angle twice as big as the angle between
the two lines. Therefore, if we reflect about both the x and y axes the net result is a rotation of 180o about the
origin.
General rotations require the use of trigonometry. Here we will only consider one easily obtained rotation:
Congruent Image: The image of a figure under any rotation is congruent to the original preimage. All
distances and angles in the image are the same as the corresponding measurements in the preimage. The
image is exactly the same size and shape as the original image, but the orientation has been rotated.
Fixed Points: The only fixed point in a rotation is the center of the rotation.
Symmetry: A figure that has rotational symmetry is its own rotated image.
180o Rotation about the Origin: If we replace both x by (-x) and y by (-y) in the formula of a relation we
obtain a reflection about both axes which is equivalent to a rotation about the origin through an angle of
radians 180o or half a circle). So if we do this and obtain the same graph the relation is symmetric with
respect to the origin.
2
3
y x2
y
x
y x3
y
x
x2

x
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

## Change sign on both x and y in tables:

Not Symmetric with respect to the origin:
Same as original so it has origin symmetry:
y
x
y
x
y
x
y

16
4
-16
-4 -64
4
64

9
3
-9
-3 -27
3
27

4
2
-4
-2 -8
2
8

1
1
-1
-1 -1
1
1

0
0
-0
0
0
0
0

1
-1
-1
1
1
-1
-1

4
-2
-4
2
8
-2
-8

9
-3
-9
3 27
-3 -27

16
-4
-16
4 64
-4 -64
Reflect about both x and y axes or rotate 180 degrees:
10

10

y-=x^3

y=x^2

5
-y=(-x)^3

0
-15

x3

-10

-5

0
0

-5

10

15

-15

-10

-5

-5
-y=(-x)^2

-10

-10

10

15

## Even and Odd Functions

Calculus Video 4.26 Even and Odd Functions Contents

A function, f, is even iff f(-x) = f(x). The even functions are exactly those functions that are symmetric
with respect to the y-axis. (e.g. even degree power functions, |x|, polynomials with all even degree terms,
cosine, etc.)
2

## x is an even function because f

In the examples above f x
symmetric with respect to the y-axis.

x2

f ( x ) . Notice it is

A function, f, is odd iff f(-x) = -f(x). The odd functions are exactly those functions that are symmetric
with respect to the origin. (e.g. odd degree power functions, polynomials with all odd degree terms, sine,
etc.)

x3

f ( x ) . Notice

## it is symmetric with respect to the origin.

Notice that if a function is even or if it is odd it has a very special property. It has some form of symmetry. Of
course, functions in general might not have any symmetry much less y-axis or origin symmetry. Most functions
are neither even nor odd. A function cannot be both even and odd (with the exception of f x 0 ). However,
it is very easy to generate functions that are neither even nor odd function. Notice that if the function is a
polynomial with all even degree terms then the function is even. If the function is a polynomial with all odd
degree terms then the function is odd. However, if it has a mixture of odd and even powers then it is neither
even nor odd. Furthermore, be careful applying this rule, because constant terms are even degree (degree 0) terms.
Examples:
A.

f x
f

3x 4
3

2x2
x

3x

2x

f x

g x
g

3x5
3

5x5
5

3x
2

5 x5
1 5x

g x

3x

## g is NOT an even function.

1 g x

g is an ODD function.

3
7

7 x3
5

3x

2x

7 x3
x

2 x3

1 3x
h x

## f is NOT an odd function.

3x5

C.

2 x3
x

f is an EVEN function.

f x
B.

7x

3
3

3
h x

1h x

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 78

Transformations Summary
Calculus Video 4.27 Transformations Summary Contents
Type of
Transformation

Image

Horizontal
Translation

Congruent Image

Vertical
Translation

Congruent Image

Translation by
vector <h, k>

Congruent Image

Reflection
over x-axis
Reflection
over y-axis

Congruent Image

Congruent Image

Example

Fixed
Points

Change in Formula

Change in Table

Change in Graph

None

Replace x by (x h)
and leave y alone

## Add h to x-values and

leave y-values alone

## Each point is moved horizontally

by the same amount,
but stays the same vertically.

Replace y by (y k)
and leave x alone

## Add k to y-values and

leave x-values alone

## Each point is moved vertically

by the same amount,
but stays the same horizontally.

Replace x by (x h) and
Replace y by (y k)

k to y-values

## Each point is moved h units right or

left and k units up or down.

## Change the sign on

y-values and leave
x-values alone
Change the sign on
x-values and leave
y-values alone

## Each point is moved to the other side

of the x-axis but stays
the same distance from the axis
and same vertical position.
Each point is moved to the other side
of the y-axis but stays
the same distance from the axis and
same horizontal position.

Exchange
x and y values

## Each point is moved to the other side

of the line y = x but stays the same
distance from this line.

None

None

Points on
x-axis
Points on
y-axis

Replace y by (-y)

Replace x by (-x)

Congruent Image

Points on
line y = x

Exchange x and y

-5

y x5
5

-10

-5

Congruent Image

Dilation by factor c

Non-congruent
Similar Image

Origin

Horizontal Strain

Non-similar
Non-congruent
image

Points on
y-axis

Non-similar
Non-congruent
image

Points on
x-axis

Vertical Strain

Origin

10

15

20

25

30

10

15

10

15

20

25

30

-5

## Each point is rotated 180o

about the origin, stays the same
distance from origin.

## Replace x by (-x) and

Replace y by (-y)

x and y values

Replace y by y/c
c>0

values by c

Replace x by x/c
c>0

## Multiply the x values by c

and leave the y values
alone

## The origin, preimage, and image are

in a line and the distance between
the origin and image is c times
the distance between
the origin and preimage.
The vertical position is the same but
the image point is c times as far from
the y-axis as the preimage point.
(wider c > 1 or narrower c < 1)

and leave the
x values alone

## The horizontal position is the same

but the image point is c times as far
from the x-axis as the preimage point.
(taller c > 1 or shorter c < 1)

Replace y by y/c
c>0

1,1 4,1
x 1,1 1,7

-5

y 8

-10

-5

20

25

30

1,1 5,9

y 6 x 10
-5

-10

-5

10

15

20

25

30

15

20

1,1 1,1

-5

y x

10

-20

-15

-10

-5

10

-5

10

1,1 1,1

y x

2 ,4 4 ,2

-10

origin

-10

15

y=x

y x

(Preimage:

-5

10

15

20

25

30

-20

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

-5

-10

-5

10

15

20

25

30

1,1 12 , 12

2 y 2x
-5

10

-10

y 3x
-5

10

-5

1,1 13 ,1
15

20

25

30

1,1 1, 15

5y x

10

-10

-5

-5

25

1,1 1,1

y x

10

15

20

25

30

## Effect of Transformations of a Graph on the Graph of the Derivative

Calculus Video 4.28 Derivative of a Translated Function Contents

## Horizontal and Vertical Translations and Derivatives

Notice that a horizontal translation of a function also gives a horizontal shift of its derivative. We
apply the Chain Rule to see this:
d
dx

f x h f ' x h x h f ' x h .
d
dx

37. Let f(x) = x2. What is the formula for the translation of this graph 5 units to the right? How do the
derivatives of these two functions compare? Illustrate graphically.
Let g(x) be the translation then g(x) = (x 5)2. Note that g'(x) = 2(x 5) is the same as f '(x) = 2x
translated to the right five units.

On the other hand, a vertical translation to y = f(x) has no effect on the derivative, because of the Sum
and Constant Function Derivative Rules.
y k f x

y f x k

f x k

dy
dx

dy
dx

f ' x

d
dx

38. How do the graphs of f(x) = x3 and g(x) = x3 + 4 compare? How do their derivatives compare? Illustrate
graphically.
Notice that to go from f to g we replace y by y 4 in the formula so we add 4 to all of the y-values of
the preimage points and leave the x-coordinates alone to find their image points. This translates the
graph up 4 units. Their derivatives are identical. f '(x) = g'(x) = 3x2.

## Horizontal and Vertical Strains and Derivatives

Calculus Video 4.29 Derivative of a Strained Function Contents

A vertical strain by a factor c results in a vertical strain of the derivative by a factor of c, because
of the constant multiple rule.
y
c

f x

y cf x
dy
dx

cf ' x

39. Let f(x) = x2 and let the graph of g(x) be the graph of f(x) stretched vertically by a factor of 2 (i.e. the
image points are twice as far from the x-axis as their preimages). What is a formula for g(x)? How do
the derivatives compare? Illustrate graphically.
For the formula of g(x) we replace y by y/2 or equivalently g(x) = 2x2. Note that the graph of g'(x) is
the same as the graph of f '(x) stretched vertically by a factor of 2.
g x 2x2
g ' x 4x 2 2x 2 f ' x

## A horizontal strain of a function by a factor c results in a derivative which is transformed by a

horizontal strain by a factor c followed by a vertical strain by factor 1/c. We see this by an application
of the Chain Rule.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 81

cx
dy
f ' cx dxd cx
dx
dy
f ' cx 1c
dx
y f

40. Let f(x) = 2x, x [0, 3] and let g x 2 2 , x [0, 6]. How does the graph of g compare to the graph of f
? How do their derivatives compare?
x

Note that we found the formula for g by replacing x by (x/2) in the formula for f. This produces a
horizontal strain by a factor of 2, i.e. on the graph image points are twice as far from the y-axis. So if
we think of this as the composition of f with the function y = x/2 then the appropriate domain for g is
[0, 6]. So we see that the graph of g is twice as wide, but the same height as the graph of f. Notice that
the derivative of g is not only twice as wide but also half as tall as the graph of the derivative of f.

## Reflection about the Axes and Derivatives

Calculus Video 4.30 Derivative of Rotations and Reflections Contents

Recall that if we replace y by y then the graph is reflected over the x-axis. In this case we see from
the Constant Multiple Rule that the derivative is also reflected over the x-axis.
g x f x
g ' x f ' x

41. Let f x x and let g be this reflected over the x-axis. How do their derivatives compare?

f x x x2

g x x x 2

f ' x 12 x

g ' x 12 x

12

21x

12

2 1 x f ' x

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 82

Recall that if we replace x by x then the graph is reflected over the y-axis. In this case we see from
the Constant Multiple Rule that the derivative is rotated by an angle of radians about the origin (i.e.
reflected over both the x and y axes).
g x f x
g ' x f ' x

42. Let f x x and let g be this reflected over the y-axis. How do their derivatives compare? Illustrate
graphically.
f x x x 2

g x x x 2

f ' x 12 x

g ' x 12 x

12

21x

12 d
dx

x 12 x

12

2 1 x f ' x

Contents
Recall that if we replace x by x and y by y then the graph is rotated by an angle of = 180o about the
origin. In this case we see from the Constant Multiple and Chain Rules that the derivative is reflected
over the y axis.
g x f x
g ' x f ' x dxd x f ' x

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 83

43. Let f x x and let g be this rotated about the origin. How do their derivatives compare? Illustrate
graphically.
f x x x 2

g x x x2
1

f ' x 12 x

12

1
2 x

g ' x 12 x

12 d
dx

x 12 x

12

1
2 x

f ' x

## Symmetry and Derivatives

Calculus Video 4.31 Derivative of Even and Odd Functions Contents
Definitions: Recall that we say a point is a fixed point of a transformation if its image point is the same as
the preimage point. If a set of points is collectively mapped by a transformation to the same set of image
points (possibly not fixed individually but rearranged) then we say that relation has symmetry with respect
to that transformation. It is possible to have reflective, rotational symmetry, or translational symmetry. A
function with translational symmetry is said to be periodic. A relation with radian rotational symmetry
about a point is said to be symmetric about that point. A function f is an even function if and only if f(-x)
= f(x). A relation is an even function if and only if it is a function with symmetry about the y-axis. A
function f is an odd function if and only if f(-x) = -f(x). A relation is an odd function if and only if it is a
function with origin symmetry.

Suppose that a differentiable function f is symmetric about the y-axis i.e. f is an even function. Then
f x f x

## f ' x dxd f x dxd f x f ' x

f ' x f ' x
So we see that f '(x) is an odd function and thus is symmetric about the origin. I.e. the derivative of an
even function is an odd function so a function which is symmetric with respect to the y-axis has a
derivative which is symmetric with respect to the origin.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 84

Suppose that a differentiable function f is symmetric about the origin i.e. f is an odd function. Then
f x f x
f x f x
f ' x

d
dx

f x f x f ' x
d
dx

f ' x f ' x

So we see that f '(x) is an even function and thus is symmetric about the y-axis. I.e. the derivative of an
odd function is an even function, so a function which is symmetric about the origin has a derivative
which is symmetric about the y-axis.

8. Families of Functions
Calculus Video 4.32.1 Family of Functions 1 Contents
We can use a combination of precalculus, calculus, and technology to carefully analyze the characteristics
of specific functions. We can also use these skills to analyze families of functions. In each of the following
examples we are given a family of functions. In each case we use the standard f to represent the output and
x to represent the input. Other letters such as a, b, and c are arbitrary constants. These are called parameters
for the family of function.
Analyze the following families of functions. Show the effect of changing the parameters by graphing
several representative members of the family by holding all of the parameters except one constant and
varying the remaining parameter. Repeat for each parameter. Find the first and second derivatives and use
them and other techniques to identify interesting features of the original function including domain, range,
intercepts, extrema, inflection points, concavity, direction, discontinuities, asymptotes, and end behavior.
Note that the derivatives and general values of critical points will be found in general in terms of the
parameters.

44. f x a 1 e bx c, a, b, c
First note that this is just the combination of exponential and polynomial functions so the function is defined
and is differentiable everywhere. So the domain is the set of all real numbers.
Furthermore note that this is actually just a transformed exponential function. The simplest member of
this family of functions is when a = 1, b = 1 and c = 0. This basic example is graphed below.
f x 1 1 e1x 0, 1 e x

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 85

This function can further be viewed as a basic exponential decay function which has been reflected over
the x-axis and shifted up one unit.
If we take the specific function above as the starting point then changing the value of a from 1 to a is
equivalent to replacing y by y/a which produces a vertical strain by a factor of a. Therefore, if we leave
b = 1 and c = 0 then changing the value of a will result in vertically expanding or compressing the graph
multiplying the y values by a and leaving the x values alone. If a is negative then the graph is reflected
over the x-axis as well. (If a = 0 then the graph degenerates to the x-axis. The following graphs have b = 1,
c = 0 and a {-10, -9, -8, -7,-6, -5, 4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}. Note that with these values
for b and c when a is positive the function is increasing and when a is negative the function is decreasing.
Further notice that the horizontal asymptote on the right is y = a.

## Similarly replacing b = 1 by some other value b is equivalent to replacing x by bx which produces a

horizontal strain by a factor of 1/b. If b is negative then the graph is also reflected about the y-axis. The
following graphs have b {-2, -1.8, -1.6, -1.4, -1.2, -1, -.8, -.6, -.4, -.2, 0, .2, .4, .6, .8, 1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2}
and all have a = 1 and c = 0. Looking across the bottom of the window the higher numbers are on the left.
Equivalently, on the right of the graph a higher b values gives a higher y-value. Negative values of b have
the horizontal asymptote on the left and positive b values have the horizontal asymptote of the right.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 86

Changing the value of c from 1 to some other value c is equivalent to replacing y by y c resulting in a
vertical translation. The following graphs have c {-8, -7,-6, -5, 4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} and
all have a = 1 and b = 1. Note that for all of these examples the horizontal asymptote on the right is y=c+1.

Of course these transformations may be combined. Below a = -2, b = 3, and c = 4. Compared to our base
model function above the original function has been reflected over the x-axis, stretched vertically by a factor
of 2, shifted up 4 units, and strained horizontally by a factor of 1/3 (compressed). It is important in these
transformations that the effect of a (reflection over the x-axis and vertical strain) occurs before the effect of
c (vertical translation).
f x 2 1 e3 x 4

Note that there is a unique degenerate subclass of this family. If a = 0 or b = 0 then the function reduces to
the constant function f(x) = c which is a horizontal line. Below we will assume that a and b are both nonzero.
Now let's use some calculus to verify and generalize some of the characteristics we are seeing in these
graphs. First the (non-degenerate) examples above lead us to believe that there will always be a horizontal
asymptote on one end but not on the other. To verify this and find the value of the asymptote we examine
the following limits.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 87

b0
b0
a c
a c

bx
lim a 1 e c b 0, a 0 and lim a 1 e c b 0, a 0
x
x
b 0, a 0
b 0, a 0

So as we saw above when b > 0 there is a horizontal asymptote of y = a + c on the right and the graph
approaches infinity or negative infinity on the left. If b < 0 this is reversed and y = a + c is still the horizontal
asymptote but on the left and the graph goes to positive or negative infinity on the right. In each case
y = a + c is a horizontal asymptote on one side but not the other. E.g. in the example
f x 2 1 e3 x 4 graphed above the horizontal asymptote is y = -2 + 4 = 2 on the right.
bx

Being a function with 0 in the domain there is exactly one y-intercept at (0, c) since

f 0 a 1 e b 0 c c .
ln 1 ac
,0 when 1 ac 0 c a and no x-intercept when c -a. (Recall
There is an x-intercept at
b

that the domain of a logarithmic function is the positive real numbers.) We see this because:
a 1 e bx c 0

a 1 e bx c
1 e bx ac
e bx 1 ac
e bx 1 ac

bx ln 1 ac
x
We now compute the first derivative.

f ' x

d
dx

ln 1 ac
b

a 1 e c
bx

a dxd 1 e bx
ae bx b
f ' x abe bx
Of course in the degenerate case where a = 0 or b = 0 we see that the derivative is always 0 which indicates
that the graph is a horizontal line, as we have seen. Otherwise, we see that the derivative is either all positive
or all negative. The exponential factor of the derivative is always positive so when a and b have the same
sign then the first derivative is positive and the original function is increasing. When a and b have opposite
signs the first derivative is negative and the original function is decreasing.
We also compute the second derivative.

f " x

d
dx

abe
bx

f " x ab 2 e bx

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 88

So in the degenerate case where a = 0 or b = 0 we see that the derivative is always 0 which indicates that
the graph is a line, as we have seen. Otherwise we see that the second derivative always has the opposite
sign of a so if a is negative the second derivative is positive, the derivative is increasing, and the original
function is always concave up and if a is positive the second derivative is negative, the first derivative is
decreasing, and the original function is always concave down. There are no inflection points.
The following table summarizes some of this information and gives an example of each of the five
subclasses.
Case

Graph Characteristics

a = 0 or b = 0

## The function is y = c which is a

horizontal line.

Examples
c = 5 with a = 0 or b = 0

a = 2, b = 3, c = 4

a > 0, b > 0

Increasing,
Concave Down,
Asymptote y = a + c on right

a = 5, b = -3, c = 2

a>0,b<0

Decreasing,
Concave Down,
Asymptote y = a + c on left

a = -2, b = 4, c = 6

a < 0, b > 0

Decreasing,
Concave Up,
Asymptote y = a + c on right

a = -4, b = -6, c = -2

a < 0, b < 0

Increasing,
Concave Up,
Asymptote y = a + c on left

## Calculus Video 4.32.2 Contents

45. f x axe

bx

c, a, b, c
Calculus Video 4.33.1 Contents

46. f x e sin bx c, a, b, c
Calculus Video 4.33.2 Contents
ax

47. f x x sin bx c, a, b, c
a

## Normal Probability Distribution Function

Calculus Video 4.34 Contents
48. f x

1
2

x 2
2 2

, , 0,

Introduction
This family of functions are known as the normal probability density functions. These produce the graphs
of the probability density functions (PDF) of these important probability distributions. The normal
probability distribution is generally considered to be the single most important probability distribution.
Relative frequencies of a wide variety of measurements very closely follow the normal curves, including
height, weight, life span, and measurements of intelligence. Test scores such as ACT, SAT, and AACTAP
are scaled to make the scores fit a normal curve. Of significant importance in inferential statistics (the
process of making valid generalizations about an entire population based on measurements of a small test
sample) is the fact that means of samples are normally distributed about the mean of the population. For
these reasons this distribution is central to the study of probability and statistics making this family of
functions among the most important in all of mathematics.
Definition
The general normal probability density function is given by the following formula:

f x

1
2

x 2
2 2

where the constant is the mean and is the standard deviation of the distribution.
The distribution is said to be the standard normal distribution when the mean is 0 and the standard deviation
is 1. Following is a graph of the standard normal PDF.

## Standard Normal Probability Density Function

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
-3.5

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

The graph of any normal distribution is similar. Because of its shape this is often called a bell-shaped curve.
The domain is all real numbers. It has one maximum which occurs when x = . It is perfectly symmetric
about the vertical line x = so we see that the mean median and mode are all identical and the skewness is
0. Notice that most of the area is near the mean. Less and less area is located as we move farther away
from the mean. The graph is increasing on the left side of the mean and decreases on the right side of the
mean. The values on the graph are all positive. The graph approaches the x-axis asymptotically on both
the right and left sides of the graph. The graph starts out concave up on the left and then switches to concave
down between the two inflection points at .
Let's use precalculus and calculus to prove some of the statements made above. First of all note that since
is given to be positive and the function only involves basic operations and exponentials the domain is the
set of all real numbers. Furthermore, e to any power is positive and the coefficient is always positive so the
y-values are all strictly positive making the graph in quadrants I and II.
We examine the end behavior. lim

2
(the x-axis) on both the left and right sides.
x

x 2
2 2

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 91

d 1
f ' x
dx 2

x 2
2 2

x
d

ev , where v

2 2
2 dx
1
d

ev v
dx
2
1

d w2

e 2 , where w x
dx 2
2
1
2w d

ev 2 w
2
2 dx
1

1
2

f '( x )

ev

w d
x
2
dx

x 2
2 2

Notice that all of the factors of the first derivative are positive except possibly (x ) . So the first derivative
is positive when x - < 0 i.e. when x < , f '(x) < 0 when x > and the derivative is zero when x = . So
we see that the graph of the function is increasing to the left of and decreasing to the right of . When
x = the graph is at a local and global maximum. This maximum has coordinates , 12 showing that

## is also the mode of the distribution. We see this since

1
2

2
2 2

1
2

Note that the first derivative is always defined so the original graph is continuous and smooth. In fact all
higher order derivatives are also defined everywhere so this is an infinitely differentiable function.
Similarly, we calculate the second derivative as follows.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 92

d
1
f " x 3
e
dx 2

2 dx

x 2
2 2

x
v

e x , where
v

2 2

d
v d
x x ev
e
dx
2 dx

1 v
v d
3
v
e 1 x e
dx
2

d w2
3
e 1 x 2 , where w x
dx 2
2

1
w d
3
ev 1 x 2 x
2
dx

f "( x )

ev 1 x
e
e

2 2

x 2
2 2

x
2

1 2 x

p "( x) 0 when

x 2
2 2

0 2 x

x
x
f

1
2
1
2

2
2

1
2

1
2

1
2e

2
2 2

,
.
2 e

## Notice that increasing results in the

inflection points moving horizontally farther away from (the mean) and also getting lower in height. Also
notice that increasing lowers the height of the maximum (at x = ) and in fact a higher value will result
in a pdf graph that is lower in height between the two inflection points.
The following table summarizes the critical information about the shape of the graph.
x

f(x)

Graph
of f(x)

1
2

1
2 e

f'(x)
f"(x)

Increasing

Global
Maximum

Inflection
Point

Concave Down

Concave
Up, y = 0
asymptote

2 e
0

Decreasing
Inflection
Point

Concave Up,
y=0
asymptote

## This is illustrated on a graph of the standard normal pdf.

Local Maximum (mu, 1/(sigma*sqrt(2pi))
0.4
Concave Down, Increasing
(0, .3989422804)
Concave Down, Decreasing
0.3

Inflection Point
(-1, .2419707245)

Inflection Point
(1, .2419707245)
0.2
Concave Up, Decreasing
0.1

-3.5

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 94

2.5

3.5

Here is a graph of the function (in blue) with its first derivative (red) and second derivative (green) where
= 5 and = 2. Note that the maximum occurs at the mean of x = 5 and the inflections point occur one
standard deviation above and below the mean at x = 3 and x = 7. As always the maximum of the function
occurs when the first derivative is zero and the inflection points occur when the second derivative is zero
and the fist derivative is at a local extremum.

In general, when is replaced by , for some constant , the graph of a relation is shifted horizontally
|h| units, to the right if is positive, and to the left if is negative. Therefore, changing the value of in
the general pdf formula above will result in a horizontal shift or change of the center of the distribution. We
illustrate this with the graphs below. Notice that all of the graphs below have exactly the same shape. (i.e.
they are congruent as geometric figures.) The labels make use of the fact that the value of is the mean or
center of the distribution.

## Normal Probability Density Functions Changing Mean (Horizontal Shifts)

mean = -3

mean = -2 mean = -1

mean = 0
0.4

mean = 1

mean = 2 mean = 3

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
-3.5

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

By definition a function is even iff () = (). The graph any even function is symmetric with respect
to the vertical axis. The standard normal pdf is an even function because the square of any positive real
number is equal to the square of the negative of . Thus,

1
f ( x)
e
2

x 2
2

e
2

x 2
2

f x

Furthermore, notice that any time = 0 the normal curve is an even function:
x 2

x 2

2
1
1
2
f ( x)
e 2
e 2 f x
2
2

Therefore, we see that the standard normal pdf and in fact any normal pdf with = 0 is symmetric with
respect to the y-axis. Because of this symmetry we can conclude that these distributions with = 0 have
a mean and median of 0.
Since introducing into the formula above simply results in a horizontal translation we see that normal
functions in general are symmetric about the vertical line x = and thus have a mean and median of .
Next we look at what happens to the graph as we change the value of the standard deviation . Graph
several versions of the general normal pdf keeping = 0 and varying . Insert a graph with the various
graphs on one coordinate grid. Describe in words the key features that you see changing.

## Normal Probability Density Functions Changing Standard Deviation (Spread)

0.8
s = 1/2
0.6

0.4

s =1

0.2

s= 2
0
-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

s =3

s =4
s =5
0

As we increased the value of , the height of the graph became smaller and the area under the graph became
less concentrated near 0. In other words, the graph became more spread out (while maintaining a total area
of 1 between the curve and the x-axis). The smaller the value of the more tightly the area is packed around

## the mean. Recall that we showed the global maximum occurs at ,

smaller for larger values of .

,
.
2 e

1
2

## We also showed that the graph has two inflection points at

Notice that increasing results in the inflection points moving horizontally farther

away from (the mean) and also getting lower in height. In fact, a higher value will result in a pdf graph
that is lower in height between the two inflection points.
In our last unit we will return to the family of normal distributions as we study connections between
probability and statistics and calculus.

Logistics Functions
Calculus Video 4.35 Logistics Functions Contents
We often model population growth using an exponential growth so that the percentage growth is constant.
This is a great model as long as the environment will support this sustained level of growth. A more realistic
model takes into account that the environment may only sustain a certain level of population. As long as
resources are plentiful the growth looks pretty much like exponential growth, but as resources become
scarcer the graph reaches an inflection point and begins to grow concave down and eventually approaches
an asymptote which is called the carrying capacity of the environment.
Let's look at an example where instead of the growth of population we look at the spread of a rumor.
Suppose that we start a rumor by telling 10 people. Each hour everyone who has heard the rumor tells two
other people. If there are unlimited people this would be exponential growth since the growth rate is
proportional to the number of people present. However, suppose that the environment is closed so that
there are only 100 people to hear the rumor. In this case the growth starts out like exponential growth, but
pretty soon when someone goes to tell their two people at least one of them has already heard the rumor.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 97

Eventually the inflection point is reached and the growth rate dies down. The graph of the number of people
who have heard the rumor eventually levels out to an asymptote of 100.
So this type of situation is given by the following. The number of people N(t) in a community who are
reached by a particular rumor at time t days after the rumor starts is given by the equation

N (t )

A
1 Be rt

An equation of this type is called a logistics function. What are the significance of the parameters A, B,
and r? Give some graphical sketches to support your conclusions. What function represents the rate at
which the rumor is spreading t days after it is first started?
Solution:
First we will investigate the formula in general without regard to the context, and then we will place
restrictions on the parameters based on the context of the problem.
Note that if we were to include all real numbers for the domain the graphs would all have a horizontal
asymptote of 0 on the left and an asymptote of A on the right when r is negative. A typical example is
100
which is graphed below. Notice that this starts off similar to exponential growth
N (t )
1 1e 0.5t
(asymptote of 0, increasing concave up) but reaches an inflection point halfway up and the changes to
increasing concave down approaching an asymptote of y = A.

## Note that lim N (t )

t

A if r 0
0 if r 0
A
A

and lim N (t )
.
rt
rt
t
1 Be
1 Be
0 if r 0
A if r 0

Note that changing the sign on r is equivalent to replacing t by t and thus reflects the graph about the y100
axis. The purple graph below is for N (t )
which we see is a reflection over the y-axis of the
1 1e0.5t
100
graph (in red) of N (t )
.
1 1e 0.5t

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 98

Changing the value of A to a negative is equivalent to replacing y by y so the graph will be reflected over
100
the x-axis. For example, here we see the graph in blue of N (t )
which is a reflection over the
1 1e0.5t
100
x-axis of the graph of N (t )
in red.
1 1e 0.5t

Notice that if B > 0 then the denominator of the function is always positive (greater than 1) and thus the
function is continuous as in the examples above. However, if B is negative the denominator is 0 when

1 Be rt 0
1 Be rt
1
B
rt ln B1

e rt

rt ln B
t

ln B
r

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 99

(Note that this expression is undefined for positive values of B.) So when B is negative the graph will have
100
a vertical asymptote at this value as in the following graph of N (t )
.
1 1e 0.5t

Note that in the context of a population the first quadrant of this graph is realistic if the population starts
above the carrying capacity of the environment. In that case the population would decrease leveling off to
the carrying capacity. However, in the context of the spread of the rumor this graph makes no sense.
So looking only at the formula, the function in general could allow any real number for the parameters.
However, in the context of the rumor problem some of these do not make sense, so further restrictions on
the parameter are made by the context of the problem. In fact we see that in the context A and B must be
positive, and r must be negative.
From the limits above and the context of the problem we see that the number of people that will eventually
hear the rumor must be positive so A > 0 is the amount of people that will eventually hear the rumor.
Similarly the context indicates that B must be positive to avoid the discontinuity and B and r must be
negative so that the function will increase. The instantaneous rate of change is given by the derivative
which is measured in people per day.

## N '(t ) dtd A 1 Bert

ABrert 1 Bert

Note from the context of the problem we know that the rate of change in the number of people hearing the
rumor must always be defined and non-negative (the number of people hearing the rumor cannot decrease)
so we have A and B as positive values and r as a negative value so that the derivative is always positive and
the original function is always increasing and thus has no local extrema.
Furthermore, if t = 0 is when the rumor starts the domain in the context is restricted to [0, ), and thus we
restrict our attention to only the first quadrant for the graphs. So from here on we will assume that A and B
must be positive, and r must be negative and the graph is only in the first quadrant.
Now let us investigate the effect of changing each of the parameters. The graph below hold B = 1 and
r = -0.5 and vary A with A {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}. Notice that y = A is the horizontal asymptote on
the right. Changing A from 1 to some value A is equivalent to replacing y by y/A so changing the value of
A produces a vertical strain stretching the graph vertically more for higher values of A.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 100

10

12

14

16

This graph does not have an x-intercept, but the y-intercept is 0, 1AB , depending only on the values of A
and B. Notice that this is always between 0 and A.
N (0)

A
A

r 0
1 B
1 Be

A little algebraic manipulation gives us a better indication of the effect of changing B on the graph.

A
A

rt
1 Be
1 eln B e rt
A

1 eln B rt
A

r ln B t
1 e r
So we see that changing B from 1 to some value B is equivalent to replacing t by t
see that changing the value of B causes a horizontal shift to the right by

ln B
r

ln B
r

. Therefore we

## from the graph where B =1 (in

purple). The following graph shows several of the functions where B is the only constant parameter
changing. The values of the parameters are A = 100 and r = -0.1 for each and B varies In this graph values
are B {0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6}. Notice that larger values of B shift the graph further to
the right, but the amount of shift is proportional to ln(B) so even though the B values are evenly spaced
(increasing by 0.5) the amout of horizontal shift is less for each graph as we go left to right. Also notice
that there is no change on the horizontal asymptote as we change the value of B.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 101

Notice that changing the value of r does not change the horizontal asymptote (y = A) or the y-intercept,

0, 1AB , but it does change how quickly the graph approaches the horizontal asymptote. The values of the

parameters have r varying: r {-0.5, -0.45, -0.4, -0.35, -0.3, -0.25, -0.2, -0.15, -0.1, -0.05}. A = 100 and
B = 10 for each. Notice that larger values of r make the graph further stretched out horizontally.

Note that the first derivative is computed with a couple applications of the chain rule.

N '(t )

d
dt

A 1 Be rt

ABre rt 1 Be rt

ABre rt

1 Be

rt 2

With our restrictions on the parameters (A, B > 0, r < 0) we see that this derivative is always defined and is
always positive so that the original function is always increasing.

## The second derivative is

N "(t )

d
dt

ABrert

1 Be

rt 2

ABr

d
dt

e rt

1 Be

rt 2

rt 2
rt
rt
rt 2
1 Be dtd e e dtd 1 Be
ABr

2
rt 2

1 Be

2
1 Bert re rt e rt 2 1 Bert Brert
ABr
rt 4

Be

1 Bert re rt 1 Bert e rt 2 B
ABr
4

1 Bert

re rt 1 Bert 2 Bert

ABr
rt 3

1 Be

N "(t )

## ABr 2 ert 1 Bert

1 Be

rt 3

Here is the graph of a typical example (blue) along with its first derivative (red) and second derivative
(green). Here we show t [-50,50] even though the context only allows positive t values. This example
has A = 100, B = 5 and r = -0.5.

## Note that since A, B > 0 and r < 0 N"(t) = 0 when

N "(t )

ABr 2 e rt 1 Be rt

1 Bert

1 Be rt 0
Be rt 1
e rt

1
B

rt ln B1
rt ln B
t

ln B
r

which is the first coordinate of the inflection point. To find the second coordinate of the inflection point we
evaluate the original function at this point.
ln B
N

A
ln B
r

1 Be
A

1 Be ln B
A

ln 1
1 Be B
A

1 B B1

A
2

So the inflection point is at ln B , A and the graph is concave up to the left of this point and concave

down to the right of this point. So note that the inflection point happens exactly halfway between 0 and A
(vertically). In fact, if we take the domain to be all real numbers the graph is symmetric about this point.
To prove this first translate by the vector ln B , A so that the inflection point is at the origin. Then we
r

will check to see that the translated graph has origin symmetry. After the translation the formula is:

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 104

A
ln B
r t

1 Be
A
A
y
2 1 Be rt ln B
A
A
y

rt ln B 2
1 Be
A
A
y

rt ln B
2
1 Be e
A
A
y

rt 1
1 Be B 2
y
y

y
y

A
A

1 e rt 2
2 A A 1 e rt

2 1 e rt

A 2 1 e rt
2 1 e

rt

A 2 1 e rt
2 1 e rt

f t

A 1 e rt
2 1 e rt

Now we show that this translated function f has origin symmetry by showing that it is an odd function.

f t

2 1 e
A 1 er t
r t

A 1 e rt e rt
2 1 e rt e rt
A e rt 1
2 e rt 1

A 1 e rt
2 1 e rt

A 1 e rt

2 1 e rt

f t

## 9. Basic Derivative Interpretation Examples

Calculus Video 4.36 Derivative Interpretation Applications 1 Contents
In each of the following situations use your knowledge of the meaning of the first and second derivative to
provide information relating the derivative to real world situations. Provide answers in the context of the
presented problems.
These problems make use of interpreting the derivative as a rate of change. Remember that the units of the
derivative are the units of the output variable divided by the units of the input variable. Recall that asking
(increasing, decreasing, constant) of the original function. Also remember the local linearity property of the
derivative. The derivative is approximately the amount of change in the function when the input is increased
by one unit.
49. Let h(t) be the height, in inches, of Dr. Jackson t years after his birth. What are the units of h'(t)? What
can you say about the signs of h'(10) and h'(30)?
h ' (10) is positive since the function h is increasing at that point, in other words he was still growing in
height on his tenth birthday. g'(30) however is zero since he was neither increasing nor decreasing in
height on his 30th birthday. In general the units of the derivative are the output units divided by the
input units so in this case the units are inches/year.
50. An economist is interested in how the price of a certain commodity affects its sales. Suppose that at a
price of \$p, a quantity, q, of the commodity is sold. If q = f(p), explain in economic terms the meaning
of the statements f(10) = 250,000 and f '(10) = -28,000. Why is f '(10) a negative number?
f(10)= 250,000 means that at a price of \$10 per item 250,000 items will be sold. Notice that f ' (x) is
negative since increasing the price will result in fewer items sold. f ' (10) = -28,000 means that
increasing the price from \$10 to \$11 will result in about 28,000 fewer items sold. More appropriately,
if we increase the unit price by \$0.01 then approximately 280 fewer items are sold. In general note that
the original function.
51. A company's revenue from car sales, C (measured in thousands of dollars), is a function of advertising
expenditure, a, also measured in thousands of dollars. What are the units of C '(a)? What does the
statement C '(100) = 1.5 mean in practical terms? Should the company spend slightly more or slightly
First of all note that the units of f '(a) are \$1000 of revenue from car sales per \$1000 of advertising
expense or equivalently dollars of revenue per dollars of ad expense. So f ' (1000) = 1.5 says that
increasing advertising expenditures \$1 above \$100,000 will result in approximately \$1.50 in additional
revenue. Notice that a \$1 additional investment yields \$1.50 in additional revenue. So if we neglect
other costs this results in \$0.50 increase in profit on the dollar making it worthwhile to invest slightly

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 106

52. Consider the same setup as in the previous problem. What if C '(100) = 0.8? What does this mean?
Should the company spend slightly more or less on advertising?
In this case increasing the advertising expenses by \$1 results in only \$0.80 in extra revenue giving us
at least a \$0.20 loss in profit. We should spend slightly less on advertising. Notice that this also says
that if we spend \$1 less on advertising we will lose only \$0.80 in revenue resulting in profit increasing
by \$ 0.20.
53. Suppose that W(v) represents the degree of wind chill when the velocity of wind is v. What are the
units of W '(v) in the United States? Interpret the information provided by W'(20) = -0.2 and
W" (20) > 0. Explain the meaning of the signs.
In the United States appropriate units for W are F and mi/hr for v. So the units for W ' (v) then would
be F per mi./hr. So W ' (20) = -0.2 means that increasing the wind velocity from 20 mi/hr to 21 mi/hr
would result in the wind chill dropping approximately 0.2 F. Notice that we should know that W '(v)
is negative since increasing the velocity of the wind results in a perceived drop in temperature (i.e.
decrease in wind chill).
W "(20) > 0 indicates that the graph of W is concave up (and decreasing)
when v = 20 mi/hr so we see that W is decreasing at a decreasing rate. In other words going from 20
mi/hr to 21 mi/hr results in a drop of about 0.2 F in the wind chill but going from 21 mi/hr to 22 mi/hr
would result in slightly less of a drop (perhaps 0.1F).
54. Suppose that G(t) represents the gross national product of a country t years from the beginning of 1985.
Suppose also that at a particular time, the gross national product is increasing but the economy is
starting to lag. What can you say about the signs of G'(t) and G"(t)?
We have been told that the function G is increasing but at a decreasing rate (concave down) so we see
G '(t) is positive but G"(t) is negative.
55. Let G represent the total amount of gasoline used by an automobile during a certain long trip. If we
think of G as being a function of time t in hours what is meant by G'(t)? What is its sign? What are its
units?
The units of G '(t) = dG/dt are gallons per hour and G'(t) is measuring the rate at which gasoline is
being consumed per time. The sign of G'(t) is positive (or at least non-negative) because increasing
time will increase the amount of gasoline consumed. During any time when the car is parked and the
engine turned off G'(t) = 0.
Calculus Video 4.37 Derivative Interpretation Applications 2 Contents
56. The population of China, in billions, can be approximated by the function P(t) = 1.15 (1.014)t-1993,
where t is the year.
A. What was China's population at the beginning of 2014?
The population of China at the beginning of 2014 was P(2014) = 1.15 (1.014)2014-1993 = 1.54 billion
people
B. What function describes how fast China's population was growing?
P'(t) = 1.15 ln(1.014) (1.014)t-1993
C. How fast was China's population growing at the beginning of 2014?
P'(t) = 1.15 ln(1.014) (1.014)2014-1993 = 0.02141 billion people per year
= 21.41 million people per year

## D. What is the relative rate of growth (percentage growth) in China's population?

Recall that an exponential function of the form y = a bt = a (1 + r) t is growing
by a relative rate of r. So the relative rate of growth in China's population is
1.014 1 = 0.014 = 1.4% per year.
Recall that a linear function has a constant rate of change and an exponential function has a constant
relative rate (percentage rate) of change.
57. Let f(x) be the elevation in feet of the Arkansas river x miles form its source. What are the units of
f '(x), and what is its sign?
The units of f '(x) are feet (of elevation) per mile (of length) and is measuring the rate of drop in the
elevation of the river over the distance. Notice that water always flows in the same direction:
downward, so the elevation is decreasing as the distance from the source is increased so f '(x) is
negative.
Calculus Video 4.38 Derivative Interpretation Applications 3 Contents
58. Suppose C(r) is the total cost of paying off a car loan borrowed at an annual interest rate of r%. Assume
that the number of payments and principal are fixed.
A. What are the units of C'(r)?
The units of C'(r) are \$/%.
B. What is the sign of C'(r)? How do you know?
Since increasing the interest rate will increase the total amount paid on the loan we see that C(r) is
an increasing function so C'(r) is positive.
C. What is the practical meaning of C'(r)?
C'(r) is the rate of change in the total cost of the loan by increasing r, so it is approximately the
amount of increase in the total cost of paying off the loan as we increase the interest rate by one
percent.
59. Suppose M(n) is the monthly payment of paying off a car loan where n is the number of monthly
payments. Assume that the interest rate and principal are fixed.
A. What are the units of M'(n)?
The units of M'(n) are \$/month.
B. What is the sign of M'(n)? How do you know?
Since increasing the number of payments will decrease the monthly payment on the loan M(n) is a
decreasing function so M'(n) is negative.
C. What is the practical meaning of M'(n)?
M'(n) is the rate of change in the monthly payment on the loan as the number of payments changes,
so it is approximately the amount of decrease in the monthly payment on the loan when one

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 108

60. Suppose C(n) is the total cost of paying off a car loan where n is the number of monthly payments.
Assume that the interest rate and principal are fixed.
A. What are the units of C'(n)?
The units of C'(n) are \$/month.
B. What is the sign of C'(n)? How do you know?
Since increasing the number of payments will increase the total amount paid on the loan C(n) is an
increasing function so C'(n) is positive.
C. What is the practical meaning of C'(n)?
C'(n) is the rate of increase in the total amount paid on the loan as the number of payments changes,
so it is approximately the additional amount paid on the loan when one additional month is added
to the payment plan.

61. Let P(t) represent the price of a share of stock of a corporation at time t. What do each of the following
say about P'(t) and P"(t)? (These are two distinct situations.)
A. The price of the stock is rising faster and faster.
Since the price of the stock is rising P(t) is increasing and P'(t) is positive. Since P(t) is rising
faster and faster the rate of increase is increasing so P'(t) is increasing and P"(t) is also positive.
B. The price of the stock is close to bottoming out.
Since the price of the stock is close to bottoming out P(t) is near to but not quite at a local
minimum. Therefore P'(t) is negative but almost zero and P"(t) is positive since P(t) is concave
up.

## Calculus Video 4.39 Derivative Interpretation Applications 4 Contents

62. The total cost of extracting T tons of ore form a copper mine is C(T) dollars. What does it mean to say
that C '(2000) = 100? Why is this a positive value?
This says that when we are at the point where 2000 tons of ore have been extracted the instantaneous
rate of change in the cost is \$100/ton, so extracting one additional ton (the 2001 st ton) will
approximately cost an additional \$100. Note that extracting more ore will cost more money so C(T) is
an increasing function and C '(t) is positive for all values of t.
63. The cost C (in dollars) of building a house A square feet in area is given by the function C(A). What is
the practical interpretation of C '(A)? What are its units? What is its sign?
The units of C '(A) are dollars per square foot. C '(A) gives the rate of change in the cost with respect
to the area, so it is approximately the additional cost for increasing the size of the building by one square
foot.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 109

64. Suppose that G(t) represents the gross national product of a country t years from the beginning of 2000.
Suppose also that at a particular time, the gross national product is increasing but is starting to lag.
What can you say about the signs of G'(t) and G"(t).
Since the GNP is increasing we know that G'(t) is positive. But since it is starting to lag we know that
G"(t) must be negative (G(t) is concave down and G'(t) is decreasing) since G(t) isnt increasing as
much as in the past.
65. For short periods of time, the number, N, of compact discs sold by a particular rock group each week
is related to the number, x, of times the group's music video is played on MTV. For a particular type
of rock music, N and x are related by the function N(x).

## A. What does N(30) = 74,000 mean?

This indicates that for this particular type of music when MTV plays a group's music video 30
times they will sell 74,000 CD's.

## B. What are the units of N ' (x) ?

The units are number CD's sold/times video is played. (CD's/showing)

## C. What is the sign of N ' (x) and how do you know?

The sign of N ' (x) positive since the function N is increasing, i.e. since we know that increased
exposure on MTV will increase the CD sales.

## D. What does N ' (30) = 7000 mean?

This means that at an exposure level of 30 showings of the music video the instantaneous rate of
change in the sales of CD's is 7,000/showing. More practically this says that roughly for each
additional time MTV shows the video they should sell an additional 7,000 CD's.
66. A freezer depreciates at a rate of 18% per year. It was purchased new for \$755.

A. Write out a function which gives the value, v, of the freezer as a function of the number of years,
t, since it was purchased.
Since there is a constant relative (%) rate of change the function is exponential with r = -0.18.

V t

V0 1

V t

755 1

V t

755 0.82

.18

V 4

755 0.82

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 110

V t

755 0.82

0.82

755
2

0.5

ln 0.82

t ln 0.82

ln 0.5
ln 0.5

ln 0.5
ln 0.82

3 yrs 6mo

3.49278862079 yr

It will take approximately 3 years and 6 months for the freezer to depreciate to half of its original
value.

D. What function represents the instantaneous rate of change in the value of the freezer at time t?
In general, the instantaneous rate of change in a function is the derivative of that function. Thus
the rate of change is given by:

V' t

d
755 0.82
dt
d
755
0.82
dt
V' t

## 755 ln 0.82 0.82

E. How fast is the freezer depreciating when it is exactly four years old?
V' 4

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 111

67. An economist is interested in how the price of a certain commodity affects its sales. Suppose that at a
price of \$p, a quantity, q, of the commodity is sold.

## A. Explain in economic terms what is meant by q(15)=12000.

This says that at a price of \$15 we will have 12,000 units of the commodity sold.

## B. What are the units of q'(p)?

The units are number of units of the commodity/(\$/unit) of price. (units/(\$/unit))

## C. What is the sign of q'(p) and how do you know?

The sign of q'(p) is negative because the function q is decreasing, i.e. increasing the price of the
item decreases the amount of the item that is sold.

## D. Explain in economic terms what is meant by q ' (15) = -2000.

This means that at a price of \$15/unit the amount of the sales of the commodity are decreasing at
an instantaneous rate of 2000 units/(\$/unit), i.e. increasing the price by one additional dollar per
unit will decrease the sales by approximately 2000 units, or more precisely increasing the price by
\$0.01 will decrease sales by approximately 20 units.

## E. Use the information above to estimate q(16).

q(16) q(15) + q '(15) = 12,000 2,000 = 10,000.

68. Someone took a table of actual data concerning the national debt and then approximated the function
x

. 29 x 201891
. e100 0.44e10 measured in billions
giving this debt with the function: d ( x ) 195616
of dollars with x measured in years since 1900. Note that, as usual when modeling real life data, the
model does not fit the data points exactly, but it does give a good approximation of the data from 1900
to 1990.
A. What function approximates the national deficit over this period.

The national deficit is the rate of change in the national debt so it is:
x

d '( x ) 29 201891
.
e100 .044e10
B. Find the instantaneous rate of change of the national debt model in 1940 and in 1985.

## d'(40) =\$4.2417 billion/year

d' (85)=\$71.0216 billion/year
On calculator let Y1 = d'(x) above and compute Y1(40) and Y1(85).
C. Notice that the amount of the increase (or decrease) in the national budget deficit is the amount of

change in the national debt. How fast was the national deficit growing in 1980 and in 1989?

## d"( x ) .201891e100 .0044e10

d"(80) = \$11.474515 billion/year2
d"(89)= \$28.83626 billion/year2
On the calculator compute nDeriv(Y1,x,80) and nDeriv(Y1,x,89) our use the formula above.
69. For short periods of time, the number, of hats sold by a particular retailer each week is related to the
number, x, of times the companys billboards are displayed around town. Let N represent the number
of hats sold and let x represent the number of billboards displayed.
A. What does N(5) = 250 mean?
When the company displays 5 billboards there will be 250 hats sold.

## B. What are the units of N '(x)?

The units of N '(x) are hats/billboard.

## C. What is the sign of N '(x) and how do you know?

As the company displays more billboards their sales of hats should increase so N is an increasing
function of x and N '(x) is positive.

## D. What does N ' (5) = 40 mean?

This says that when the company displays 5 billboards the instantaneous rate of change in hats sold
is 40 hats/billboard. Therefore, increasing by one billboard from 5 to 6 billboards should increase
sales of hats by approximately 40 more hats sold.

## E. Use the information above to estimate N(4) and N(6).

N 6

N 5

N' 5

250

40

290hats

N 4

N 5

N' 5

250 40

210hats

F. Further suppose that N"(5) = 4. In this case is your estimate for N(6) too high or too low? Explain.
Since the second derivative is positive the original graph is concave up. Since the estimate for
N(6) above assumes that the graph follows the tangent line, we see that at x = 6 the actual graph is
slightly above the tangent line. Therefore our estimate of 290 hats is slightly too low.
70. The chief financial officer of a company reported that during the previous quarter, profits continued to
increase but at a slower rate. If P(t) gives the company's profit at time t, what can you say about the
signs of P' and P" during that quarter.
Since the profits were increasing the function P(t) was increasing and P'(t) was positive, and since the
profits were increasing at a slower rate the graph of P(t) was concave down and P"(t) was negative.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 113

71. The average worldwide crude oil price in dollars per barrel, during February, March, and April of 2006

can be modeled by the function p t 0.12t 1.6t 59.5 where t is the number of weeks after January
1, 2006.
A. What was the unit cost of oil on the 11th week of 2006?
2

## p 11 0.12 11 1.6 11 59.5 56.42

2

At the 11th week of 2006 crude oil cost \$56.42 per barrel on average around the world.
B.

Use the model to find the instantaneous rate of change in the crude oil price at the end of the 11th
week of the year. Be sure to include appropriate units. What does this mean?
The instantaneous rate of change is the derivate.
p t 0.12t 2 1.6t 59.5
p ' t 0.24t 1.6
p ' 11 0.24 11 1.6
p ' 11 1.04
So on the 11 week of the year the crude oil prices were rising by \$1.04 per barrel per week.
th

72. A company is marketing bottles of oil. The amount they are willing to supply to the market is dependent
on the price they can get per bottle. They have determined that the following function closely
approximates how many bottles they are willing to supply as a function of the price per bottle:

bg

S p 8000 e.45 p 2 .
A. What are the units of S'(p)?
They are bottles supplied/(\$/bottle) of price. (bottles/(\$/bottle))

## B. What is the sign of S ' (p) and how do you know?

The sign of S ' (p) is positive since S is increasing. We know this because increasing the price per
bottle will make the company want to supply more bottles. In general a supply function is always
increasing.

C. What is the lowest price at which the company is willing to supply any oil?

bg
ce

c h
2h 0 e

S p 8000 e.45 p 2 0
.45 p

.45 p

ln e.45 p ln 2 .45 p ln 2
p

ln 2
.45

15403
.

So we see that the minimum price at which they are willing to supply any items is \$1.55/bottle.
Note that at \$1.44 S(1.44) is about -2.4 so they are not willing to supply bottles, whereas, at \$1.55
S(1.55) is about 69.796 so they are willing to supply around 69 or 70 bottles. You can find this
point algebraically as above or using the graphing or table features of your calculator.

b g

## S 2.50 8000 e.45b 2.50g 2 86641734791

.
This means that at a price of \$2.50 they are willing to supply 86,642 bottles.

## E. What is S ' (2.50) and what does this mean?

S ' p dpd 8000 e.45 p 2

bg

8000

d
dp

e.45 p dpd 2

8000 e.45 p

d
dp

.45 p 0

c hb g

## 8000 e.45 p .45

S ' ( p) 3600e.45 p

## S ' (2.50) 3600e.45b 2.50g 11088.78066

This means that at a price of \$2.50/bottle the company is willing to supply around an additional
11,089 bottles for a one dollar increase in the price or an additional 111 bottles for an additional
cent per bottle.
73. The position of an object moving in a straight line is given by s t t 3t where s is in meters and t is
in seconds. Assume that t is non-negative.
A. Find the velocity function.
3

## Recall that velocity is the derivative of acceleration so:

v t s ' t

d
dt

3t

v t 3t 2 3 3 t 1 t 1
B. Find the acceleration function.
Acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and second derivative of the position.
a t v ' t s " t dtd 3t 2 3 6t

## C. Find and interpret the position at t = 9.

s 9 9 3 9 702m so the object is 702 meters in the positive direction of the origin at time
3

t = 9 s.
D. Find and interpret the velocity at t = 9.
When t = 9 seconds the velocity is v 9 3 9 3 240 ms . The object is moving in the positive
direction with a speed of 240 m/s.
2

## E. Find and interpret the acceleration at t = 9.

When t = 9 seconds the acceleration is a 9 6 9 54 sm2 . So the speed is increasing by 54 m/s
per second.
F. Find the time when the velocity is 0.

v t 3t 2 3 3 t 1 t 1 0
t 1 or t 1, but t 0
t 1sec
The velocity is 0 at 1 second after time 0. At this point the object changes direction from the
negative direction to the positive direction.
G. Find the position when the velocity is 0.

s 1 1 31 2
3

The position is 2 units in the negative direction from the origin at time t = 0. This is a local
minimum for this position, i.e. the point which is the farthest to the negative direction of the origin
that the object reaches.
H. Find the acceleration when the velocity is 0.

## a 1 6 1 6 sm2 At t = 1 the acceleration is 6 meters/second/second. Note that acceleration is

always positive for positive values of t.
I.

## Calculus Video 4.40 Derivative Interpretation Applications 5 Contents

74. Let f(t) be the temperature in oF at time t in hours where you live and suppose that at time t = 0 you feel
uncomfortably hot. Describe the shape of the graph of f and explain what happens to the temperature
in each of the following cases.

## A. f '(0) = -2, f "(0) = 4

Since the first derivative is negative the function f is decreasing and since the second derivative is
positive the function f is concave up. So the temperature is decreasing at a decreasing rate. Since
the first derivative is -2 the temperature is dropping at an instantaneous rate of 2 oF per hour. Since
the second derivative is positive the drop in temperature over the next hour will be slightly less
than 2 oF and the drop in temperature over the previous hour was slightly more than 2 oF.
B. f '(0) = 2, f "(0) = -4
Since the first derivative is positive the function f is increasing and since the second derivative is
negative the function f is concave down. So the temperature is increasing at a decreasing rate.
Since the first derivative is 2 the temperature is rising at an instantaneous rate of 2 oF per hour.
Since the second derivative is negative the rise in temperature over the next hour will be slightly
less than 2 oF and the rise in temperature over the previous hour was slightly more than 2 oF.
C. f '(0) = 2, f "(0) = 4
Since the first derivative is positive the function f is increasing and since the second derivative is
positive the function f is concave up. So the temperature is increasing at an increasing rate. Since
the first derivative is 2 the temperature is rising at an instantaneous rate of 2 degrees per hour. Since
the second derivative is positive the rise in temperature over the next hour will be slightly more
than 2 oF and the rise in temperature over the previous hour was slightly less than 2 oF.
D. f '(0) = -2, f "(0) = -4
Since the first derivative is negative the function f is decreasing and since the second derivative is
negative the function f is concave down. So the temperature is decreasing at an increasing rate.
Since the first derivative is -2 the temperature is dropping at an instantaneous rate of 2 oF per hour.
Since the second derivative is negative the drop in temperature over the next hour will be slightly
more than 2 oF and the drop in temperature over the previous hour was slightly less than 2 oF.
E. f '(0) = 0, f "(0) = -4
Since the first derivative is zero the function f is at a stationary point and has a horizontal tangent
line, and since the second derivative is negative the function f is concave down. Together these
facts tell us that the function f is at a local maximum. So the temperature is at its highest point for

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 117

times near now. Just before this the temperature was increasing and just after this the temperature
will decrease.
F. f '(0) = 0, f "(0) = 4
Since the first derivative is zero the function f is at a stationary point and has a horizontal tangent
line, and since the second derivative is positive the function f is concave up. Together these facts
tell us that the function f is at a local minimum. So the temperature is at its lowest point for times
near now. Just before this the temperature was decreasing and just after this the temperature will
increase.

G. f '(0) = 2, f "(0) = 0
Since the first derivative is positive the function f is increasing and since the second derivative is
zero (and the first derivative is non-zero) the function f is at an inflection point. Since the function
f is at an inflection point the derivative function f '(t) is at a local extremum. So the temperature is
increasing. Since the first derivative is 2 the temperature is rising at an instantaneous rate of 2 oF
per hour.
H. f '(0) = -2, f "(0) = 0
Since the first derivative is negative the function f is decreasing and since the second derivative is
zero (and the first derivative is non-zero) the function f is at an inflection point. Since the function
f is at an inflection point the derivative function f '(t) is at a local extremum. So the temperature is
decreasing. Since the first derivative is 2 the temperature is dropping at an instantaneous rate of 2
o
F per hour.

## 10. Related Rates Applications

Calculus Video 4.41 Related Rates 1 Contents
Often we encounter situations where one quantity (f) is changing as another quantity (u) is changing.
However, in turn the change in the quantity u is dependent on a third variable changing, for example time
(t). So f depends on u, but u depends on t so ultimately f depends on t. You will recall that
investigating this situation was what led us to the chain rule. In this section we will be considering physical
applications where we have two variables which are related to each other and both are dependent on a third
variable (usually time). This class of problems is called Related Rates Applications. The basic steps to
solving these types of problems are as follows.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 118

2. Represent the information
a. Draw a diagram and label the parts.
b. Identify the known and unknown values. Label the meaning of variables introduced. Some
of these will be derivatives (rates of change). Typically one rate is known and finding the
other rate is the object of the problem solution.
3. Write an equation which represents the relationship among the first two quantities. This equation
will not have derivatives in it.
4. Take the derivative of both sides with respect to the third variable which is usually time t. Note that
this will use the chain rule. This results in an equation containing the two rates of change.
5. Substitute the given information into this last equation. Be careful to wait until this step to
substitute in given information.
6. Solve the previous equation for the desired information.
Let's put this process to work in solving several example problems.
75. The weekly cost C, in dollars, for a manufacturer to produce q automobile tires is given by

## C q 2100 16q 0.01q2 , 0 q 800

If 400 tires are currently being made per week but production levels are increasing at a rate of 20 tires
per week per week compute the rate of change of cost with respect to time and the total cost at this
point.
d
dt

dC
dt

16 dq
0.02q dq
dt
dt

dC
dt

16 0.02q dq
dt

dC
dt

16 0.02 400 20

dC
dt

## C 400 \$6,900 / week

At production levels of 400 tires per week their total cost per week is \$6,900 and the cost is increasing
at a rate of \$160/week/week.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 119

76. The annual demand q for bottles of wine from a vineyard when the bottles are priced at p dollars each
satisfies the equation qe0.04 p 6000 . The price is currently \$12 per bottle. Find the rate at which
demand changes with respect to time if the price is currently increasing at a rate of \$1.10 per bottle per
year.
qe 0.04 p 6000
q 6000e 0.04 p

## q dtd 6000e 0.04 p

dq
0.04 p
0.04 dpdt
dt 6000e
d
dt

dq
dt

240e 0.04 p

dq
dt

240e

dq
dt

163.3588154

q 6000e

dp
dt

0.04 12

0.04 12

1.10
3712.700351

At the current time the price is \$12/bottle, the demand is 3713 bottles per year, the price is increasing
at a rate of \$1.10 per bottle per year, and the demand is decreasing by 163 bottles per year per year.
77. Suppose that an oil spill is spreading out in the shape of a circle with radius r. The rate of change in
the radius is given by 5/r. At time t = 7 hours the radius is 500 meters. What is the rate of change in
the area of the spill at that time?
We have the following variables:
t = time in hours
r = radius of the circular spill in meters
A = area of the circular spill in square meters
r'(t) = dr/dt = rate of change in the radius with respect to time
A'(t) = dA/dt = rate of change in the area with respect to time
We should remember the basic relationship between the area and radius of a circle:
Note that both A and r are functions of time t so we really have: A t r t

A r 2

## A ' t 2rr ' t or

dA
dt

2r dr
dt

We can now substitute in what we know at the particular time. Notice that we wait until now to make
any substitutions.
Note that at t = 7
r = 500, and we are told that drdt = 5r . So
5
1
r ' 7 drdt t 7 r57 500
100
0.01 and therefore

A' 7

dA
dt t 7

m
m
m
2r 7 r ' 7 2 500m 0.01 day
31.4 day
10 day
2

m
So at the time t = 7 days from the spill the area of the spill is growing by approximately 31.4 day
.

## Calculus Video 4.43 Related Rates 2

Contents

78. A highway patrol officer's radar unit is parked behind a billboard 200 feet from a long straight stretch
of I-40. Down the highway, 270 feet from the point on the highway closest to the officer is an
emergency call box. The officer points the radar gun at the call box and measures the speed of the
traffic passing the box. Actually the radar unit measures how fast the distance between the radar unit
and the traffic is increasing at the time the automobile passes the call box. If the posted speed limit is
75 miles per hour what is the maximum speed measured by the radar gun which would correspond to
a legal speed of the traffic?

270

I 40

r
200

Police
Officer

## Let A be the point on the

highway closest to the police
officer. Let x be the distance the
car is from point A. Let r be the
distance from the police officer
to the car. Notice that both r and
x are functions of time. Notice
that we have a set of right
triangles with one leg fixed and
the lengths of the other two
sides varying. We have the
following
Pythagorean
relationship:
r 2 x 2 2002

## Differentiating both sides with

respect to time we get a related
rate differential equation.
d
dt

r x
2

d
dt

2002

2r drdt 2 x dx
dt
dr x dx

dt r dt
At the point the measurement is made the distances are

## x 270 r 2702 2002 112900 10 1129 .

We know that the maximum legal speed on the highway is 75 mi/hr so we have
and solving we get:

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 121

dx
75 . Substituting
dt

dr x dx

dt r dt
270 ft

75 mihr
10 1129 ft
2025 mi

hr
1129
60.2667895 mi
hr
Thus the maximum legal recorded speed is about 60.3 mi/hr.

Video 4.43.2

Contents

79. A railroad bridge is 20 feet above, and at right angles to, a river. A person in a train traveling at 60
miles per hour passes over the center of the bridge at the same instant that a person in a motor boat
traveling 20 miles per hour passes under the center of the bridge. How fast are the two people separating
10 seconds later?
Video 4.43.3 Contents
80. A highway patrol plane flies one mile above a straight section of rural interstate highway at a steady
ground speed of 120 miles per hour. The speed limit is 75 miles per hour. The pilot sees an oncoming
car and, with radar, determines that the line-of-sight distance from the plane to the car is 1.5 miles and
that the distance is decreasing at a rate of 136 miles per hour. Should the driver of the car be given a
ticket for speeding? Explain it to the judge.

## 11. Optimization Problems

Calculus Video 4.44 Optimization Applications - Motion Contents
Next we look at one of the most important applications of derivatives: Optimization Problems. In these
optimization application problems we want to find the maximum or minimum output value of a function
and the corresponding input values. Often we want to push something to the extreme. We typically want
to maximize revenue, minimize cost, minimize average cost, or better yet maximize profit. We may want
to minimize time or effort to complete a task, maximize production levels, minimize materials used,
maximize an area or volume available, maximize some measure of efficiency, minimize errors, or otherwise
find the most or least we can get out of some function given the constraints of the situation. Optimization
applications show up in an extremely wide area of applications in nearly any field.
Recall that the graph of a function can reach a local or global extremum only if one of the following occurs:

## the graph is at an endpoint

the derivative is undefined
the derivative is zero

## So the basic strategy in optimization problems is to

1. Write the function you want to optimize a function of a single variable.
2. Identify the domain in context of the problem.
3. Compute the formula for the first derivative of the function.
4. Set the first derivative equal to zero and solve for these input values.
5. Identify any input values where the derivative is undefined.
6. Identify the inputs for any endpoints.
7. Evaluate the original function at the input values found above.
8. Look at the sign of the derivative near these points, the sign of the second derivative at these
points, and/or a graph near these points to classify each of these points as a local maximum, local
minimum, or neither.
If the function is continuous and the domain in the context of the problem is a closed interval then the
function is guaranteed to have a local minimum and a local maximum on that interval.
Use the basic strategy outlined above to solve the following optimization problems.

## Position, Velocity, and Acceleration

81. For the first optimization problem in this set it is appropriate for us to consider a problem that Newton
was considering when he developed calculus. Suppose we have a body moving at a constant
acceleration, a. For example the acceleration due to gravity is approximated well by a constant function
a(t) = -9.8 m/sec2 = -32 ft/sec2 for many object fairly near the surface of the Earth. Actually the
acceleration due to gravity is inversely proportional to the distances between the centers of mass of the
two objects, but most of the time we are dealing with objects whose distance from the center of the
Earth varies little. A much more significant influence is the effect of the air. Air resistance and
buoyancy affects some objects greatly and others negligibly. For many objects such as a fired bullet or
a thrown ball we can assume that the acceleration due to gravity is a constant.
A. What is the general formula for the velocity function for an object with constant acceleration a?
Recall that v'(t) = a(t) = a, so we know the derivative of the velocity function is a constant function.
The velocity function has a constant slope of a so it must be a linear function with slope a.
So v t at v0 where the constant v0 is the initial velocity v(0).

B. What is the general formula for the position function for an object with constant acceleration a?
Notice that if p(t) is the position function then p'(t) = v(t) and p"(t) = v'(t) = a(t). A quadratic
polynomial will have a linear derivative so the position function is a quadratic polynomial function.

## p t 12 at 2 v0t p0 , where the constant p0 is the initial position p(0).

Use the derivative shortcut rules to verify that with these formulas for p, v, and a we have
p'(t) = v(t) and p"(t) = v'(t) = a(t). Notice that these two problems required us to find the
antiderivative of a known function. This antidifferentiation process is the opposite or inverse
relation of differentiation. We will return to antidifferentiation in a later unit.
C. What is the optimal positon and when does it occur?

v0
. Note that
a
this will be a local and global maximum if p"(t) = v'(t) = a(t) = a is negative and it will be a local
and global minimum if a is positive.
The optimal position occurs when its derivative is zero so 0 v t at v0 y

## Let's put this to work in the following application.

82. The height, y, of a ball that is tossed straight up is given by the following formula: y 16t 2 50t 5
where the height y is measured in feet and t is the time since release measured in seconds. (Negative
represents the downward direction.) Include units on all answers.
A. At what height was the ball released (thrown)?

2

## B. What is the height of the ball 1 second after release?

y 1 16 1 50 1 5 39 feet
2

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 124

C. The velocity is the instantaneous rate of change in the height with respect to time. What is the
velocity formula as a function of time?

v t y ' t 32t 50
D. At what speed was the ball thrown?

v 0 32 0 50 50 secft upward.
E. What is the velocity of the ball 1 second after release? Include units and interpret the direction of
the ball at that time.

v 1 32 1 50 18 secft upward.
F. When is the ball at a maximum height?

v t 0 32t 50
32t 50
t

25
1.5625sec
16

## G. What is the maximum height of the ball?

25
y 16
16 1625 50 1625 5
2

705
44.0625 feet
16

H. The acceleration of the ball is the instantaneous rate of change in the velocity. What is the
acceleration as a function of time? Include appropriate units.

I.

## When does the ball reach the ground?

y 0 16t 2 50t 5
502 4 16 5
50
t

2 16
2 16
25
2820

16
32
t 3.221989756sec
or
t 0.0969897559sec

Since t must be positive here, the ball reaches the ground approximately 3.222 seconds after release.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 125

J. Sketch the graph of y as a function of t over an appropriate interval below and attach a computer
generated version of the graph.

Video 4.44.2
83. The police department must determine the speed limit on a bridge such that the flow rate of cars is
maximum per unit time. The greater the speed limit, the farther apart the cars must be in order to keep
a safe stopping distance. Experimental data on the stopping distance d (in meters) for various velocities
v (in km/hr) are shown in the table.
v
d

20
5.1

40
13.7

60
27.2

80
44.2

100
66.4

Convert the speeds to meters per second. Compute a quadratic function modeling this data. Consider
two consecutive vehicles of average length 5.5 meters, traveling at a safe speed on the bridge. Let T be
the difference between the time (in seconds) when the front bumpers of the vehicles pass a given point
on the ridge. Compute a formula for T. Use a graphing utility to graph T and estimate the speed that
minimizes the time between vehicles. Use calculus to compute this speed and the corresponding value
of T exactly. What is the optimal distance between the vehicles?

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 126

Geometric Problems
Calculus Video 4.45 Optimization - Geometric Contents
84. If 30,000 cm2 of material is available to make a box with a square base and an open top, find the largest
possible volume of the box and the dimensions which produce that box.
If we introduce variables in our solution then we need to clearly state what those variables represent.
s = length of the side of the square base
B = s2 = area of the base
h = height of the box
V = volume of the box
A = surface area of needed materials of the box = 30,000 cm2
A s 2 4 sh
30000 s 2 4 sh
4 sh 30000 s 2
h 7500 s 1 14 s
V Bh s 2 h
V s 2 7500s 1 14 s
V s 7500s 14 s 3
V ' s 7500 43 s 2
V ' s 0 7500 43 s 2
43 s 2 7500
s 2 10000
s 10000
s 100cm

## h 7500 100 14 100 50cm

1

V 1002 50 500,000cm 3

s
s

The maximum volume of 500,000cm3 is reached when the square base of the box has edges of length
100 cm and the height of the box is 50 cm.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 127

Contents
85. A typical soda can holds 355 ml (12 fluid ounces) and is roughly in the shape of a cylinder. The
thickness of the top of the can is three times as thick as the sides and bottom of the can to accommodate
the pull top opener. What dimensions will minimize the amount of aluminum used in the production
of the can?
The volume V is fixed at 355 ml = 355 cm3 so this gives us a relationship
between the radius r and height h of the cylinder:

V
h

r 2h
355
r2

Bh
V
r2

The amount of aluminum used is a volume but it is based upon the surface
area. Below t is the constant thickness of the sides and bottom so 3t is the
thickness of the top. Notice that the top and bottom are the interior of circles
which have area r2, and if we cut open the side and roll it out we get a
rectangle with height h and width the circumference C = 2r.

3t area of top

3t r 2

t r2

4t r 2

2t rh

4t r 2

2t r

4t r 2

A r
A' r

r2
2t

r2
2t

0
r3
r
h

8t r
8t r

t area of side

t 2 rh

355
r2

710tr

8t r

A' r

t area of bottom

710tr

710tr
710tr

4 r 3 355
355
4
355
4
355
r2

1
3

3.045599761cm
355
2
3.045599761

3.05cm

12.18239904cm

12.2cm

Therefore the amount of aluminum is minimized when the radius is approximately 3.05 cm and the
height is 12.0 cm. If you measure a typical soda can you will see that it is very close to these dimensions.
Over the years, further refinements to the can included curving the bottom and pulling the top in a bit.
These further refinement to the basic cylindrical shape make the cans easy to stack, made them more
sturdy, and further minimized the cost of producing the can. Of course, the can must also be able to be
held easily and must contain branding decorations on the side. Do you think the designers of the can
know calculus? You bet they do, and they use it regularly to save the company money on production.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 128

86. A man is building a storage silo in the shape of a cylinder. The cost of the concrete floor is \$6 per
square foot, the cost of the walls is \$5 per square foot, and the cost of the flat roof is \$5 per square foot.
It must have a height of at least six feet. The volume is to be 4500 cubic feet. What dimensions will
minimize the cost of the silo?
The volume is fixed at 4500 ft3 so this gives us a relationship between
the radius and height of the cylinder:

r 2h
4500
r2

Bh
V
r2

## The cost is based upon the area:

6 floor area

6 r2

5 2 rh

11 r 2

10 rh

11 r 2

10 r

11 r 2

C r

C' r

22 r
0

r2 0

r 2 22 r

22 r 3

22 r

5 roof area

5 r2

4500
r2

45000r

C' r

5 wall area

45000r

2
2

45000r
45000r

45000

45000 22 r 3
22500
r3
11
22500
r 3
8.66722331994
11
Therefore the cost is minimized when the radius is approximately 8.667 feet and the height is 19.068
feet. At this point the cost is \$7787.96.

## Video 4.46 Contents

87. A man is building a storage building in the shape of a square pyramid. The cost of the concrete floor is
\$5 per square foot, the cost of the walls is \$3 per square foot. The volume is to be 4876 cubic feet.
What dimensions will minimize the cost of the building?
We obtain a cost function as a function of the length of
the side of the square. In order to do this we must first
establish a relationship between the length of the side and
the slant height (altitude of the triangular sides) using
right triangle. We also use the formula for the volume of
a pyramid. Using these formulas we obtain:
h

l 2 h 2 2s

V 13 Bh 13 s 2 h

2
2

2
14628
l 2 2s
s

4876 s h
1
3

s/2

2
14628
l 2 2s
s

14628
h
s2

Using these relationships we can get a cost function, ultimately in terms of s alone.

C 5s 2 3 4 12 sl
2

2
14628
C s 5s 6 s 2 2s
s
2

213,978,384 s 2
C s 5s 6 s

s4
4
2

C s 5s 2 6 s

s 6 855,913,536
4s 2

C s 5s 2 6 s

s 6 855,913,536
2s

C s 5s 2 3 s 6 855,913,536
Now we can minimize the cost by taking a derivative, setting the derivative equal to zero, and
solving for s.

C ' s

1
d
2
5s 2 3 s 6 855,913,536
ds

12

10s

81s 5
s 6 855,913,536

81s 4
C '( s ) s 10

3
s

855,913,536

C '( s ) 0

27 s 4
s 10
0

3s 6 855,913,536

27 s 4
10
0 or
3s 6 855,913,536
27 s 4
3s 6 855,913,536

s0

10 or

s0

## Using Newtons method we get approximately s = 9.83765561642.

9.83765561642 95101504
9.83765561642
6

C 9.83765561642 5 9.83765561642
2

1479.90

2
4876
l 2 2s
s

4876
s2

4876
2
l
9.83765561642

2
2
9.83765561642

l 50.6221292889

4876

9.83765561642

h 50.3825873338

The minimum cost is thus \$1479.90 and is obtained when the side of the square base is 9.83 feet,
the height is 50.4 feet and the slant height is 50.6 feet.

4000

3000

2000

1000

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

Of course once the function is established we could also just graph it (as above) and numerically
calculate the minimum.

## Calculus Video 4.47

Contents

88. A smokestack deposits soot on the ground with a concentration inversely proportional to the square of
the distance from the stack. If the first stack is emitting soot at seven times the rate of the second stack
which is 20 miles away, write a general formula for the concentration of the combined deposits on the
line between the two stacks. Find the point on the line joining her stacks where the concentration of
the deposit is a minimum.

## Calculus Video 4.48

Contents

89. Two towns are on the same side of the river. One town is two miles away from the river and the other
is six miles downstream and is also four miles away from the river. The two towns plan on building a
pumping station at the edge of the river to service both towns. They must lay pipe directly from the
station to each of the two towns. Pipe cannot be shared by the two towns. Where should they build the
station if they want to minimize the amount of pipe to lay? Draw a diagram below and label the exact
location of the pumping station.
Here is the diagram with point E set at the optimal spot to minimize L.
a = 6.00
x = 2.00

a-x = 4.00

a-x

b b = 2.00
e
e = 2.83

c = 4.00

f = 5.66
L = 8.49

D
Using Calculus:
a. Draw the diagram above and label its parts.
b. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to express the lengths e and f in terms of x and use them to write
a formula for L(x).

e x 2 b2 x 2 22 x 2 4 2
1

a x

6 x

c2

6 x 16
2

1
2

42

36 12 x x 2 16 2 x 2 12 x 52 2
1

L x x 2 4 2 x 2 12 x 52 2
1

c. Find L'(x).

L x x 2 4 2 x 2 12 x 52 2
1

x
L' x x x
L' x

1
2

4 2 2 x 12 x 2 12 x 52

4 2 x 6 x 2 12 x 52

12

2 x 12
12

## d. Set L'(x) = 0 and solve for x.

L ' x 0 x x 2 4 2 x 6 x 2 12 x 52
1

x 6 x 2 12 x 52

12

x 6 x 2 12 x 52

x 6

x 6
2

x x2 4

12

x x2 4

12 x 52 x 2 x 2 4
1

12 x 52

12

12

12

x2
x2 4

2
2

x 6
2
2

4
x

12
x

52

x 2 12 x 52 x 2x 4 x 2 4 x 2 12 x 52

x
x

4 x 6 x 2 x 2 12 x 52

4 x 2 12 x 36 x 2 x 2 12 x 52

x 4 12 x 3 40 x 2 48 x 144 x 4 12 x 3 52 x 2
0 12 x 2 48 x 144
0 12 x 2 4 x 12
0 x 2 x 6
x 2 0 or x 6 0
x 2 or x 6
x2

L '( 6) 0

e. Determine that this is where a minimum of L with occur and not a maximum.
From the context of the problem we can see that moving E to B will result in a larger value for
L, or we can look at the graph of L or the sign of L"(2) to see that this will produce a local
minimum.
f. Find the corresponding values of e, f, a-x, and especially L.
When x = 2:
a x 6 x 4, e 8 2 2 2.828, f 32 4 2 5.657, L 6 2 8.485

all in miles.
Easier Solution Without Calculus:
Calculus is a great tool and the previous solution is a great
exercise in using the Pythagorean Theorem, calculating
derivatives, solving equations, and using calculus to solve an
optimization problem. But calculus is not always the best tool.
The easiest way to do this problem uses some elementary
geometry and basic algebra. Notice that the problem is
equivalent to placing the first city on the other side of the river
the same distance from this side of the bank and finding the total
distance from L = C'E + DE. Then the problem becomes how
to find the shortest distance between the two points. Since any
path between the two points will take it through the x-axis we
take the shortest distance which is a straight line. The x-

C'

a = 6.00
x = 2.00

a-x = 4.00

a-x

b b = 2.00
e
e = 2.83

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 134

c
c = 4.00

f = 5.66
L = 8.49

coordinate of this x-intercept of this line is what we are looking for. Place the origin at point A and the
two cities have coordinates (0,2) and (6,-4) respectively. The slope of this line in this coordinate system
is m = (-4-2)/(6-0) = -1. We already know the y-intercept is (0,2) so the equation is y = -x + 2. Now
we just need to find the x-intercept by setting y = 0 x = 2. So the optimal location for the pumping
station is 2 miles downstream from the first town.
Calculus Video 4.49 Contents
90. To get the best view of the Statue of Liberty you should be a position where the angle between the
line of sight to the back of the pedestal and the line of sight to the tip of the torch, is at a maximum. If
the statue stands 92 meter high, including a pedestal which rises 46 meters above the water, find out
how far you should be from the back of the pedestal to get the best view. What would be in this case?
Calculus Video 4.50 Contents
91. On a storage medium in the shape of a disk (e.g. CD, record, diskette, etc.), the amount of information
recorded (e.g. minutes of music) stored on a track that goes once around the record is the same no
matter whether the track is near the center or at the edge. Why do you think the information is stored
in this way? Let b be the maximum possible density of information per cm which can be stored in a
track. Let R cm be the fixed outer radius, and let a be the number of tracks per radial cm. What should
the inner radius, r, be to maximize the total amount of information stored? Take out a compact disk
measure R and r. Do these correspond to your calculations above?

## Cost, Revenue, and Profit

Calculus Video 4.51 Contents
92. Given the following graphs of the cost (C(q)) and revenue (R(q)) functions for a company which
produces a quantity of q books answer the following questions.

## A. Explain the meaning of the words Revenue and Cost.

Both terms are from the perspective of the producer. Revenue indicates the total amount of money
received by the company. Cost is the amount of money spent by the company. Both of these

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 135

functions are seen here as functions of the quantity produced. So R(q) is the amount of money
received when we make and sell q items, and C(q) is the amount of money we spent making those
q items. Notice that q, R, and C are all positive values so these graphs are first quadrant graphs.
B. What are the units on each of the axes?

The horizontal axis is the quantity in books made and the vertical axis is money in dollars.
C. Which graph is revenue and which is cost and how do you know?

If we do not make any items then we cannot sell them and thus the revenue is zero. One point that
is on any revenue function is the origin so the blue graph above going through the origin is the
revenue function.
D. What is the meaning of the y-intercepts of these graphs?

As stated above the revenue function always goes through the origin. The cost function will
typically intersect the vertical axis at a positive value. This value is the fixed costs. Fixed costs are
costs that are independent of the number of items made. These typically include research and
development, initial expenses such as purchasing equipment and buildings, salaries that do not
depend on the number of items made. The rest of the costs are variable costs including most of the
labor, raw materials, utilities, etc.
E. What is the relationship among profit, cost, and revenue?

## Profit = Revenue Cost P = R C

F.

Where is the profit function negative and where is it positive? Where is the break-even point?
Mark these places on the graph above.
Note that profit typically starts negative. Profit is negative when the cost function is above the
revenue function and indicates a loss of money. Profit increases to the break-even point where P
= 0 and R = C occurring at the point where the revenue and cost functions first intersect. After that
the profit is positive for a while. Profit is positive when the revenue function is above the cost
function indicating a gain. The profit increases to a maximum and then decreases. Notice that in
this case there is technically a second break-even point. However, any company that reaches that
point deserves to go bankrupt because of its stupidity. The only way to reach that point is for the
company to continue to make items and not sell them forcing the profit back down. No one will
go that far so that second intersection point will never actually be reached. See these marked on
the graph below.

G. For which quantity is the profit a maximum? Call this quantity q0 and label it on the q-axis in the

Notice that the profit is at a maximum when the revenue graph is farthest above the cost function.
We want to find the place where the vertical distance between the two graphs is greatest. See this
point labeled on the graph below. The x-value of this point is the number of items need to maximize
the profit and in this case that is 61.8 or 62 books. The y-value of this point is the maximum profit
of \$1330.38.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 136

H. What do you notice about the slopes of the graphs at R(q) and C(q) at q0? Show algebraically what

this says about the marginal revenue and the marginal cost when the profit is maximized. Explain
in economic terms what this means
When the profit is maximized the slopes of the revenue and cost function are the same. We can
see this by the following:
P maximized P'( x ) 0
P( x ) R( x ) C( x )
P'( x ) R'( x ) C'( x )
0 R'( x ) C'( x )
C'( x ) R'( x )

This says that the profit is maximized when marginal cost equals marginal revenue, i.e. the cost of
producing one additional item is the same as the revenue produced by that one additional item. If
the marginal revenue is larger than the marginal cost then the producer will receive more additional
money from selling that one item than the additional expense of making that item so profit can be
increased by making the one additional item. On the other hand, if the marginal revenue is smaller
than the marginal cost then the producer will receive less additional money from selling that one
item than the additional expense of making that item so profit can be increased by making one
fewer items. So the maximum is reached when the marginal cost equals marginal revenue.
(In general two curves reach their maximum distance apart when they have the same slope.)
I.

## Graph the profit function on the same coordinate system.

To graph the profit at a particular q-value we measure the vertical distance between the two graphs
at that point ant go up (if R > C) or down (if R < C) by this amount to find the point on the profit
graph. After doing this for many points we can connect the dots to graph the profit function. This
information is visualized on the graph below.

## Video 4.52 Contents

93. A 400 room hotel is filled when the room rate is \$58 per day. For each \$1 increase in the rate, five
fewer rooms are rented.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 137

A. Write the daily revenue function, R, as a function of the daily rate of renting a room, r.
Let r rent ,

R revenue,

## n 400 5 r 58 400 5r 290

n 690 5r

R(r ) nr 690 5r r
R(r ) 690r 5r 2

## MR R'(r ) 690 10r

C. Find the room rate that maximizes the daily revenue.

R'(r ) 0 690 10r 0 r 69 A daily rent of \$69.00 per room will maximize the daily
revenue.

## D. What is this maximum revenue?

R(69) 690(69) 5(69) 2 23,805

## n 690 5(69) 345, 400 345 55 There will be 55 rooms vacant.

94. A 250-room hotel is filled when the room rate is \$50 per day. For each \$2 increase in the rate, 7 fewer
rooms are rented. It costs the hotel \$15 per day for each room rented in upkeep. In addition the hotel
has fixed costs including such things as mortgage payment, pool upkeep, etc., which are independent
of the number of rooms rented. Suppose these costs amount to \$5000 per day. Find the room rate that
maximizes daily profit. What is this maximum daily profit and how many rooms will be vacant?
r = rent/room/day
n = number of rooms rented
R = daily revenue
C = daily costs
P = daily profit
n = (-7/2)r +b
250 = -3.5(50) + b b = 425
n = -3.5r+425
R = rn = r(-3.5r + 425) = -3.5r2 + 425r
C = 15n + 5000 = 15(-3.5r+425) + 5000
C = -52.5r +11375
P = R - C = (-3.5r2+425r) - (-52.5r+11375)
P (r) = -3.5r2 + 477.5r - 11375
P ' (r) = -7r + 477.5
P'(r) = 0 0 = -7r + 477.5 r = 68.21
P(68.21) = -3.5(68.21)2 + 477.5(68.21) - 11375 = 4911.16

## n(68.21) = -3.5(68.21) +425 = 186, v = 250 - 186 = 64

To maximize the profit they should charge \$68.210 per room per day. This results in a profit of
\$4,900 per day. It will leave 64 rooms vacant and 186 rooms rented.
Video 4.53 Contents
95. A baseball team plays in a stadium that hold 51,000 spectators. With ticket prices at \$10 the average
attendance had been 38,000. When ticket prices were lowered to \$8 the average attendance rose to
42,000. Let us assume the demand function is linear.
A. What is the demand function?
m

## q 42000 38000 4000

2000spectators / \$
p
8 10
2

q m p p1 q0
q 2000 p 10 38000
q 2000 p 58000

## B. What is the revenue function?

R pq
R p 2000 p 58000
R p 2000 p 2 58000 p
C. What ticket price should be set to maximize revenue?
R ' p

d
dp

2000 p

58000 p

## R ' p 4000 p 58000

R ' p 0 4000 p 58000
4000 p 58000
p 14.50

To maximize revenue they should set the price at \$14.50 per ticket.
D. At this level what is the attendance and what is the revenue?

## q 2000 14.5 58000 29,000

R 2000 14.5 58000 14.5 420,500
2

At \$14.50 per ticket the attendance is 29,000 people and the revenue is \$420,500.
Video 4.54 Contents
96. The value of good wine increases with age. Thus, if you are a wine dealer, you have the problem of
deciding whether to sell your wine now, at a price of \$P a bottle, or to sell it later at a higher price.
Suppose you know that the price of you wine t years from now is well approximated by P 1 18 t .

When is the best time to sell your wine? Assume a 5.75% return on investments of capital.
Lets compute the present value, V, of the wine.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 139

F P 1 18 t
V Fe

rt

P 1 18 t e rt P 1 18 t e .065t

d
i b.065g e
Pd .065 t 117
. t 9i

V ' (t ) P 1 18 t e

.065t

.065t

9
t

P( )

e .065t t

## V ' (t ) 0 .065 t 117

. t 9 0

dx t x ti
. gb9g
b 4ac b .065g b .065g 4b 117

2a
2b 1.17g

0 117
. x 2 .065x 9
x

x 0 x t 2.74586
t 2.74586 2 7.55539759787 years

So we see that in order to maximize the present value he needs to sell the wine when it reaches 7.5
years old.
97. Economists have established that the demand D for an item decreases as the price, x, increases. The
daily number, D, of tubes of roofing tar that people are willing to buy at x cents each is given by
86,000
D( x)
, x 200,700 . If the current price per tube is \$2.75, find and interpret the
x 12
marginal demand for tubes of roofing tar.
marginal demand =

j , x 200,700
86000e x 12j b g x

D' ( x )

d
dx

86000 x 2 12

1
2

43,000

x
D' (250)

21

1
2

x 12

, x 200,700

43,000
275

275 12

3174
.

## On the calculator compute Nderiv(86000/(x^(1/2)+12),X,250) to get the decimal approximation fo the

derivative at this point without computing the formula.
So we see that the marginal demand is -3.174 units/cent. This means that for each additional cent the
price is raised the consumer demand will decrease by around 3 units. I.e. 3 more potential customers
will not buy because the price is too high for them.

Average Cost
Calculus Video 4.55 Contents
98. The cost of manufacturing q items is graphed below.
A. Define the average cost function.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 140

The average cost function a is found by taking the total cost of making q items and dividing this
total cost by the number of items q producing an average cost per item: a q

C q
.
q

B. Below we see the graph of a cost function. Draw a line from the origin to a point on the graph.
What is the slope of that line? How can we use this to visually minimize the average cost? How
can we visualize the marginal cost at a point?
45

Cost \$

40

35

30

C
25

20

15

10

Origin
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Number of Units

Notice that a line (in red) from the origin to a point on the cost curve will have a slope equal to the
average cost at the point where the line touches the curve since the vertical change from the origin
to point
A = (q, C(q)) is C(q) and the horizontal change is q. Notice that we want to
minimize the average cost so we want to minimize the slope of the red line form the origin to the
curve. At the moment we are to the left of the place where the average cost is minimized.
The marginal cost is the derivative of the cost so the marginal cost is the slope of the tangent line
(in green) to the cost curve.
45

Cost \$

40

Average Cost = a
= Cost/Quantity
= C/q
= Slope of Red Line from Origin
to the cost curve
C(q) yA
\$21.44
=
=
=
q
xA 9.64 units
= 2.22392 \$/unit

35

30

25

C
20

## Marginal Cost = C'(q)

= Slope of Green Tangent Line
= 0.42955 \$/unit

15

10

Origin
q10

20

30

40

50

60

Number of Units

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 141

70

80

90

The next graph goes too far to the right to obtain the minimum slope for the red line.
45

40

Cost \$
A

35

30

25

20

Average Cost = a
= Cost/Quantity
= C/q
= Slope of Red Line from Origin
to the cost curve
C(q) yA
\$39.60
=
=
=
q
xA 20.62 units
= 1.92064 \$/unit
Marginal Cost = C'(q)
= Slope of Green Tangent Line
= 3.36113 \$/unit

15

10

Origin
20q

10

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Number of Units

The next graph shows the place where the average cost is minimized. Notice that if we want to
minimize the average cost then we must find a place where a line from the origin to the cost curve
is tangent to the cost curve, so that marginal cost equals average cost.
45

Cost \$

40

Average Cost = a
= Cost/Quantity
= C/q
= Slope of Red Line from Origin
to the cost curve
C(q) yA
\$27.78
=
=
=
q
xA 15.91 units
= 1.75 \$/unit

35

30

25

20

## Marginal Cost = C'(q)

= Slope of Green Tangent Line
= 1.75 \$/unit

15

10

Origin
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Number of Units

C. What relationship holds when the average cost function is minimized? Prove this algebraically
with calculus. Explain what this relationship means in economic terms.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 142

C q
where C is the total cost and q is the quantity of items made.
q
qC' q C q
Therefore, a' q
and
q2

## The average cost is a q

a' q

0
qC' q

qC' q C q
q2
C q

qC' q

C q

C' q

C q
q

C' q

a q

So the average cost is minimized when the average cost equals the marginal cost. In other words,
the average cost is minimized when the average cost per item of making all the items is the same

D. Graph the marginal cost and average cost functions on the coordinate system above.
Since the marginal cost function is the derivative of the cost function we must estimate symmetric
difference quotients for several points on the curve to approximate the output of the marginal cost
function. To graph the average cost function we must compute the slopes from the origin to several
points on the cost curve. Computer generated results are given below with the point A at the
quantity where the average cost is minimized. Notice that this is where the marginal cost and
average cost function graphs intersect, and also where the line from the origin to the cost function
is tangent to the cost function.
45

Average Cost = a
= Cost/Quantity
= C/q
= Slope of Red Line from Origin
to the cost curve
C(q) yA
\$27.78
=
=
=
q
xA 15.91 units
= 1.75 \$/unit

Cost \$

40

35

30

25

Marginal Cost

## Marginal Cost = C'(q)

= Slope of Green Tangent Line
= 1.75 \$/unit

20

15

Average Cost

10

Origin
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

E. If the marginal cost is smaller than the average cost should they make more or fewer items to lower
average cost?

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 143

If the marginal cost is smaller than the average cost then the cost to make one additional item is
less than the average cost to that point so the average cost will decrease by averaging in one item
that is less expensive than the average to that point. They should make more items to lower the
average cost.

F. If the marginal cost is larger than the average cost should they make more or fewer items to lower
average cost?
If the marginal cost is larger than the average cost then the cost to make one additional item is
larger than the average cost to that point so the average cost will increase by averaging in one item
that is more expensive than the average to that point. They should make fewer items to lower the
average cost.

G. For this example how many items should be produced to minimize average cost?
The producer should make 15.91 units to minimize the average cost.

## H. What is the total cost of producing this many items?

It costs \$27.78 to manufacture 15.91 units.

## I. What is the average cost of producing this many items?

The average cost of producing this many items is \$1.75 per item

## J. What is the marginal cost of producing this many items?

The marginal cost of producing this many items is \$1.75 per item

99. The

weekly

cost

for

small

confectioner

to

produce

chocolate

bars

is

## C ' q 0.11 0.008q

B. Write the formula for the average cost function.
a q

## 1500 0.11q 0.004q2

q

C. Graph the cost, marginal cost, and average cost functions on the same coordinate grid.

D. Compute the cost, marginal cost, and average cost when 400 chocolate bars have been produced.
C 400 1500 0.11 400 0.004 400 \$2,184
2

a q

## 1500 0.11 400 0.004 400

\$2184

\$5.46 / bar
400bars
400
2

E. Which of these is an approximation of the cost of producing the 401st chocolate bar?
The marginal cost of \$3.31/bar is an approximation of the additional cost of producing the 401st
chocolate bar.
F. Find the actual cost of producing the 401st chocolate bar.

## The actual cost of producing the 401st chocolate bar is

C 401 C 400

1500 0.11 401 0.004 401 1500 0.11 400 0.004 400
2

\$2187.314 \$2,184
\$3.314 \$3.31

G. Find the number of bars needed to minimize the average cost and the minimum average cost.
Illustrate on a graph.
We have two options. We can take the derivative of the average cost, set it equal to zero and solve
for q or we can use the result of the previous problem and set the marginal cost equal to the average
cost and solve for q. We will use the second option.
a q C '( q )
1500 0.11q 0.004q 2
0.11 0.008q
q
1500 0.11q 0.004q 2 0.11q 0.008q 2
1500 0.004q 2
1500
0.004
2
q 375,000
q2

q 375,000
q 612.3724357bars 612bars
C ' 612.3724357 a 612.3724357
1500 0.11 612.3724357 0.004 612.3724357
q
\$2003.591794

612.3724357bars
5.008979486 \$5.01 / bar
Note that the minimum average cost is when the average cost (red) intersects the marginal cost
(green).
2

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 147

Elasticity of Demand
Calculus Video 4.56 Contents
Recall that we can interpret the derivative as being approximately the additional amount of the output when
the input is increased by 1 above the current level. However, we often want a measure of how sensitive
changes in the demand are to small changes in the unit price. However, we need this measure to work for
any product. A \$1 increase is a huge increase for an item that currently costs \$2 but a \$1 increase is
negligible for an item that currently costs \$2000. We need to be concerned with percentage increases.
Notice that:
q
q

## Percent Change in Demand

Percent Change in Price

p
p

p
q

q
p

p dq
q dp

This gives us a nice measure of the sensitivity of demand to changes in unit price which we call the price
elasticity of demand which we define as:

p dq
q dp

Note that E is negative since increasing the unit price decreases the quantity demanded. Notice that the
units all cancel out so that E is just a number with no units.
Notice that for small changes in the unit price we have:

q
q

p
p

## E Percent Change in Price

Notice that if |E| > 1 then a 1% increase in price will result in more than a 1% decrease in demand. So we
see that we have the following relationship between elasticity and revenue.
E 1 Demand is inelastic. Revenue increase when increasing price.

## E 1 Demand is elastic. Revenue increase when decreasing price.

E 1 Revenue function is at a critical value.
So if the absolute value of the elasticity is high (greater than 1) then we say the demand is elastic. In this
case a small increase in price results in a large decrease in demand and thus a decrease in revenue. In the
case of elastic demand (|E| > 1) consumers are willing to give up the item if there is an increase in price.
This often happens if there is a substitute or the item is considered a luxury. For example demand for beef
might be elastic because increasing the price a bit will make many consumers buy considerably less beef
because they can substitute another meat such as pork or chicken. Demand for jewelry might be elastic
with small increases in prices resulting in large decreases in demand since people can easily do without the
jewelry.
If the absolute value of the elasticity is low (less than 1) then we say the demand is inelastic. In this case a
small increase in price results in an even smaller decrease in demand. In the case of inelastic demand (|E|
< 1) consumers are not willing to give up the item if there is an increase in price. This often happens if the
item is seen as a necessity and there is no good substitute. For example, milk is typically inelastic because
people consider milk a necessity and are resistant to substituting another product. Increasing the price of
milk a little will typically not decrease the demand drastically.
If the absolute value of the elasticity is 1 then the demand is considered neither elastic nor inelastic. This
happens when the revenue is at a critical value. If this is a local maximum then any change in price up or
down will decrease revenue.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 148

The elasticity of demand varies not only from product to product, but also for different prices within the
same product. For example, at low prices gasoline has a relatively low elasticity so that small increases in
the price will have little effect on consumer driving patterns and their consumption. However, there are
some higher prices that world give gasoline a higher elasticity so that small increases in price will result in
changes in consumer driving increasing carpooling, public transportation, and less frequent trips resulting
in larger decreases in consumer demand.
Now let's apply these ideas in a specific case.
100.
Price Elasticity of Demand The demand for yams is given by q = 5000 10 p2, where q is in
thousands of pounds of yams and p is the price of a pound of yams. Include units for your answers
below.
A. What is the formula for the marginal demand for yams?
d
dq

q' p
q' p

5000 10 p 2
20 p

q 2

5000 10 2

## 4960 thousand lbs = 4,960,000 lbs

C. At this price what is the marginal demand? What does this mean?
q' 2

40

20 2

thousand lbs
\$ / lb

40,000

lbs
\$ / lb

At this price the instantaneous rate of change in demand (quantity) with respect to unit price is 40,000 lbs per \$/lb. I.e. increasing the unit price by \$1/lb from \$2/lb to \$3/lb will result in a decrease
of the demand by about 40,000 pounds. Or more accurately a \$0.01/lb increase in the unit price
will result in around a 400 lb decrease in demand.

D. At this price is the demand elastic or inelastic? What does this mean?
The price elasticity of demand is

p dq
q dp

2
4960
E

40

1
62

0.016129
.

0.016 1

Since |E| is less than 1 we see that a 1% increase in the price will cause approximately a 0.016129%
(much less than 1%) decrease in the demand. Therefore, at this point the demand is not sensitive
to a small change in price. The demand is inelastic . People really like those yams and are willing
to buy them even if the price increases a bit. (Perhaps it is close to Thanksgiving and tradition
demands serving yams?) Revenue can be increased by slightly raising the price.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 149

101.
Price Elasticity of Demand A manufacturer of utility truck estimates that the demand function
for their smallest model truck is
p = 59,000 -33q. They currently charge \$29,000 for
each truck.
A. What is the price elasticity of demand at this price point? Interpret the meaning of the number your
get.

59000 33q

1
33

dq
dp

1
33

1
33

p dq
q dp

59000
33

59000
33

29000

909.09
1
29000 33
0.0009499

0.0009499

909.09

At this point the price elasticity of demand is -0.0009499 so a 1% increase in price will result in
about a 0.00095% decrease in sales.
B. Is the demand elastic or inelastic at this point?
The demand is inelastic at this point.
C. Should they raise or lower prices in order to increase revenue?
They should raise prices to increase revenue
D. What price gives the maximum revenue?
The revenue is maximized when the elasticity is -1.

59000 33q

1
33

dq
dp

1
33

1
33

p dq
q dp

E
p

29000

E
E

59000
33

1
33

59000
33

59000
33

909.09

1
33

p
59000

p
1

p
59000
p
2p

59000
59000

29500

1
p

## Video 4.57 Contents

102.
Logistic Growth: If t represents the years since 1978 the percentage , P, of households with a
television set that also have a method of recording television is modeled by the formula:
75
P
1 317e 0.67 t .
A. Sketch a graph of this curve here with an appropriate window and attach a computer generated
version of the graph. Be sure to include a scale.

## B. What type of function is this?

This is a logistics function.

C. What is the limit of this function as t approaches infinity? What does this mean?
This limit is 75. i.e. as time continues the number of households with a VCR approached 75%.

D. What function represents the instantaneous rate of change in the percentage of households with a
television that also have a method of recording television?

## P ' t 75 dtd 1 317e 0.67 t

75 1 1 317e 0.67 t

1 317e
75 1 317e
317 e
23775 1 317e
0.67t
e
23775 1 317e
e 0.67
2

0.67 t 2

P ' t

0.67 t

d
dt

d
dt

0.67 t

0.67 t 2

0.67 t d
dt

0.67 t 2

0.67 t

15929.25

1 317e

0.67 t 2

e0.67 t

E. In the year 1980 what percentage of households with televisions also had a method of recording
television?

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 152

75
0.892803182046 . So in 1980 only about .89% of households with a
0.67 2
1 317e
TV also had a method of recording television.
P 2

F. In the year 1980, at what rate was the percentage of households with televisions who also had a
method of recording television changing? Was it increasing or decreasing?

P ' 2

15929.25

1 317e

0.67 2

e
2

0.67 2

1.97418932801 .

In 1980 the percentage of households with televisions who also had a method of recording
television was increasing at a rate of 1.97%/yr.

G. Estimate the point of diminishing returns. This is the inflection point. By the discussion in class
this occurs when the y-value is half of the limit. So we solve the following:

75
75

2 1 317e 0.67 t
1
1

2 1 317e 0.67 t
1 317e 0.67 t 2
317e 0.67 t 1
e 0.67 t

1
317

1
.67t ln 317

1
1
t 0.67
ln 317

t 8.59537578191
So the point of diminishing returns happened in 1998.

Physical Sciences
Video 4.58 Contents
103.
A tank initially contains 100 gallons of water and 10 pounds of salt, thoroughly mixed. Pure water
is added at the rate of 5 gallons per minute, and the mixture is drained off at the same rate. (Assume
complete and instantaneous mixing.) Derive a differential equation describing this situation. Find a
formula for the amount of salt in the tank as a function of time. How much salt is left in the tank after
one hour?

Biological Sciences
Video 4.59 Contents
104.
Assume that a pigeon is released from a boat floating on a lake that is 500 meters from the bank.
Because of falling air over the cool water, the energy required to fly one meter over the lake is twice

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 153

the corresponding energy required for flying over the bank. It takes 3 joules/meter for the bird to fly
over the bank. The pigeon's loft is 2000 meters down the straight bank from the boat. To minimize the
energy required to fly from the boat to the loft, the bird should fly to a point along the bank and then
follow the bank to the loft. What is the optimal path? Identify all angles formed and all distances on
Video 4.60 Contents
105.
A bird such as a starling feeds worms to its young. To collect worms, the bird flies to a site where
worms are to be found, picks up several in its beak, and flies back to its nest. The loading curve graphed
below shows how the number of worms (the load) a starling collects depends on the time it has been
searching for them. Comment on the concavity of the curve. The traveling time back from its nest and
back is given by the distance PO in the figure. Suppose the bird wants to maximize the rate at which
it brings worms to the nest. Draw a line in the figure below whose slope is this rate. Using the graph
estimate the load which maximizes this rate. If the traveling time is increased, does the optimal load
increase or decrease? Explain.

8

P
-5

-4

Traveling Time
-3
-2
-1

Searching Time
4
5
6
7

## Video 4.61 Contents

106.
Let f(v) be the amount of energy consumed by a flying bird, measured in joules per second as a
function of its speed in meters per second. The graph of this function is given below. Suggest a reason
for the shape of this graph in terms of the way birds fly. Now let a(v) be the amount of energy consumed
by the same bird, measured in joules per meter. What is the relationship between f(v) and a(v)? Where
is a(v) a minimum? Under what conditions should the bird try to minimize f(v) when it is flying? Under
what conditions should the bird try to minimize a(v) when it is flying? Which is more realistic?

25

20

15

10

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

6.5

7.5

## Video 4.62 Contents

107.
The police guard gave Sara a cold look, but his voice was polite as he directed her to the room she
sought. "Don't touch anything, please, Ms. Abrams. The Chief said I had to let you in, but he said to
tell you to mind your fingers." "Thank you." Sara replied coolly. "The Chief knows he can trust me."
The guard opened his mouth as if to speak, but he merely shook his head and withdrew.
Sara was standing in what appeared to be a combination bedroom and laboratory. A relative had found
Dr. Howell's body on the floor of this room that morning. By 9:00 a.m., the coroner had completed
his examination; he stated that death was due to a severe blow to the head, and that Dr. Howell had
been dead for 36 to 40 hours. It seemed critical to Sara to know exactly when Dr. Howell had died so
that she could eliminate certain suspects. But how could she possibly discover exactly when he was
killed? Puzzled, she wandered around the small, cluttered room, being careful not to touch anything.
The old doctor apparently had been conducting an experiment when he was killed. Sara
absentmindedly read form the notebook that was lying open on the bench:
The fungus grows at a rate proportion to its current mass.
"Great," she thought, "I'm here to investigate a murder, and instead I'm gettin a biology lesson." At a
loss for what else to do, she continued reading.
To exemplify this biological truth, I place the fungus on a scale and record its mass at various
times:
10 g
5:30 p.m.
12 g
6:15 p.m.
13
"Interesting," Sara mused. Grabbing a pencil and pad from her purse Sara jotted down a few notes.

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 155

She milled as she walked out of the room. "Don't worry," Sara said cheerfully. "I'm leaving now,
and I know exactly when Dr. Howell was killed."
When was Dr. Howell killed and how does Sara know?
Video 4.63 Contents
108.
The Blob is a biological nightmare that is growing at a rate which is proportional to its size. When
it arrived unnoticed one Wednesday noon in Chicago's Loop, it had a mass of just one gram. By the
4:00 p.m. rush hour it had increased to 4 g. The Blob has an ambitious appetite and has set its sights
on the city's tallest building, the Willis Tower (formerly known as the Sears Tower), which it feels will
be a tasty morsel of about 3 x 1012 g. As soon as it weighs 1000 times as much it will eat the tower. If
the Blob is not stopped at what time will Chicago loose its tallest landmark? The blob is roughly
spherical and had a radius of 5 mm when it first arrived in Chicago. How big will the blob be when it
is ready to eat the Sears Tower? How fast will its volume be increasing at that time? Assume its density
remains constant as it grows.
Video 4.64 Contents
109.
We have seen that unchecked population growth of some species is closely approximated by an
exponential function, however, when limiting factors such as limited food supply are introduced a
logistics curve more closely resembles the population. We now consider another situation which often
occurs. Here we have two species a predator and a prey. Their populations are dynamically dependent
on each other. One (simplified) example of such a system is modeled by the following functions:

c bt 1gh
The population of foxes (predator) in thousands = F (t ) 5 2 sinb t g

## where t is time in months since the beginning of the year.

A. Graph the following four functions on the same axes below for one year: The population of foxes,
the population of rabbits, the (positive) difference in the two populations, and the number of rabbits

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 156

per

fox.

B. Find one interval (which months) for which both populations are increasing.

C. Find one interval (which months) for which the population of foxes is increasing but the population
of rabbits is decreasing.

D. At the beginning of May how fast is the population of foxes changing? Is it increasing or
decreasing?

## Applications of Derivatives, Page 157

E. Find one place where the number of rabbits per fox is at a maximum. What is this maximum?

F. Find one place where difference in the number of rabbits and the number of foxes is a minimum.
What is this minimum?