Topological recursion for Gaussian means and cohomologica l ﬁeld theories
Jørgen Ellegaard Andersen , ^{a} Leonid O. Chekhov ^{b} , Paul Norbury , ^{c} and Robert C. Penner ^{d}
We use the explicit relation between genus ﬁltrated s loop means of the Gaussian matrix model and terms of the genus expansion of the Kontsevich–Penner matr ix model (KPMM), which is
(discrete volumes),
to express Gaussian means in all genera as polynomials in special times weighted by ancestor invariants of an underlying cohomological ﬁeld theory. We translate topological recursion of the Gaussian model into recurrent relations for coeﬃcients of this expansion proving their integrality and positivity. As an application, we ﬁnd the coeﬃcients in the ﬁrst subleading order for M _{g}_{,}_{1} for all g in three ways: by using the reﬁned Harer–Zagier recursion, by exploiting the Giventaltype decomposition of KPMM, and by an explicit diagram counting.
the generating function for volumes of discretized (open) moduli s paces M
disc
g,s
1 Introduction
Multitrace means ^{} _{=}_{1} tr H ^{k} ^{i} ^{c}^{o}^{n}^{n} of the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) were under investi gation for many years. First, Harer and Zagier obtained [28] the linear recursion formula on genus ﬁltrated onetrace means, which allows obtaining answers f or very high genera (unattainable by other tools). Although exact s fold integral representation for s trace means valid for all N were obtained by Brez´ın and Hikami [8] using the replica method ameliorated in [35], producing an eﬀective genus ex pansion on the base of these formulas still remains an open pr oblem. The interest to multitrace means was revived after the appearance of topological recursion [11, 21] and quantum curves [25, 37, 16]. It was shown in our ﬁrst paper [5] that Gaussian means are related via the socalled Kontsevich–Penner matrix model (KPMM) [13, 4] to discrete volumes of open moduli spaces and, simultaneously, to generating functions of ancestor invariants of a cohomological ﬁeld theory [32].
We come to the KPMM using explicit combinatorial formulas. I t is known since [14] and [33] that the KPMM is equivalent to the Hermitian matrix model with the potential whose times (coupling constants) are related to the externalmatrix eigenvalues via the Miwatype transformation and whose matrix size is the coeﬃcient of the logarithmic term. The ﬁrs t result of [5] is that the KPMM is a primitive (antiderivative) for the resolvents of the Gaus sian matrix model. The resolvents storing the multitrace Gaussian means are naturally described as m eromorphic (multi)diﬀerentials with zero residues over a rational Riemann surface, known as the spectral curve , hence their primitives are meromorphic functions on the spectral curve. These primitives are conjecturally related (this was proven in the Gaussian case [37], see also [40]) to the so called quantum curve which is a linear diﬀerential equation that is a noncommutative quantisation of the spectral curve. The spectral and quantum curves are related: the wave function emerging out of the spectral curve is a specialization
s
i
^{a} QGM, Arhus University, Denmark and Caltech, Pasadena, USA ^{b} Steklov Mathematical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia ^{c} University of Melbourne, Australia
^{d} IHES, BuressurYvette, France, and Caltech, Pasadena, USA
˚
of the free energy for the KPMM which satisﬁes the second order diﬀerential equation that is the quantum curve.
The geometric content of the KPMM is also rich: its free energy was related to structures of
discretized moduli spaces in [9] and it was identiﬁed recently (see [39] and [36]) with the generating
_{s} )—quasipolynomials introduced in [38] that count integer
points in the interiors M _{g}_{,}_{s} of moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces of genus g with s > 0 holes with
, s of holes in the Strebel uniformization. Moreover, it was
^{,} this model admits a decomposition into two Kontsevich models related by a Bogolyubov canonical transformation, which was the ﬁrst example of the Giventaltype decomposition formulas [24]. We use the approach of [10] for presenting the freeenergy expansion terms F _{g}_{,}_{s} of the KPMM as ﬁnite sums over graphs whose nodes are terms of the expansion of the Kontsevich matrix model free energy,
internal edges correspond to quadratic terms in the canonical transformation operator, external half edges (dilaton leaves) correspond to the constant shifts of the higher times, and external legs (ordinary
function for discrete volumes N _{g}_{,}_{s} (P _{1} ,
the ﬁxed perimeters P _{j} ∈ Z _{+} , j = 1,
,P
±
shown in [10] that in the special times T _{2}_{n} that are discrete Laplace transforms of monomials P
I
2k
leaves) carry the times T _{2}_{n} . This graph representation provides another proof of quasipolynomiality
of N _{g}_{,}_{s} (P _{1} ,
From [20] and [18] we know that the terms of topological recur sion [19],[11],[12],[1] based on
a certain spectral curve satisfying a compatibility condition (relating the w _{0}_{,} _{1} and w _{0}_{,} _{2} invariants) describe ancestor invariants of a cohomological ﬁeld theor y (CohFT), or equivalently a Frobenius manifold.
A fundamental family of Frobenius manifolds described by Du brovin are Hurwitz spaces. For
µ
the sphere with n labeled points over ∞ of ramiﬁcation proﬁle (µ _{1} ,
_{n} ), the Hurwitz space H _{g}_{,}_{µ} consists of homotopy classes of genus g branched covers of
_{n} ) and simple ramiﬁcation
over P ^{1} − ∞ . It
The 2dimensional Hurwitz–Frobenius manifold H _{0}_{,} _{(}_{1}_{,} _{1}_{)} consists of double branched covers of the sphere with two branch points and no ramiﬁcation at inﬁnity. Its free energy is
±
_{s} ).
,P
= (µ _{1} ,
,µ
,µ
has dimension µ  + n + 2g − 2 where µ  = µ _{1} + · · · + µ _{n} .
F 0 (t 0, 1 ,t 0, 0 ) =
1
2 ^{t}
2
0, 0 ^{t} 0, 1 ^{+}
1
2 ^{t}
2
_{0}_{,} _{1} log t _{0}_{,} _{1} −
3
4 ^{t}
2
_{0}_{,} _{1}
(1.1)
_{0}_{,} _{1} . Note that expression (1.1) appears as a standard
with the Euler vector ﬁeld E = t _{0}_{,} _{0}
term (the perturbative part) in the expansion of any matrix m odel upon identiﬁcation of t _{0}_{,} _{1} with the
normalized number of eigenvalues and t _{0}_{,} _{0} with the ﬁrst time; we have that
∂
0, 0 ^{+} ^{2}^{t} ^{0}^{,} ^{1}
∂t
∂
∂t
log t 0, 1 N dx _{i} ^{} (x _{i} − x _{j} ) ^{2} e ^{−} ^{N}
i
=1
i<j
^{} ^{t} ^{0}^{,} ^{1} ^{N}
i=1
1
2 ^{x}
2 i ^{−} ^{t} ^{0}^{,} ^{0} ^{x} ^{i} = N ^{2} F _{0} (t _{0}_{,} _{1} ,t _{0}_{,} _{0} ) +
∞
g
=1
N ^{2}^{−} ^{2}^{g} F _{g} (t _{0}_{,} _{1} ),
where the leading term of the 1/N expansion of the free energy of the above Gaussian matrix mo del
is exactly (1.1).
_{s} ) and used the CohFT
description further relating the discrete volumes to ances tor invariants of a CohFT. These ancestor
invariants are evaluated already in terms of the closed moduli spaces M _{g}_{,}_{s} compactiﬁed by Deligne and Mumford.
The paper is organized as follows. In Sec. 2 we establish the equivalence between the Gaussian means (the correlation functions) and the terms of expansion of the KPMM free energy.
In Sec. 3, we describe the results of [9], [10], and [38] for op en discrete moduli spaces, which we
used in [5] to relate the above Gaussian means and the discrete volumes in a purely combinatorial
way. The quantum curve can then be obtained as a specialization of the KPMM to the case of unit
(g )
In [5], we related the discrete volumes to the Gaussian means W
s
(x
_{1} ,
,x
size matrices. We describe the Giventaltype decomposition formulas for the KPMM obtained in [10] representing them in terms of graph expansions for the free energy terms. This graph representation also implies the quasipolynomiality of the discrete volum es and provides a link to a CohFT.
In Sec. 4, we identify the Gaussian means expansion terms with the ancestor invariants of a cohomological ﬁeld theory using the results of [17] and [18]. The decomposition thus obtained has a canonical Givental form. The coeﬃcients of this decomposition, or Laplace transforms of the quasi
, which in a sense represent in the “most
_{s} ) and are linear combinations of the
polynomials N _{g}_{,}_{s} (P _{1} ,
economic” way the genus ﬁltered s loop means W CohFT ancestor invariants of neighbouring levels.
In Sec. 5, we develop the topological recursion for Gaussian means, present the general recursion
relations for ^{} b
,P
_{s} ), are the special coeﬃcients ^{} b
(g )
s
(x _{1} ,
(g )
k, β
,x
, and prove that in the range of admissibility all these coeﬃcients are positive integers.
In Sec. 6, we concentrate on the case of a oneloop mean. We ﬁnd the ﬁrst subleading coeﬃcient
b _{−} _{2} in three ways: using the modiﬁed Harer–Zagier (HZ) recurren ce relation, by the graph description of Giventaltype decomposition in Sec.3, and by an explicit diagram counting.
(g )
k, β
(g
g
)
2 The eﬀective matrix model for the multiloop Gaussian mean s
We consider a sum of connected chord diagrams based on s backbones, or loop insertions, carrying
the
contributions in terms of shapes —the connected fatgraphs of genus g with s faces and with vertices of arbitrary order greater or equal three; from the Euler characteristic formula, for a ﬁxed g and s , only a ﬁnite number of such fat graphs exist, and we let Γ _{g}_{,}_{s} denote this ﬁnite set. This set Γ _{g}_{,}_{s} enumerates cells in the canonical Strebel–Penner ideal cell decomposition of moduli space M _{g}_{,}_{s} . In accordance with [6], Γ _{g}_{,}_{s} is in bijection with circular chord diagrams which are also ”shapes” in the terminology of [6], that is chord diagrams which are seeds and which has no onechords.
variables u _{i} , i = 1,
, s . We ﬁrst provide an eﬀective matrix model description for all genusg
The correlation functions, or means, are given by the integr als
s
i
=1
(tr H ^{k} ^{i} ) = H ∈H N
s
i
=1
tr H ^{k} ^{i} e ^{−} ^{N} ^{t}^{r} ^{H} ^{2} DH,
2
(2.1)
where H _{N} is the set of Hermitian N × N matrices. By Wick’s theorem, any correlation function (2.1 ) can be presented as the sum over all possible (complete) pair ings between matrix entries M _{i}_{j} , where
the pairings are twopoint correlation functions H _{i}_{,}_{j} H _{k}_{,}_{l} = _{N} δ _{i}_{l} δ _{j}_{k} . These pairing are customarily represented by edges : double lines of indices. The corresponding index lines run along faces of fatgraphs
containing ordered set of s vertices of valencies k _{i} , i = 1,
, s , and ^{} _{=}_{1} k _{i} /2 edges. For each vertex,
1
s
i
we ﬁx a cyclic order of edges incident to this vertex. Further more for each vertex we also have a ﬁrst
_{s} ). Then the sum in (2.1) becomes
incident edge given. We denote this set of fatgraphs Γ(k _{1} ,
,k
γ ∈ Γ(k
_{1} ,
,k
s ) _{N} b(γ )− ^{}
i=1 s ^{k} ^{i} ^{/}^{2} , where b (γ ) is the number of boundary components of γ .
^{}
Let Γ(k ^{} _{1} ,
i _{=}_{1} (tr H ^{k} ^{i} ) ^{c}^{o}^{n}^{n} be the part of the sum comprising only connected diagrams. Th e connected
_{s} ) which consist of connected fatgraphs and let
,k
_{s} ) ^{c} be the subset of Γ(k ^{} _{1} ,
,k
s
correlation functions then admit the 1/N expansion,
_{N} s − 2 ^{}
s
i
=1
(tr H ^{k} ^{i} ) ^{c}^{o}^{n}^{n} =
∞
=0 _{N} − 2g ^{}
g
s
i
=1
(tr H ^{k} ^{i} )
conn
g
^{,}
to segregate its part where
s
i
=1
(tr H ^{k} ^{i} )
is the part corresponding to the set Γ ^{} _{g} (k _{1} , vertices.
conn
g
=
^{} _{g} (k _{1} ,
 Γ
,k
_{s} ) ^{c} ,
(2.2)
,k
_{s} ) ^{c} of connected fat graphs of genus g with ciliated
For nonciliated vertices, we then have the following formula
(− 1) ^{s}
s
i
=1
tr log(1 − u _{i} H )
conn
g
=
^{}
{k _{1} ,
,k
_{s} }∈Z
s
^{}
=
s
{k _{1} ,
,k
_{s} }∈Z
+
+
s
i
=1
k
i
i
^{} u
i
k
γ ∈Γ _{g} (k _{1} ,
^{}
s
i
=1
(tr H ^{k} ^{i} )
conn
g
,k
s ) ^{c}
1
Aut (γ )
s
i
=1
u
k
i
i
,
(2.3)
_{s} ) ^{c} is the set of connected fat graphs of genus g with s nonciliated ordered vertices
_{s} and Aut (γ ) is the automorphism group of the fatgraph γ with ordered vertices.
We pass from expressions with nonciliated vertices to those with ciliated vertices, or chord diagrams, by diﬀerentiation:
where Γ _{g} (k _{1} , of valencies k _{1} ,
,k
,k
s
i
=1
tr
I − u _{i} H
1
conn
g
≡
s
i
=1
tr
∞
k
_{i} =1
u
k
i
i
H ^{k} ^{i}
conn
g
= (− 1) ^{s}
s
i
=1
u
By combining formula (2.2) with (2.4), we ﬁnd that
s
i
=1
u
i
∂u _{i}
∂
s
i
=1
tr log(1 − u _{i} H )
conn
g
= ^{}
γ ∈ Γ ^{}
c
g,s
i
∂u _{i}
∂
s
i
=1
tr log(1 − u _{i} H )
_{N} 2− 2g
s
i
=1
u
k
i
i
^{.}
conn
g
.
(2.4)
2.1 Summing up planar subgraphs—formulating the matrix model
We ﬁrst perform a partial resummation over planar subgraphs in (2.3). A planar chord diagram on an interval is a rainbow diagram (see examples in Fig. 1). Rainbow diagrams with a given number of chords are enumerated by the Catalan numbers whose generating function is
f (u _{i} ) := ^{1} ^{−} ^{1} ^{−} ^{4}^{u} ,
2
i
2u
2
i
(2.5)
so we eﬀectively replace the original edge of a chord diagram by a thickened edge carrying the factor f (u _{i} ) thus stripping out all “pimps,” or rainbow subgraphs.
1
+
u
^{2}
+
u
^{4}
+
u
^{4}
+
u
^{6}
+ · · · ≡
f (u)
Figure 1: Summing up rainbow diagrams of chords (dashed lines) for a single backbone (a solid line). The result is the new (thickened) edge of the backbone.
We next proceed to summing up laddertype diagrams, where a “rung” of the ladder joins two cycles that carry (either distinct or coinciding) indices i and j (see an example in Fig. 2). Each
ladder contains at least one rung, which is a chord carrying the factor u _{i} u _{j} . We obtain an eﬀective fat graph with new edges and vertices by blowing up cycles of thickened backbone edges until they w ill be joined pairwise along rungs (each containing at least one ru ng); disjoint parts of these cycles will then constitute loops of lengths 2r _{k} ≥ 6 alternatively bounded by r _{k} rungs (the chords) and r _{k} thickened edges of circular backbones; these loops then become vertices of the respective orders r _{k} ≥ 3 of the new fat graph.
Figure 2: Performing a resummation over ladder diagrams. The thickened edg es associated with the selected ladder, which becomes an edge of a new fat graph, are painted dark . The crosshatched domains will become the respective three and fourvalent vertices of the new fat gr aph representing a shape.
Introducing e ^{λ} ^{i} = ^{1}^{+} √ ^{1}^{−} ^{4}^{u} , or u _{i} =
2
i
2u _{i}
∞
k
=1
(u _{i} u _{j} f (u _{i} )f (u _{j} )) ^{k} =
1
e ^{λ} i +
_{e} _{−} _{λ} _{i} , for each ladder subgraph, we have a sum
1
(u _{i} f (u _{i} )u _{j} f (u _{j} )) ^{−} ^{1} − 1 ^{:}^{=}
1
_{e} _{λ} _{i} _{+} _{λ} _{j} _{−} _{1} ,
We therefore attain the eﬀective description.
(2.6)
Theorem 1. [5] The genusg term of the (nonciliated) s backbone connected diagrams is given by the following (ﬁnite!) sum over fatgraph shapes Γ _{g}_{,}_{s} of genus g with s faces whose vertices have valences at least three:
1
s
i
=1
tr log(e ^{λ} ^{i} + e ^{−} ^{λ} ^{i} − H )
g
conn
^{}
all fatgraphs γ ∈ Γ g,s
edges
1
e ^{λ}
(+)
e
+
λ
(
e
− )
− 1
(g
:= F
s
)
=
(λ _{1} ,
_{s} ), (2.7)
Aut(γ )
,λ
_{s} ) in the righthand
side is the term in the diagrammatic expansion of the free energy of the Kontsevich–Penner matrix
model [13]
where ± denotes the two sides (faces) of the edge e. The quantity F
(g )
s
(λ _{1} ,
,λ
described by the normalised integral over Hermitian N × N matrices X :
( g )
Z [Λ] := e ^{} g,s _{N} 2− 2g _{(}_{α}_{/}_{2}_{)} 2− 2g − s _{F}
s
(λ) = ^{} _{D}_{X}_{e} − αN tr _{4} Λ X Λ X + _{2} log(1− X )+ X/2
1
1
^{} _{D}_{X}_{e} − αN tr ^{1}
_{4} Λ X Λ X −
1
4
^{X} ^{2}
.
(2.8)
Here the sum ranges all stable curves (2g + s > 2) and Λ = diag ^{} e ^{λ} ^{1} ,
,e ^{λ} N ^{} .
Diﬀerentiating the relation (2.7) w.r.t. λ _{i} in the righthand side we obtain the standard loop means,
or (connected) correlation functions W
enjoying the standard topological recursion relations [19 ], [11]. We therefore obtain the exact relation between resolvents and terms of the expansion of the KPMM free energy:
_{s} ), x _{i} = e ^{λ} ^{i} + e ^{−} ^{λ} ^{i} , of the Gaussian matrix model
(g )
s
(x _{1} ,
,x
(g
W
s
)
(e ^{λ} ^{1} + e ^{−} ^{λ} ^{1} ,
,e ^{λ} ^{s} + e ^{−} ^{λ} ^{s} ) =
s
i
=1
e ^{λ} i − e ^{−} ^{λ} i ∂λ _{i} ^{F}
1
∂
(g
s
)
(λ _{1} ,
,λ
_{s} ).
(2.9)
The quantities W
curve x = e ^{λ} + e ^{−} ^{λ} , y = ^{1} _{2} ^{} e ^{λ} − e ^{−} ^{λ} ^{} .
(g )
s
(x _{1} ,
,x
_{s} ) here enjoy the standard topological recursion [11], [1] for the spectral
3
Kontsevich–Penner matrix model and discrete moduli spaces
3.1 The Kontsevich matrix model
We turn now to the cell decomposition of moduli spaces of Riem ann surfaces of genus g with s > 0 marked points proved independently by Harer [27] using Strebel diﬀerentials [43] and by Penner [41], [42] using hyperbolic geometry. This cell decomposition theorem states that strata in the cell decomposition of the direct product M _{g}_{,}_{s} × R _{+} ^{s} of the open moduli space and the s dimensional space
of strictly positive perimeters of holes are in onetoone correspondence with fat graphs of genus g with s faces (those are the shapes from Sec. 2) whose edges are decor ated with strictly positive numbers
l _{i} ∈ R _{+} . The perimeters P _{I} , I = 1,
, s are the sums of l _{i} taken (with multiplicities) over edges
incident to the corresponding face (boundary component, or hole). So it is natural to call them the lengths of the corresponding edges.
The fundamental theorem by Kontsevich [31] establishes the relation between the intersection
indices τ _{d} _{1} · · · τ _{d} _{s} _{g} ; = ^{} _{M} _{g}_{,}_{s} ^{}
or a Chern class, associated with the I th marked point, and integrals of these classes (intersection indices) do not depend on actual values of P _{I} being purely cohomological objects. Multiplying every
ψ
d
I =1 ^{ψ} I
s
I
and the Kontsevich matrixmodel integral. Here ψ _{I} is a ψ class,
d
I
I
2d _{I}
by P
I
and performing the Laplace transformation w.r.t. all P _{I} , we obtain
_{∞}
0
dP _{1} · · · dP _{s} e ^{−} ^{} I ^{P} ^{I} ^{λ} ^{I} M g,s
s
I =1
2d _{I}
P
I
ψ
d
I
I
= τ _{d} _{1} · · · τ _{d} _{s} _{g}
s
s
I =1
I =1
(2d _{I} )!
λ
2d _{I} +1
I
.
(3.1)
Using the explicit representation of ψ classes from [31] we can present the lefthand side of (3.1) as the sum over threevalent fat graphs with the weights 1/(λ _{I} _{1} + λ _{I} _{2} ) on edges where I _{1} and I _{2} are indices of two (possibly coinciding) cycles incident to a given edge. Also a factor 2 ^{} ^{L} ^{}^{−}^{} ^{V} ^{} appears (where V  and L  are the cardinalities of the respective sets of vertices and edges). The generating function is then the celebrated Kontsevich matrix model
where
e
^{}
∞
g =0
∞
s=1 _{N} 2− 2g _{α} 2− 2g − s _{F}
g,s)
(
K
− αN tr _{2} X ^{2} Λ+ X ^{3} /6
1
({ξ _{k} }) _{:}_{=} ^{} ^{D}^{X}^{e}
_{2} _{X} ^{2} _{Λ}
^{} _{D}_{X}_{e} _{−} _{α}_{N} _{t}_{r} ^{1}
ξ _{k} := ^{1}
N
N
i
=1
(2k )!
λ
2k +1
i
= ^{1}
N
N
i
=1
^{} ∞
0
dP _{} P ^{2}^{k}
I
_{e} ^{−} ^{λ} ^{I} ^{P} ^{I}
are the times of the Kontsevich matrix model.
, 
(3.2) 
(3.3) 
3.2 Open discrete moduli spaces and KPMM
As was proposed in [9], we set all the lengths of edges of the Penner–Strebel graphs to be nonnegative
integers l _{i} ∈ Z _{+} , i = 1,
over integer points inside M _{g}_{,}_{s} .
Because the length l _{i} of every edge appears exactly twice in the sum ^{} _{I} _{=}_{1} P _{I} , this sum is always a positive even number, and we must take this restriction into account when performing the discrete Laplace transformations with the measure e ^{−} ^{} I =1 ^{λ} I ^{P} I . By analogy with the continuous Laplace transformation in the Kontsevich model, we introduce the new times
, L  ≤ 6g − 6 + 3s . Instead of integrations over M _{g}_{,}_{s} we take summations
s
s
±
T _{2}_{k} (λ _{I} ) :=
_{∂} 2k
1
∂λ
2k
I
∓ e ^{λ} I − 1 ^{=}
∞
P _{I} =1
(∓ 1) ^{P} ^{I} P
I
2k _{e} ^{−} ^{λ} ^{I} ^{P} ^{I}
(3.4)
as discrete Laplace transforms; the above Z _{2} restrictions ensure the existence of two sets of times.
_{s} ) which is a weighted count of the
, s , which are the perimeters
of the holes (cycles). These discrete volumes are equal (mod ulo the standard factors of volumes of automorphism groups) to the numbers of all fat graphs with vertices of valencies three and higher
and with positive integer lengths of edges subject to the res triction that the lengths of all cycles (the
perimeters) are ﬁxed. Using the identity ^{}
the eth edge and I edge, we obtain that
+ λ _{I} ), where l _{e} is the length of
integer points inside M
Following [38] we thus deﬁne the discrete volumes N _{g}_{,}_{s} (P _{1} ,
disc
g,s
,P
× Z _{+} ^{s} for ﬁxed positive integers P _{I} , I = 1,
s I =1 ^{λ} I ^{P} I ^{=} e ∈L ^{l} e ^{(}^{λ} _{I}
(
1
e)
(
2
e)
(e
1
)
and I
(e
2
)
are the indices of two (possibly coinciding) cycles incident to the eth
{P _{I} }∈Z
s
+
N _{g}_{,}_{s} (P _{1} ,
,P
_{s} )e ^{−}
s
I =1 ^{P} I ^{λ} I _{=}
Γ
g,s
1
Aut Γ _{g}_{,}_{s} 
 L 
e
=1
1
e
^{λ} ^{I}
(
1
e)
+
λ _{I}
(
2
e)
.
− 1
(3.5)
We recognize in (3.5) the genus expansion of the KPMM (2.8). We thus have the lemma
Lemma 1. [5] The generating function for the Laplace transformed discrete volumes N _{g}_{,}_{s} (P _{1} , is the KPMM (2.8). The correspondence (3.5) is given by the formula
e
g,s,P ^{′} j ∈ Z + _{N} 2− 2g _{α} 2− 2g − s _{N} _{g}_{,}_{s} _{(}_{P} _{1} _{,}
_{s} _{)}_{e} ^{−} ^{}
,P
_{I} s _{=}_{1} _{P} _{I} _{λ} _{I} = ^{} _{D}_{X}_{e} − αN tr ^{1}
_{2} Λ X Λ X +log(1− X )+ X
^{} _{D}_{X}_{e} − αN tr ^{1}
_{2} Λ X Λ X −
1
2
^{X} ^{2}
,
,P
s
)
(3.6)
where the sum ranges all stable curves with 2g − 2 + s > 0 and strictly positive perimeters P _{l} .
Remark 1. The formula (3.6) is valid at all values of N and λ _{l} . Specializing it to the case N = 1 (when we have just an ordinary integral instead of the matrix one) and setting λ _{l} = λ , α = 1/ , and x = e ^{λ} + e ^{−} ^{λ} , we obtain
^{′}
e
g,s,P _{j} ∈ Z _{+} ^{} ^{2}^{g} ^{+} ^{s}^{−} ^{2} ^{N} ^{g}^{,}^{s} ^{(}^{P}
2
1 ^{,}
2
,P
s
)e ^{−} ^{λ} ^{s}
I =1 ^{P} I _{=} ^{} 1 − e ^{−} ^{2}^{λ}
π
_{e} − (2 ) ^{−} ^{1} e ^{2}^{λ} + ^{−} ^{1} λ _{F} _{(} _{} _{,}_{x} _{)}_{,}
where the function
F ( , x ) := _{}
∞
−∞
dt e ^{−}
1
_{} (t ^{2} /2+ xt+log t)
satisﬁes the secondorder diﬀerential equation
^{2} _{∂}_{x} _{2} + x _{∂}_{x} + (1 − ) F ( ,x ) = 0.
∂ ^{2}
∂
We thus reproduce the equation of the quantum curve from [16].
Note that the discrete volumes are quasipolynomials: their coeﬃcients depend on the mutual parities of the P _{I} ’s and we present one more proof of this fact below (see Corollary 1). Because the
generating function (2.8) is related by (2.9) to the standar d s loop Gaussian means W following lemma.
, we have the
(g )
s
(g )
Lemma 2. [5]. The correlation functions W
s
(x _{1} ,
,x
_{s} ) of the Gaussian matrix model subject
to the standard topological recursion based on the spectral curve x = e ^{λ} + e ^{−} ^{λ} , y = _{2} (e ^{λ} − e ^{−} ^{λ} ) are
related to the discrete volumes by the following explicit relation:
1
(g
W
s
)
(e ^{λ} ^{1} + e ^{−} ^{λ} ^{1} ,
,e ^{λ} ^{s} + e ^{−} ^{λ} ^{s} ) =
s
I =1
e ^{λ} I − e ^{−} ^{λ} I
1
∞
P _{I} =1
_{P} I _{e} − P _{I} λ _{I}
N _{g}_{,}_{s} (P _{1} ,
,P _{s} ).
(3.7)
The matrix model (2.8) manifests many remarkable properties. Besides being the generating function for the discrete volumes related to Gaussian means , it is also equivalent [14, 30] to the Hermitian matrix model with the potential determined by the Miwa change of the variables t _{k} =
_{k} tr (e ^{Λ} + e ^{−} ^{Λ} ) ^{−} ^{k} + ^{1} _{2} δ _{k}_{,} _{2} , it is the generating function for the number of clean Belyi f unctions, or for
the corresponding Grothendieck dessins d’enfant [3] (see also [2]) and, ﬁnally, in the special times T
r = 0, 1,
canonical transformation of the variables. We now turn to th is last property.
, (3.4), it is equal to the product of two Kontsevich matrix mo dels [10], intertwined by a
2r ^{,}
1
±
Lemma 3. ([10]) The partition function Z [Λ] (2.8) expressed in the times T (λ ) (3.4) depends
±
k
±
only on the even times T _{2}_{k} (λ ) and satisﬁes the following exact relation:
Z [Λ] = e ^{F} ^{K}^{P} ^{[} ^{{}^{T}
_{2}_{n} }] _{=} _{e} C (αN ) _{e} − N ^{−} ^{2} A _{e} F _{K} [ {T _{2}_{n} }]+ F _{K} [ {T 2n ^{}}^{]} ,
−
±
+
(3.8)
where F _{K} [{T _{2}_{n} }] is a free energy of the Kontsevich matrix model (3.2), T _{2}_{n} given by (3.4) are therefore the times of the KdV hierarchies, and A is the canonical transformation operator
±
±
A =
∞
m,n =0
∞
+
n
=2
4(n + m + 1) (2n + 1)!(2m + 1)! ∂T
2(n + m+1)
^{B}
1
∂ ^{2}
2n ^{∂}^{T}
∂ ^{2} ∂T 2n ^{∂}^{T}
−
+
+
−
+
2m
2m
αN ^{2}
∂
(2n + 1)! ∂T
2
2n − 1
∂
∂T
2n .
+
−
2n
+
_{+} _{2}_{(}_{2} 2(n + m+1) _{−} _{1}_{)}
∂ ^{2}
2m
+
∂T 2n ^{∂}^{T}
−
(3.9)
Here C (αN ) is a function depending only on αN that ensures that F _{K}_{P} [{T _{2}_{n} }] = 0 for T _{2}_{n} ≡ 0 and
B
±
±
_{2}_{k} are the Bernoulli numbers generated by t/(e ^{t} − 1) = ^{} _{m}_{=}_{0} B _{m} t ^{m} /(m !).
∞
From this canonical transformation we immediately obtain the (ordinary) graph representation for
±
the term F _{g}_{,}_{s} [{T _{2}_{n} }] of the expansion of
F _{K}_{P} [{T _{2}_{n} }] = ^{}
±
g,s
_{N} 2− 2g _{α} 2− 2g − s _{F} g,s _{[}_{{}_{T} ±
_{2}_{n} }].
±
Lemma 4. ([10, 5]) We can present a term F _{g}_{,}_{s} [{T _{2}_{n} }] of the genus expansion of the KPMM (2.8) as a sum of a ﬁnite set of graphs G _{g}_{,}_{s} described below; each graph contributes the factor also des cribed below divided by the order of the automorphism group of the gr aph.
• each node (a vertex) v _{i} , i = 1,
, q , of a graph G _{g}_{,}_{s} is decorated by the marking ”+ ” or ”− ”,
by the genus g _{i} ≥ 0, and has s _{i} endpoints of edges incident to it (2g _{i} − 2 + s _{i} > 0, i.e., all
,s _{i} ; these
_{r}_{,}_{i} ± = 3g _{i} − 3 + s _{i} where the superscript + or − is
nodes are stable); each endpoint of an edge carries a nonnegative integer k _{r}_{,}_{i} , r = 1,
integers are subject to restriction that ^{} determined by the marking of the vertex;
±
s
r =1 ^{k}
i
±
• edges can be external legs (ordinary leaves) with k _{r}_{,}_{i} ≥ 0 (we let a _{i} ≥ 0 denote the number
of such legs incident to the ith vertex), halfedges (dilaton leaves) with k _{r}_{,}_{i} ≥ 2 (we let b _{i} ≥ 0 denote the number of such legs incident to the ith node), or internal edges incident either to two
diﬀerent nodes or to the same node (their two endpoints carry in general diﬀerent numbers k
±
±
r _{1} ,i _{1}
±
and k _{2} _{,}_{i} _{2} ) (we let l _{i} denote the number of internal edge endpoints incident to the ith node);
r
• each node contributes the Kontsevich intersection index τ _{k} _{1}_{,}_{i} · · · τ _{k}
±
±
s _{i} ,i _{g} _{i}
;
• every internal edge with endpoint markings (k ,k ) or (k ,k ) (two endpoints of such an edge can be incident to the same node) contribute the factor
1
2
−
1
−
2
+
+
−
^{B} 2(k + k +1)
±
1
±
2
1
2(k + k + 1) (2k + 1)!(2k + 1)!
1
2
1
2
±
±
±
±
+
and every internal edge with endpoint markings (k ,k ) (two endpoints of such an edge can be incident only to distinct nodes having diﬀerent markings + and − ) contributes the factor
1
−
2
−
^{B} 2(k ^{+} + k +1)
1
−
2
_{2} 2(k ^{+} + k +1) _{−} _{1}
1
−
2
+
2(k + k
1
−
2
+ 1) (2k + 1)!(2k + 1)! ^{;}
+
1
−
2
• every halfedge with the marking r ^{±} ≥ 2 contributes the factor −
2r ^{±} − 1
(2r ^{±} +1)! ^{;}
2
• every external leg with the marking k _{r}_{,}_{i} contributes the corresponding time T
±
±
2k
± r,i ;
q
• ^{} _{=}_{1} (g _{i} + l _{i} /2 − 1) + 1 = g (the total genus g is equal to the sum of internal genera plus the number of loops in the graph);
i
q
• ^{} _{=}_{1} a _{i} = s (the total number of external legs is ﬁxed and equal to s );
i
From the above formulas, we have that
s
j =1
k
Ext
j
= 3g − 3 + s −

L 
j =1
(1 + k
Int
j, 1
+ + k
Int
j, 2
) −

B 
j =1
(k
Half
j
− 1),
(3.10)
where, disregarding the node labels, k
Ext
j
≥ 0 are indices of the external edges, k
j, 1
Half
j
≥ 0
≥ 2 are indices of halfedges, and L  and B  are
Int
Int
≥ 0 and k
j, 2
are indices of endpoints of the internal edges, k
the cardinalities of the respective sets of internal edges and halfedges of the graph.
The proof is just another application of Wick’s theorem, now in the form of exponential of a linearquadratic diﬀerential operator (3.9); for the typical form in the above sum, see Fig. 3.
T
+
6g _{1} −4
T 6g _{2} −2
−
Figure 3: The typical diagram from the graph expansion G _{g}_{,}_{s} .
This lemma immediately implies the corollary
Corollary 1. The quantities F _{g}_{,}_{s} [{T _{2}_{n} }] are polynomials such that, for every monomial T _{2}_{n} _{1} · · · T we have that ^{} _{=}_{1} n _{i} ≤ 3g − 3 + s , and the highest term with ^{} _{=}_{1} n _{i} = 3g − 3 + s is
s
i
s
i
−
2n _{s}
±
+
^{} τ _{n} _{1} · · · τ _{n} _{s} ^{} _{g}
s s
i
=1
T
+
2n _{i} ^{+}
i
=1
2n _{i} ^{.}
T
−
This also implies that all discrete volumes N _{g}_{,}_{s} (P _{1} ,
,P
_{s} ) are Z _{2} quasipolynomials in P I ^{.}
2
_{s} ) depend only on even powers of P _{I} because F _{g}_{,}_{s} depend
only on even times T _{2}_{n} ; the quasipolynomiality follows immediately from the fact that F _{g}_{,}_{s} are
Proof. The discrete volumes N _{g}_{,}_{s} (P _{1} ,
,P
±
+
polynomials in T _{2}_{n} and T
−
2n ^{.}
Remark 2. Note that the quadratic part of the diﬀerential operator (3.9 ) manifests the alternating structure because the Bernoulli numbers B _{2}_{n} are positive for odd n and negative for even n ,
B _{2}_{n} = (− 1) ^{n} ^{+}^{1} ^{2}^{(}^{2}^{n} ^{)}^{!}
(2π ) ^{2}^{n} ^{1} ^{+}
1
_{2} 2n ^{+}
1
_{3} _{2}_{n} + · · · .
3.3 The times for the multiresolvents
We ﬁrst consider N _{g}_{,} _{1} (P ), which are polynomials of degree 3g − 2 in P ^{2} , are nonzero only for even
, 4g − 2 (because the minimum number of edges of the genus g
shape with one face is 2g , and the minimum nonzero P is therefore 4g ). We thus have that, for even
P
g
, N _{g}_{,} _{1} (P ) has the form ^{} ^{2}^{g} ^{−} ^{1} ^{} P ^{2} − (2k ) ^{2} ^{} P ol _{g} _{−} _{1} (P ^{2} ), where P ol _{g} _{−} _{1} (x ) is a polynomial of degree
P , and must vanish for all P = 2,
k
=1
− 1 and N _{g}_{,} _{1} (P ) vanishes for odd P , so its Laplace transform in formula (3.7) is
(g
W
1
)
(e ^{λ} + e ^{−} ^{λ} ) =
^{−} ^{1} e ^{λ} − e ^{−} ^{λ}
g
− 1
i
=0
b
(g
i
)
2 ^{4}^{g} ^{+}^{2}^{i} ^{−} ^{1} (4g + 2i − 1)!
2g + i − 1
k
=1
∂
^{2}
∂λ
_{2}
− (2k ) ^{2}
∂
1
∂λ
_{e}
2λ
_{−} _{1}
(3.11)
for some coeﬃcients b
i . Using that − ^{∂}
(g )
1 2
∂λ e ^{2}^{λ} − 1 ^{=} (e ^{λ} −
_{e} _{−} _{λ} _{)} _{2} and the relation
^{2}
_{2} − (m ) ^{2}
∂
∂λ
1
(e ^{λ} − e ^{−} ^{λ} ) ^{m}
4(m )(m + 1)
_{=}
(e ^{λ} − e ^{−} ^{λ} )
_{m}_{+}_{2} ,
m ≥ 1,
(3.12)
we obtain the general representation for the oneloop mean,
(g
W
1
)
(e ^{λ} + e ^{−} ^{λ} ) =
^{1}
e ^{λ} − e ^{−} ^{λ}
g
− 1
i
=0
b
(g
i
)
1
_{(}_{e} λ _{−} _{e} − λ _{)} 4g +2i
^{=}
^{1}
_{(}_{e} λ _{−} _{e} − λ _{)} 4g +1
g
− 1
i
=0
b
(g
i
)
(e ^{λ} −
_{e} _{−} _{λ} _{)} _{2}_{i} .
(3.13)
In [5], we have found the transition formulas between b
integrality of b
in [7] requires an additional work.
and the coeﬃcients P _{g}_{,}_{i} from [7]: the
implies that of P _{g}_{,}_{i} and vice versa, but the positivity conjecture for P _{g}_{,}_{s} put forward
(g )
i
(g )
i
We now consider the general s resolvent case. From (2.9) we have that the (stable) loop means
(g )
(with 2g + s − 2 ≥ 1) are polynomials W obtained by the substitution
s
(e ^{λ} ^{1} + e ^{−} ^{λ} ^{1} ,
,e
±
^{λ} ^{s} + e ^{−} ^{λ} ^{s} ) = F _{g}_{,}_{s} ^{} {t _{2}_{n} _{j} _{+}_{1} (λ _{j} )} ^{} in times
T
±
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.