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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

CHAPTER 4
Cutting Tools for Hole Machining
Design of Drills

Drilling is one of the most widely used methods of making holes.

The cutting tool in this case is a drill (Figure 4.1).

Fig. 4.1: Elements of a twist drill.

Drill is a multiple-cutting edges tool used for production a hole in a solid


workpiece. It may also be used for enlarging and existing holes.

During drilling rotary motion about the axis of the tool and straight line feed
motion along the tool axis are required (both of these motions are
imparted to the drill).

The drill is clamped in the spindle which rotates it and feeds it downward
into the workpiece clamped stationary on the table.

On the other hand, in turning machine it is convenient to rotate the


workpiece and the hole tool is not allowed to rotate, but fed axially.

Drill is a more complex tool than a SPT. The machining process goes in
complex conditions:
1. Flow of chip and the cutting fluid;
2. Friction due to the flow of the chip and rubbing of the tool with the
generated hole;

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

3. Cutting speed varies from max. to zero along the cutting edge;
4. The rake and clearance (relief) angles vary along the cutting edge of
a twist drill.

These factors make the chip formation process in drilling and drill more
severe (complex).

4.1. Principle Elements and Parts of the Drill:

Twist drills are the most commonly used in normal circumstances in


making a hole. So the main elements and parts of the twist drills as
shown in (Figure 4.1) are:
Body the portion of the drill extending from the shank or neck to the
outer corners of the cutting lips.

Point - The cutting end of a drill, made up of the ends of the lands and
the web. In form it resembles a cone.

Point angle The angle included between the cutting lips projected
upon a plane parallel to the drill axis and parallel to the
two cutting lips.

Cutting edges or lips the lines of intersection of the faces in the


drill flute and the relief faces in the flanks,
produced by grinding, extending from the
chisel edge to the periphery.
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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Chisel edge The edge at the end of the web that connects the
cutting lips.
Chisel edge angle The angle included between the chisel edge and
the cutting lip.

Face The surface on which the chip impinges and along which it
flows as it is separated from the workpiece.
Lip relief surfaces (flanks) The surfaces of the tool facing the
workpiece.
Web The central portion of the body that joints the lands. The
extreme end of the web forms the chisel edge on a two-flute
drill.
Web thickness The thickness of the web at the point, unless
another location is indicated.

Land The peripheral portion of the body between adjacent flutes.

Land width- The distance between the leading edge and the heel of
the land.

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Drill diameter The diameter over the margins of the drill measured

at the point.

Flutes Helical or straight grooves cut or formed in the body of the


drill to provide cutting lips, to permit chip removal, and to
allow cutting fluid to reach the cutting lips.
Margin The cylindrical portion of the land which is not cut away to
provide clearance.

Clearance The space provided to eliminate undesirable contact

between the drill and the workpiece.


Clearance diameter The diameter over the cutaway portion of the
drill lands.

Helix angle The angle made by the leading edge of the land with a

plane containing the axis of the drill.


Heel The trailing edge of the land.

Neck The section of reduced diameter between the body and the
shank.

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Shank The part of the drill by which it is held and driven.


Tang The flattened end of a taper shank intended to fit into a
driving slot in a socket.

4.3. Principal Elements in the Constructions of Drills:

according to their constructions, all existing types of drills can be


classified into the following main groups:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Twist drills,
Straight-flute drills,
Flat drills,
Deep-hole drills,
Trepanning drills,
Gun drills,
Tapered drills,
Centre drills and
Special-purpose combination drilling tools.

Each of the enumerated types can be further divided into many design
versions.

In the construction of the drill the elements to be considered


for the design are:
1. drill diameter D;
2. point angle 2;
3. flute helix angle ;
4. elements of the drill point geometry , . and (rake, relief and
cutting angles);
5. web thickness (core diameter) d;
6. land width b;
7. margin width f;
8. back taper;
9. shape of the lip and flute profile;
10. flute length lf;
11. And overall length Lo.

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

4.3.1. Drill diameter D:

The diameter of the drill should always be slightly smaller than the
diameter of the hole to be drilled, since drills always cut oversize.

To reduce friction between the drill and the machining surface, the
diameter of the drill over the margins at the body of the drill (finishing
section) is slightly tapered back towards the shank.
The back taper is to provide longitudinal clearance.

The recommended back taper can be selected from the tables 4.1
and 4.2).
Table 4.1: recommended value of the back taper.
Drill diameter, mm

1 to 6

Over 6 to 18

Over 18

Back taper, mm/ 100 mm of length

0.03 to 0.07

0.04 to 0.08

0.05 to 0.10

Table 4.2: HSS twit drill standards.

Drill dia.
mm

Helix
angle,

Web
thickness,
W

Back
taper in
100 mm

0.25-0.35

18o

0.3D

0.015

0.40-0.45
0.5-0.70
0.75-0.95
1.0-1.9
2.0-2.9
3.0-3.4
3.5-4.4
4.5-6.4
6.5-8.4
8.5-9.9
10-18
Over 18

0.3D
0.3D
0.3D
0.27D
0.27D
0.27D
0.27D
0.27D
0.25D
0.20D
0.16D
0.13D

0.015
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.10

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

19
20o
21o
22o
23o
24o
25o
26o
27o
28o
30o
30o

Cylindrical land
(Margin)

Width,
f

Height,
h

0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.0
0.07D

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.03D

Length

Flute,
Lf

Over all,
Lo

Refer

Refer

Table

Table

16

16

NOTES: - Web thickness increases 1.4 to 1.8/100 mm towards shank.


- The helix angles are for drilling steel with t up to 70 kgf/mm2. Refer table 13 for other
workpiece materials.
___________________________________________________________________________
Dr. Rasheed Amirah

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

4.3.2. Point angle 2:

Productivity and durability of drill in many respects depend on the


value of the drill point angle 2.
So as so this angle (2) of drill has significant effect on the:
Cutting force components;
On the length of the cutting edge (lip);
On the elements of the chip section.
increasing of the drill point angle (2) lead to:
Decreasing the active length of the cutting edge and increasing
the thickness of the cut-off layer,
- in this case the forces which have effect on the cutting edge
length increase, causes increasing of the wear of the drill.
The section of the cut-off (removing) layer remains constant,
but its (cut-off layer) deformation decreases, total cutting force
component, which determines the torque, decreases.
Increasing the total axial cutting force of drill, because the
position of the plane (N-N, Figure 3.7), perpendicular to the
cutting edge, changes relative to the axis of the drill, in this case
part of the forces, which effect on the cutting edge, mutually is
balanced.

Fig. 4.7

Decreasing the rake angle, causes worsens of penetration of this


edge into the workpiece material, which leads to increasing the
axial forces, because of that, the danger of the appearance of
the drill buckling increases.
A smoother change in the rake angles along the main cutting
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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

edge, therefore the drill cutting ability improves and the chip
disposal facilitates.

Experiences show, that with decreasing the point angle (2) from 140
up to 90, axial cutting force decreases to 40-50%, and torque increases
about 25-30%.

The standard drill point angle is (118). It is used for general


purpose drilling of wide variety materials, including mild steel, cast irons,
and many alloy steels.

Point angles smaller than 118 are preferred for many cast irons,
copper, fiber aluminum alloys, die castings, and abrasive materials.

Point angles greater than 118 are used for hard steels and other
difficult materials.

According to the experimental data and manufacturing experience,


recommended values of the point angle 2 for machining different
workpieces materials are given in table 4.3 and 4.4.

4.4.3. Flute helix angle :

Flute helix angle () of drill effects on the:


Strength of drill;
Rigidity of drill;
Chip disposal.

Increasing this angle leads to:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Increasing the rake angle ;


Facilitate the cutting process;
Improving the chip disposal;
Increasing the torsion rigidity of the drill;
But in the same time the rigidity in the axial direction decreased.

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64

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Table 4.3: The recommended values of rake angle and point angle 2 of drills tipped
with cemented carbides.
Workpiece material

, degree

2, degree

0-4
-3
0
-3
-3
6
0
4-6
4-6
0-2

116-118
116-118
116-118
116-118
130-135
116-118
116-118
116-18
140
60-100

Structural, carbon and alloy steel


Tool steel
Manganese hard steel
Cast steel
Thermal-treated steel
cast iron 200
Cast iron > 200
Bronze, brass and aluminum
Babbitt
plastics

Table 4.4: Recommended Drill-Point Geometry For Various Materials.


Material

Hardness, BHN
(Rockwell
values in
parentheses)

Point
Angle, deg.

LP relief
angle, deg.

Chisel Edge
angle, deg.

Helix
Angle,
deg.

Point
Grind*

Free-machining plain carbon


steels, plain carbon steels,
free-machining alloy steels,
alloy steels, nitriding steels,
armor plate, tool steels, cast
steels.

100-225
225-325
325-425
RC45-52

118
118
118-135
118-135

12-15
10-12
8-10
7-9

125-135
125-135
125-135
125-135

24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32

S
S
C
C

118

8-10

125-135

24-32

118
118
118
118

8-12
10-12
10-12
7-10

125-135
125-135
125-135
125-135

24-32
24-32
24-32
24-32

S
S
S
C

118-135

7-10

120-130

24-32

118
118-135

7-10
9-12

125-135
125-135

24-32
24-32

C
C

170-290

118

7-10

125-135

24-32

80-360
210-360
RC48-52
30-150
500kg
40-90
500kg
RE20-100
80-100

118

8-12

125-135

24-32

118

7-10

125-135

24-32

90-140

12-15

125-135

24-48

70-118

12-15

120-135

10-30

118
118

12-15
12-15

125-135
120-135

10-30
24-32

S
S

Ultra-high- strength steel.


Gray, ductile and malleable
irons.
Ferritic, austenitic,
martensitic, and precipitationhardening stainless steels.
Titanium alloys.
High-temperature alloys.
Tungsten alloys.
Molybdenum, columbium, and
tantalum alloys.
Nickel alloys.
Nitinol alloys.
Aluminum alloys.
Magnesium alloys.
Copper alloys.
Zinc alloys

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

175-425
RC45-52
110-225
225-400
135-200
200-325
325-425
RC48-52
110-440
140-400
180-320

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

NOTE: Use stub-length drills whenever possible on high-strength materials.


* S standard; C crankshaft.
____________________________________________________________________________________

Influence of the Flute helix angle () on reduction of the torque and


axial cutting forces, affects so much when this angle () increases up to
25-35.
- With Further increasing of the helix angle (), the cutting forces
actually do not decrease, but weakening the strength of the cutting
edge in the periphery of drill.
- To avoid this, the face of the drill should be sharpened at an angle
less of .

International organization for standardization ISO recommends


three types of drills:
1. Type H: for machining brittle materials (cast iron, bronze, brass)
(=10 -16);
2. Type N: for machining wide types of materials, forming
segmented chips ( = 25 - 35);
3. Type W: for machining ductile materials (aluminum, copper,
duralumin and others) ( = 35 - 45).

Table 4.4 lists the recommended values of flute helix angle in


accordance with the diameter of general-purpose twist drills.

Table 4.5 lists the recommended values of the point angle 2 and
flute helix angle for drilling various materials.

3.4.4. Core diameter or web thickness (W) and chisel


edge of twist drills:

The web thickness W (core diameter) (Figure 4.8) is an important


element of twist drills design.
If the web is too thin, the rigidity of the drill will be insufficient to
withstand a high drilling torque.
On the other hand, with a thinner web the axial thrust is reduced
and drilling is easier since the chisel edge is shorter.

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

The web thickness depends on the tool material and the diameter of
the drill as given in table 4.2, 4.6:

Fig. 4.8: web thickness, web taper and back taper.

In twist drills with milled flutes, the web thickness increases by (1.4 to
1.8 mm per 100 mm) toward the shank.
- This raises the strength and rigidity of the drill.

Table 4.5: Recommended Values of and 2 for Drilling Various Work Metals with Drills of Tool
Steels*
Flute helix
Workpiece material
angle,

Point angle,
2

Workpiece material

Flute helix
angle,

Point angle,
2

Steel, t up to 50
kgf/mm2

35

116

marble

80-90

Steel, t from 50
up to 70 kgf/mm2

30

1160-118

Copper castings
and brass

25-30

130

Steel, t from 70 To
100 kgf/mm2

25

120

Bronze,
HB 100 and harder

15-20

135

Steel, t from 100 to


140 kgf/mm2

20

125

Soft bronze,
HB <100

8-12

125

Stainless steel

25

120

35- 45

130-140

Gray cast iron

25 -30

116-120

Copper

35 - 45

125

8-12

60-100

Aluminum

alloys

Plastics, ebonite,
laminate fabric base

* The data of this table refer to drills of a diameter beginning with 10 mm and up. Other angles should be
used for smaller drills. These data are for drills of high-speed, carbon and alloy tool steels, but not for
those of, or tipped with, cemented carbides.

__________________________________________________________________________________
Table 4.6: Web thickness of twist drill.
Tool material
Carbon steel and HSS
Carbide tipped

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

Drill dia., D, mm

Web thickness, mm

6 to10
Over 10
6 to 10 mm
over 10

(0.20 to 0.25) D
(O.13 to 0.16) D
(0.27 to 0.30) D
(0.20 to 0.26) D

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

NOTE: Carbide-tipped drills are made with webs comparatively thick because the drill body is weakened
by the slot for the tip.

4.4.5. The land width b:

It is selected from considerations of drill strength and the width of the


flute, from the condition that the flutes provide sufficient room to
accommodate the chips and to eject them from the lips during
operation.

Usually, the land width is taken equal to the flute width, i.e. to
one fourth of the drill circumference in two-flute drills.

The flute width should be increased slightly, however, in drills having


higher helix angles .

In drawings of drills, the land width b is indicated perpendicular to a


helical flute.

Table 4.7 shows the proportion of the land width (b) with respect to the
drill diameter (D) for high-speed steel drills:

Table 4.7: The values of the land width b with respect to the drill diameter D.
Drill diameter, mm

Land width b, mm

3 to 8

0.62D

8 to 20
over 20

0.59D
0.58D

3.4.6. Margin width f:

Margin is a narrow cylindrical strip on the leading edge of the land


which is ground to the diameter of the drill.

The width of the margin (f) and the height (h) are given by:
f = (0.06 0.07) D

4.1

h = (0.02 0.03) D

4.2

Or can be selected from table 4.2.


Dr. Rasheed Amirah

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

3.4.7. Shape of the lips (cutting edge) and flute cross


section:

The lip, or cutting edge, of a twist drill is the line formed by the
intersection of the face and lip relief surface, and in most cases is
straight.
- However, investigations have shown that a more constant rake
angle () can be obtained with a curvilinear (convex) lip.

The shape of the flute cross section is not specified in drawings of twist
drills but another element is indicated:
The tooth profile of the fluting cutter (for drills with milled
flutes)
Or the profile of the rolled drill blank (for twisted drills).

The profile of the fluting cutter (its shape is shown in Figure 4.9) can
be determined by two methods:
By the graphical method in which the profile of the cutter is
constructed from the given flute profile,
And analytically method, with the curves making up the profile
being calculated by analytical formulas.

All the elements of the profile of the fluting cutter (radii Ro and Rf
and width B) can be determined by a simplified analytical method.
The approximate formula for determining radius Ro of the cutter
profile for a drill of diameter D is:

Ro = CR Cr Cfc D

4.3

Fig. 4.9: Profile of the flute milting cutter.


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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

The coefficients CR can be found as follows (Coefficient CR depends


upon angles 2 and ):
(

Coefficient Cr, taking into consideration the variation in web


thickness (core diameter), is:
(

Where: d - is the core diameter, or web thickness, of the drill.


The coefficient (Cfc) taking into account the influence of the fluting
cutter diameter is:
(

Where: Dfc- is the diameter of the fluting cutter.


The radius to which the top of the cutter profile is rounded is:

Rf = Cf D

4.7

Where: Cf is a coefficient determined by the formula:

Cf = 0.015 0.75

4.8

The width B of the cutter is:

Since angle 1 is usually small (equal to 10), width B can be


assumed with some approximation that:

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Strictly speaking, the constructed or calculated cutter profile is suitable


only for a single diameter of drill and for definite values of the helix
angle, point angle and web thickness.
But this would require a great many cutters for fluting a size range
of drills.
In practice a single cutter is used to flute drills within a certain
diameter range.
This leads to insignificant inaccuracies, which can be ignored.
The body of a drill can be made not only by milling flutes, but also
by hot forge rolling and twisting.
The main difference between milled and rolled drills is that, the
flutes latter are produced by rolling round stock (Figure 4.10),
and then twisting the blanks with straight flutes. This procedure
saves high-speed steel.

Fig. 4.10: Principle of hot forge rolling and twisting of drill blanks: (a) rolling the flutes: (b)
twisting the blank

Several techniques are used for rolling drill blanks (hot forge
rolling; cross, or transverse rolling; longitudinal helical rolling,
etc.).

3.4.8. The overall and flute length:

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

The overall length (Lo) and the flute length (lf) affect the rigidity of
the drill.
A. Flute length (lf):
A longer fluted length permits for larger number of sharpening
along the length of the lip.
The flute length should be shorter for carbide-tipped drills (15 - 45
mm) than for high-speed steel (HSS) drills because it is sharpened
a limited number of times.
B. Overall length (Lo):

The overall length of the drill is made to the standards keeping in


view with the rigidity of the drill for the given diameter.
Consequently, where there is no need for a long drill (as, for
instance, in centering), short length or stub drills should be used to
reduce the danger of breakage.
Table 4.2, 4.8 shows the values of the overall length (Lo) and the flute
length (lf).

4.4.9. The type (shape) of the shank:

Depends upon the method used for holding the drill.


Small drills (up to 10 or 12 mm in diameter) have a straight
shank and are held in chucks.
Larger drills generally have tapered shanks.
- The shanks of taper shank drills have a Morse taper.
- To fine the number of the shank Morse taper, the friction torque
between the shank and taper sleeve is equated to the three
times maximum moment of force resisting cutting to get the
taper mean diameter, from which the taper number is
obtained.

The tang and other dimensions are made to the standard. That means:

3Mrc = Mfr

4.11

Where: Mrc - maximum moment of force resisting cutting;


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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Mfr - friction torque moment.


The moment of forces resisting cutting (the torque) can be determined
by the following equation:

Where: Cm coefficient. From table 9; qm, ym exponents. From table 9;


D- Drill diameter, mm;
S- Feed, mm/rev.;

The friction torque between the shank and taper sleeve is:

Where: = 0.096 is the coefficient of friction between steel and


steel;
Fx axial thrust force, N;
D1, d2 see figure 4.11;
=1o2616 is half the angle of taper (the angle of the taper is
0.05020; sin = 0.0251), Figure 4.11;
= 5 is the tolerance limit of the taper.
Table 4.8: Overall length (Lo) and the flute length (lf) for twist drills.
D,
mm

Standard
Lf,
Lo,
mm
mm

Extra length
Lf,
Lo,
mm
mm

2.7
3

33

67

66

100

3.2

36

73

69

106

3.5

39

78

73

112

3.8
4.0
4.2

43

84

78

119

4.5

47

91

82

126

4.8
5.0

52

97

87

132

shank

9.6
10.6
10.7
11.8
12.0
13.2
Str.

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

D, mm

13.3
14
14.2
15.0
15.2
16.0

Standerd
Lf,
Lo,
mm
mm

Extra length
Lf,
Lo,
mm
mm

shank

87

150

121

184

Str.

94

161

128

195

Str.

101

172

134

205

MT1

108

189

140

221

MT1

114

212

144

242

MT2

120

218

149

247

MT2

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

5.3
5.5
6.0

57

105

91

139

16.2
17.0

125

223

154

252

MT2

6.2
6.5

63

114

97

148

18.25
19

135

233

158

256

MT3

6.8
7.5

69

123

102

156

19.2
20.0

140

238

166

264

MT3

7.6
8.5

75

131

109

165

20.2
21.0

145

243

171

269

MT3

8.6
9.5

81

141

115

175

21.2
22.3

150

248

176

274

MT3

22.5
23.0

155

253

180

278

MT3

Table 4.9: Coefficients CF and Exponents of the Formulas for Calculating the Cutting Forces and
torque in drilling, boring and coring.
Metal Being
Machined

Machining
operation

Structural and
Carbon Steel b
=75 kgf/mm2

Drilling

High Temper-re
Steel
HB 141

2.0

0.8

68

1.0

0.7

0.09

1.0

0.9

0.8

67

1.2

0.65

Drilling

0.041

2.0

0.7

143

1.0

0.7

Boring and
Coring

0.106

1.0

0.9

0.8

140

1.2

0.65

0.012

2.2

0.8

42

1.2

0.75

0.196

0.85

0.8

0.7

46

1.0

0.4

0.021

2.0

0.8

42.7

1.0

0.8

0.085

.075

0.8

23.5

1.2

0.4

0.021

2.0

0.8

43.3

1.0

0.8

0.01

2.2

0.8

32.8

1.2

0.75

0.17

0.875

0.8

0.7

38

1.0

0.4

0.012

2.0

0.8

31.5

1.0

0.8

0.031

0.85

0.8

17.2

1.0

0.4

0.005

2.0

0.8

9.8

1.0

0.7

Boring and
Coring

Boring and
Coring

Copper
Heterogeneous
Alloys
, HB 120

HSS

Cemented
carbide

Drilling
Boring and
Coring

Malleable cast
iron
HB 150

Cm

Coefficients CF and Exponents


Torque Mrc
Axial thrust force Fx
qm
xm
ym
CF
qF
xF
yF

0.0345

Drilling
Cast Iron HB
190

Cutting
tool
material

HSS

Drilling
Boring and
Coring

Cemented
carbide

Drilling
Boring and
Coring

Alum-m and
Silumin

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

Drilling

HSS

74

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Fig. 4.11: Diagram of forces acting on drill taper shank.

The shank taper mean diameter is:

Or

After determining (dm), from table 10 select the nearest lager taper, i.e.
Morse taper and all other dimensions.

4.4.10. Formulas for Calculating the Axial Thrust and


Torque in Drilling

In general the axial or total thrust force is:

And the moment of resisting cutting (the torque) is:

Where: C F and C M - Coefficients characterizing the work material

and the machining conditions, table 4.9;


D - Drill diameter, mm;
S - Feed, mm/rev, table 4.11;
q F , q M , y F and y M - exponents of the drill diameter and
feed, table 4.9;

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75

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

K M F and K M - (
M

Cutting Tool Technology

general correction factors taking


into account the changes in the machining
conditions. See table 4.12.

Table.4.9 lists the values of C F , C M , y F , y M , q F and q M for drilling


various metals having definite values of ( b ) or (HB) with drills
having a standard point geometry (shapes ST, DT and DTM, see
table 4.13), using a cutting fluid (in drilling steel) or dry dri lling
(for cast iron).
In all other cases, the listed values of C F and C M are
to be multiplied by correction factors.
This is taken into account, in the formulas for F x and M, by
the general correction factors K M F and K M M .

Table 4.10: Basic dimensions of external Mores taper with tongue.

Morse tapers
Designation
of taper
diameter

dm
D1
d2
d3max
l3max
l4max
a
bh13
c
emax
R
R1
v

Angles of taper
1:19.212
=0.05205

1:20.047
=0.04988

1:20.020
=0.04995

1:19.922
=0.05020

1:19.254
=0.05194

1:19.002
=0.05263

1:19.180
=0.05214

9.045
9.2
6.1
6.0
56.5
59.5
3.0
3.9
6.5
10.5
4.0
1.0
0.06

12.065
12.2
9.0
8.7
62.0
65.5
3.5
5.2
8.5
13.5
5.0
1.2
1.06

17.780
18.0
14.0
13.5
75.0
80.0
5.0
6.3
10.0
16.0
6.0
1.6
0.065

23.825
24.1
19.1
18.5
94.0
99.0
5.0
7.9
13.0
20.0
7.0
2.0
0.065

31.267
31.6
25.2
24.5
117.5
124.0
6.5
11.9
16.0
24.0
8.0
2.5
0.07

44.399
44.7
36.5
35.7
149.5
156.0
6.5
15.9
19.0
29.0
10.0
3.0
0.07

63.348
63.8
52.4
51.0
210.0
218.0
8.0
19.0
27.0
40.0
13.0
4.0
0.07

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

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Notes: 1- Dimensions are in mm.


2- Drills up to 0.5 mm in dia. are fabricated without margins.
3- Dimensions D1 and d2 are theoretical which result from diameter dm and rated dimensions (a
and l3), respectively 9positions of the datum plane).
Table 4.11: Feed value S, mm/rev. for drilling steel, cast iron, copper and aluminum alloys using drill
made of HSS.
Drill Diameter
D, mm
2-4
4-6
6-8
8-10
10-12
12-16
16-20
20-25
25-30
30-40
40-50

gray and Malleable cast iron,


copper and aluminum alloys
HB<= 170
HB > 170
0.12-0.18
0.09-0.12
0.18-0.27
0.12-0.18
0.27-0.36
0.18-0.24
0.36-0.45
0.24-0.31
0.45-0.55
0.31-0.35
0.55-0.66
0.35-0.41
0.66-0.76
0.41-0.47
0.76-0.89
0.47-0.54
0.89-0.96
0.54-0.60
0.96-1.19
0.60-0.71
1.19-1.36
0.71-0.81

steel
HB < 160
0.09-0.13
0.13-0.19
0.19-0.26
0.26-0.32
0.32-0.36
0.36-0.43
0.43-0.49
0.49-0.58
0.58-0.62
0.62-0.78
0.78-0.89

HB 160-240
0.08-0.10
0.10-0.15
0.15-0.20
0.20-0.25
0.25-0.28
0.28-0.33
0.33-0.38
0.38-0.43
0.43-0.48
0.48-0.58
0.58-0.66

HB 240-300
0.06-0.07
0.07-0.11
0.11-0.14
0.14-0.17
0.17-0.20
0.20-0.23
0.23-0.27
0.27-0.32
0.32-0.35
0.35-0.42
0.42-0.48

HB >300
0.04-0.06
0.06-0.09
0.09-0.12
0.12-0.15
0.15-0.17
0.17-0.20
0.20-0.23
0.23-0.26
0.26-0.29
0.29-0.35
0.35-0.40

Table 4.12: Correction factor K for Steel and Cast Iron, taking into account the effect
of the metal being machined on the cutting Forces.
Metal Being
Machined

Formula For
Calculation

Structural and
Carbon Steel b,
kgf/mm2
60
60


K b
75

HB
K

190

Gray Cast Iron

Cast Iron

HB
K

150

Force Fz When
Machining With
SPT

Value Exponent n
Torque Mt and
Axial Force Fx for
Drilling, Boring
and Core Drilling

Fz for Milling

0.75/0.35
0.75/0.75

0.75/0.75
0.75/0.75

0.3/0.3
0.3/0.3

0.4/0.55

0.6/0.6

1.0/0.55

0.4/0.55

0.6/0.6

1.0/0.55

Not: nominator value of n for cemented carbide, denominator value of n for HSS.
Table 4.13: Types of Drill Points.
Drill diameter,
mm

Type of point

Designation

0.25 to 12**

Ordinary (standard)

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

Sketch

Materials drilled

Steel, cast steel, cast iron

77

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Standard with thinned


web

ST

Cast steel with b up to 50


kgf/mm2

Double- angle point


with thinned web

DT

Cast steel (b > 50 kgf/mm2) and


cast iron; with a foundry skin

Double- angle point


with thinned web and
margin relief

DTM

Steel and cast steel (b >


50 kgf/mm2) and cast iron;
foundry skin removed

Double- angle,
thinned web and
notched point

DT-2

Cast iron with foundry skin


removed

12 to 80

** An ordinary (standard) point is used for drills over 12 mm in size if the same drill is
used for various work materials in operation on a foundry skin or with the skin
removed, as is often the case in small-lot production.

3.5. Design Features of Various Types of Drills

At the present time, all the main types of drills have been standardized:
a. Carbon and high-speed steel drills with straight and tapered shanks
and of various lengths (short, standard, long, etc.);
b. Carbide-tipped drills with straight and tapered shanks;
c. Centre drills; etc.

The main constructional dimensions are specified in these standards. A


brief description follows of carbide-tipped drills and certain nonstandard
designs which have found application in industry.

3.5.1. Cemented Carbide-Tipped Drills:

These drills:
1. used for drilling cast iron, hardened steel, plastics, glass,
nonferrous metals, marble, granite and other nonferrous
materials;
2. rarely use for drilling the workpieces of steels, because of the
instability of work (possibility of breakdown, crumbling-off and an

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78

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

insignificant increase in the productivity with their usage);


3. Are especially efficient for operation at high speeds and smallfeeds;

There are several kinds of drills tipped with cemented-carbide cutting


elements.
Drills of diameter up to 3 mm are usually made as one piece
(whole made of cemented carbides).
Drills of (3 up to 12 mm) diameter are made with cutting part
(cutting and finishing parts) of cemented carbide butt welded with a
steel shank (Figure 4.13),

Fig. 4.13. Cemented Carbide-Tipped Drills.

In order to increase the rigidity and strength of the cemented carbidetipped drills (for increasing their successful work), it is necessary to
increase their web thickness (core diameter) to (0.25 diameter drills0.25D) compared with the high-speed steel drills.

Drills of small diameters (used for drilling the holes in the hard materials)
their web thickness (core diameter) can be increased to (0.32-0.35
diameters of drill 0.32-0.35D) with the simultaneous decreasing
the length of the cutting part (cutting and finishing parts) of the drill.

The drill flute helix angle is selected equal to 20.


Drills used for machining the holes, which their length up to 3-4
times of drill diameter, flute helix angle () must be increased to
45 60.
To create a more rigid and stronger datum surface for cemented
carbide-tipped drills, the face of the drill, under the tip and at its

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

length, performed flat with an angle of (7 -10), and with chisel


edge length equal to (0,1-0,15 drill diameters).

3.5.1.1. U cemented carbide tipped drill with indexable


insert

Figure 14 shows cemented carbide tipped U drill with indexable insert.

This type of drill are:


manufactured with minimum diameter of 17.5 and above;
With straight flutes with special holes for supplying the cutting fluid
to the cutting zone.

They can be used conveniently


For finishing rough machined holes,
For machining holes of different metals, including carbon and alloy
steels. Thus, when machining the holes of carbon steels with
ultimate strength not more than 800 MPa (about 80 kgf/mm2) the
cutting speed of the drill must be (100 to 140 m/mm).

Fastening (settingup) and accurate fixation of the tip on the drill body
produced by screw (2) with a cone head.

After the cutting edge becomes blunt, the insert (1) (see Figure 4.14) is
indexed to bring a new edge of the insert in operation.
After all the edges of the insert are worn out, the insert can be
replaced quickly without removing the U drill from machine. Thus
re-sharpening is completely eliminated.

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

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Fig. 4.14: U drill with indexable insert.

Indexable insert face has chip-breaking grooves to get small length chip,
which easily disposed away from the tool grooves.

As one of the inserts overlaps the center, U drill can be also used for
central cutting after starting a hole with a center drill.

3.6. Spade (or flat) Drill.

It is similar to brazed drills in that they employ a steel body.

It is available in diameters from 12 to 75 mm for (L/D, overhang to


diameter) ratios from 2 to 10.

Many point geometries which can be ground on a twist drill are not
available on spade and indexable drills.

Spade drills consist of a body and a removable (throw-away) cutting


blade or bit, which is precisely located and clamped in a special slot at the
end of a steel drill body (Figure 4.15).
The blade may be clamped with either one or two screws, with the
two screw system usually being more stable.
Spade drills can be used at high penetration rates and are
comparatively rigid.
In general, spade drills are not used for finishing operations
requiring tolerances better than 0.08 mm on the diameter
unless special care is used to set the blade in the drill body.
Spade drills increase the variety of possible cutting edge materials
as compared to conventional twist drills; the blade may be made of
solid HSS, HSS-Co, WC, cermets, or ceramic, or may be (PCD,

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

polycrystalline diamond) or (PCBN, polycrystalline cubic boron


nitride) tipped.
This drill offers the economical benefit of throwaway insert, and
often eliminates geometrical variation due to regrinding.

Fig. 4.15: Spade (flat) indexable drill.

3.7. Subland and Step Drills.

Subland Tool Higher Initial Cos

Fig. 4.16: Subland drill.


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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Subland drills are special tools for drilling multi-diameter holes.

Each diameter has its own flute and land as shown in (Figure 4.16),
this results in a complex flute geometry, which is necessary for
what is effectively two or more tools sharing a common axis and
core.

Figure 4.17 shows how a subland tool is manufactured:


1. Operations performed between centers.

2. Concentricity guaranteed.

3. Minor diameter never has to be re-established

Fig. 4.17

In a conventional multistep drill (Figure 4.18), the smaller diameter


ends at the larger diameters cutting lips, and both share common
flutes, lands, and margins, it is thus a modified standard drill.

Step Tool Lower Initial Cost

Fig. 4.18: step drill.


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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

The advantages of the Subland drill over the step drill are the
preservation of the geometry for all diameters after regrinding and
therefore the lager number of regrinds possible.

Subland vs Step Drills

Investigation Procedure
Sharpening required here

And eventually here

Only areas to sharpen

1. Two-diameter tool, with both diameters on


the same set of flutes,
2. The small diameters entire geometry
eventually must be reground,
3. Intersection between diameters is a week
point.
1. Two-diameter tool, with individual flutes
for each diameter,
2. Only the cut edges need to be resharpened,
3. The intersection between diameters
produces a sharp edge.

Maintenance Step Tools:


In step tool construction, because you have both diameters on the
same set of flutes and lands, you will have to create an undercut at the
intersection of both diameters.
It gets weak due to undercutting at the
intersection.
This may cause the minor diameter to break
when subjected to minor strain.
After many grinds, if it doesnt break, there is no
small diameter left.

Maintenance Subland Tools

Because you have individual flutes for each diameter. All you have to do
is end grind each diameter maintaining the same step length
dimension. You will never have to grind the tool "diameter".

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

84

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Performance:

Concentricity plays a very important part in:


1. Number of pieces per grind.
2. Accuracy of the cavity.

3.8. Deep-hole drills:

By deep drilling is understood drilling holes at the depth, which


exceeds the diameter of drill 5-6 times and more, such drills use for
continuous 80 mm) drillings.

To the deep drilling the following requirements present:


- Straightness of the hole axis,
- Hole concentricity with respect to the external surface of
workpiece and cutting tool,
- Hole cylindricity,
- Working accuracy,
- Obtaining the necessary surface roughness,
- Ease chip disposal from the hole.

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

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The drilling conditions are sharply changed in deep holes.


Chip ejection and heat disposal are deteriorated;
Drill rigidity is substantially reduced, etc.

An ordinary twist drill is unsuitable for deep-hole drilling.

Two methods of drilling deep holes are employed:


1) Ordinary drilling, in which all removed allowance is converted
into chips (generally used for holes up to 70 mm in diameter);
2) Trepanning method, in which an annular recess is cut in the
work so that a core is left in the central part of the hole.
This method is used only for large-diameter holes, because a
trepanning head for small holes is insufficiently strong.

Deep-hole drills can be classified as:


1. Multiple-flute drills with a web, i.e. drills, having two main lips;
2. Single-flute drills.

Figure 4.19 shows three types of two-flute drills.


Drill shown in figure 4.19, a, provided with through helical holes in
the lands of the drill for feeding the cutting fluid to the drill point.

Fig. 4.19: Two-flute deep-hole drills:


(a) oil-holt twist drill; (b) tour-margin twist drill with internal chip ejection; (c) two-flute
twist drill with external chip ejection
Dr. Rasheed Amirah

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

The two-flute assembled twist drill shown in Figure 4.19, b, has four
margins (instead of two) which form channels in the lands for the
cutting fluid.
- Chips are ejected along the flutes and then through inclined holes
into a central hole from where they pass through the driving tube at
the end of which the drill is held.
- Cutting fluid at a pressure of 10 to 20 atm is fed into the annular
space between the driving tube and the drilled hole.
- Drilling is done in a special machine equipped with a pumping station
for feeding the cutting fluid.
The two-flute twist drill with external chip ejection, shown in Figure 4.19,

c, consists of a short cutting head fastened to an oil-feeding bar.


- The cutting fluid is delivered through the central hole of the bar in
drilling and distributed by smaller holes to the lips.
- Chips should be produced in the form of tightly curled helices in
order to ensure quiet efficient operation of the drill (this concerns all
deep-hole drills).
- The provision of chip breaker grooves on the lips enables chips of
this type to be obtained.
- Disadvantage of this drill is that it cannot ensure a sufficiently
straight hole, especially if it has been incorrectly sharpened and the
lips are of different length.

Deep holes can also be drilled by using high flute helix angle (figure 4.
20).
- These high-helix drills are intended for drilling holes of a depth over
10 diameters in cast iron, steel, light alloys and wood.

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

87

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Fig. 4.20: High helix drills.

The main advantage of multiple-flute drills, in comparison with


single-flute designs, is the higher production capacity.
At the same time, all constructions of multiple-flute drills have a
common disadvantage: they must have a web and, consequently,
a chisel edge.
Even an ideally sharpened multiple-flute drill with a web may
deflect to the side from the true axis of the workpiece.
Owing to the web, such drills operate with vibration and therefore
cannot produce holes, with a high class of surface finish.
These disadvantages of multiple-flute drills can be eliminated to some
extent by using single-flute drills.

The simplest construction of single-flute (single-lip) drill, the so-called


half-round drill, is shown in Figure 4.21.
It consists of a cylindrical shank on which the front end is cut away to
the center and ground to the required angles. To avoid jamming of the
drill in the hole, the face is from 0.2 to 0.5 mm above the center,
depending upon the drill diameter.

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

88

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

Fig. 4.21: half-round drill.


Have a single cutting lip, perpendicular to the hole axis and extending 0.5 to 0.8 mm
beyond the center. The auxiliary lip can be cut away at an angle of 10. This drill operates
with guidance in a previously started hole. The front end of the drill has a cylindrical
bearing surface by means of which it is guided in the hole being drilled. The geometry of
these drills is unfavorable. The cutting angle equals 90 and the relief angle is from 8 to
10. To reduce the friction between the bearing surface and the hole walls, a flat is
provided at an angle of 30 as well as a back taper of 0.03 to 0.05 mm per 100 mm of
length.

4.9. Gun drills:

They are used to obtain accurate holes with a straight axis.

These drills are also of the single-flute type with a one-sided cutting
arrangement.

Such drills (Figure 4.22, a) consist of two main parts:


Cutting element of high-speed steel or cemented carbide
And a drive tube of carbon steel.
The drive tube is of the shape shown in section A-A.
- Cutting fluid, forced at high pressure through the internal
passage in the drive, fulfills two purposes:
It carries heat away from the cutting element
And flushes the chips from the cut through the single
external flute.

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

89

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

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Fig. 4.22: Gun drill: (a) Construction; (b) diagram of the acting cutting forces.

The cutting element, has an offset point providing an outside and


an inside cutting lip.
- During operation the drill is subject to one sided torsion,
compression and buckling.
- For this reason, the drive tube should be as rigid as possible and
the flute therefore is of minimum cross section.
- On the other hand, considerations of free chip ejection require
that this flute be of maximum feasible cross section.
- A flute angle of =100 to 120 has been established to be the most
expedient in practice and is recommended.

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

90

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

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4.10. Trepanning drills:

In drilling holes of large diameter (D>80 mm) it is advisable to resort to


trepanning in which an annular recess is cut out, leaving a core that is
removed at the end of the operation.

Trepanning drills (Figure 4.23) consist of a head in which cutting blades or


bits are secured and a drive tube.
- Cutting edges are provided on the blades at the end face, and
projecting beyond the outside and inside diameters of the head. Upon
rotation the blades cut an annular recess.
- Each trapezoidal stocking blade is followed by a flat finishing blade.
The head has margins (or cylindrically ground wear pads of a plastic or
wood) to provide guidance in the machined hole.

Fig. 4.23: Trepanning drill.

3.11. Twist drill problems


1. Over size holes are caused due to unequal cutting by two lips
having unequal lip length or unequal lip angles.
- The problem can be overcome ensuring symmetry in lip angles
and lengths.

LIP ANGLES UNEQUAL


Dr. Rasheed Amirah

LIP LENGTHS UNEQUAL


91

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

2. Undersize holes are encountered while drilling elastic materials like


rubber, and light metals with high coefficient of thermal expansion.
- Contraction results from cooling of workpiece after removal of
drill.
- The problem can solve by flooding the workpiece with coolant
to keep it cool or using oversize drill.
3. Excessive speed causes faster wear at corners.
4. Chipping of cutting edges can be countered by reducing lip
clearance angle or feed or both.
5. Unequal chips from two lips also indicate unequal cutting due to
unequal lip angles or lengths.
6. Hard spot in material can be drilled conveniently by reducing speed
and using turpentine as a coolant.
7. Disposal of discontinuous chips in deep holes can be facilitated by
compressed air blast and use of a magnetized stick for chip removal.
While drilling deep holes, drill should be withdrawn periodically (after
drilling a length equal to two to three times drill diameter) to remove
swarf.
8. Jamming. The depth of drilled hole should not exceed its flute
length. For when the flute end submerges into the drilled hole, passage
for the chips gets blocked, chips clog, and jamm the drill.
9. Break through digging can be contained by reducing the feed as
drill point emerges after drilling through the workpiece.
10. Drill does not cut when the cutting lips are not provided with
clearance angles.
- The problem can be solved by grinding 12 clearance angle.

4.12 Improvement of Drill Point:

Web of standard conical point drill becomes chisel-shaped after grinding


clearance on flanks.

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

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Instead of standard cone and chisel edge, drill point can be ground to a
variety of shapes according to the material being drilled and other
requirements.

Fig. 4.24: types of drill points.

Following are some of the drill points commonly used in industry:


Oliver Point:
- The web is ground conical to make the drill self-centering.
- The flanks are ground helicoid.
Spiral Point:
Grinding the flank surface as a three dimensional spiral or spiro-helicoid
reduces negative rake in the web portion, increases chip space, and
provides self-centering action.
Notched or Crank-Shaft Point:
Used widely for small, thick webbed drills (used for drilling deep oil holes).
The web is ground as shown to reduce drilling thrust. This point is found
particularly convenient for drilling hard materials.

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Chapter 4: Design of Drills

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Four Facet Prismatic Point:


- The point is ground with four faces which provide primary and
secondary clearances.
- This splits up chisel edge portion into two portions eliminating dead
chisel effect, thus providing self-centering action, better finish, and
accuracy.
Radial Lip Point:
- Distributes the cutting edge wear uniformly all along the lip.
- Drilling stresses are distributed better than chisel point and there is
no burr at the exit of drill.
- Secondary reliefs increase the penetration rate immensely.
- A wide variety of materials can be drilled accurately, with good finish
by using this point.
Special Points:
- In deep-hole drilling with a large diameter drill, a wide
chip is formed which is difficult to dispose out through
the flutes.
- Such a chip also increases friction and impedes cutting
fluid delivery to the drill lips.
- The width of the chip can be reduced by providing special
chip-breaker grooves or notches either, on the face
(Figure 25, a) or on the lip relief surface (Figure 4.25, b).
- The depth of the grooves should be approximately (0.05D)
and their width approximately (0.07D), where (D) is the
drill diameter.
- Such grooves divide a wide chip into several narrow ones.
They improve the cutting conditions by reducing the forces
acting during drilling and heat generation.
- Care should be taken in re-sharpening the lips of the same length and
symmetrically positioned, as otherwise the drill will cut oversize and
may depart to one side (from the true axis of the hole).
Dr. Rasheed Amirah

94

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

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Fig. 4.25: Chip breaker grooves on twist drills: (a) on faces; (b) on lip relief surfaces.

4.13 Drill Point Grinding

Drills are sharpened by grinding the relief surfaces at the point.

Drill point grinders can be divided into three groups:


1) Those that grind a conical surface;
2) Those grinding a helical surface;
3) Those grinding flat surfaces.

Two methods of grinding drill points on machines of the first type are
illustrated in Figure 4.26, a and b.
They differ only in the location of the axis of the imaginary cone in
reference to the drill.
The drill holder which locates the drill during the sharpening operation
is designed so that the apex of the cone along whose the surface of
the point is ground is located at a definite distance from the drill axis.
This distance equals (1.16 D) for the first method (Figure 4.26, a)
(and 1.9 D) for the second (Figure 4.26, b).
Moreover, the axis of the grinding cone is offset from the drill axis "by
an amount (K) equal to from 1/13 to 1/10 of the drill diameter.
The different locations of the imaginary cone axis in relation to the
drill axis lead to different kinds of variation of the relief angle along
the lips.
It is better if the relief angle is greater at the periphery than at the
center of the drill.

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

95

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

This requirement has made the second method more popular because
it grinds a drill point with a relief angle sharply increasing toward the
center of the drill.
This increase is much less on drill points ground by the first method.

Fig. 4.26: Drill sharpening methods:


(a) ant (b) by grinding conical surfaces; (c) by grinding helical surfaces

Helically ground points (Figure 4.26, c) are extensively used.


In the grinders producing this type of point the drill is held in a chuck
and rotated slowly about its axis (CC).
In addition to the main rotation about its axis (AA), the grinding wheel
has two supplementary motions:
- Planetary rotation about axis BB (the wheel spindle axis is offset
in reference to the axis of a sleeve which has independent rotation),
- and axial reciprocation produced by a cam.
The supplementary (planetary) rotation of the grinding wheel moves its
active surface along the drill lips.
All the relative motions of the drill and grinding wheel are
interconnected in such a manner that the lip relief surfaces are ground
on a helical surface.

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

96

Chapter 4: Design of Drills

Cutting Tool Technology

This method of grinding drill points enables a greater increase in the


relief angle (by 25%) to be obtained toward the center of the drill.
- This is a distinct advantage over the more widely used first and
second methods.

Flat drill point grinding (Figure 4.27) is suitable for small drills (up to 3
mm in diameter) and is seldom used for larger drills.
Large drills are usually ground by a two-plane method.
- The first plane provides the required relief angle behind the lip
and the second plane, ground at a much larger angle, eliminates
interference of the heel on the land with the work surface during
drilling.
Double plane

Plane I

Plane
Plane II

Fig. 4.27: Flat drill point grinding.

Dr. Rasheed Amirah

97