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ANALYTICAL SFC EXAMPI.,ES


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6ti

? a -

Seismic Performance of T?lt our,u;,:.,s

TALL BUILDINGSINITIATIVE:A COMPREHENSIVE


RESEARCH
PROGRAMON SEISMICANALYSISAND DESIGNOF NEWTALL
BUILDINGS

INTRODUCTION
In the United States, practical performance-basedseismic design (PBD) originated as an
effective means to mitigate the seismic risks posed by existing buildings, which was later
extended to permit development of new buildings capable of superior seismic
performance. The PBD methods were quickly adapted to justify design of new
buildings that do not conform to building code requirements,and which are intendedonly
to provide equivalent pertbrmance to buildings conforming to code criteria. This practice has
become particularly prevalent in the design of very tall buildings in the western L)nited
States.
lnitial development of PBD procedures in the United Statesoccurred in responseto societal
reactions to the frequent occurrence of damaging earthquakes in the western United
Statesduring the period 1979 through 1994. These earthquakesprovided many illustrations
of both the strengths and weakuesses of seismic provisions in U.S. building codes,
spurring substantial evolution and improvement of these provisions. Most buildings
designed to modem code provisions achieved the life-safety intent of the building oode,
but several experienced extensive damage resulting in large financial loss. T'hese
earthquakes also provided liequent reminders that the inventory of existing buildings
included many older stnrctures that were susceptible to life-threatening damage and thus
posed unacceptableseismic risks.
Some corporations and institutions became interested in voluntary seismic upgrades.
Engineersr.vorkingon their behalf quickly found that decision-makersin theseorganizations
u'anted to know how their buildings would perform-in terms meaningful to thembefore they would commit to retroflt, Often these decision-makers wanted to tailor retrofit
progrzuns to optimize their costs and benefits. These same decision-makers quickly
became interested
in seismic performance issues in the design of new buildings as well, to assurethat their
important facilities n'ould adequately protect their business and operational needs. and not
encumberthem with uracceptable future economic losses.
Many o\\,ners of vulnerable buildings were not interested in seismic upgrades, prompting
govermlents to adopt mandatory upgrade programs. To iustiff adopting such programs,
it was necessary to contrast the likely performance of hazardous buildings and
the consequencesif no action rvere taken. Performance-based seismic engineering was
developed to enable engineers to respond to the need to reliably assessthe probable
performanceof new and existing buildings under a variety of design scenarios.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the primary financial

SeismicPerformanceof Tall Buildings


support tbr development of perfbrmance-basedseismic engineering
proceduresb1,.
fundingthe Applied TechnologyCouncil's(ArC) development
of a seriesof performancebasedengineering
and
guidefines
including
rg*a--zzstzz+
_criteria
IATC lggla, b];
these guidelines formed the basis for present gineration performance-based
seismic
engineeringpractice. The American Society of civit Engineers(ASCE)
subsequently
convertedthesedocumentsinto the ASCE-3I
IASCE 20A2] andaSbp-+r IASCE 20A6]
standardsthat could be adoptedby building codes.
These first-generation procecluresexperiencedwiclespreaclacceptance
and application.
both in their intended use, evaluation and upgrade of existing iuildingsr
ancl also for
application to the ner'vbuilding design. Hor.viver,for new buiiding
desfgn,the primary
applicationof theseproceduresis to demonstratethat nonconforming
designs have
equivalent perfbrmancecapability as that intended by the
building code. allowing
developmentof buildings at lower cost or with other attributes
attractiie to developers.
This practice became particularly popularin designof very tall
buildings,contributingto
the development
of manyof thesestructures
in thepJriod200i th:roughzods i' Los Angeles.
Seattle'SanFrancisco.
andotherwesterncitieswith signilicantseism-ic
hazarcls.
Many of these structuresare tall residentialbuildings, having post-tensioned
concrete
flat slabssupptlrtedby a ring clf perimeterreinforcedconcretecolumls
and tubular bearing
walls surrounding the central core. Prescriptive u.S. code provisions
prohibit such
constructionin excessof 50 m tall, w{thoutprovisionof a clual
specialmoment-resisting
frzunecapable of resisting at least 25% oi specified seismic
design forces. By using
perftrrmance-based
procedures,engineerswere able to eliminate tir.
moment-resisting
frame' saving costs, ando more importantly, permitting
exterior designs that
accomrnodatedfloor to ceiling w'indowsand reducedstory
heights in buildings exten6ing
to ?00m tall.

THE TALL BUILDINGSINITIATTVE


The PEER Tall Buildings Initiative is a cooperative program
of research and development
underlaken by PEER researchersand practicing structural
anil geotechnical engineers
experiencedin tall building design. splned by the rapid
grou4h in the use of performancebased seismic design methodologies for the <iesign
of tall builclings. the goal of this
initiative
is to provide a sound and reliable basis for these procedures
anclto help assureappropriate
seismicperfonnanceof the resulting new generation
of tall btrildings.
Initiated in 2006, the program encompassesa range
of tasks intended to investigatethe
follorving: the dynamic characteristics of tall
buiidings; the performance capability of
buildings designed using alternative procedures;
sociital preferences fbr tall building
perfotmance: altemative means of developing ground
motions for design; soil-foundationstructure intet'actioneffects, modeling.anctzuralysisprocedures;
ancl ,rrr7*iupn"nt of <iesign
guidelines' An important "o*purriorl r"port
on n od.ling" analysis, a1d acceptance
criteria lbr tall buildings IATC 2009b] is available
ftom trre arc. n"pon, on other task

SeismicPerformanceof Tall Buildings


activitiescanbe obtainedat http:t'ipeer.berkel ey.edultbii inclex,hnt l .
SEISMIGDESIGNGUIDELINES
The TBI Guidelines"for Performance-Basetl
SetsmicDesign of Tatt Bttildings IPEER2010]
represents
an evolutiontrystepin the practiceof performance-based
seismicdesignof tali
buildings. The Guidelinesembracethe sameanalyticaltechnologiesadoptedby ingineers
tbllowing the San FranciscoAB-083 and Los Angeles Tall Buildings Council criteria
but provide more guidance on stnrctural modeling. acceptancecriteria, and ground
motion selection and scaling. There are two important cleparturesfrom prior piactice.
First, the Guidelinesdo not require a code-levelanalysisin that it is anticipatedthat the
proceduresmay be applied to structuralsystemsfor which the code responsemoclification
coefficientswill not be defined, leaving the code analysis with questionablevalue.
Second,

the

Guidelines use more advanced procedures for evaluating structural performance.


anticipatingthe availability of software that can reliably assess the response of
structuresin a near-collapsestate.
'I'he

Guidelines focus evaluation procedures on verification that the clesign performance


objectives can be achieved, rather than verification that the building mostly complies
with
'I'he
prescriptive criteria.
design perfonnance objectives *-* ihou" most conrmonly
adopted by leading earthquatrieprofessionals today as the intent of the building
code,
that is' serviceability with minimal repair for frequent earlhquake shaking levels
ancl safety
lbr rare eaithquake shaking levels. With the exception of e,rterior cladding systems,
the
failure of which could causenumerous casualtiesin a crowded city, the guidelines
address
structural performance only. The procedures presume that nonstructuraf components
and
systems will be designed to confbrm to the prescriptive code criteria, but clo caution that
if a
building's response characteristics are substantially different fi-om that of typical
codec<rnfbrmingbuildings. additional precautionsmay be required. The Guiclelines arewritten
in a
"recommendation"
and commentary format.
Recommendations
are written
in
mandatory language, while commentary explains the basis fbr the recommendations
ancl
warns of significant design issues that may not be adequately covered
bl,. the
recofitmendations.
As w'ith the AB-083 and Los Angeles Tall Builclings Council criteria, clesigners
must
prepafe a fonnal, project-specific design criteria document. The Guidelines
rccommend
independent third part,Y review of the criteria, the analyses, and the
desigl. Tlie
Guideline,semploy two levels of analysis:a Servicelevel ancla Maximum Co'sidered
level.
Members of the design Guideline,c development committee are (alphabetically): yousef
Bozorgnia (PEER, IIC Berkeley), c. B. crouse (IJRS corp.;,'Ronald
Hamburger
(SGH, Inc'), Ron Klemencic (Magnusson-Klemencic Associates),
Helmut Krar.vinkler
(Stanford University), James Malley (Degenkolb Engineers).
.Iack Moehle (PEER. IJC
Berkeley), Farzad Naeim (John A. Martin & Associatesl anclJonathan
Stewart ruCLA).

Seismic performance of Tall Buildings


$ervice-Level Evaluation
The purpose of the Service-level check is to assurethat
the buildings will not experience
significant damage fi'om frequent earthquakes.Much controversy
surroundeclthe selection
of a service-level shaking intensity. The 2008 eclition
of the Lts Angeles Tall Builclings
Council guidelines ILATBC 200s] specified sen-ice-level
shaking oviti a 5004 exceedance
pt'obabilit,vin 30 yenrs (43*yeer nean reourrenoe
interval), bui permittecl Ser'ice-level
analysesto use
50%viscous damping. Stuclies conclucted by the
ATC as part of the TBI etarfi, *n<l
sunmarized in the ATC-72
IATCI 2009b.1repotl, suggest tl'rrt Svo viscous damping is
excessivefbr tall buildings, reconmending that a 2.5Ya'equivialent
viscor-rsciampingis more
justifiable' In keeping rvith this rationale.
some participantsar:guedfor use of-a Scr'ice-level
event w'ith a 25-year mean recurrence. arguing itrat trre
resporlsespectrLlmfor such an event,
rvhen used rvitli 2.5vo damping, would-be comparable
to the 5%-damped 50%-30-year
spectrum' other participalts believed that a 25-year recLln'ence
lbr onset crf damage to these
buildings rvas not an appropriate design obiective.
hyentually consensus s'pport tvas
aclrievedfor the use of a2.5o/odamped, sow zd-,rear
spectrumas the Seruice-levelloading.
The stated performance goal tor the service-level
loading is to avoid onset of darnage
that would reduce th? building's ability to
rvithstand lVlaximum consiclered-le'el
shaking or rvhich wguld require repair thai would
necessitateremoving the building irom
service' It is expected that sofire repair of structural
elementsma,v*be necessaryto restore
cosmetic appearance,and fire and weather resistance.
Nonstructural clamage is anticipated
to be minor, but is not specifically evaluated.
The Guidelines rccontmenclan elastic. three-dirnensional
responsespeotnrmanalysisfbr the
service-level trecausenot only is the clesireclbehavior
intended to be essentially elastic.
but also becauseit is desired to assure that an
elastic analysis is available to benchrnark
and evaluate nonlinear models used in the Maxirnum
considereci-level evaluation. For
service- Level hazard. carrying out a nonlinear
RHA-to distribute the loacis o,-, very
limited number of overstressedelements-is
optional. Analytical moclels ,;;;';;;";;
the structure's lrue base,w'hich lbr most tall buildings
are locatedseverallevels belor.vgrade.
l'or sen''ice-levelloading, soil-foundation-structure
lnter:actioneffects need not be explicitly
modeled,though it is permitted to do so (Figure
1). Based on analytical studies of ty.pical
buildings conductecltmder tlie 'l'lJI, when soil-foundation-structure
interacti.n effectsare not
modeledexplicitly, neglecting the mass of subgrade
levels is permitted.

SeismicPerformanceof Tall Buildings

{b} Model fof service"


level earthqualte

{c} Modelfor rnaximumcq*Eidered earihqrrake

Figure1: Schematicillustrationof tall buildingwith subterraneanlevels.


Figure 1(b) shows the case that soil-foundationinteractioneffects are
neglected.Figure 1(c) presentsan approximaterepresentation
of soil-foundation-structure
interaction.Figure1(c)only shows
springs but paralleldashpotsare generallyalso used.
Acceptance criteria include both strength and deformation. Strength is evaluated by
comparing computed strength demands against design strength. Design strenglh is cornputed
using the strength formula contained in the design specifications referenced by the

building code using specified materiai properties rnultiplied by strength redurctionfuctors.


Recognizing that expected strength will exceed this design strength by a considerable
margin, and that some overload is acceptabie in a ductile structure, computed dernand to
capacity ratios may be as large as 1.5. Story drift at arry level is not permitted to exceed
0.5% of the story height.
If some computed dernand to capacity ratios exceeda value of 1.5, designersare permitted
to use three-dimensional nonlinear RHA to demonstrate acceptable Service-level
performance. When such analyses are performed" a suite of not less than three horizontal
ground motion pairs must be selected and modified to be compatible rvith the Sen'icelevel spectrum previously discussed.Either amplitude scaling or spectral matching may be
used to achiev'espectrum compntibility ttllklwing proceclurespresentedin the guidelines.
Acceptancecriteria must be developed basedon suitable laboratory test data. Mean values of
responseparametersobtained from the suite of analyses cannot exceed demand levels
at w4rich the test data suggestthe onset of strength degradation or damage.the appearance
or repair of lvhich would result in occupanoyloss.
The Sen'ice-level event in eflbct serves to define the minimum required base shear
strengthof the building. In some highly active seisnric regions such as l.os Angeles
and San Francisco" the 2.5% darnped 50%*30-year spectrum wiil result in strength
deniand comparableto that obtained follorving the prescriptive code criteria. In regions of
lon'er seismicity-such as Porlland, Oregon. and Salt Lake City, Utah-the Service-level
spectrumrvill result in substantially less strengtlr than would be required for a codeconfurming
building. Commentary warns designers in these regions that additional strength rnay be
required to provide adequatemargin against collapse at the Maximum-Clonsidered level.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION & BACKGROIND INFORMATION

l.l lntroduction
Fiber-reinforcedpolymer,FRP is a compositematerialcontainingfibers in a polymer
matrix. The FRP is typically appliedwith an epoxyresin.The epoxyresin is usedto
combinethe fibers and connectthe wrap with the structuralmember.The reinforcement
systemworks togetheras a cohesiveunit, and if onepart of the fiber is weak,the entire
of the FRP wrap aremany.
systemwill havea brittle failure as a result. The advantages
Theseincludeincreasedconcreteconfinement,corrosionresistance,high specific
strength,and durability @ischoff 2003). While FRP canbe usedto strengthenmany
different structuralmembers,the focusof this paperwill be its applicationfor retrofitting
columns. The searchto find a widely acceptedmodel for the FRP reinforcementsystem
in columnsis on-goingandwill be closelysummarizedandexaminedin this research
studv.

1.2 Methods of Reinforcement


Throughoutthe years,researchin structuralengineeringhascreatedmany different
methodsfor structuralmembers.The most
reinforcementandretrofit/strengthening
popularof thesebeingreinforcingbar, or rebarcages.Howevet,someof the other
practicesincludefiber-reinforcedpolymer (FRP),concrete-filledtubes(CFT), and
In
and disadvantages.
weldedwire fabric (WWF). All methodshavetheir advantages
this research,the focuswill be primarily on fiber-reinforcedpolymer as a retrofit method
andthe traditionalrebarcagesasreinforcement.

1.2.1 T raditional Rebar Reinforcement System


The most widely acceptedandusedmethodfor reinforcementin structuralapplicationsis
the steelrebarcage. Concreteand steelwork very well togetherin a structural
application. The designof columnsis centeredon havingthe concreteto resistthe
compressiveforcesbecauseconcreteis strongin compression.Furthertnore,the steelis
presentin the columnto resistany tensileforces,as steelis strongin tension,aswell as in
compression.The steelis designedas a cageto surroundthe concrete,while concreteis
pouredinsideandoutsidethis cageto the limits of the formwork. The inner concreteis
intendedto carrymostof the appliedcompressiveload,while the outsideor

"cover"

concreteprotectsthe steelfrom weather,fire, andcorrosion.The steelis placedin two


directions,longitudinalandtransverse.The longitudinalsteelhelpsto carrythe tension
loadsaswell asthe compressiveload. The transversesteelwrapsaroundthe longitudinal
of the concreteandresistshearforces.Figure1.1
steelto help in the confinement
system.
displayshow the steelcanmeshvery well asa completereinforcement

Lorqihrrlinal
Reiirfbreemerrt

Transverse
Reinibrcenrent

Figure1.1- Setupof RebarCages(Miller 2006).

1.2.2 F ib er-reinforced Polymer GRP) System


Fiber-reinforcedpolymer is a compositematerialthat consistsof a polymermatrix with
fiber reinforcement.Glassand Carbonarecommonfiberswhile the polymer is typically
an epoxyresin. The polymeris placedon the concrgtesurface,thenthe FRP is wrapped
aroundthe columnor beam. In wet-application,fibers are soakedin wet resin or polymer
beforeFRP application.The polymerhelpsto connectthe fibers of the wrap together
while alsomakinea stronsconnectionwith the surfaceof the concrete.

An FRP systemwrappedarounda columnprovidespassivereinforcementto the column.


As the concretememberis loadedaxially, the FRPreinforcementsystemprovideslittle
or no effect on strengthincreaseto the confinedconcreteinitially. However,oncethe
concretedilatesandbeginsto crackandweaken,the FRP reinforcementprovides
diagrampresentedin Figure 1.2will
confinementfor the concrete.The stress-strain
continueon a secondlinearpathbeforereachinga brittle failure at a muchhigher axial
stressand axial strain than the initial unretrofitted failure point. The main advantageof
\-

the FRP systemis the amountof confinementthat it provides.The envelopingwrap or


tubeprovidesmore confinementthan a longitudinalor spirally wrappedsteelrebar.

14
t H F S l r e s S - b l r a tu
nu n / e

10
' 6 U
5

Linear Path

fr6
4

ilst Linear
Path

-0
flr

'

'

'

'

0.005 0.01 r1015 0.02 0.025 0.m 0 035 0.04 8.045


t

Strain(in/in)

Diagram
Figure 1.2 -Typical FRP Stress-Strain

1.3 Copparison of SteelRebar and FRP Systems


1.3.1ProductionComparison
The productionof traditionalrebaris widespreadand defineddueto its high usage. The
commonsizesandwidely accepteddesignsmakethe productionof traditionalrebarcosteffective. The productionof FRPmaterialsis not ascommon. However,with the
acceptance
of FRP reinforcementasa viable option in construction,the manufacturing
time would greatlyreduce. The FRPwrapscould be massproducedinto rolls of many
differentsizesdependingon the application. The largersizeswould be best,to allow the
leastamountofjoints and imperfectionsin conskuctionaspossible. The prefabricated
FRPtubeswould requirethe largestproductiontime, but still could be constructedin
commonsizes. The upsideof an FRPtube is that it lessensthe chancefor construction
mistakesto occur. The main dissentingfact aboutthe FRP systemis that the costof fiber
and epoxyresin is high (Nystromet al. 2003).

1.3.2 Time of Construction


The constructiontime for the two systemsis a determinantof which type of
reinforcementis bettersuitedfor the project.The more time spentconstructingthe
reinforcementsystem,the higherthe costof the overallproject.Traditionalrebar
reinforcementhasbeqnthe long acceptedpracticefor initial reinforcement,but ngt as a
retrofit method.Currently,many contractorsareweary of the FRP systemmainly dueto
their unfamiliarity with usingthe product.

Rebarreinforcementretrofitting involvesconstructingthe entirebar systemon site


aroundthe columnthat is beingretrofitted.Eachlongitudinalandtransversebar mustbe
manuallytied together.On a very largecolumn,this could be very time consuming.The
advantageof FRP as a retrofit methodcould be immense.Oncethe constructioncompany
is educatedon the properapplicationof an FRPwrap or tube,it would be a time-saving
process.The wrap would requirethe leastproductiontime, but it would allow more room
for error in the application.The tubescould be massproducedif the designwas more
widely used,andthe constructiontime aftermanufacturingwould be minimal' After onsite,a wrap could be placedaroundthe columnby a constructionteamand attachedusing
an epoxyresin.Anotheroption areprefabricatedtubesthat could be placedaroundthe
columnin sectionsand attachedwith an epoxyresin.The FRP systemwould eliminate
the problemof tying barsand correctlyaligningreinforcingbarswith strict spacingand
sizerequirements.

1.3.3 Application and Life Cycle Comparison


The life cycle of the differentretrofit methodsmustbe consideredbecauseit is the most
critical aspectin the retrofitting process.A retrofit is typically doneto extendthe life of a
structureuntil major repair is needed.Therefore,the productthat cando this most
efficiently will havean advantageover the othermethods.FRP retrofittinghasan
advantagein this areabecauseit hasa longerlife expectancythan rebarretrofitting.The
areaespeciallyif used
FRPretrofitwill be moreresistantto corrosionin the construction
on a bridgepier overwater.The typical rebarretrofit methodhasproblemswith
durability becausethe coverconcretewill beginto chip and crackafterpart of a life

it will quickly beginto corrodeand loseits strength.


cycle.If the rebarbecomesexpos,ed,
This is a commonproblemin rebarretrofitting and is oftenthe reasona retrofit
applicationis neededfor the existingstructure.

All retrofit methodshavetheir problemswhich is obviousconsideringnoneof them are


morewidely usedthanthe other.Someproblemswith FRPretrofitting includeits
applicationand durability.High temperatureandhumidity cancauseproblemswith the
in the retrofit. Also, applicationof the FRP is
fibers andpossiblycauseweaknesses
difficult. The rebarretrofitjacket canbe very challengingto apply on an existing
column.The bendingandtying of rebaris time consumingespeciallyon a very large
column.The formwork requiredfor the concretepour will alsobe very difficult to create.

The costanalysisof the two systemsrelies on the life cycle costs.The life cycle of a
columnis the most critical aspectof constructionin today's society.With the numberof
deficientstructuresclimbing andthe resourcesto replacethem limited, it is importantto
extendthe life of the stnrcturescurrentlybeingbuilt. Evenwith higher initial costs,the
optionneedsto be explored.

The main problemwith this analysisis that notmany structureshavebeenbuilt usingthe


FRP system,or rebarretrofit methods.The FRP structuresthat havebeenconstructed
were doneso in the pastten years(Nystromet al. 2003).An entirelife cycle analysishas
not beencompletedfor the two retrofit methods,but somecommonideasare agreed
for FRPif it wasmorewidely usedaswas
upon.The productioncostscouldbe lessened

Experimental
ModalAnalysisof
CivilEngineering
Structures
Alvaro Cunha and Elsa Caetano,Universityof Porto(FEUP),Portugal
This article presents the evolution of experimental modal
analysis in the civil engineering field, from input-output to
output-only modal identification techniques, Many case histories are included from the experiences ofthe authors at the
Laboratory ofVibrations and Monitoring at the University of
Porto.
Decades ago, a major concern ofsuuctural engiaeers was the
development and application of new and powerful numerical
methods for ttre static and dynamic analysis of large civil engineering structures. The rapid development of finite-element
techniques accompanied by tremendous technological progress
in the field of personal computers allowed structural designers to use software packages for accurate simulation of structural behavior.
However, the design and construction of more and more
complex and ambitious civil structures, like d.-s, large cablestayed or suspension bridges, or other special structures have
led structural engineers to develop new experimental tools to
enable the accurate identification
of the most relevant static
and dynamic properties. These tools would provide reliable
data to support calibrating, updating, and validating of structural analysis numerical models used at the design stage.
Tbe continuous ageing and subsequent structural deterioration of a large number of existing structures have encouraged
tle development of efficient vibration-based damage detection
techniques supported by shuctural healttr monitoring systems.
The natural tendency of civil engineering researchers was to
utilize well established input-output modal identification techniques to accurately identify tie main dynamic properties of
civil structures.
However, it is difEcult to excite large civil structures in a controlled manner. Fortunately, remarkable technological progress
in hansducers and analog-to-digital converters has supported
modal analysis of large structures exclusively based on measuring the structural response to ambient excitations and applying suitable stochastic modal identification methods.
The main purpose ofthis article is to briefly present our perspective concerning the evolution of experimental modal
analysis in the civil engineering field, from input-output to
output-only modal identification techniques. This discussion
is strongly influenced by our experience as researchers,

lnput-OutputModal ldentification
Equipment and Test Procedures. Conventional modal testing is based on estimating a set of frequency response functions
(FRFs) relatiog the applied force and corresponding response
at several pairs of points along the structure wittr enough high
spatial and ftequency resolution. The construction of FRIs requires use of an instrumentation chain for structural excitation,
data acquisition, and signal processing.
In small and medium-size structures, the excitation can be
induced by an impulse hammer (Figure 1aJ similar to those
currently used in mechanical engineering. This device has the
advantage of providing a wide-band input that is able to stimulate different modes of vibration, The main drawbacks are the
relatively low frequency resolution of the spectral estimates
(which can preclude the accurate estimation of modal damping factorsJ and the lack of energy to excite some relevant
Based on a paper presented at the first International Modal Analysis
Conference, IOMAC, Copeahagen, Denmuk, April 2005.

12

Figure 7. (a) Impulse hammer; (b) eccentric massvibrotor; (c) electrodynamic shaker over three load cells; d) impulse excitation device for
bridges (K.U. Leuven).
modes of vibration. Due to this problem, some laboratories have
built special impulse devices specifically designed to excite
bridges (Figure 1dl. An alternative, also derived fiom mechanical engineering, is the use of large electrodynani6 shakers (Figure lc), which can apply a large variety of input signals (random, multi-sine, etc.l when duly controlled botl in ftequency
and amplitude using a signal generator and a power amplifier.
The shalcers have the capacity to excite structures in a lower
frequency range and higher frequency resolution. The possibility of applying sinusoidal forces allows for the excitatiou of
the structure at resonance frequencies and, consequently, for
a direct identification of mode shapes.
The controlled excitation oflarge civil engineering structures
requires the use of heavy excitation equipment. One option
frequently used in the past in dynamic testing of dams was the
eccentric mass vibrator (Figure rb), which enables the application of sinusoidal forces with variable frequency and amplitude. The main drawbacks of this technique are low force amplitude induced at low frequencies, some difficulty in
measuring the applied force, and restraining relative movement
of t}le vibrator witi regard to the structure. A better option, in
terms of providing a wide-band excitation over ttre most interesting fiequency range for large civil structures, is the use of
servo-hydraulic shakers. For example, Figure 2 shows two
shakers of this type built at EMPA to excite bridges or dams

SOUNDAND VIBRATIONiJUNE
2OO5

{b}
SFaingrse

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tr'l
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{c)

Flsxur

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plare
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i

|
I

I
ii

f-n l-hil unit

l l i L [l l m l
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Figure 3- Schematic cross-sectionof accelerometers:{a) piezoelectric;


(b) piezoresistive; (c) capacitive; (d) force balance.

Figurc 2. Sewo-hydtaulic shakersto excite: {a) bridges, verticolly; (b)


electro-hydraulic shaker from Arsenal Research;(c) dams, laterdly
{EMPA).
vertically and laterally, as well as an electro-hydraulic mass
reaction shaker from Arsenal Research.
The dynamic response of a structure is usually measured
with accelerometers - piezoelectric, piezoresistive, capacitive
or force balalce,l due to their relatively low cost and high sensitivity (see Figure 3). A particular characteristic ofpiezoelectric accelerometers is that they don't need a power supply and
operate well over a wide frequency range. However, most are
not suited to low-frequency applications. On the contrary,
piezoresistive, capacitive, and force-balance accelerometers
cal provide DC or low-frequency response capability. The electrical signals generated by these tra.nsducers are usually rather
low and must be amplified by conditioning units that may also
provide anti-aliasing, low-pass filtering (allowing lower sampling ratesJ, and analog iDtegratioo to velocities or displacements.
The data acquisition and storage of dynamic data requires
tie use of a-na-nalog-to-digital (A/D) converter in the measurement chain. Raw data must be initially analyzed ald processed;
considering operations of scale conversion, trend removal, and
decimation. Subsequently, the acceleration time history can be
multiplied by appropriate time windows (Hanning, CosineTaper, etc.), to reduce leakage effects, and subdivided into different blocks for evaluation ofaverage spectral, auto spectral,
and cross spechai estimates using the FFT algorithm. Finally,
FRFs (frequency response functions) ca.nbe obtained using estimators H, or H,a The automatic evaluation of FRFs requires
appropriate software for analysis and signal processing, which
is already available in commercial Fourier analyzers. These
analyzers are sometimes implemented by a laptop PCMCIA
card to allow either the acquisition of data tbrough input chaunels or the control of a shaker through an output channel.
Input-Output Modal Identification Methods. There is a wide
variety of input-output modal identification methods whose
application relies either on estimates of a set of FRFs or on the

2006
SOUND
ANDVIBRATION/JUNE

corresponding impulse response functions (IRFs), which can


be obtained tirough the inverse Fourier trausform. These methods attempt to perform some fitting between measured and
theoretical functions and employ different optimization procedures and different levels of simplification. Accordingly,
they are usually classified according to the following criteria:
. Domain of application (time or frequency)
. Type of formulation (indirect or modal and directJ
. Number of modes analyzed (SDOF or MDOF - single degree
of freedom or multi degree of freedom)
. Number of inputs and type of estimates ISISO, SIMO, MIMO,
MISO - single input single output, single input multi output, multi input multi output, multi input single output).
Early methods of identification were developed for the frequency domain. For simple SDOF formulations (peak amplitude, curve-fit, inverse methods, for example), the fit between
a measured and a theoretical FRF of a SDOF system in tie vicinity of each resonant frequency is developed; neglecting the
contribution of resonant modes. In more sophisticated MDOF
methods - rational fraction polynomial (RFP), complex exponential frequency domain (CEFD), polyreference ftequency
domain IPRFD] - the fit between measured and theoretical
FRFs is made globally for a wide range of frequencies.
Tine-domain methods, which tend to provide the best results
when a large frequency rarlge or a large number of modes exist
in the data, were developed because of limitations in tie ftequency resolution of spectral estimates and leakage errors in
the estimates. The most widely known methods are eitler indirect - complex exponential (CEJ, least-squares complex exponential (LSCE), polyreference complex exponential (PRCE),
Ibrahim time domain (ITDJ, eigen system realization algorithm
{ERA), or direct autcregressive moving-average (ARMA).
The gradual development ofall these methods, which are extensively described by Maia, et a1,1 tend to be completely automated systems of acquisition, analysis, processing, and identification, instead of interactive programs initially. Beyond that,
the best-performing methods have been implemented in robust
modal analysis software.2 A special class of modal identification
methods, called tuned-sinusoidal methods (e.g. Asher, Maul corresponds to the particular t54)e of tests that are based on tle application of a sinusoidal excitation at each natural frequency,
which can be implemented using eccentric mass vibrators.
Examples of Forced Vibration Tests. The performance of
classical input-output modal identification tests in civil engineering structures can be of interest both for physical models
and for prototypes. Figures 4 and 5 show a physical model of
Jindo Bridge (South Korea), which was extensively tested to
alalyze the importarrce of dynamic cable-structure interactions
in terms of seismic response analysis.3 Several forced vibra-

Figure 4. {a) lindo cable-stayed bridge; (b) physical model on shake table
(EERC, Univ. Bristol); (c) physical model on shake table (ISMES).

Figure 6. (a) mplitude


of FRF relating vertical acceleration at t /3 span
with the vertical force applied at the opposite 1/3 span; (b) identified
pattem of a set of multiple modes.

Figure5. Application of electro-dynamic shaker:(a) responsemeosurement with piezoelectric accelerometer;(b) measwement of cable tension; (c) whole unit.
tion tests were performed using electro-dynamic shakers (at the
University of Bristol and ISMES) and considering two alternative configurations for the model. First, additional masses were
distributed along the cables according to the similitude theory
to idealize tle cables' mass and consider lateral cable vibration. In a second phase, no distributed additional mass were
introduced along the cables, but equivalent masses were concentrated at ttreir extremities. This study identified the existence of different sets of multiple modes; some being pure cable
modes and others coupled modes. Each of these sets presents
a commorr shape for the deck and towers and different cable
motions. The corresponding natural ftequencies are very close,
always in the vicinity of a global mode of the primary system
(Figure 6).
Several Iarge civil engineering structures, like buildings,
bridges or dams, have also been subiected to forced vibration
tsts in tie past using heavy excitation devices only available
at well equipped laboratories. That was the case of EMPA,
where Cantieni and other researchers have tested a significant
number of bridges and dams.a-6Figures 7 through g show some
exa.mples of tlat remarkable activity, presenting in particular
some of the modes of vibration accurately identified at the
Swedish Norsjd dam.
'14

Figure 7. (o) Dala bridge; (b) Aarburg bridge; (c) electro-hydraulic


brotor used at Aarburg bridge.

Figure 8. (a) Norsjd dam; (b) view of instrumented


side of reinforced concrete wall.

vi-

point ot domstreant

SOUNDAND VIBRATIONiJUNE
2006

Figure 9. Some identified

modes of vibration

at Norsjti dam (modes 7, 2, 3, 70, 71, 72)-

Output-OnlyModal ldentification
The main problem associated with forced vibration tests on
bridges, buildings, or dams stems ftom the difficulty in exciting ttre most significant modes of vibration in a low range of
ftequencies with sufficient energy and in a controlled manner,
In very large, flexible structures like cable-stayed or suspension bridges, the forced excitation requires extremely heavy
and expensive equipment usually not available in most dynamic labs. Figure 10 shows the impressive shakers used to
excite tle Tatara ald Yeongjong bridges.
Fortunately, recent technological developments in tra:rsducers and A/D converters have made it possible to accurately
measute the very low levels of dynamis response induced by
ambient excitations like wind or traffic. This has stimulated
the development of output-only modal identification methods.
Therefore, the performance of output-only modal identification tests became an alternative of great importance in the field
of civil engineering. This allows accurate identification of
modal properties of large structures at the commissioning stage
or during their lifetime without interruption of normal traffic.
Equipment and Test Procedures. Modern force-balance accelerometers (Figure 11a) are well suited for measurements in
the range of 0-50 Hz and are virtually insensitive to high-frequeocy vibrations. They have contributed significantly to the
success of ambient vibration tests. In such tests. the structural
ambient response is captured by one or more reference sensors
at fixed positions and with a set ofroving sensors at different
measurement points along the structure a-nd in different setups. The number of points used is conditioned by the spatial
resolution needed to characterize appropriately the shape of
the mostrelevant modes of vibration (according to preliminaryfinite element modelingJ, while the reference points must be
far enough from the corresponding nodal points,
Force-balance accelerometers require an appropriate power
supply, and their analog signals are usually transmitted to a
data acquisition system with an A/D conversion card of at least
t0 bits through relatively long electrical cables. This system
can be implemented on a normal PC. Some data acquisition and
processing systems, specifically designed for ambient vibration
tests, are already available (Figure ffb). They are similar to the
Fourier analyzers used for classical experimental modal analysis.
Most output-only modal identification tests in large civil
structures have been based worldwide on the use of long elechical cables. Implementation of this solution is cumbersome
a.ndtime consuming. Wireless systems are being developed to
avoid this problem or at least drastically reduce cable lengtl
SOUND
ANDVIBRATION/JUNE
MO6

Figure 7O.Forced vibration tests: (a) Tatara cable-stayed bridge; (b)


Yeongjongsuspensionbridge; {c) high force shaker.
through local digitization and single-cable signal transmission.
A very efficient alternative has been intensively used at FEUPT
and LNEC8 based on triaxial seismic recorders synchronized
through GPS sensors.
Output-Only Modal Identification
Methods. Anbient excitation usually provides multiple inputs and a wide-bald frequency content thus stimulating a significant number of vibration modes. For simplicit5r, output-only modal identification
methods assume that the excitation input is a zero-mean
Gaussian white noise This means that real excitation can be
expressed as the output of a suitable filter excited with white
noise input. Some additional computational poles without
physical meaning appear as a result of the white noise assumption.
There are two main groups of output-only modal identification mettrods - nonparametric methods essentially developed
in the frequency domain and parametric methods in the time
domain. The basic frequency domain method (peak-picking),
though already applied some decades ago to the modal identification ofbuildingss,lo and bridges11,12,
was only conveniently
implemented by Felberl3 about 12 years ago. This approach,
which leads to estimates of operational mode shapes, is based
on the construction of average normalized power spectral den-

Cracking in pavements

Abstr act
Cracking in pavements i,sa perntanenl preoc:c'upution.fora l.ol of re.search.er,s
in roads
domain, becausethis is the mostfrequent phenomenonthat happen.son,site, making a lot of
problems. In lhe same tinte the road entertaining in ottr coltntn,, like all over the world, i,ya
permanentpreoccupationfor all road builder.sbut al.sofor the bene.ficiar.s,
who wishe,yto reali,se
durable works respecting som.ecosts lintits.
This paperwish's to present afrench labrtralont le.sl equipntent,named Thermal ShrinkageBending Test,for crackpropagation in dffirent ry;te.so.f-bituminousmaterial,s in controlled
conditions of time and temperature.
The testedmaterial,sare i,ssue,sfroman internationcrlexperimental-program TGl (Task-Groupl),
RILEM, group that is in a con,slantresearch in the /ield of c'rucking in pavement.s.
For thi,spurpose we have reali,seda nuntber of te.st.s,
ot,cr lhree type.so.fdouble layer.\tstam,s.euclt
one v,ith a di/Jbrenttype oJ'interface.

l. Introduction
Cracking in pavementsis a constantpreoccupatiorr
tbr all researchersin the roadsdornain,
because
this phenomenon,
is the baseof all damagestlratcauseflnally,the lost of the entiresystern.
Nowadays,the problem posed by all organisms is to obtain durable works respectingthe
environmentalconditions.The row nraterialsfbr inliastrLlctllres,
are not regenerative
sources.ancl
fiorn this point of view our task is to flnd all typesof solLrtions,
to respondaffirmativeto this task:
Respectthe environmentand assuredurableintiastructureworks.
Today, the project engineershave the tendency to create roads systernswith a reduced
thickness.This economy in mixture associatedwith tlre tratfic that nowadaysis more and more
aggressive
arrdwith the thermalvariations,leadsto cracking.After the crackarrivesat the surfaceis
very difficult to stop its planepropagation(rarlification).
Our task is, to block the crack most tirnepossibleor to stop it's propagation
at the source.'T'he
crack
velocity dependsby various factors,that we r,villdiscLrssin this arlicle, afier a laboratorytest
carnpaignnamedtherr-nalshrinkage- bendingtest.
This article wishesto met in evidence,by the tlrermalshrirrkage* berrdingtest a French
laboratorytest,the crackingperformances
of two differentmixturecomplexes.The testedmaterials
are issuedfrom an experimentalsite. realizedat Ancones ltaly in TG4 RII-EM pro.ject.Task
Group4 is the name of this internatiorralproject. started by RILEM (lrrternatiorral
Union of
Laboratories
and Expertsin ConstructionMaterials). Every fbur years.by 1989,an international
congressis dedicatedto this topic: cracl<ing
in pavernents.

2. Cracking in pavements:causesand solutions


The crackingphenomenonhave like reasons( I ,2):
- the traffic, that nowadaysis more and more aggressive:
- the thermal variations,a problernthat can not be solved;
- the mixture fatigue: causedby the increasedtratfic levels,frost-defrostcyclesand very long
periodswithout maintenance;
- the contraction,at the level of hydraulicstabilizedlayers;
- supportground movementsor with a low carryingcapacity:
- constructionerrors:working in cold seasonor r,vhenit's raining, dirty surfaces;
- aging effect, becausebitumen is an organic uraterial,that changeshis characteristicsin time;
The crack will be fonned by a couple(DeBond99),not by every singlefbctormentionedabove.
that is responsiblefor all damages,becauseis the
This couple it's called fatigue.A phenornenon
sum of two factors that is difflcult to be kept under control. The temperaturefrom this couple, is
is also responsiblefor its initiationthat
responsiblefor 50ohof the crackslength(ll). Ternperature
after a developing period is peaked by the traffic for the rest of 50%. The temperatureeffect is
mentionedalso by (12) like having an 80o/oeffect and traff-icthe rest of 20%o.We have to mention,
that first affirmation(ll) is made over a semi-rigidstructure,and the second(12) over a supple
structure,more vulnerableat cracking. Is importarrtto remark that the influenceof the temperature
for a betterlool<over it.
is decisive.In fig.l the coupleis separated.

;'

_!1,1

i,.irja"ai

'll

Figure l. Crack developingschenra.by M.D. Foulkes(8)


To reach a durable structure is important to have a perfect bonding between bituminous
(3,4). lf the bituminous layersare not very well bonded,the road life time will be
interfaces
layers
reducewith 90%.(5)
Figure nr.2 give a simple explication, showirrg the two principal fflanners in crack
propagation.A first one, crack propagationwithor"rtdebondingat interfbcelevel: under traffic and
thermalcontractionin very well bondedinterfaces.A secondone, the crack propagateshorizontally
from debondedinterfacezones,followed by the vertical propagationjust at the road surface.

Partially crackedstlucture under tlaflic


and thernal actions

lll

Veltical
propagation

'.

Verlrcalprol)cgrtion

:lir

....
..:.

Debonding
phenonrenoil

--E;*;.'11.-'
\-J

..

... i_ -.**_l-- l r i
t

:---

'...

\.
i

\:-

.-..---.,1-l-.1...........
-T;?:r

-: :*

--/

Cracked shxcture with bonded


interface

Horizontal
propagation

Cracked structure
with debonded
interfac

Dividedcrackin a
debondedsnucture

Figure2. Crackpropagation
in differentinterface
conditions,
afterH. Goacolou(7)
Solutionsto assuredurabilitv:
insertionof an interfacesystemthat will be ableto delayor stopthe cracktransmission;
assuringa goodbondingbetweenthe superiorsmixturelayers;
realizegoodqualityworks,respectingthe prescriptionandstandards;
do not reduceexcessivelythe heightof mixturelayers;
- usegoodquality bitumenandmodifiedemulsions,werethe gridsare not used;
If the systemwill be correctlybondedresults:[7,8]
gooddistributionof efforts;
durabilityof all structure,
because
the systemwill work entirely;
the crackwill be delayedor stoppedby the reinforcement
elementfrom the interface'

3. Tested materials
Like we alreadysaid,the testedmaterialsare issuedfrom an experimentalsite, realizedar
AnconesItaly in TG4-Rileminternational
research
activity.This experimental
site is madeby a
doublelayerACll mixture(AsphaltConcreteI l) eachlayerhaving50mmthickness.
It's realized
in threesections,everyone of it, with a differenttype of interfacebetweenthe two AC I I mixture
layers.One sectionis the UN (Unreinforced),
the secondis FP (FiberGlassPolymer)andthethird
CF (CarbonFiber).
In this articlewe showthe resultsafterthermalshrinkage
bendinglaboratory
testcampaign
overUN andFP samples.
UN havingat the interfacea tack-coat
with an emulsiondescribed
above,
in a dosageof: 210 glmz. The particularityof FP is that the grid have a big rigidity being
impregnated
andprotectedby a specialgreenpolymer.
In tablesbelloware showedthe geometricalandmechanicalcharacteristics
of testedmaterials.

FP

Grid netting
lmm*mml

Bar section
lmm2l

Tensile
strength
lkN/ml

10

105

Elongation
strenoth[%l
J

Elastic
modulus
lN/mm'l
23000

Table I . FP- Classerid characteristics


Tested L e n q t hI m m W i d t h [ m m l ] T h i c k n e s s
samotes
560
110
95
Table 2. Samplegeon')etry

UN

HzOcontent
loAl
ZY-J I

Breaking

80-120

2-4

PseudoPolymerized
viscosity bitumenSBS
Enqler["El
lohl
16-25
69

Table 3. UN- Cationic rnodi fleciernu Ision-characteristics

r i - - _ , , . * " - l
S u p p o rpt l a t e si n A l

Figure3. Crackinggageirrplarrtation
(seealso Fig.a)

4. Test principle and instrumentation


Thermal shrinkagebendingtest, is a laboratoryFrenchtestirrgequipmentrepresentedin Fig. 4.
It consistof a testing layer were the sarnplesare rrettec'lurrdertwo different types of solicitationsat
5"C ( the temperaturefrom the testingchamber):
- a traction,that is the equivalentof thermalshrirrl<age
rvith a speedof 0.01rnnr/min;
- a flexion.that simulatesthe traffic actionwith a li"equency
of lHz arrd0.2mm flesh;
The particularityof this equipmentis that,quite big sarrlrlesare testedovertwo actions,that are the
two most importantactionsthat exist on site.
In the literaturethis equipmenthasbeenLrsedby,dif'ferent
Ph.D.students[X] arrdalso by the
researchteam from Autun LaboratoryDepartrnent.[13]
Testedsamplesare realizedin three steps:
- I't is cutting the receiveddouble layer that has l00rnm thickness,at 80mm thickness
respecting
the placernent
of the interfaceat the middleof the sample;
- 2t1d
over the binder layer, we have realizeda specialbitr,rnrinous
layer called BBS- Beton
Bitumineux Soufrd,(Asphalt Concreteu,itlr soulle- a yellow specialfiller that in contact
with high temperature
transformsin liqLrid);
- 3'othis BBS layerwill be cut atthe t/zof sarnpleslength,having like this a pre-creaked
layer
underthe new anti-crackingcomplex; The realizedcrackhas4mm width and l5mrn depth.
UnderthedoublesolicitationtrafTrcand thermalshrinl<age,
the crackcan developin two rnanners:
- directlyat the surface,maintairrirrg
bondedthe interfbce;
- just at interfacelevel;
Undertheconstantflexion [3] if the crack is bloclieclat intelfacelevel,the overlay'rnixturefatigue
causesthe top-downcracl<

Superiorbar

P n c u r r l a lp
i ci v o tt o i n d u c et h ed e t l e c t i o n
of
0.2rrm/r.ninrvitha tiequencyof I l-lzl

Blockagepiecesfor
verticals/horrzontals
movements

lmposed traction of
0.0lmm/min

Pivoting axels fbr


the supportplates
Variableinterface

Supportplates
Articulatedrods,fbr fleche
transrnlssron

Alumrnurnplates,screwedon the
supportplates

Testedsample.double
layerACll (80mm)
with the third precrackedlayerBBS
( l 5 m m ) , t o t a l l y9 5 m m
height:(gluedoh the
A l u r n i n i u mp l a t e s )

bending
testprincipleschema
Figure4. Thermalshrinkage
bendingtest
the principleschemaof thermalshrinkage
In Fig.4 (frontalview) is represented
The frontalsideof the sampleis implantedwith a crackinggage.This crackinggage
equipment.
have24 copperfilaments,that functionby a very simpleprinciple.If the supportsurfaceis intact,
all the 24 filamentswill function. After the test begin, and the crack startsto propagatein the
material,everyfilamentwill deliverat the acquisitioncentrethe momentwhenthe crack arrivesat
their level,by breaking.We can follow in this mannerthe crack propagationin time underthe
We haveusedalsoin our instrumentation
straingages,for the backsidepartof
doublesolicitation.
will be donein a futurepaper.
thesample,buttheirexploitation

5. Results
betweentwo type
The resultspresented
in this papergive a betterlock overthe differences
of interfaceanti-crackingsystems.
We havenoticethat,overthe testdurationtherearethreezonesof interest,in both
The first zone is the startingor the boot zone,when the materialis in the first interactionwith the
Is clearthatthis first zoneis quiteparticr-rlar
because
alsothethermalshrinkage
startits
solicitation.
developing.
The flexion like we alreadysaid is constantfor all test duration0.2mmfleshat I Hz
The tractionhavein steada constant
width developing
from 0 mm to maximum7.2 mm.
frequency.
This width developingis associated
with the 0.0lrnm/minute
or 0.6mm/hourfor a maximumtest
durationof l2 hours.
A secondzone,namedby us reflectivecracking,thatcharacterize
thebiggestpartof thetest.
A third one,that is properto the top-downcrackingphenomenon,
that has beenremarkedby us
afterthis first campaignof exploitations.

The comparison betweenclassic log homesand


modern precast concretelog homes

First of all i presentyou the main ideeasin this two articles.The first article talks about
the log homes in America, a rich tradition spanning centuries of progress and huppy
homeowners. Scandinavian settlers introduced the first log home building techniques in
America during the 17th century. By clearing forestlandto createvillages and using the fallen
timber as a building material,theseearly settlersunknowingly beganthe first "green" building
movement. To this day, log home building remains one of the only construction methods
heavily dependenton renewablenatural resources.The secondarlicle speaksabout the same
log homes but in another meaning, with logs made out of concrete casts. Cultured t og
Systems worked with Missoula Concrete Construction to create the home system. The
catalyst was the potential for a shortage of high-quality timber that could create
wooden logs of sufficient size, says CIS president Stewart Hansen. The concrete
material offered added benefits that had appeal to homeowners, too.
Further more i will start to appraise the two building types from more kinds of
view, such as: building cost, energy efficiency, maintenance costs, number of stories
and others.
In the matter of:

l.Building cost
{.

A traditional log home's labor costs typically runs


home.
$50,000to$70,000more than a 2,000-square-foot
i' The precast concrete design oflers lower material costs and less construction
labor, saving money. A wood-log home's labor cost typically requires an
additional $25-$35 per square foot for erection.
{' That cost is eliminated with the precast construction, which includes erection
in its packaged price."This is a substantial savings in anyone's budgetl'

recognizethat log homes are usually highly customizedboth in design and materials.
They often include featuresconsideredupgradesin other types of housing.

tendency to label them as a type of prefabricated home for which cost comparison data
is more readily available.

precastconcretelog homes. This can be seenby comparing the constructionprocess


as in the followine table:

Stase
Excavation
Foundation
Structuralshell
Interior framing

Mechanicalsystems
Roofing

Trim

Painting,varnishing

Precast concrete loq homes Log


Tvoical
Typical
Tvpical
Tvoical
Typical
Higher labor costsfor log
erection:timberedroofs
Typical
Higher cost due to
construction details required
in framing to accommodate
log shapeand settling
Typical
Typical to higher cost
dependineon svstem
Typical
Typical to higher cost
dependingon owner
preference
Typical
Typical to higher cost if
customtrim is used;custom
cabinetry, stairs and rails
common
Typical
Typical to higher, usually
more stained and varnished
areas,may be done by

2.Energyefficiency
. Log molds produce the look. The precast concrete panels' resemblance to wood

logs results from producing molds from actual hand-hewn logs. The panels
measure 16 inches tall, 8 inches deep and a maximum of 28 feet long. Three styles
of log currently are offered as standard designs: a l6-inch-tall panel with a handhewed, squared-off look; a panel with two 8-inch-tall DJogs; and a 16-inch-tall
panel with a squared-off style called the "back East lookl'
* One of the key benefits the panels offer is that each "log"
features an
insulated core to improve energy efficiency. The logs provide an insulating
value of R-19 (a typical production-built new home offers walls with only R-13
insulation value).
{. The panels are cast with a flat in- terior side, so they can easily be framed out
with additional insulation behind an interior wall.
* The panels also are designed so the interior insulation completely covers the
home's corners, creating no gaps that allow for energy loss.
.:. Concrete also is a good insulator on its own.lndeed, concrete's thermal mass
absorbs heat during the day and releases it more slowly as temperatures cool,
providing more even indoor temperature.
Log homes have a deservedreputationfor energy efficiency. Tests performedby the

federal government found a log structure to perform as well or better than other types
of construction,including an R-l1 insulated 2x4 framed wall structure,even though
the nominal R-value of the log wall was lessthan nine.
Experts attribute the energy efficiency of log homes to thermal mass of the solid
wood walls. In addition, a well-sealedand maintainedlog home doesnot exhibit the
energy loss due to convection or air infiltration that is characteristic of framed wall
construction.
Although log homes have inherent energy efficiency, this can be offset by poor
construction or maintenance. Log home manufacturersprovide specific construction
details and maintenanceguidelines to ensurethat homeowners realize the full benefit
of log construction. If these guidelines are not followed, the result may be high
utility bills.

3.Maintenancecosts
*

The precastpanels don't need to be restainedor sealedeach year, as happenswith


wood logs, saving maintenancecosts.

The precast home also eliminates the need to re-stain and reseal wood logs
to retain protection from weather and insects, saving as much as $6,000 every
three to five years.
While not a factor in appraisinga log home to be constructed,maintenanceplays a
role in evaluating existing houses. Like precast concrete log homes, log homes
require periodic maintenance. As with precast concrete log housing, neglecting
maintenanceaffects the appearanceand perceived value of the home.
Log home manufacturers and builders stressthe importance of maintaining a water
resistant wood preservative on the exterior log surfaces with UV protection or
inhibitors.
Failure to do so may result in a gray weathered appearancethat some people find
attractivebut many do not.
While this may affect the perceivedvalue of the house,the condition is not usually
seriousand is easily remediedby simply pressurewashing or bleaching the exterior
and applying a sealant.While the condition may look serious,it is usually no more
seriousthan a conventionalhome in needof re-painting.

4.Shrinkage and settlement


{.
*

This is in stark contrast to the typical wood log home assembly that takes years to
stabilize.
Wood logs shrink and crush against one another, allowing settlement of several
inches.
Settlementoccursin all types of houses,but the nature of log constructioncan make
them susceptibleto greatersettlementthan other systems. How settlementis handled
by manufacturers, carpenters, and homeowners can all affect the quality of a log

home.
Shrinkage(the dimensional change) of logs occurs as they acclimate to the inside
environment of the home. The amount of shrinkageper log (and ultimately the whole
wall system)may differ due to a variety of factors.
Settlement results primarily from the shrinkage and/or compaction of logs after
construction of a home. Shrinkage affects logs differently, depending on the
averagemoisture content of the logs and the constructionsystemused. Usually,
logs settleas they shrink, slightly reducingthe overall height of a log wall.
Because log systems vary widely, there is no standard for treatment of
shrinkage/settlementthat applies to all. The Log Homes Council of the National
Association of Home Builders specifiesthat its membersmust either utilize a nonsettling log system or have some method for accommodatingsettlement,but leaves
the engineering details to the individual manufacturers.

5.Number of stories
*

Homes canbe built as high as five stories thanksto the structuralsupport providedby
the l6-inch tall precastconcretepanels.
The panels are connected with rebar through drilled holes
The wood log homescan be built as two storieshigh.

6.Bnviromentallv friendlv
*

The concrete construction also offers other environmentally-friendly benefits.


Harvesting of large trees is eliminated, and concrete's basic ingredients - sand,
stone and water - are abundantly and readily available.
The cement used in the mix is energy-intensive to create, but is looking into
admixfure replacements, particularly fly ash, which can reduce the amount of
cement needed.

In conclusionthesetwo constructionmethodsare both basedon sameprinciples but the


composite materials in the structure have a different behaviour. Before begining one of this
kinds of constructionwe must analysethe situation from many points of view, but on the
first place should be our safety and then the alocatedbudget. So if i would be to chooseone
of the homespresentedin thesetwo articlesi would go on the hand of a precastconcretelog
home becausei think i would fell much secure knowing my house is fire-resistant and
resistant to deterioration, insect infestation and mold growth. The combination of
energy savings, resistance to nature and good looks gives these homes strong
potential for homeowners who realize "log" doesn't have to mean "woodl'