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Collection Technique ..........................................................................

Cahier technique no. 213

Calculations for
LV and HV networks

B. de METZ-NOBLAT

Building a New Electric World


"Cahiers Techniques" is a collection of documents intended for engineers
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in the electrotechnical field and electronics. They also provide better
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Each "Cahier Technique" provides an in-depth study of a precise subject in
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Foreword
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no. 213
Calculations for
LV and HV networks

Benoît de METZ-NOBLAT
ESE engineer, worked for Saint-Gobain, then started at Merlin Gerin
in 1986.
He is a member of the Electrical Network competence group that
studies electrical phenomena concerning the operation of networks
and their interaction with devices and equipment.

ECT 213 first issue, December 2004


Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.2
Calculations for
LV and HV networks

This Cahier Technique publication is intended to provide a general


overview of the main electrotechnical calculations carried out in
engineering studies on electrical systems at all voltage levels.
It is complementary to other Cahier Technique publications that deal more
with the operation of devices and installations in electrical systems. This
document will help owners, designers and operators understand the
importance of these calculations in ensuring correct use of the electrical
network and their impact on the total cost of ownership.

Contents
1 Introduction p. 4
2 Life of an electrical network 2.1 Life cycle of an electrical network p. 5
2.2.Electrical phenomena in networks p. 6
2.3 Types of networks and their operation p. 6
2.4 Necessary calculations p. 6
2.5 Summary table p. 7
3 Study prerequisites 3.1 Method p. 8
3.2 Role of the expert p. 10
4 Electrical-network calculations 4.1 Dependability p. 11
4.2 Steady-state conditions p. 13
4.3 Short-circuit p. 15
4.4 Protection p. 17
4.5 Stability p. 19
4.6 Harmonics p. 21
4.7 Overvoltages p. 23
4.8 Electromagnetic compatibility p. 26
4.9 Measurements for audits p. 28
5 Summary - Main risks for users - Answers provided by studies p. 31
6 Conclusion p. 33
Appendix 1. History p. 34
Appendix 2. Software p. 35
Appendix 3. Necessary data p. 36
Bibliography p. 37

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.3


1 Introduction

Electrical networks have long been studied to c Electricity is now considered a product like any
ensure effective supply of electricity to processes. other, which implies a need for quality.
The main aspects studied are design, operation and Consumers want access to electrical energy
upgrades. suited to their needs. Given the extremely
Note that, in this document, the term "process" diverse requirements of processes in terms of
refers to all applications of electricity users safety and quality, the electricity supplied must
(commercial, infrastructure, industry, distribution- meet the stipulated specifications.
system manager). At every level in the electrical supply chain
(production, transmission, distribution), energy
Given the recent worldwide context, the importance suppliers must satisfy customers and users in
of electrical network studies is growing continuously. line with personalised contractual clauses.
c Over the past few years, the electrical world and c Environmental protection criteria have become
its organisational modes have undergone rapid obligatory in terms of the selection and
change. consumption of materials (minimum
v With deregulation of the electric market, the environmental impact) and energy (maximum
economic rules have changed. Consumers can take efficiency).
advantage of the competition between suppliers and c More than ever, economic aspects are a
utilities can extend their markets. crucial factor.
v Users are refocusing on their core business and Users must optimise the total cost of ownership
divesting secondary activities such as those (TCO) of the electrical network. The TCO
required to run electrical networks. Examples are includes all expenditures required to use
subcontracting of maintenance or operation of electrical energy, i.e. investments, operation,
installations to specialised service companies. maintenance and the purchase of energy.
v Technological progress has also had a number of To demonstrate the importance of calculations in
effects. engineering studies, this Cahier Technique
First of all, digital electronics and computer networks publication will successively discuss:
have opened new horizons, but also imposed new
v aspects pertaining to the life of an electrical
constraints. They have improved electric system
network;
instrumentation and control, including remote
control, but at the same time have made processes v calculation methods;
more sensitive to energy quality. v the main calculations required according to the
Secondly, the trend toward multiple energy sources type of network and the applications involved.
(combined heat and power - CHP, renewable Note that the calculations presented here
energy) and the widespread use of non-linear loads represent only one element in the overall
can, over time, have major impact on network electrical-engineering process.
architecture and operating modes, due to voltage
disturbances, protection needs and regulations.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.4


2 Life of an electrical network

A number of aspects concerning the life of an


electrical network are discussed in this section,
so that the readers can gain a better grasp on
their own installations and take action at the
correct level in terms of the subject presented New design
here: n
io

t
pa
c life cycle, i.e. the successive phases in the life

i
tic
of an electrical network from its design on

An
Design End
through to upgrades (see Fig. 1 );

ts -
Construction of life
c electrical phenomena encountered in system

Forecas
operation;
c types of networks and their operation, which Network
directly determine the impact of events on
electrical components; Upgrades Process Operation
c finally, the calculations required to develop
economically and technically viable solutions,
and which constitute one of the final selection
criteria of the user.
Maintenance

Fig. 1: Life cycle of an electrical network.

2.1 Life cycle of an electrical network


The life cycle of an electrical network They are defined by calculations, taking into
(see Fig. 1 ) comprises four typical phases account all possible serious problems that can
primarily concerned by the calculations occur.
presented in this document.
c Maintenance
c Design and installation Network performance levels are maintained by
These are all the operations leading up to an maintenance operations that can be preventive
installation that is ready to supply electrical (before problems occur) or corrective (following
power to processes. Various studies determine a problem).
the basic choices, including the network At times, additional measures and calculations
architecture, sizing of equipment, protection, etc. are required to solve unforeseen difficulties.
During this phase, it is important to carry out c Upgrades
calculations that assist in making the decisions Adaptation of electrical installations to the
and determine future performance. changing needs of processes generally results in
c Operation major work to renovate, modify and expand the
This is the operational phase of installations, system. This step requires calculations for the
involving the supply of electrical power to planned modifications, taking into account all
processes and during which various events, acquired experience.
normal and abnormal, occur on the network Correct execution of the calculations required
leading to operation in normal, downgraded or during the various phases of the life cycle
safe modes. requires a good understanding of the electrical
The protection and automation systems step in phenomena likely to occur in the network.
to deal with disturbances and critical situations.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.5


2.2 Electrical phenomena in networks
An electrical network is made up of different The main events associated with the above
parts (components, devices and equipment) that classes of phenomena produce very diverse
mutually influence each other. System operation effects on the distribution system and processes:
over time and on a given site is the result of this c interruption and breaks in the supply of
interaction, in compliance with the laws of electricity;
electricity expressed by a set of equations
c voltage sags and variations;
establishing relations between values such as
voltage, current, impedance, time, etc. c transient currents;
The classification of electrical phenomena c harmonics;
according to the response time of the system c short-circuits;
(time constants) defines typical behaviour that c electromechanical oscillations;
must be handled on a case by case basis:
c overvoltages due to switching, arcs and
c discontinuous phenomena - temporary recovery transients;
interruption of the supply;
c overvoltages caused by lightning;
c slow phenomena - standard changes in
c coupling between power and control currents.
operating conditions;
c stable phenomena - steady-state conditions; The magnitudes of the effects listed above
depend on the types of networks and operating
c fast phenomena - influence of the variable requirements.
effects of rotating machines;
c conducted electromagnetic phenomena -
influence of waves propagated by cables;
c radiated electromagnetic phenomena -
radiation.

2.3 Types of networks and their operation


Certain parameters specific to the electrical c Network diagram
installation in question determine the necessary v voltage levels;
calculations.
v structure (radial, loop, double/single supplies,
c Type of source double/single busbars);
v short-circuit power; v configuration (normal/back-up, redundant);
v speed and voltage regulators; v system earthing arrangements (SEA);
v harmonic pollution; v line lengths;
v normal or replacement. v power-factor correction;
c Type of load v types of switching devices;
v power (active/reactive, installed/drawn); v maintenance requirements.
v operating characteristics (commissioning, c Standards, regulations and local work habits
sensitivity to disturbances);
v phase unbalance; Analysis of the above parameters determines
the types of studies capable of providing
v harmonic loads; quantitative solutions for the problems at hand.
v priorities of different loads for the process
(normal / essential / vital).

2.4 Necessary calculations


The purpose of the calculations is to analyse and
c short-circuits;
foresee system responses to various situations.
The results impact on network architecture, c protection;
selection of device and equipment characteristics, c stability;
and operating rules. c harmonics;
The following sections cover: c overvoltages;
c dependability; c electromagnetic compatibility (EMC);
c steady-state conditions; c measurements for evaluations and audits.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.6


2.5 Summary table
The table ( Figure 2 ) presents along a double v electrical events;
scale (time and frequency) the information v network types and operation;
discussed above:
v types of calculation.
v classes of phenomena;

Time 10 s 1s 0.1 s 10 ms 1 ms 0.1 ms 0.01 ms 1 µs


Frequency 0.1 Hz 1 Hz 10 Hz 100 Hz 1 kHz 10 kHz 100 kHz 1 MHz

Class of phenomenon
Discontinuous
Slow
Fast
Stable
Conducted electromagnetic
Radiated electromagnetic

Electrical events
Interruptions and breaks in supply
Voltage sags and
variations
Transient currents
Electromechanical oscillations
Harmonics, flicker
Short-circuits
Overvoltages caused by switching,
arcs and recovery transients
Overvoltages caused
by lightning
Coupling between power and control currents

Network type and operation


Reliability of system and components
Regulation of system voltage
and frequency
Load operation
Overload protection, load shedding
Monitoring of rotating machines
(speed and voltage)
Short-circuit protection
Power-electronics assemblies
Switchgear operation

Type of calculation
Dependability
Dynamic stability
Load flow
Harmonics
Short-circuit, protection, SEA
Switching transients
Atmospheric transients
EMC

Time 10 s 1s 0.1 s 10 ms 1 ms 0.1 ms 0.01 ms 1 µs


Frequency 0.1 Hz 1 Hz 10 Hz 100 Hz 1 kHz 10 kHz 100 kHz 1 MHz

Fig. 2: Summary of electrical-network operation.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.7


3 Study prerequisites

In addition to the necessary know-how, the In appendix 1, a rapid historical presentation


means implemented for network calculations shows the radical changes in the means used,
constitute an essential aspect for studies, for a from the origins to present day, due to the new
number of reasons: technologies available and their decreasing cost.
c complete approach in terms of the method, to This section presents the approach used for
ensure valid final results; calculations and the digital tools currently
c adaptation of tools to needs which can vary employed, then discusses the importance of the
depending on the types of calculation and the expert's role in the calculations.
applications;
c investment in tools and their maintenance, at
the lowest possible cost.

3.1 Method
The overall calculation procedure follows a list of the important phenomena for an
standard scientific approach, i.e. simple in its application.
principle, but precise and rigorous in its
c Phenomena and events studied
execution. This section discusses the steps in
This step consists in selecting, on the basis of
the method, then the currently used digital
the above analysis, the phenomena for which
simulation tools.
calculations will be run.
Steps c Quantitative analysis
Figure 3 shows the different steps in calculating Use of the digital quantification tool comprises:
electrical systems. v Modelling
Modelling an electrical network means
c Need representing each element and all the
The overall purpose of calculations is to foresee interconnections between elements by equations
the quantitative behaviour of a real system in expressing the electrical, magnetic and
order to size it, understand its operation or mechanical behaviour. The equations must be
control it. adapted to the phenomena studied.
c Qualitative analysis v Simulation
Preliminary analysis, based on experience and Simulation of an electrical network means
know-how, makes it possible to draft a qualitative simultaneously solving all the equations in the

Need
Real system Quantitative prediction

Qualitative
analysis

Phenomena
Calculation loop Quantitative analysis
and events
= Modelling + simulation
to be studied

Experience
(measurements) Validation loop
Comparison

Fig. 3: The various steps in calculating electrical systems.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.8


model. The main variable can be space, time or calculation and present the results in the form of
frequency. Simulation on a computer requires values, tables and curves (see Fig. 4 ).
calculation software. The table in appendix 2 lists the software
suitable for the different calculations.
c Quantitative prediction
The simulations cover the possible situations c Data bank
and relevant parameters. Processing and Each electrotechnical element is described by the
formatting of the results produces the desired models and the characteristic physical values. All
prediction. of this data is stored in a data bank. Appendix 3
c Experience, measurements and validation list the main data required for calculations.
This step checks that quantification was correctly The investment consists essentially of the
carried out, i.e. that the models and digital software and its maintenance because the cost
processing produced significant results. of hardware has become negligible due to
Comparison of the prediction with measurements widespread use of PCs.
is a validation technique that justifies the selected Most software programs are available on the
method. It may be requested to guarantee the market, supplied by utilities, equipment
announced results. manufacturers, electrical consulting firms,
schools and universities.
Digital means
Digital calculation is now widely used and Evaluation
comprises a number of elements. This method is the means to confirm and
quantify the phenomena foreseen by the theory.
c Hardware
Under certain circumstances, it also reveals
The calculation device is a computer, generally a
poorly identified phenomena.
PC, which now offers sufficient memory and
calculating speed. A particularly difficult aspect is the experimental
validation of the results which requires experience
c Software and know-how. For example, the necessary
All system equations are processed by a special measures depend on the type of study and
program. The user-machine interface (UMI) can disturbance monitoring (with interpretation of the
be used to add data to the models, start the results) may be required.

Fig 4: UMI screen for data entry and the display of the results (source - Schneider Electric).

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.9


3.2 Role of the expert
The above method has been proven by many c recognise the orders of magnitude and detect
years of practical experience. any inconsistencies;
But though it provides reliable results for the c evaluate the tools and models to select the
purpose to which it is put, correct results most suitable;
nonetheless require the knowledge, know-how c make the necessary approximations to simplify
and experience of specialised engineers. the calculations without altering the results;
These experts are in a position to: c check and interpret the results to propose
c sift through all the available data and retain effective solutions.
only the relevant information;

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.10


4 Electrical-network calculations

This Cahier Technique publication covers all c the contribution of the study and its
electrical networks and consequently all deliverables;
applications: c an example of an application drawn from real
c on public, industrial, commercial and studies carried out by Schneider Electric.
residential networks; The overall goal is simply to briefly inform the
c from low to high voltages. reader and the scope of each example is
This section describes the studies listed above, therefore necessarily limited. For more detailed
systematically taking into account the following technical information, consult the bibliography
points: and particularly the Cahier Technique
publications addressing the various points.
c the purpose of the study;
The risks run by users and the answers provided
c the concerned electrical phenomena and their
by the studies are then summarised in the
origin;
following section.
c their effects and the proposed solutions;

4.1 Dependability
Over the course of the years, dependability is a The supply of electrical energy depends
need that has spread to all processes that are essentially on:
vulnerable to energy outages. c the topological structure of the electrical
The notion of dependability is defined by the network for all the possible operating modes and
values for: during their changes in status condition (normal,
c energy availability; downgraded and safe modes);
c the annual rate of outages; c normal operation of the system when the
various operating scenarios run correctly;
c maintainability.
c the organisation of maintenance;
Goals c forecasts concerning accidental disturbances.
The purpose of an operating-dependability study
on network behaviour is to: Effects and solutions
c design the optimum network architecture in Electrically speaking, operating failures in a
view of meeting the energy needs of the loads in network manifest themselves in the manners
the installation, as defined by the continuity of presented below.
service requirements imposed by the process, c Energy outages of the utility. The distribution
through: networks themselves fail or are disturbed (device
v better control over the risks caused by failure, atmospheric disturbances, etc.). The
outages; results are voltage sags and more or less long
v enhancement of the decision-aid criteria in outages for the incoming substations. Depending
order to make a selection between a number of on the network topology and the means
solutions; implemented, these disturbances may be
propagated down to the load level.
c plan for downgraded operating situations,
quantify their probability and define a level of c Insulation faults. The resulting short-circuits
confidence attributed to the supply of electrical provoke for the loads voltage sags or outages
energy. that depend on:
v the protection devices installed and their level
Phenomena and origins of discrimination;
The presence of electrical energy is generally v the "electrical" distance between the load and
characterised by: the fault;
c reliability for a time interval DT, expressed as v the network topology which may offer the
the mean time between failures (MTBF) or the means to reconfigure the system through active
mean time to (the first) failure (MTTF); or passive redundancy.
c availability at time T; c Nuisance tripping which provokes a break in
c the mean time to repair (MTTR) a failure. the supply of power to the downstream loads.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.11


c Switching faults when the switchgear does not c installation of power interfaces (UPSs, no-break
carry out the expected change in status power supplies, etc.);
(requested opening or closing of a circuit). These c systems used to resupply loads via either
failures are generally not a direct cause of network reconfiguration (source-changeover
disturbances for the loads. However, they are systems, loops, etc.) or an alternate source
often not detected and subsequently cause located as close as possible to the load;
network malfunctions when other phenomena c installation of devices to detect failures as fast
occur such as: as possible (short intervals between preventive
v loss of protection and/or discrimination; maintenance work, automatic tests, etc.).
v loss of reconfiguration or backup means.
The contribution of a study
The effects of voltage sags or outages depend
An operating-dependability study is the means to
on the sensitivity of the load.
manage the risks of negative events during
Certain loads, such as computer equipment, are design of the network architecture by:
sensitive to voltage sags and very short outages
c determining the criticality of loads and,
(a few dozen milliseconds), whereas other
depending on their degree of sensitivity, the
devices can handle longer outages without
possible negative events for the electrical
disturbing the process.
installation. The goal is to identify the critical
It is therefore important to characterise devices points in the network and to determine their
by their degree of sensitivity. performance criteria in terms of dependability;
What is more, the actual down time of a load or a c running quantitative analysis of one or more
process does not depend necessarily on the basic architectures according to dependability
duration of the outage. In certain cases, the factors;
return to normal operation can depend on much
c finally, justifying the decisions made
more than the simple return of electrical energy
concerning backup and/or interface systems,
(e.g. preparation of clean rooms, set-up of
redundancy, preventive maintenance, given the
machine tools, chemical processes, etc.).
customer's needs.
From it above, it is clear that it is necessary to
Example
determine the criticality of loads based on the
consequences of a shutdown. This case is drawn from a study to improve the
electrical network of an automobile factory
The traditional means implemented to prevent (see Fig. 5 ). The goal was to reduce the
these disturbances are: number and duration of outages due to failures
c autonomous sources (gensets, gas turbines, and maintenance activities.
etc.); c Purpose of the calculations
c multiple incomers from the distribution Implement criticality analysis, quantify the
network, as independent as possible; existing system, then propose improvements.

Diagram of HV/LV distribution loop


5.5 kV - 2000 A busbars 5.5 kV - 2000 A busbars

5.5 kV substations supplied by open loop


5.5 kV/380 V Backup
transformers transformer

2500 A LV
circuit breakers

Backup switches Fault-tree analysis


Parameter Current Future Gain
Non-availability of electrical
Workshops' feeders energy in hours per year 6.9 0.7 90 %

Fig. 5: Recommended modifications (in green) carried out on the electrical network of an automobile factory, diagram and results
(source Schneider Electric).

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.12


c Results of the calculations Annual lack of energy availability of less than
The calculations provided the data required to one hour was obtained and the maintenance of
determine modifications in the topology that electrical equipment no longer results in
produced the desired increase in dependability interrupting the supply of power to the process.
(see the diagram in Figure 5).

4.2 Steady-state conditions


Correct operation of an electrical network during tolerances of ± 10% above and below the rated
normal, stable operating conditions results from voltage. The entire network is subjected to the
good overall design of the system. consequences of these variations (within ± 10%).
The notion of steady-state conditions is defined Calculation of steady-state conditions must
in the installation and supply standards by: therefore take into account the combinations of
c the rated frequency of the electrical signals, extreme voltage and consumption values.
called the power frequency;
c Voltage drops on lines or transformers
c the amplitude and phase of the voltage and Drops are due to the currents and depend on the
current waves, and their changes over time; active (P) and reactive (Q) power levels, and the
c the active and reactive power levels (supplied, impedance, resistive (R) and inductive (X),
drawn, lost) and the corresponding energy. according to the law on relative variation
∆U/U = (R P + X Q)/U2.
Goals
A voltage drop produces various disturbances:
The purpose of studying the behaviour under
steady-state conditions is to: v voltage variations within the ± 10% limits of the
rated value, depending on the changes in the
c design networks (basic sizing of installations connected loads and sources;
and equipment, system control and
v voltage fluctuations, due to voltage variations
management);
at frequencies that cause lights to flicker. These
c take into account risk situations caused by fluctuations are provoked by certain typical high-
installation malfunctions or problems inherent in power variable loads, such as welding machines
the electrical devices (wear, ageing). or arc furnaces;
Phenomena and origins v a voltage unbalance in the three-phase system
due to large single-phase or two-phase loads.
The phenomena requiring analysis are all the
normal exchanges of active and reactive energy Voltage drops provoke:
at power frequencies between the sources and v additional temperature rise in electric circuits
loads, via electrical connectors, under the and thus greater losses;
foreseeable operating conditions of the supplied v tripping of circuit breakers and slowing of
process and the electrical system: machines;
c flow of currents; v malfunctions of sensitive loads and protection
c distribution of voltages; devices;
v bothersome flicker effect in lighting.
c corresponding active and reactive power.
Correct operation of networks under steady-state Voltage drops can be limited in a number of
conditions depends on: manners.
v Reduction of R and X, by modifying the short-
c normal use of the system, a consequence of circuit voltage of transformers, the size of lines or
the operation and requirements of the process
their length (layout of loads).
and the network, i.e. the sources and loads in
use, variations in supply voltages, downgraded v Increase of the rated voltage with a
and emergency modes; corresponding reduction of current, which
provokes a significant reduction in losses
c the structure of the electrical network for the (quadratic law).
various operating modes, in terms of topology,
length of lines, voltage levels). c Instantaneous propagation throughout the
network of the source voltage level and of
Effects and solutions voltage drops.
Electrically speaking, malfunctions occur in one This effect impacts on each element to a
of the three forms presented below. different degree (quantitatively), depending on
c Supply voltages outside tolerances the system topology.
The voltage of supply networks is standardised. Calculation of the steady-state conditions is the
For example, standard EN50160 authorises means to foresee the distribution of voltages and

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.13


to propose solutions in view of limiting including the emergency and backup
propagation by: structures;
v increasing the short-circuit power of the c economic optimisation (balance between
sources; investment and energy losses).
v using regulators for the transformers (load and
Example
no-load conditions);
v power-factor correction equipment, which This case is drawn from a study on the design of
corresponds to a negative voltage drop a commercial site, using the dedicated ECODIAL
(capacitors, electromechanical conditioners in software program developed by Schneider
the form of synchronous machines or static Electric, in compliance with the UTE 15-500
systems such as static Var compensators); guide.
v rebalancing of the single-phase loads on the c Purpose of the calculations
three phases. Only the first step in this study is presented here.
It deals with the power sum of the installation,
The contribution of a study required to size the supply sources.
The purpose of this study is to ensure correct Note that for a low-voltage installation, the
design of the electrical installation, taking into apparent-power values, after weighting by
account future changes and all process application of the load and diversity factors, are
operating modes through: summed algebraically, conductor losses are
c thoughtful evaluation of the basic decisions; neglected and the nodes are at the rated
c calculation of the power sums of the steady- voltage.
state conditions; c Results of the calculations
c taking into account the different operating Figure 6 shows the analysed single-line diagram
configurations of the electrical network, with the screen for the data and the results (the

T1 G
RB G2
TRA GE
C1 C2

Q1 Q2

B1 RA MLVS

Q5 Q4 Q3

Offices Workshop CAP


C5 C4 C3

L5 R3

x2 T Workshop
B5

Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9

Machine Lighting Var Speed Mot


C6 C7 C8.1 K9

Lighting Motor
L6 D7 V8 C9

x4 Var Speed Mot


E7 C8.2 M9 M
x4 x2
M8
M
x5

Fig. 6: Design of a commercial site using the dedicated ECODIAL software, showing the single-line diagram and the power-sum screen
(source Merlin Gerin - Schneider Electric).

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.14


characteristics of individual loads may be The values of the currents in lines are stored in
accessed for each switchboard), where the memory for later use in sizing the devices.
calculated total power for the source is 275 kVA.
This power sum is used to select the correct
power ratings for the source transformer and the
backup genset.

4.3 Short-circuit
Operation of an electrical network may result in c resulting in a new balance rendering the
faults in the form of high short-circuit currents system unusable in part or whole, more
producing serious consequences that must be vulnerable and disturbed.
managed as best possible. The origins of short-circuits in networks are
A short-circuit is an accidental contact between accidental disturbances caused by undesired
conductors, determined by: contacts between conductors, dielectric
c its type, which indicates the elements breakdown of insulation due to overvoltages,
involved, i.e. single-phase (between a phase and mechanical events (breaking of cable, falling
earth or neutral), three-phase (between three tree, animal) or human errors. The effects
phases), phase-to-phase clear of earth (between depend on the structure of the network, including
two phases), two-phase-to-earth (between two the SEA, distant sources (distribution network) or
phases and earth), near sources (nearby genset).
c its initiation characteristics, i.e. the waveform Effects and solutions
of the current over time,
Electrically speaking, short-circuits produce a
c its amperage (minimum and maximum values), direct effect in the form of an overcurrent and an
c its duration which is variable because the fault indirect effect in the form of voltage variations.
can be transient or continuous,
c The direct effect is produced on the installation
c its origin, internal (within a device) or external components according to the successive phases
(between connectors). of the initiation of the current:
Goals v peak value of the first half period, which is the
maximum instantaneous peak,
The purpose of studying a network subjected to
v rms value of the AC component,
a short-circuit is to:
v value of the non-periodic (DC) component,
c identify risk situations that can possibly cause: which depends on when the fault occurs and the
v danger for persons, network characteristics. If the value is equal to
v destruction of devices due to electrodynamic zero, the operating mode is said to be
forces, excessive temperature rise and symmetrical, otherwise it is asymmetrical.
overvoltages, The DC component adds to the AC component.
v malfunctions that can result in total loss of the The effects impacting on equipment are:
network due to voltage sags and outages, v the electrodynamic forces exerted on the
busbars and along cables,
c assist in making basic design decisions to limit
v the temperature rise due to the flow of current
the effects of faults, concerning:
in lines and switchgear,
v system earthing arrangements (SEA),
v the operating capability (C+O) of a device on a
v suitable sizing of devices, shorted circuit.
v protection settings, determined on the basis of These effects are managed by selecting
the fault-current calculations. sufficiently sized devices and equipment:
Phenomena and origins v electrodynamic withstand of lines, which
characterises their mechanical strength,
The phenomenon requiring analysis is a sudden
v the current vs. permissible duration
unbalance in the initial steady-state conditions:
characteristics, which represent the thermal
c due to the appearance of high currents and withstand capacity,
voltage drops at the fault points, v the short-circuit breaking and making
c extension of the unbalance to the entire capacities which define the capacity of circuit
network, breakers to handle the forces brought into play.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.15


c The indirect effect is produced by voltage sags c and for the operating configurations, providing
or outages and by the increased potential of the minimum and maximum values.
exposed conductive parts (ECP), with as a These results are then used to design the
result: electrical lines (e.g. the size of busbars and their
v malfunctions of sensitive devices, opening of fixing system).
contacts, locking of variable-speed drives,
v disturbances in the transient behaviour of Example
rotating machines (see section 4.5), This case is drawn from a study on the design of
v dielectric destruction of devices (see section 4.5), a power station, where it was necessary to size
v touch voltages for persons. the devices in the substation.
These effects are countered by controlling: c Purpose of the calculations
v the transient conditions (see section 4.5), Check that the protection circuit breaker has the
v overvoltages (see section 4.7), capacity to break the short-circuit current
v clearing of faults by implementing a suitable produced by a fault close to the generator, for
protection system (see section 4.4). example on the substation busbars. The problem
lies in determining the most unfavourable current
The contribution of a study initiation conditions (moment of the initial zero
The purpose of this study is to foresee the crossing time).
constraints inherent in faults:
c Results of the calculations
c calculation of currents and voltages, Them three-phase current is asymmetrical
c for the various types of faults, (see Fig. 7 ) with the superposition of a damped

Peak current Breaking current Steady state current

20

15

10

-5

-10
0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 440 480
20 60 100 140 180 220 260 300 340 380 420 460 500

Total current

DC component

Fig. 7: Study on the substation of a power station, simulation of the asymmetrical three-phase short-circuit current
produced by a fault near the generator.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.16


sinusoidal and a non-periodic current, hence the The maximum constraints exerted on the
characteristic currents (peak, interrupted, installation are used to select the circuit breaker
continuous). in compliance with standard IEC 62271-100.

4.4 Protection
An electrical network that malfunctions must not c malfunctions of the electrical network and,
endanger life and property. consequently, of the process.
Network protection is a set of devices that detect These effects can be avoided by:
abnormal situations and react in a reliable,
discriminate and rapid manner. c first, fundamental decisions concerning:
The main malfunctions were described in the v the SEA: isolated (IT), earthed (TT or TN),
previous sections. impedant, compensated,
v the breaking devices: circuit breaker, fuse,
Goals disconnector-fuse, disconnector,
The purpose of calculating the protection system v the discrimination system: current, time,
is to: energy, ZSI, directional, differential,
c identify abnormal operating situations that may c then, by coordinating the protection devices
result in accidents for humans, destruction of based on the results of the short-circuit study
devices or the loss of supply for consumers, (settings of relays and trip units, cascading
c determine the necessary measures to ensure between LV circuit breakers).
the protection of life and property, and the Practically speaking, this means:
availability of electrical energy. These measures v de-energising the faulty section of the network
result in the following necessary operations: as fast as possible,
v definition of the protection system, v maintaining energised the non-faulty sections
v selection, installation and combination of the and, if possible,
breaking and protection devices, v backup protection by the upstream device,
v determining the settings of protection devices. where the general idea behind the protection
settings is to trip for the smallest fault current
Phenomena and origins and not to trip for the highest normal current.
The electrical phenomena that must be studied
The contribution of a study
are those present:
c during operation at power frequency, when The purpose of this study is to ensure correct
operating malfunctions occur affecting the rated operation of the electrical installation, where the
values, e.g. power (overload), current, voltage, major parameters are:
frequency, etc., c faults on the distribution network (phase faults,
c during faults, short-circuits and overvoltages. earth leakage and faults, overloads),
c faults in the machines operating on the site
Protection devices must be suited to:
(rotating machines, computer equipment, etc.),
c normal system operation which may drift
c the operating configurations, i.e. the sources,
toward abnormal conditions (overloads, voltage
loads, emergency modes, future extensions,
sags, etc.),
c foreseeable accidental disturbances, including c the devices in the protection system: sensors,
short-circuits, human errors, relays/trip units, breaking devices,
c network architecture (radial, open or closed c the protection plan and the settings of the
loop). protection devices.

Example
Effects and solutions
This case is drawn from a study on the design of
A faulty protection system is manifested, the network for a petrochemical site.
electrically speaking, by voltage drops
c Purpose of the calculations
throughout the network, overvoltages, overloads,
Select the protection functions for one of the HV/
short-circuit currents, where the main effects are:
LV transformers in the installation and determine
c accidents for persons, the settings for a maximum three-phase short-
c destruction of devices and equipment, circuit on the LV side.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.17


c Results of the calculations functions (see Fig. 8 ). The time/LV current
The part of the installation in question is shown curves in Figure 9 show that discrimination is
with its protection system and the table lists the ensured between the sections upstream and
recommended settings for the protection downstream of the transformer.

6 kV Relay ANSI Type Setting Delay


A1 49 code
A2 50/51 A1 49 Thermal 120% 105 min
A2 50/51 Overcurrent 1400 A 0.5 s
Definite time
A2 50/51 Overcurrent 3300 A 0.1 s
B 50/51
Definite time
400 V
B 50/51 Overcurrent 12000 A 0.25 s
Definite time
C 50/51 C 50/51 Overcurrent 3200 A 0.04 s
Definite time
M

Fig. 8: Discrimination study for a petrochemical site, diagram and types of protection relays selected for a HV/LV
transformer.

t (s)
1000
0
1 1

100

10

2
0.1
4

0 I (A)
0.01
1000 10000 1e+005 1e+006

(O) : Fault current on LV outgoer: maximum three-phase


A1(1): thermal, A2(2): overcurrent, B(3): overcurrent, C(4): overcurrent on LV outgoer

Fig. 9: Discrimination diagram for protection devices placed upstream and downstream of the transformer.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.18


4.5 Stability
Stability concerns essentially high-power such as load variations, start of large motors,
networks, with high voltages and generally a load switching and busbar management, etc.
wide-area and complex topological structure,
c Structure of the electrical network
possibly with one or more energy-production This category includes the topology, source
sites. regulations (generators and transformers) and
Correct operation of an AC electrical network is the protection and automation systems in the
the result of continuous adjustments in the electrical network.
balance (hence stability) between energy
production and consumption over time and Effects and solutions
space.
Instability is manifested, electrically speaking, by
The notion of network stability is characterised the main types of malfunctions listed below.
by: c Frequency variations
c steady-state stability (minor changes) where An unbalance in the active power between the
the system returns to its initial status following a production centre and the loads results in a
normal, low-amplitude disturbance, frequency variation throughout the system. The
c transient stability/instability, where the system variation may exceed the permissible limits (e.g.
shifts from one stable state to another, or ± 2%) beyond which the production centres are
diverges, following a sudden disturbance (loss of disconnected from the network. This situation
load or source, start of a high-power motor), can degenerate to the point where the entire
system fails.
c dynamic stability, where system operation is
controlled by limiting the negative effects of This problem can be avoided by automatically
disturbances (e.g. protection of vital loads) using and gradually shedding loads, as well as by
appropriate solutions (e.g. load shedding). calling on reserve power (genset startup and
regulation at maximum power).
Goals c Voltage variations
The purpose of studying the dynamic behaviour Voltage drops are due to power flows (primarily
of a network is to identify risk situations that may reactive) in lines and transformers, or to very
result in transient instability and to determine the high currents.
necessary counter-measures in view of This cumulative phenomenon (a drop in voltage
maintaining dynamic stability. These measures produces an increase in the current and vice
deal with: versa) can result in system failure or
c clearing electrical faults within acceptable time malfunctions.
limits, by the protection system, This risk is limited by making available sufficient
c optimising operating modes, and well distributed reactive power (regulation of
c suitable sizing of the installation. source reactive power, compensation capacitors,
transformer load regulators, position of reactive
Phenomena and origins sources), by load shedding and changes in
motor start modes.
Instability phenomena occur throughout the
network in the form of: c Cascading overloads
The elimination of circuits due to temperature
c electromechanical oscillations of machines
rise or damage results in load transfers to other
around their position of synchronous balance,
circuits, again with the risk of a cumulative effect.
resulting in variations in speed and the rated
power frequency (50 or 60 Hz), That is why systems are normally designed to
c oscillations in current flows in the lines accept the loss of a line (N-1 operating situation)
between sources and/or loads, producing by modifying the network operating topology or
the overload protection devices, or by starting up
exchanges of active and reactive power and
new sources.
resulting in voltage drops.
c Loss of synchronisation
Instability has three possible origins.
Short-circuits result in desynchronisation
c Accidental disturbances between generators, which may make it
This category includes short-circuits, voltage necessary to disconnect certain machines. The
sags, outages and failure of sources, nuisance resulting current and voltage oscillations in the
tripping, device failure, human errors, etc. network and the loss of elements (loads or
c Normal network operation sources) disconnected by their protection
This category includes the consequences of systems can lead to the failure of the entire
operation and the requirements of processes network.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.19


This situation is avoided by correct monitoring of To be complete, the study must include:
generator settings, an effective protection plan c contingency analysis taking into account
and a well thought out load-shedding plan. standard operating problems (e.g. the N+1 rule,
short-circuits at different voltage levels, etc.) and
The contribution of a study
even exceptional problems,
A study systematically covers the main
c simulation of the operation of protection devices
phenomena presenting a risk and adapts to the
particular aspects of each situation requiring and automation systems (actions and chronology),
analysis by taking into account the responses of c analysis of sensitivity to the decisive parameters
the process: (e.g. fault clearing time, motor characteristics,
c three-phase short-circuit (two-phase or single- setting coefficients for generator regulators, etc.).
phase where applicable),
Example
c loss of lines, sources or loads,
This case is drawn from design study for a
c motor start-up, heavy-industry production site.
c sharing, shedding and connection of loads, The installation comprises a number of sources
c source electromechanical regulation modes supplying the loads (motors and passive loads)
and coupling (public networks, turbines and via two sets of busbars (priority and non-priority)
generators). (see Fig. 10 ).

Utility

C O G1 G2

C O

B1

non-priority priority

Tripping in less than 300 ms Tripping in 350 ms


V fault V fault
3000

2000 2000

1000 1000
sec sec
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
The voltage returns to normal. The voltage does not return to normal.
The process is correctly resupplied. The process is not correctly resupplied.
Ω Ω
Ωο Ωο
fault fault
1 1
0.95 0.95
0.90 0.90
0.85 0.85
sec sec
0.80 0.80
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
The pump reaccelerates. The process continues. The pump stalls. The process shuts down.
Fig. 10: Stability study on a heavy-industry production site. Diagram and significant curves following tripping.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.20


The following was noted during a short-circuit on c Purpose of the study
the secondary of a transformer connected to the The short-circuit is normally cleared by the
public utility: transformer protection devices (opening of the
v a voltage drop that provoked, among other upstream and downstream circuit breakers). The
problems, a slowing of the motors, goal is to determine the maximum clearing time
v when the fault was cleared, the current drawn that ensures the dynamic stability of the network.
by the motors rose to the in-rush level, producing c Results of the study
considerable voltage drops and insufficient The voltage and speed curves show that network
reacceleration torques for certain motors that stability is ensured, for a three-phase short-
stalled or crawled. circuit on the secondary of the transformer, when
The motors can reaccelerate only if the fault is the protection devices are set to less than
sufficiently short. 300 ms.

4.6 Harmonics
Harmonics concern essentially electrical Phenomena and origins
networks supplying non-linear loads The different electrical phenomena related
representing a high power level with respect to to the presence of harmonics occur
the source and capacitors. throughout the network, via interdependent
All AC networks encounter some distortion of the mechanisms:
current and voltage sinusoidal waveforms due to c generation of harmonic current or voltage
the types of loads and/or the sources. sources by the polluting loads,
Harmonic pollution of a network is quantified by c effects of the pollution in the immediate vicinity
the signal distortion transformed into a spectrum of the polluting sources,
(amplitude and phase) with the fundamental (50 c propagation of the harmonics to the entire
or 60 Hz) and the harmonic orders (successive network with effects produced on all loads,
whole number orders), from which it is possible c composition of the pollution at all points in the
to deduce: network at each instant,
c the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the c possible amplification of the pollution through
current and voltage, which measures the rms resonance (plug circuit) when capacitors are
value of the distortion with respect to the present (long lines, power-factor correction).
fundamental,
Harmonics have a number of causes:
c the laws governing the combination of
harmonic values with respect to the amplitude c normal operation of the network, due to
and phase. process operation and requirements, including
operation of polluting loads at different speeds,
Goals starting or stopping of other loads,
The purpose of studying the response of a c the structure of the electrical network, including
network to harmonics is to: the voltage levels, separation of polluting and
vulnerable loads, the relative power of sources,
c identify risk situations which may cause
polluting loads and capacitors.
malfunctions or temperature rise in certain
devices, premature ageing, electromagnetic or
mechanical disturbances, Effects and solutions
c then determine the precautions required to This pollution is manifested, electrically
control the situations, maintaining pollution at speaking, by the main types of malfunctions
acceptable levels with respect to standards listed below.
(devices, installation, supply). c Direct sources of pollution
These precautions cover: The loads distorting the current represent the
c identification of the polluting loads, vast majority of the devices causing harmonics.
They are said to be "non linear" because the
c estimation of filtering solutions,
current drawn does not have the same waveform
c suitable sizing of installations, as the supply voltage. Each type of load has a
c optimisation of operating architectures. specific harmonic spectrum.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.21


There are passive loads (welding machines, arc Generally speaking, a situation is considered
furnaces, lamps) and power-electronic loads that serious when the THDU reaches 5% and
are increasingly used (variable-speed drives, difficulties are certain to occur above 10%. That
rectifiers and dimmers, UPSs and devices with is why utilities contractually undertake to supply
switch-mode power supplies). voltage under a given level of THD and users
The voltage and power ranges of these devices must limit the harmonic currents injected.
are very wide, ranging from small household Practically speaking, risk situations are
appliances (LV, a few dozen Watts) up to large evaluated according to power criteria applied to
industrial loads (HV, dozens of MW). polluting loads and capacitors.
Voltage pollution is due to the design of coils and c A number of methods exist to limit risks:
magnetic circuits of devices (rotating machines, v increase the short-circuit power of sources,
transformers).
v separate sensitive loads from polluters,
The limitation of harmonics caused by loads is
v install antiharmonic inductors (capacitors are
possible, to a certain extent, by 12-pulse bridges,
protected against harmonic overloads),
converters drawing a sinusoidal signal,
smoothing inductors and built-in filters. v install passive filters (harmonics are trapped in
circuits with a low inductance),
c Direct effects of pollution on loads
v install active filters (harmonics are neutralised
v Harmonic currents cause stray power by harmonic injection in phase opposition).
phenomena resulting in additional temperature
rise and energy losses. The contribution of a study
This can be avoided by oversizing devices The purpose of this study is to ensure correct
according to derating coefficients defined by operation of the installation when the harmonic
equipment standards. loads are turned on, by:
v Voltage distortion caused by harmonics c calculation of distortion, taking into account the
disturbs operation of electronic devices (e.g. shift spectrum of the polluters (amplitudes and
in zero crossing time of the reference wave). phases, laws governing composition and
v Harmonics also product mechanical (noise, propagation),
vibrations) and electromagnetic (low currents c optimum calculation of filtering,
affected by high currents) effects c calculation of device oversizing (steady-state
(electromagnetic compatibility - EMC). and transient harmonic constraints),
c Transmission results in harmonic propagation, c analysis of network operating diagrams in the
amplification and addition. various operating modes (normal and
v The loads drawing harmonic currents inject the downgraded for connection of sources, polluters
disturbances into the entire network, as a and loads),
function of the impedances encountered. The c analysis of sensitivity to important parameters
result is voltage distortion supplied to the loads (e.g. variation in the values of electrical elements
throughout the network. in the network as a function of the accuracy,
v In addition, the presence of capacitors can temperature, etc.).
amplify the pollution due to resonance (plug
Example
circuit) made up of the capacitor in parallel with
the network inductors). This case is drawn from a study on the design of
a steel mill with a DC arc furnace and a capacitor
v In its own immediate vicinity, each polluting
bank for power-factor correction (see Fig. 11 ).
load suffers the negative effects of its own
The furnace draws whole-number harmonics
harmonics.
(rectifier) superimposed on a DC spectrum
Finally, at each point in the network, the vector (unstable arc).
composition of the various harmonics also
c Purpose of the study
produces its effect at all times. Practically
The capacitor bank forms a plug circuit with the
speaking, the harmonics are summed using a
system inductors (antiresonant, third order),
standardised method that takes into account a
resulting in a prohibitively high level of THD
non-simultaneity factor (IEC 60871). (18.5%). It is necessary to calculate the filtering
c The risk criteria are quantified by standards required to reduce the THD to an acceptable
and regulations based on the distortion levels. level.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.22


225 kV network 225 kV/63 kV
Pscn = 6000 MVA s = 170 MVA
Psc min = 4800 MVA Usc = 12.5 %
63 kV busbars

63 kV cable
L = 1000 m
S = 1000 mm2

Harmonic filters

140 MVA
arc furnace

Impedance as seen by the load


Ohm
Amp 150 Without filter
Dampened filter
30

100
20

50
10

5 10 Harmonic 2 4 6 8 Harmonic
order order
Current spectrum of the furnace. Impedance spectrum as seen from the 63 kV busbars.

Fig. 11: Study on harmonics for a steel mill (diagram and spectra).

c Results of the study the network impedance spectrum and reduces


Mounting of the capacitors in three damped the voltage THD to an acceptable value of 3%.
resonant filters (tuned to orders 3, 5, 7) modifies

4.7 Overvoltages
Overvoltages concern all electrical networks, Overvoltages in a network are quantified by the
which however differ in vulnerability according to amplitude and shape of the waveform and by the
their topology, voltage level, types of devices duration of the disturbance:
employed and operating modes. c overvoltage coefficient, ratio between the peak
Operation of AC networks is always subject to amplitude of the voltage and the rms value of the
voltage disturbances in the form of peak voltages operating voltage,
beyond the limits stipulated by standards or c continuous sinusoidal overvoltage (at power
specifications. frequency) for a long duration (over one hour),

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.23


c temporary sinusoidal overvoltage (near power instantaneously by local status changes (e.g.
frequency), for a relatively long duration device switching). Depending on the type of
(between 1.5 times the power frequency and one overvoltage, they are manifested by:
hour), c their formation at the point of change,
c transient overvoltage (oscillating or not),
c their propagation to the rest of the network,
generally rapidly damped, very short (less than
according to the laws of reflection, refraction and
the power frequency). This category includes
overvoltages with a slow front (e.g. switching overlaying of the transmitted waves, with
impulses), a fast front (lightning strikes) and a attenuation that is a function of the frequencies
very fast front. involved (the higher the frequency, the faster the
damping),
Goals c the possible combination of different types of
The purpose of a network study on overvoltages overvoltage, likely to increase the constraints.
is to: Overvoltages affecting networks have a number
c identify risk situations that may result in: of origins:
v destruction of devices and equipment by c normal network operation, including load
dielectric breakdown, electrodynamic constraints switching, switching on or off of inductive or
and ageing, capacitive circuits (cables, lines, capacitors,
v malfunction of electronic devices, transformers, motors), the specific operation of
c determine the measures required to limit their protection devices,
effects to a minimum, thus ensuring effective c the structure of the electrical network, including
withstand of network devices and equipment. the SEA, voltage levels, the length of lines,
These measures cover: c accidental disturbances, including faults and
c installation design (SEA), the measures to clear them, nuisance tripping,
lightning strikes.
c estimation of protection devices (type, location
and rating), Electrically speaking, these overvoltages are
c correct sizing of devices and equipment, grouped according to their main types
c operating advice. (see Fig. 12 ):
c at power frequency, which may have different
Phenomena and origins causes such as insulation faults, load unbalance,
The observed phenomena are damped overcorrection of the power factor, etc.,
oscillating exchanges of energy between circuits c switching impulses, due to connection or
(inductors, capacitors, resistors) occurring disconnection (common events during normal

Overvoltage Low frequency Transient


class Permanent Temporary Slow front Fast front Very fast front
Shape

Tt Tt Tp T1 Tf
T2 T2 Tt

Shape range f = 50 or 60 Hz 10 < f < 500 Hz 5.000 > Tp > 20 µs 20 > T1 > 0,1 µs 100 > Tf > 3 ns
(frequency, rising Tt u 3.600 s 3.600 u Tt u 0.03 s 20 ms u T2 300 µs u T2 0.3 > f1 > 100 MHz
front, term) 30 > f2 > 300 kHz
3 ms u Tt
Standardised shape f = 50 or 60 Hz 48 i f i 62 Hz Tp = 250 µs T1 = 1.2 µs (*)
Tt (*) Tt = 60 s T2 = 2.500 µs T2 = 50 µs
Standardised (*) Short duration Switching Lightning (*)
withstand test power frequency impulse test impulse test
test
(*) to be specified by the relevant product Committee

Fig. 12: The different types of overvoltage.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.24


operation of the network) of a device, such as a v When a capacitor is switched in at the
transformer, motor, reactor, capacitor or cable/ maximum network voltage, the overvoltage
line, coefficient can reach 2 and for disconnection the
c resulting from faults or their clearing. The fault coefficient can reach 3.
is considered an involuntary or inevitable v During switching of a transformer or motor, the
switching operation, followed by a second overvoltage coefficient can reach 2, in addition
operation when it is cleared, the steep front of the transients produces
c lightning impulses, following a lightning strike particularly high constraints on the initial spires
which is a sudden discharge of current that can of the windings of the devices.
reach several thousand amperes. v During line switching, the overvoltage
coefficient can reach 3. This is the case for
Effects and solutions reconnection of a long line with a trapped
Depending on their type, overvoltages produce residual charge (capacitive load).
different effects and the solutions to avoid them Switching overvoltages can cause dielectric
must be suited to each type. breakdown in devices and system malfunction.
c Power frequency The recommended protection devices act by
limiting and damping the energy oscillations
v An insulation fault in a network causes an
between the circuits, through insertion resistors
overvoltage with a theoretical coefficient of up to
in circuit breakers and contactors, checks at the
1.7 (single-phase fault with an isolated neutral).
time of switching by a synchroniser, RC surge
Similarly, breaking of the neutral conductor arrestor or even lightning arrestors.
causes overvoltages by displacing the neutral
point. c Impulses during faults (appearance and
clearing).
v A load unbalance in a three-phase network can
unbalance the system to the point of saturating The occurrence of a fault generally results in an
the transformers and disturbing operation of overvoltage coefficient of less than 2 and it is
motors. more the overcurrents that are a problem (see
section 4.3).
v Overcorrection of the power factor due to shunt
capacitors raises the voltage if the load level is Fault clearing provokes an overvoltage with a
low. coefficient of less than 2.5 (worst case of a
single-phase fault with an isolated neutral). The
v A line carrying no load behaves like a series of
transient is overlaid on the temporary situation
LC circuits with a gain greater than one (Ferranti
caused by the fault.
effect), resulting in a continuous overvoltage at
the end of the line with a non-negligible c Lightning strikes
amplitude for distances greater than 300 km The sudden current discharge can reach several
(factor of 1.05). This effect is even greater when hundred kiloamperes, combined with a voltage
a load is disconnected at the end of a long line. that is a function of the network impedances.
v Ferro-resonance, a non-linear oscillation This current can discharge:
between a capacitor and a saturable inductor, v to a line or a metal structure. During
may result in overvoltages in some situations, propagation, the resulting voltage waves can
e.g. a voltage transformer in series with an open cause insulator flash-over and overvoltages,
circuit breaker or between a phase and the
v to earth causing an increase in the potential,
neutral in an IT system, etc.
which causes voltage increases in the earth
All these risks can be limited by design and electrodes of installations.
operating precautions. For example, correctly
Lightning currents produce thermal and
balanced loads, checks on initial energisation of
mechanical effects (electrodynamic forces),
capacitors, installation of voltage relays on
incomers. whereas lightning voltages cause dielectric
breakdown of devices and system malfunctions.
c Switching impulses Protection devices act in two manners:
The resulting overvoltages depend on the load
conditions (load or no load), with or without a v first, they avoid direct lightning impacts on
residual load, according to a certain periodicity electrical systems and divert them to earth
and taking into account the actual physical (lightning rods, lightning shields and earth
behaviour of the switching device in terms of electrodes),
pre-arcing, withstand to the transient recovery v secondly, they direct the lightning currents
voltage (restrike/re-ignition) and current pinch- conducted in the network to earth to limit
off. overvoltages and avoid dielectric breakdown

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.25


(spark gap units, lightning arrestors, varistors, standard, consisted of lightning arrestors in the
high-quality earth electrodes, etc. in LV/MV/HV). substation and the level of protection shown in
figure 13.
The contribution of a study
A study intended to prevent the negative effects
of overvoltages in installations comprises the
following steps: Struck line

c qualitative evaluation of the risk phenomena,


P1 lightning arrestor
which depend on the studied network,
c calculation of the generated overvoltages and
study of their transmission to the system, Cable

c analysis of sensitivity to important parameters,


c definition of the protection devices, P2 lightning arrestor
c determination of device and equipment
insulation in compliance with the applicable GIS substation
standards.

Example
P3 lightning arrestor
The selected case is drawn from a study on the
design of a HV distribution substation that must
be securely protected against overvoltages Transformer
caused by lightning striking the incoming line.
c Purpose of the calculations
The purpose is to size devices for lightning Risk for:
overvoltages taking into account the
Installed Cable GIS Transformer
recommendations of standard IEC 60071-1 and lighning substation
2 on insulation coordination, which quantifies the arrestors (LIWL* 650 kV) (LIWL 650 kV) (LIWL 650 kV)
risk. The mean time between two destructive
P1 1454 years 425 years 299 years
faults is between 250 and 1 000 years.
P1+ P3 2053 years 812 years 592 years
c Results of the calculations P1+ P2 + P3 10E 9 years 10E 9 years 2.7 10E 6 years
Statistic simulation of lightning impacts on the
(*) LIWL: lightning impulse withstand level.
line using the electrogeometric model indicates
the distribution of the overvoltages propagated in Fig. 13: Study on lightning overvoltages for the design
the substation and is used to deduce the of a HV distribution substation, diagram and risk
probability of the resulting risk (see table in estimates.
Figure 13 ).
Optimum substation protection against lightning,
quantified as per the insulation-coordination

4.8 Electromagnetic compatibility


Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) concerns c provide the suitable solutions based on the
all electric and electronic devices, systems and standards and good professional practices to
installations. The notion is defined in the limit the effects in installations.
international standards as the capacity of a
device, system or installation to operate normally Phenomena and origins
in its electromagnetic environment without Studies cover all electromagnetic disturbances:
causing disturbances.
c resulting from interaction between various
Goals network elements, i.e. the source, coupling via
The purpose of an EMC study is to: the transmitter and the victim for which normal
operation is disturbed,
c identify the situations likely to provoke and/or
be subjected to system malfunctions during c over a spectrum, depending on the waveform,
operation in view of evaluating the ranging from continuous up to a GHz and higher,
consequences, c characterised by their amplitude and energy,

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.26


c according to the conduction and/or radiation c reducing the coupling modes,
modes. c reducing the vulnerability of the victims
Electromagnetic emissions have a number of (hardening), by adapting, for the concerned
origins: frequency ranges:
v the manner in which the SEA is taken into
c normal network operation, because voltages
account,
and currents can be natural sources of
disturbances, v wiring, e.g. cable selection, separation and
running of power cables and low-current (signal)
c the network structure and installation
cables,
implementation, which can facilitate the
v shielding, e.g. the types of screen (conducting
transmission of disturbances.
or ferromagnetic), the connection mode of
Effects and solutions terminals, management of earth loops,
Transmission of electromagnetic disturbances v use of electrical filters tuned to the signals
takes place via different types of coupling: requiring attenuation.
c capacitive (voltage) between nearby The contribution of a study
conductors, e.g. closely laid cables, etc.,
Correct design of an electrical installation
c inductive (current) between conductors, e.g. requires a study to:
cables with high and low currents, etc.,
c identify the sources of disturbances, the
c antenna effect (electromagnetic radiation), e.g. couplings and the victims,
output cable of an electronic device with HF
chopping, etc., c define the means required to obtain a system
complying with standards.
c galvanic due to the common impedance of
circuits, e.g. a single conductor for the supply of Example
a data-acquisition device and measurement
This case is drawn from a study on an industrial
acquisition.
site where the measurement-acquisition and
The noted effects concern essentially: video systems were disturbed by operation of
c the malfunction of elements in the electrical the process test facility.
system and the process controlled by sensitive c Purpose of the study
devices, Determine the action required for normal
c temperature rise and/or the destruction of operation of the metrology system.
electronic, analogue or digital components.
c Results of the study
All these effects are managed by good The SEAs of the test facility (TN-C) and the
professional practices in view of: acquisition system (TN-C-S) are different
c reducing the level of disturbances emitted by (see Fig. 14 ). The 50 Hz leakage currents and
the sources, the harmonics caused by the variable-speed

Distribution (TN-C) VSD Test facility


AC
Motor
DC

i 50 Hz + harmonics i 50 Hz + harmonics
PEN PEN

MLVS Inverter
TN-C TN-S
AC
DC Ph Acquisition
N system
N
PEN
PE i 50 Hz + harmonics

Fig. 14: EMC study for measurement-acquisition and video systems installed near a test facility, diagram showing
the path of leakage currents and harmonics.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.27


drive in the test facility loop back to the supply The study recommended protecting the
via two possible paths, the test bench and the acquisition system from its environment using
acquisition system, with current levels galvanic isolation for its lines, a practical,
proportional to the admittances. effective and inexpensive solution.

4.9 Measurements for audits


This section fills out the previous sections by The contribution of an audit
highlighting the importance of measurements in The purpose of an audit is to maintain or improve
monitoring an electrical network and improving the operating conditions of an electrical network,
its effectiveness. with different levels of complexity and
Measurements are indispensable when an audit requirements, by:
of the network is necessary: c a general understanding of system based on
c either during normal operation of the system, essentially qualitative checks concerning the
at start-up of the installation or during major safety of life and property, the long-term operation
modifications, to check that the network operates of devices, power sums, the protection plan and
as planned during the design stage, the presence of the necessary instrumentation,
c or following unexplained problems such as the c achieving satisfactory system performance with
destruction of devices or the loss, in part or in respect to defined qualitative criteria, e.g.
whole, of power. dependability analysis, analysis of electrotechnical
risks, sizing of the network and of devices,
Even a well designed network can suffer
problems or malfunctions that are difficult to c overall optimisation of the system, e.g. energy
understand, in which case measurements are a quality, utility contract and consumption,
basic element in establishing a diagnosis. maintenance and replacement parts, and ranking
of the proposed action according to its importance,
Measurements for network audits c taking into account the existing system and
The purpose of measurements is to: any future changes.
c check electrotechnical values following start-up Note. The development of data-exchange
of an installation, techniques (IT) has opened new horizons with,
c monitor consumption and energy quality, for example, disturbance monitoring (see Fig. 15
and 16 ) and remote diagnostics and monitoring
c identify and explain major or reoccurring
of electrical networks in various fields (industrial
problems in the system,
and commercial) (see Fig. 17 ).
c recommend solutions for problems,
c validate the models used in network An audit example
simulations. This example is drawn from the audit on the
electrical network of a micro-electronics industry,
Phenomena studied carried out to provide a general check-up after
The phenomena studied, for which many years of operation.
measurements are required, span all the
c Purpose of the audit
elements discussed in the above sections.
The purpose of the audit is to detect any weak
The solutions decided in view of avoiding their points in the electrical installation that could
effects result from: impact on the quality of the energy supply.
c observations made during visits to the
c Results of the audit
installation,
The aspects specific to the electrical network
c processing of the electrical measurements and its components made clear the need to
made by permanent devices and devices make improvements on the network architecture,
temporarily installed, the protection plan and to take into account the
c electrotechnical calculations, ageing of the HV/LV transformers.
c checks on compliance with standards and The table in figure 18 (see page 30) sums up
good professional practices. the results of the audit.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.28


Fig. 15: SEPAM Series 40 digital protection relay Fig. 17: PM70 remote metering device (Merlin Gerin
(Merlin Gerin brand - Schneider Electric). brand - Schneider Electric).

Fig. 16: Oscillogram of a fault recorded by a SEPAM relay.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.29


Chapter Item Measurements Diagnostic Action required Priority
level
Network diagram Network architecture No In a number of substations, for a Run an availability study to Not urgent
fault on the LV busbars, no improve the architecture.
redundancy is available during
repairs.
Major fault No After a fault on a HV loop, resupply Check the operating mode of the Not urgent
of the substations requires manual UPSs.
operations. Study the need for LV gensets.
No LV gensets to supply critical
switchboards.
Earthing No The HV SEA is isolated to ensure Study the possibility of an Must be
good continuity of service, but the impedant SEA. studied
number of earth faults is on the rise
with network ageing.
Protection plan 130 kV protection No In certain configurations, Revise the protection plan Urgent
overcurrent protection can result in implementing differential and
the total failure of the HV network. directional functions.
Check the discrimination offered
by the protection devices between
the utility and the factory.
15 kV protection No Discrimination is partial in the Restudy the settings of the Urgent
cases listed below: protection devices for the HV
c insufficient time delay between network, based on the calculation
upstream and downstream ends of of the short-circuit currents. Study
lines, the possibility of logic-based
c in part of the network, the time discrimination.
required to clear an LV fault can
reach several seconds.
Dielectric Lightning impulse No Transformers equipped with No action required.
characteristics of on HV side lightning arrestors.
HV/LV transformers
Lightning impulse No No lightning arrestors on the LV Study lightning protection for the Not urgent
on LV side loads. LV network.
Switching impulse No The setting for overcurrent No action required.
when HV CB opens protection accepts in-rush currents.
No risk of nuisance tripping.
Internal resonance Yes No HF overvoltages measured. No action required.
at HF
HV harmonics Yes Negligible THD. No action required.
LV harmonics Yes Negligible THD. No action required.
Switching impulse Yes Capacitor contactors are not Study the possibility of insertion Not urgent
when capacitor bank equipped with insertion resistors. resistors to reduce the in-rush
opens currents.
Thermal Overload and Yes No overloads. No action required.
characteristics of harmonic currents Negligible harmonic values.
HV/LV transformers
Continuous Yes Negligible values. No action required.
overvoltage (HV)
HV harmonics Yes Negligible values. No action required.
DC current (LV) No Phenomenon not taken into account. Must be
checked
SEA: System earthing arrangement.

Fig. 18: Results of an audit on an electrical network in the micro-electronics industry

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.30


5 Summary - Main risks for users -
Answers provided by studies

Main risks for user Answers provided by studies


Dependability Accidents involving persons. Quantify the frequency of problems.
See section 4.1 Destruction of property. Quantify the availability of electrical energy.
Production shutdown. Determine the weak points in the solution which must
Loss of information (computer systems, etc.). be improved, if necessary.
Additional costs, e.g. possible replacement of Determine any unnecessary redundancies.
equipment, repairs, production shutdown (lost Compare different architectures.
production and process restarts). Recommend preventive maintenance.
Recommend stocks of replacement parts.

Stmeady-state conditions Operating disturbances (damage to sensitive loads, A check on system sizing in compliance with
See section 4.2 variation in motor torques, mechanical vibrations and standards:
even production shutdowns). c selection of voltage levels in the network structure,
Visual disturbances (flicker). c short-circuit power and voltage tolerances
Abnormal temperature rise in connections and c location and distribution on power-factor correction,
magnetic circuits, resulting in energy losses and c equipment: breaking devices, cable sizes,
possible risk of fire and accelerated ageing. transformer and motor characteristics, etc.
Additional costs, e.g. possible replacement of Calculation of system steady-state conditions (load-
equipment (need to oversize), repairs, production flows) in different operating situations:
shutdown (lost production and process restarts). c distribution of voltages at nodes and of currents in
the connectors, in amplitude and phase,
c voltage drops,
c power flows and the corresponding losses.
Optimisation of energy contracts.
Operating recommendations (selection of transformer
voltage taps, load-shedding and reconnection plan,
start-up of capacitors, etc.).
Updating of network data.
Short-circuit Dangerous touch voltages for persons. Short-circuit currents calculated in compliance with the
See section 4.3 Damage to electrical equipment due to overcurrents installation standards (IEC 60909 and UTE C15105
(temperature rise and fire). guide), required to calculate the protection devices.
Production shutdown. Sizing of devices and equipment (circuit breakers,
fuses, transformers, switchboards, sensors, cables,
Disturbances due to voltage sags (malfunction of wiring systems, earthing circuits) taking into account
sensitive devices). making and breaking capacities as well as short-circuit
Additional costs, e.g. (repairs, production shutdown, thermal and electrodynamic withstands.
etc.).
Protection Accidents involving persons. A general definition of the protection system and its
See section 4.4 Damage to electrical equipment and machines. principles, e.g. SEA, protection and backup functions,
selected discrimination, coordination between different
Shutdown of unaffected parts of the network. voltage levels.
Production shutdown. Sensor characteristics: location, ratio, accuracy class.
Faulty sections of the network maintained in operation, Breaking-device characteristics: type, location.
resulting in system instability.
Protection-device characteristics: settings of trip units
Process malfunctions leading to production losses and
and relays.
repair costs.
Curves or tables showing effective discrimination
between protection devices.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.31


Main risks for user Answers provided by studies
Stability Mechanical failures (breaking of shafts of rotating Validation of source short-circuit power.
See section 4.5 machines and speed reducers, damage to coils) Optimum distribution of loads (operating diagrams).
following heavy torque shifts.
Improvement in the protection system (basic design,
Destruction or premature wear of electrical equipment settings with critical fault-clearance times).
due to abnormal temperature rise caused by
overcurrents (transformers and connections, motors Selection of the motor-start method.
when supply is unbalanced or motors that crawl during Plan for load shedding and source uncoupling.
reacceleration). Definition of load reconnection sequences and/or load
Malfunctions due to variations in voltage, in loads, transfers.
notably for sensitive equipment such as variable-speed Automation of source transfers.
drives, computers, safety systems, measurement
Optimisation of regulation-device operation and
devices), control devices (contactors, circuit breakers)
settings.
and lighting.
Production shutdown.
Additional costs, e.g. (repairs, production shutdown,
etc.).
Harmonics Destruction or premature ageing of electrical Identification of polluting loads.
See section 4.6 equipment due to thermal overloads (temperature rise Evaluation of harmonic distortion levels (current and
due to harmonic currents, to third-order harmonics in voltage THD) and of harmonic spectra.
neutral conductors) or dielectric breakdown
(overvoltages due to harmonic voltages). Validation of network structure, e.g. short-circuit power
of sources, isolation of disturbing devices, separation
Harmonic mechanical disturbances, e.g. vibrations and of sensitive parts of the network, power-factor
motor fatigue, abnormal noise in transformers and correction.
switchboards.
Recommendations for direct action on polluting loads,
Malfunctions caused by current and voltage harmonics e.g. by changing from a 6 to a 12-pulse bridge.
(equipment incorporating power electronics), nuisance
tripping of protection devices, disturbances in low- Recommendations for action on the pollution, e.g.
current systems (telecom, measurement and metering sizing of filters (type of filter, specifications on
systems). components).

Additional costs: Recommendations on device derating.


c reduced installation efficiency due to additional
energy losses (Joule, iron, skin and proximity effects),
c additional investment to oversize equipment
(derating) or to install filters.

Overvoltages Operating disturbances (voltage sags and short Definition of the optimum solutions to attenuate the
See section 4.7 outages). problem, based on the selective, simultaneous and
Destruction of equipment due to dielectric breakdown. selective use of several protection systems, e.g.
lightning rods, overhead earth wire, lightning arrestors,
Production shutdown. surge arrestors, spark gap units, varistors, diodes,
Accelerated ageing and temperature rise in equipment choke coils, insertion resistors, synchronisers.
due to non-destructive, but repeated stresses. Sizing and location of the recommended systems.
Malfunctions of sensitive equipment (power Definition of equipment insulation in line with the
electronics, low-current systems). protection systems, selection of dielectric withstand in
Additional costs, e.g. (repairs, production shutdown, compliance with insulation-coordination standards
etc.). (IEC 60664 for LV and IEC 60071 for HV).
Design of the SEA.
Operating advice.

EMC Damage to electrical and electronic equipment due to An EMC audit (to understand how disturbances occur).
See section 4.8 temperature rise or dielectric breakdown. Assistance in drafting technical specifications for
Malfunctions of electrical components that may impact electrical systems.
on the entire network. Advice on installation configuration, e.g. running of
Malfunctions of process machines. different types of cables, SEA, ECPs, etc.
Additional costs, e.g. (repairs, production shutdown, Application of EMC standards.
etc.).
Measurements for audits Studies and calculations often require measurements carried out on site, either continuously (e.g. via a
See section 4.9 permanently installed remote-monitoring system) or by temporarily installed measurement devices.

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.32


6 Conclusion

The optimum total cost of ownership (TCO) of a domains (industrial, commercial, residential,
system is the result of the best compromise distribution). They can be used to foresee the
between the service obtained by the user for the electrical phenomena occurring during operation
needs of the process and the total outlay. of systems and to analyse their impact on
For an electrical network, the TCO takes into installation sizing and network operation. They
account the different phases in the life of the also take into account important events and
system, e.g. design, construction, operation, parameters, in both the normal and downgraded
maintenance and upgrades. operating modes.
For this reason, all participants (owners, The various summary tables show the
designers and users) are involved in all phases importance of the necessary means and know-
of the project and the electrical engineering how (see the following appendices as well).
studies constitute an indispensable step in the Finally, the examples provided indicate that the
overall process leading to effective use of relevance of the selected solutions is also the
electrical energy. These studies can also be result of the vast experience gained through a
considered a profitable investment in that the large number of audits. Only very large electrical
efficiency of the installation can be improved. companies (energy distributors or device
This Cahier Technique publication has manufacturers) have the necessary experience.
demonstrated the wide range of calculations N.B. More in-depth information is available in the
required in conducting these studies. collection of Cahier Technique publications
These studies concern all types of networks in dealing specifically with many of the topics
the LV and HV fields, and applications in all covered in this document (see the bibliography).

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.33


Appendix 1. History

The physical laws governing the operation of propagation), constitute an artificial network (e.g.
electrical networks were established prior to the tests on protection systems) or a micro-network
generalisation of networks and thus to the need (e.g. tests on dynamic stability).
for calculations. To enhance their capacity and performance
The development over time of the tools used for levels, simulators were equipped with analogue
predictive analysis of the behaviour of electrical simulators having the electronic devices required
networks can be broken down into four to model certain components (e.g. regulators),
overlapping periods. thus creating hybrid simulators.
c Calculations "by hand" from 1925 to 1960 c Digital simulation models since 1970
During this period, the many aspects involved in At the time when optimisation of networks had
the operation of electrical networks were started and major failures of large industrial and
discovered, based on the phenomena observed public-distribution networks occurred, needs in
and measurements made in installations. terms of calculations increased. Digital
Analytical methods were used, based on a priori simulators were the answer with the coming of
ideas concerning the physical phenomena, i.e. the computer age.
solutions were calculated on the basis of v Initially, calculations were run on large
electrical laws, using manual techniques (slide mainframe computers. The programs were
rules and tables), and hypotheses were generally created by large companies for their
confirmed by checking the calculations with the own needs.
measurements made. Predictive extrapolation
was widely used, thanks to nomographs in which v Around 1990, digital simulation and
the major parameters could be varied. In decentralisation spread with the progress
parallel, professional practices based on achieved in PCs. Programs appeared on the
experience were improved. market and, today, users have a wide selection
for a number of applications.
c Physical simulation models from 1950 to 1990 Note. The idea behind a digital simulator is to set
Due to their increasing size and complexity, up a digital model based on the laws governing
networks became true electrical systems with the network, then to simulate operation by
extensive interaction between components. In solving the equations with the suitable program.
addition, the notion of energy quality gradually The major advantage lies in its great flexibility in
appeared. The need for prediction became more handling all types of networks and a wide range
pressing and more general, because it was of phenomena, but it does not operate in real
necessary to foresee the many operating time.
situations, both normal and disturbed, precisely
and dependably. c Digital Case Tools since 1990
Simulators met these requirements fairly well. These software engineering tools represent the
They were laboratory instruments, expensive generalisation of computerised simulation as the
both to purchase and use, and thus limited to the universal means of calculation (virtual networks)
major utilities. The idea behind a simulator is to with comprehensive data bases and real-time
create a scale model of the network, reproducing processing for product development, operator
the behaviour of the system in real time. training, optimised management, etc.
Depending on the planned application, the
simulator can analyse transients (e.g. wave

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.34


Appendix 2. Software

The table below indicates the main software


programs available on the market and the
calculations for which they are used.

Type of calculation
Dependability Steady-state Short- Protection Dynamic Harmonics Overvoltages EMC
Type of program conditions circuit stability
Functional analysis c c
FMECA c c
Fault tree c
Markoff graph c
Pétri network c
Load-flow c c c
Load-flow optimisation c
Cable sizing c c
LV cable sizing and c c c
protection
Earthing network c c c c
calculations
Short-circuit c c c
Discrimination c c c
Steady-state stability c c
Dynamic stability c
Motor starting c c c
Harmonics c c c
Current/voltage c c c c c
transients
Lightning protection c c
EMC disturbances c c
EMTP general- c c c c c
purpose software
Data acquisition c c c c c c c
(measurements)

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.35


Appendix 3. Necessary data

Measurements
This table presents a general overview of the data

Dependability

Short-circuits

Overvoltages
Steady-state
required for the various calculations.

calculation

Harmonics
conditions

Protection

Stability
Type of

EMC
Necessary data
General data c c
v network single-line diagram c c c c c c c
v operating configurations c c c c c c c
v SEAs c c c c c c
For all components c c
v rated voltage and power c c c c c c
v impedances (positive, negative and zero sequence) c c c c
v short-circuit withstand c c
v transient-voltage withstand (switching and lightning) c
v types of protection c c
Sources c c
v voltage and frequency (rated/min./max.) c c c c c c c
v short-circuit power (rated/min./max.) c c c c c
v existing harmonic voltages c
v protection settings c c
Gensets c c
v voltage, power and power factor c c c c c c
v impedances and time constants c c c c
v mechanical characteristics (inertia, number of poles) c
v transfer functions, turbine regulation, excitation c
Lines, cables, busbars, GIS substations c c
v resistance, inductance, capacitance of lines c c c c c
v length, parallel elements, installation methods c c c c c c
v geometric data on pylons and structures c
v characteristics of insulators, spark gap units, etc. c
Transformers c c
v voltages (primary, secondary, tertiary) c c c c c c
v power, type of connection, taps c c c c c c
v short-circuit voltages and losses c c c c c
Passive loads, capacitors, inductors c c
v rated voltage and power c c c c
v power factor c c c c
v type of load (constant impedance, current or power) c c c c
v load and diversity factors c c c c
Active loads c c
v rated voltage and power c c c c c
v power factor c c c c c
v motor characteristics (speed, inertia, slip, Tstart/Tn, Tmax/Tn, c c c c c
Istart/In, etc.)
v characteristics of devices incorporating power electronics (type of c c c c
assembly, etc.)
v load and diversity factors c c c c c
Non-linear loads c c
v U, I (lightning arrestor) characteristics c
v current and voltage harmonic spectra c
Breaking devices c c
v fuse type and rating c c
v circuit-breaker characteristics (making and breaking capacity, c c c c
transient recovery voltage, etc.)
Protection c c
v characteristics of current and voltage sensors c
v protection functions and setting ranges c

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.36


Bibliography

Schneider Electric Cahiers Techniques c Ferroresonance -


Cahier Technique n° 190 -
c Electrical disturbances in LV - P. FERRACCI
Cahier Technique n° 141 -
R. CALVAS c Power Quality -
Cahier Technique n° 199 -
c Introduction to dependability design - P. FERRACCI
Cahier Technique n° 144 -
E. CABAU Other publications
c EMC: electromagnetic compatibility - c Les Techniques de l’Ingénieur
Cahier Technique n° 149 -
J. DELABALLE c Les cahiers de l’ingénierie published by
Electricité de France
c Overvoltages and insulation coordination in
MV and HV - Normes
Cahier Technique n° 151 -
D. FULCHIRON c IEC 60071-1: Insulation coordination -
part 1: definitions, principles and rules.
c Harmonic Disturbances in Networks and their
Treatment - c IEC 60071-2: Insulation coordination -
Cahier Technique n° 152 - Part 2: Application guide.
C. COLLOMBET, J. SCHONEK, J.-M. LUPIN c IEC 60364: Electrical installations of buildings -
c LV breaking by current limitation - part 1: scope, object and fundamental principles.
Cahier Technique n° 163 - c IEC 60871-1: Shunt capacitors for a.c. power
P. SCHUELLER systems having a rated voltage above 1000 V -
c Energy-based discrimination for low-voltage Part 1: General - Performance, testing and rating
protective devices - - Safety requirements - Guide for installation and
Cahier Technique n° 167 - operation.
M. SERPINET, R. MOREL c IEC 62271-100: High-voltage switchgear and
c Lightning and HV electrical installations - controlgear - Part 100: High-voltage alternating-
Cahier technique n° 168 - current circuit-breakers
B. de METZ-NOBLAT c NF C02-160 / NF EN 50160 : Caractéristiques
c HV industrial network design - de la tension fournie par les réseaux publics de
Cahier Technique n° 169 - distribution.
G. THOMASSET c UTE C15-500 : Guide pratique - Détermination
c Electrical installation dependability studies - des sections des conducteurs et choix des
Cahier Technique n° 184 - dispositifs de protection à l'aide de logiciels de
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networks -
Cahier Technique n° 185 -
B. de METZ-NOBLAT, G. JEANJEAN

Cahier Technique Schneider Electric no. 213 / p.37


© 2004 Schneider Electric

Schneider Electric Direction Scientifique et Technique, DTP: SEDOC Meylan.


Service Communication Technique Transl.: Lloyd International - Tarporley - Cheshire - GB.
F-38050 Grenoble cedex 9 Editor: Schneider Electric
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