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Dec 28, 2015

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Stable Marriage

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Stable Marriage

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Benjamin Doerr

CV Benjamin Doerr

born in Munich

Diploma 1998 (Kiel): Group theory

PhD 2000 (Kiel): Combinatorics

Habilitation 2005 (Kiel): Algorithms

Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarbrcken

since Oct. 2013: Full professor for informatics,

LIX, cole Polytechnique

research area:

randomized algorithms,

evolutionary algorithms,

games,

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

INF421 Team:

Marie Albenque:

coordinator of the quizzes, PC groups in French/English

Karthikeyan Bhargavan:

coordinator of the programming homeworks, PC groups in English

Luca Castelli:

coordinator of the programming project, PC groups in French

Philippe Jacquet:

PC groups in French, various internal jobs

Maks Ovsjanikov:

coordinator of the PC, PC groups in English

Coordinator: The person organizing this task by distributing the work in

the team and overlooking that everything works

the first person to ask questions, complain if things dont work, etc.

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

Course Organization

8 amphis (today, Nov 13 to Dec 18, Jan 8), Friday, 10:30-12:00

8 PC (Friday afternoon): practice the lecture content, training for the exam

4 homeworks (DM): practice programming, understand lecture material

also via programming

voluntary quizzes:

test if you understood the previous lecture

chance to think about the next topic

possibly (your choice) a programming project (PI)

Exam, Grading

Most of these course ingredients aim at making you learn something new

and useful use this opportunity!

Note classante (note chiffre) [0, 20]: fully determined by the contrle

classante (CC)

Note de module (note littrale) {, , }: also influenced by PI and DM

DM [2, +2], PI [0,20]

no PI: CC + DM

with PI: max{CC, (2*CC+PI)/3} + DM

the PI can only increase your grade (and often it does)

all computations done in [0,20], then transformed into {, , }

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

Project (PI)

Rules (for all courses):

Each course INF4, 2, offers a programming project (PI).

It is recommended that each student does one project;

a project is a prerequisite for doing a PA in informatique.

workload: programming (~20 hours / ~500 lines of code), write a report,

20min defense (10min presentation, 10min questions)

A project is a cool experience (very different from the more narrow,

more guided homeworks)

Rough plan for INF421 (details to be fixed very soon):

choice of ~5 different topics, you choose one by 11.11.

deadline for program and report: early January

defense: mid-January

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

Course Language

General rule: English is the course language, but no-one should suffer

from knowing English less than French.

everything graded can be done in both languages

Amphis, poly, sujet/corrig of PC and DM: English

PC classes: groups in both languages offered, you choose

Exam:

sujet given in both languages

your answers can be in either language (including a reasonable mix)

Feedback

This is the 2nd edition of INF421. The first one went very well: we did not

mess up something, friendly evaluation comments, ranked 3rd out of 12

courses of the 2nd quarter (unofficial), 23% more students this year

Our plan for this year: Improve further!

You can help us: Let us know about anything youre not happy with or

where you see room for improvement

Feedback:

Easiest and fastest: Send an email to me and/or the right coordinator

Talk to your dlgu(e)s: Each PC group has a dlgu(e), two of

them are the course dlgu(e)s

Take part in the survey(s) / evaluations

Should be elected today at

your teacher forgets, please

remind him/her.8

Attendance (Absentisme)

Last year: INF421 had very high attendance in the amphis and average

attendance in the PC (Friday afternoon?)

Personally, I think youre old enough to know what you do (attend or stay

away). Im happy if you come, because its more fun to teach a large class.

The official rule is that you have to attend all amphis and PCs. Excessive

absence can lead to a grade of F. Absentisme is monitored and

discussed in the end-of-quarter meeting of DE and professors.

Attendance-Grade Correlation

Data from the last course (all grades before harmonization, pre-literal =

before translation into A, , E):

Absences in PC

0

1

2

3

4

Grand total

Count

84

59

27

6

5

181

13.45357143

12.79830508

12.35185185

10.58333333

12.42

12.9519337

15.48194444

14.12683616

13.40802469

9.8

12.02

14.44686924

Bottom line:

You seem to learn more and do better in the exam if you attend.

try to attend the PC despite the unlucky Friday afternoon slot!

10

Continuation of the algorithms material covered in INF321 or INF311+411.

[classic] More algorithms: graph algorithms, scheduling algorithms,

you know more of the very central algorithms

[classic] General algorithm design methods: divide-and-conquer, dynamic

programming, greedy algorithms

enable you to find efficient algorithms yourself

[new] Algorithmic paradigms: Algorithmic game theory, approximation

algorithms, randomized algorithms, heuristics

understand algorithmic problems and find the right type of solution

algorithmics beyond deterministic recipes computing an optimal

solution in polynomial time

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

11

Algorithms are everywhere. Whenever someone/something computes

something, then it is an algorithm that enables this.

central topic of computer science

timeless (in the sense that is has been a hot topic ever since)

Algorithms is a central ingredient in the curriculum of (almost) all

international top schools/universities

people expect you to be proficient in algorithms

In an algorithms course, you not only learn algorithms, but

you also learn analyzing computer science problems with mathematical

means (theory, considered difficult)

you train your problem-solving skills

12

A classic problem with a classic solution: Gale-Shapley algorithm

Shapley got the Nobel prize in economics for this

We also use it as example for

how to find algorithms

how to describe algorithms (pseudocode)

how to analyze algorithms

It leads us to the new paradigm algorithmic game theory

13

Derive a first algorithm

Analyze it, understand it

Use our understanding to make it better

Summary: analyzing algorithms

Algorithmic game theory a hot topic today

14

men

women

each one has a clear order of preference of the other side

task: find a stable marriage one, where no two people can both improve

their situation by breaking up and forming a new couple

stable because of

dotted line!

?

1.

2.

1.

2.

1.

2.

?

1.

2.

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

15

men

women

each one has a clear order of preference of the other side

task: find a stable marriage one, where no two people can both improve

their situation by breaking up and forming a new couple

Stable, because no

unmarried pair

wants to get married

1.

2.

1.

2.

1.

2.

1.

2.

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

16

Set of men, set of women

write 1 > 2 to denote that the man prefers woman 1 over 2 ; note

that > is a linear order (total order) on

same with men/women exchanged

matching : such that each and each occurs in

at most one pair in (no bigamy)

perfect matching : each man and woman occurs in exactly one pair

stable matching : perfect matching such that

, , > ) ( > )

no unmarried (, ) can form a couple and make both more happy

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

17

With the Problem [black board]

everyone has the same preferences:

easy: the most popular man and most popular woman marry, the two

second most popular marry,

different preferences:

iterative improvement cycles

constructive: greedy approach, but in an orderly manner

18

A First Algorithm

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Key ideas:

Greedy approach: asks the most attractive woman he can get at that

time (tries to avoid instable pairs)

Ordered progress: Always take a single man and look for a partner for

him (tries to avoid cycles, hope that this makes analyzing the algorithm

easier)

19

Disclaimer!

We use the traditional/antique language of men, women, marrying etc.

because it is convenient and

because this is the classic way to present this material.

We do not intend to make any statement on the relation of men and

women (or men and men or women and women) in the real life.

If there are asymmetries in how our algorithms treat men and women, then

this is purely for algorithmic reasons

We do not suggest to use any of our algorithms for real-world dating

problems

20

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Termination: Does the algorithm surely stop?

Correctness: Does the algorithm do what we want (output a stable m.)?

Complexity: How long does the algorithm run?

Can we say more about its solutions than being stable?

To answer such non-trivial questions, we need a deeper understanding of

how the algorithm works (main task for today, but first something else)

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

21

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

advantage: less complex than Java code, we do not need to specify

irrelevant things good to understand the main ideas, good to prove

correctness and termination

disadvantage: less precise, needs work to be transformed into a

program, complexity harder to determine, risk that we overlook

important details.

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

22

Textual description: Starting with all people being single, we repeat

marrying unmarried men to the most attractive women willing to marry

them, until everyone is married.

very compact

high risk of ambiguity (or strong need for the reader to think)

most attractive women means most attractive for that particular man

(because we have individual preferences)

marrying may include breaking up the existing marriages

23

Rough Pseudocode

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

some mathematical precision (e.g., in the definition of )

some algorithmic constructs: while-loop

intentional ambiguity: we dont specify in which order to treat the single

men if we prove that this algorithm works, we know that any order is

OK, so when implementing the algorithm, we can choose an order that is

best from the implementation point of view

24

While ( , ) do

Choose with ( , )

Let be such that

: , : , > and such that

for all we have

: , : , > >

If : , then { , }

,

Output

more algorithmic constructs: while-loop, if..then, output

missing: how to implement the maths statements, datastructures (e.g., )

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

25

You have the choice between different levels of mathematical and

algorithmic precision (from plain text to Java code)

Choose the one most appropriate for your purposes!

too detailed: hard to understand, easy to make mistakes, timeconsuming

too rough: ambiguous, hard to build precise arguments on

intentional ambiguities: make clear which design choices are irrelevant

for the algorithm to work

Choosing the right level of detail is essential for efficient communication!

[also in the exam]

26

Question Zero

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Can all operations (possibly after being made more precise) be executed?

Yes .

The choice of is ambiguous, but we agreed that imprecise

statements can be made precise in an arbitrary way

All the rest is fine, except possibly the choice of (next slide)

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

27

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

would break up for ? (If not, we cannot execute this line)

Answer: Yes. We have the same number of men and women. Hence if

there is a single man, then there must also be a single woman.

28

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Difficulty: When running an algorithm, variables change over time

here: the hidden variable storing the matching

makes it hard to follow what is going on.

Solution: Find simple statements that are true all the time (invariants)

Each womans situation improves (see disclaimer!) over time

single some guy better guy final partner

As a man, you never ask a women twice

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

29

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Invariant 1: Each womans partners improve over time. Proof: Look at algo.

Invariant 2: Each man asks each woman at most once

Proof: Assume asks at least once. At the first time, they become

engaged (because men [in this algo.] only ask when they have a

chance). To ask a second time, and must split up before. This only

happens if is asked by a more attractive man 1 . From that point on,

by Invariant 1, is always married to a man at least as attractive as 1 .

Hence will never ask again.

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

30

Invariant Termination/Complexity

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Invariant 2: Each man asks each woman at most once.

Proof: By Invariant 2, the pair (, ) such that man asks woman is

different in each iteration of the while-loop. Since there are men and

women, there are only 2 pairs at all, hence at most 2 iterations.

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

31

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Invariant 3: The engaged couples form a matching

Invariant 3 holds when first entering the while-loop (nobody engaged)

Assume that Invariant 3 holds at the start of the loop. Then it holds at the end

of the loop because (i) only the couple (, ) was newly formed, (ii) was

single, (iii) had at most one partner (Invariant 3), but if so, dumped him

before engaging with .

Invariant always holds

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

32

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Lemma: The algo. terminates with a perfect matching of engaged couples

Proof: Termination (Lemma 1) + Matching (Invariant 3)

We saw that the algo. terminates at all.

By the termination condition of the while loop, all men are engaged.

Since the non-singles form a matching (Invariant 3), the same number

(=all) of women is engaged. Hence all are engaged: perfect matching.

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

33

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Invariant 4: If and are engaged, then all women more attractive for

than are engaged with a man they find more attractive than .

Proof: Let with > . When and became engaged, was

engaged to a man with > (otherwise would have asked

instead of , see algo.). By Invariant 1, remains engaged with men more

attractive than .

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

34

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Invariant 4: If and are engaged, then all women more attractive for

than are engaged with a man they find more attractive than .

Theorem: Our algorithm terminates with the engaged couples forming a

stable matching.

Proof: Lemma 2 shows perfect matching. We show stability:

Let (, ) and ( , ) be engaged. If finds more attractive than , then

by Invariant 4, prefers over . Hence forming a new couple (, ) is

not interesting for .

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

35

Stronger Invariants

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Invariant 2: Each man asks each women at most once

Invariant 2+: The women asked by man over time are sorted in strictly

decreasing order of preference

Proof: Let 1 , 2 be two women last asked by in that order. When asked 1 , he

did not ask 2 either because 1 is more attractive (that is what we want to show),

or because 2 was married to a cooler guy than him. By Invariant 1, 2 remains

married to cooler guys, contradicting our assumption that asked her later.

37

Start with all people being single

While there is a single man do

Let be the most attractive woman (for ) that is either single or

engaged with another man less attractive to her than

if is engaged to , they split up and both become single

and become engaged

Invariant 2+: The women asked by man over time are sorted in strictly

decreasing order of preference

We can use Invariant 2+ to simplify our algorithm:

currently: line 3 is costly, we have to check all women

new: we let ask all women in decreasing order (possibly getting a

negative answer).

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

38

Gale-Shapley Algorithm

Start

[pretty much the same as before, except that men now ask all women and possibly

are rejected (which is good, because we do not need to check this relation again)]

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

39

Questions to be answered:

question zero: is this an executable algorithm at all?

Termination

Correctness

Complexity, typically time complexity = number of elementary

operations performed

Key approach:

extract precise properties from the algorithm

use these properties to argue with mathematical methods (e.g., proof

by contradiction)

40

True invariants: (static) assertions that are valid throughout the execution

of the algorithm.

Example: the couples formed by the algorithm are a matching

advantage: static, can be checked at any time

proof technique: loop invariant (induction for computer scientists)

show: assertion true when the loop is first entered

show: if the assertion is true at the beginning of the loop, then also

at the end

gives: assertion always true

Temporal properties: (dynamic) assertions that describe the process

example: womens partners improve over time

disadvantage: can only be checked by looking at the whole process

can be transformed into static assertions ( poly)

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

41

Different in the poly: Derive the true Gale-Shapley algorithm first, then

analyze it with the methods used today (not a big difference from the

amphi)

More: Prove termination via a loop variant

a non-negative counter that decreases in each iteration

More and truly worth reading (as everything in the poly ): Use invariants

to understand the solution computed by our algorithm.

best() := the (by ) most preferred woman such that there is a

stable matching having , as couple; , |

worst() := the (by ) least preferred man such that there is a stable

matching having , as couple; (), |

Theorem: The Gale-Shapley algorithms outputs =

(regardless of how we implement the ambiguous parts)

42

The stable marriage problem is a first example of what is a hot topic today:

Algorithmic game theory = Problems that have both an algorithmic and a

game theoretic flavor.

Game theory in a nutshell:

players

each player has different ways to play (strategies)

pay-offs: depending on the strategies chosen by all players

each player gains or loses something

players try to optimize their own profit (selfishness)

Solution concept: Repeatedly played games converge to a situation

where no player can improve his/her situation by changing only their

strategy (Nash equilibrium, Pareto optimum)

43

Algorithmic game theory became a hot topic in computer science recently,

because the internet produces or supports game theoretic situations:

many simultaneously acting agents (players)

anonymity: eases optimizing own profit at the cost of others

sheer mass of agents forbids more coordinated approaches other than

everyone acting independently

Examples:

Online market places (eBay)

Pricing systems for online advertisements

Shared resources, e.g., in routing

44

Algorithmics vs. Game Theory

Set-up: men, women, but now each pair has a weight (happiness)

Classic algorithmics: Maximum weight matching = a matching maximizing

the sum of the happiness values

social optimum (here: 100+100)

Observation: This is not stable, the 101-pair wants to form a couple.

GT: Stable matching = no pair wants to form a new couple (Nash eq.)

100

101

100

45

Price of Anarchy

Set-up: men, women, but now each pair has a weight (happiness)

Classic algorithmics: Maximum weight matching = a matching maximizing

the sum of the happiness values

social optimum (here: 100+100)

Observation: This is not stable, the 101-pair wants to form a couple.

GT: Stable matching = no pair wants to form a new couple (Nash eq.)

100

101

100

How much do we lose by not

achieving the social optimum,

but only a stable solution?

-- value of social optimum: 200

-- value of Nash equilibrium: 102

hence here: PoA 2

46

Truthfulness

Set-up: men, women, but now each pair has a weight (happiness)

Classic algorithmics: Maximum weight matching = a matching maximizing

the sum of the happiness values

social optimum (here: 100+100)

Observation: This is not stable, the 101-pair wants to form a couple.

GT: Stable matching = no pair wants to form a new couple (Nash eq.)

Players might have an incentive to

not reveal the true problem data.

100

101

200

100

happiness of 200 instead, then the

social optimum changes to 200+1,

i.e., they are a couple in the social

optimum incentive to lie!

Truthfulness: The algorithm is such

that no player has an incentive to lie

47

Braesss Paradox

100 people want to drive from A to B in this network. Travel times are

constant or depend on the number of people using the edge. We

assume that repeated play lets us end up in a stable solution.

A

A

100

100

so everyones travel time is 50+100=150

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

100

0

100

everyones travel time is 100+0+100=200

48

Many algorithmic problems today have a game theoretic flavor: We have

to take into account individual selfish/unorganized behaviors

Consequences:

Prize of anarchy: The stable solution (Nash equilibrium) might be

worse than the globally optimal one (social optimum)

Truthfulness: We cannot rely on people revealing the true problem data

need for truthful algorithms, where no player wants to lie

Many other unexpected things like an additional road increases the

traffic jams

When designing algorithms for real problems, we have to be aware of

game theoretic aspects in our problem otherwise, we might compute

solutions that are optimal in some mathematical sense, but do not work

in practice!

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

49

What Next?

Lunch

PC today 13:30-15:30 or 15:45-17:45

Read the poly (everything we did today precisely written up, Gale-Shapley

is good for men and unfair to women, truthful auctions: pay only the

second-highest bid).

Homework (DM): Implement the Gale-Shapley algorithm in Java. Details on

the Moodle. Deadline 11.11.

Watch out for infos (mail/Moodle) on the programming project. Again, no

action required before 11.11.

See you Friday in 3 weeks with Divide and Conquer: computing the

median without sorting, finding closest points in the plane,

INF421 (X'14), 1st Lecture: Stable Marriages

50

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