Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

THE SECTOR (B n C)

RPJMN PRIORITIES AND STRATEGIES


The basic scales of priorities and strategies of the
respective long term national planning (RPJMNs) are summarized
in the following:
1; The First Long-term Planning (2005-2009) was
directed at reforming and developing Indonesia in all
fields that were aimed to create Indonesia to be safe
and peaceful, just and democratic, and it has an
increasingly prosperous population.
2; The Second Long-term Planning (2010-2014)
aimed at the greater consolidation of the reform of
Indonesia in all fields by emphasizing endeavors for
increasing the quality of human resources, including
the promotion of capacity building in science and
technology

and

the

strengthening

of

economic

competitiveness.
3; The Third Long-term Planning (2015-2019) is
aiming for the greater consolidation of development
in

comprehensive

emphasizing

manner

attainment

in
of

all

fields

by

economic

competitiveness on the basis of competitiveness of


natural resources and the quality of human resources

and by the increasing capability to master science


and technology.
4; The Fourth Long-term Planning (2020-2025) will

aim to realize an Indonesian society that is selfreliant, advanced, just, and prosperous through the
acceleration of development in various fields by
emphasizing the realized economic structure that is
more solid on the basis of competitive advantage in
various regions, and will be upported by quality and
competitive human resources.
Higher

educational

policy

National

Plan

for

Medium

period Development 2015-2019 (RPJMN)


National policy in higher education can be traced in
national medium period development planning (RPJMN) 20152019. In that document, there are at least 3 points that
correspond to the proposed projects. The first is to improve the
access of the higher education. It is a general knowledge that the
access to higher education in Indonesia is still limited due to
several reasons. Among the telling evidence of this is the data
from the 2014-2015 national selection to universities which are
jointly organized by state funded university. 852.093 graduates
of high schools of various types (SMA, SMK, MA, Paket C) took
part in the selection. From that number, only 137.005 students
succeeded to be accepted. It means about 715.088 must resort

to study in private universities which in some instances are more


expensive compared to state funded universities.
The strategic Planning of Ministry of Religious Affairs 20152019 is echoing the RPJMNs emphasis on the need of improving
access. Particularly, the strategic planning document highlights
the role of Islamic higher education institution in improving the
access by providing scholarships, extending the opening of
programs, increasing the capacity of classroom by rehabilitation
and new development, as well as giving the private university in
providing Islamic higher education. In year 2013, the number of
Islamic higher education was 617.033 students. However, the
number of university students in Indonesia is 5.330.841 in 2013,
and Islamic higher education students are only 11.5% of all
university students in Indonesia. With the total Indonesian
population aged 19-24 year is 23.902.077; the raw participation
number of Islamic higher education is only 2.58%. This problem
should be solved by increasing of IAIN and UIN under Ministry of
Religious Affair.

Higher Education and its Legal Aspect


The citizen level of education can be measured by some
indicators, such as illiteracy rate, school enrolment ratio, and
level of education. Indonesia has made good improvement on
basic education, which could be indicated by the school

enrolment rate (around 100% in 2002). Yet, higher education is


still such a dream for majority of people. Less than 1% of
Indonesian people achieve higher education level (academy and
university level).
Development Program of Higher Education has been mainly
aimed at improving the quality and relevancy in order to produce
graduates who would fill in the gap resulting from increased
unemployment and to create new job opportunities. It also has
been aimed to anticipate the fulfillment resulting from the
industrial growth during Indonesias take-off era (1997-2017),
which

will

be

characterized

by

intensive

technology

and

information inputs. Therefore, it is concluded that the university


goal is to prepare the tertiary education graduates with
intellectual standard, professional skill, and disciplinary varieties
that will fit all aspects of national development needs.
Related to the condition above, the allocation

for

educational spending was also limited. During the period of


1999-2001, educational allocation in the national budget (APBN)
was only around 9% of total government spending. This was
contrary to the initial government policy, which stated that
educational spending should be 20% of national budget. This
condition had caused problems in achieving high quality of
education, such as quality of facilities, curriculum, research, and
human resources. It was showed from the survey on education
quality in 2004, which was conducted by PERC (Political and
Economic Review Consultancy) in Hong Kong, that education

quality in Indonesia was among the worst quality in Asia (12th


rank). Low quality of education has also impact on Indonesian
competitiveness in global world. Therefore, if there is no action in
solving the problem, the current condition may be worse.
The development of human resource is a priority program
for Indonesian government. This is based on the assumption that
only by developing human resource; prosperity for all Indonesian
citizens will be achieved. This can be done by allocating sufficient
budget to all level of education from elementary to tertiary level.
The Indonesian government policy to spend 20% of the
national budget is a strong indicator for the seriousness of the
government to increase the quality of human resource through
education. It is expected that the amount of money invested in
education will give great impacts to the increasing of human
resource development in the future.
The current policies of Government of Indonesia (GOI)
related to higher education are as follows:
1; Higher Education Long Term Strategy (HELTS) 20082012 was issued by the Ministry of National Education
(MONE) contains: (a) nation's competitiveness, (b) good
organization,

and

(c)

educational

autonomy.

The

development of IAIN Raden Intan Lampung is designed


to reach the three points of HELTS.

2; Government Regulation No. 17 and 66 in 2010 on the


Management of Higher Education that allows each
institution to more autonomously develop in the field of
academic

quality,

infrastructure,

management

and

organizational and financial management.


3; Every Higher Education Institution shall be operated like
common enterprise. This policy which was officially
started from 2001 enables higher education to gain its
autonomy such as to get profit from education services.
4; Regional autonomy policy, started from 2000, gave
authority to all regencies to manage their regions more
freely. Upon their regional autonomy policy, most of the
regencies

were

empowering

human

resources

development through education.


5; The Ministry of Religious Affairs (MORA) issued a wider
mandate policy to manage Islamic education system
which gave freedom to each Islamic higher education to
determine their development.
6; MONE issued a policy to increase the professionalism of
the teachers and lecturers through certification. IAIN
Raden Intan Lampung as part of the higher education
institution which are responsible for the teachers
certification should develop its human resources, infra
structures and teaching and learning quality.

7; The implementation of Law Number 55/2008 regarding


the enhancement of the quality of pesantren and
Madrasah Diniyah (traditional Islamic school) has given
Four IAIN a big responsibility to develop the quality of
the institution to be able to play its role as an Islamic
higher education.
8; The education for the civilization in the lives of nation
and country, at higher education level, according to the
Introductory of Constitution 1945 and Article 31 of the
Constitution 1945. The development and empowerment
of

regional

cultural

centers

including

regional

educational and cultural institution as a model for


national culture development, according to Article 32 of
the Constitution 1945.
9; The preparation and maintenance of the quality of
human resources, according to TAP MPR RI No. IV/1999.
10; The development and harmony between educational
practices

and

civilization

domestically

and

internationally, like the development of democratic


behaviors in all aspects of lives, including curricula
changes according to the conditions of social, culture
and economy of the local, national and international
communities, according to Law No.2/1989.

11; The preparation of skillful resources in terms of their


quantity and quality, according to the empowerment of
regional social institutions as an actual participation of
the people in managing their lives including education
and culture arrangement, according Law No.22/1999
regarding the Regional Autonomy and in line with Law
No.25/1999 regarding the Equality of Central and
Regional Finance.
12; The current policies of GOI related to higher education,
directly and indirectly, are as follows:
a; Every

Higher

Education

Institution

shall

be

established based upon law or act, like common


enterprise. This policy enables higher education
autonomy to be implemented. This policy was
activated from 2001. It gave higher education to
gain profit of their education services.
b; Regional

autonomy

policy

which

has

been

activated since 2000. By this policy all regencies


are given authority to manage their own area
more freely. Upon their regional autonomy policy,
most of all regencies are empowering human
resources development through education.
c; Policy issued by the Ministry of Religious Affairs
(MORA) in relation with Islamic education system

under his ministry is called as wider mandate


policy. This policy gives freedom to each Islamic
higher

education

to

determine

their

own

development.

Economics Aspect
In the economic aspect, Indonesia is a country with a large
amount of natural resources, and income per capita is US$ 1,946.
Before monetary crisis, income per capita is only US$ 1,100. In
2007, Indonesias HDI was 0.728 (108th rank), while the HDI
lower limit of developed country is 0.800. Therefore, Indonesia
must struggle hard to improve its human welfare condition. A
recovery in investment demand enabled real GDP growth to
accelerate to an average of 6.5% a year in 2007-08. Real GDP is
expected to grow by an average of 6.9% a year in 2008-09
(Asian Development Bank) driven largely by a recovery in
investment demand and solid growth in private consumption.
Based on strategic planning of Department of National Education
in 2009, 20.1% from total national budget was allocated for
education but mostly for elementary, high school and non-formal
education. Budget for research was 0.1% from GDP. Meanwhile,
the ideal budget based on UNESCO is 3%.
Inflation in Indonesia rose from 4.40% in 2012, to 4.98% in
2013. In 2014 Indonesia inflation decrease for about 4.93%. Its

because affected by the decline in global commodity prices,


inflation expectations controlled, and the slowdown in domestic
demand.
Generally, several financial and operational performance
indicators for the banking industry experienced significant
growth, for example total asset growth supported by a rise in
earning assets, including credit. As of year-end, total banking
industry assets in 2014 had increased to IDR 1,812 trillion,
representing 9,95% (y-o-y) growth. Approvals for foreign direct
investment (FDI) realization in Indonesia totaled IDR 463.1 trillion
(USD $37 billion) in 2014, a 16.2 percent increase from the
previous year. It means that Indonesia has valuable assets to
increase with funding many projects for economic growth.
Improving the quality and relevance of education including
that of Islamic Higher Education under Ministry of Religious
Affairs is the one part of Indonesian governments program of
human resource development for its rapidly industrializing
economy. For fulfilling the requirement of the modernizing job
structure, more educated manpower with scientific knowledge
and background will be required, so that they can undertake
modern jobs or become trainable in more sophisticated jobs.
Development of IAIN Raden Intan Lampung, therefor, will provide
necessary scientific knowledge and basic skills to the students of
IAIN in trade, communication, computer skills, etc. side by side
with Islamic education.
Higher Education and Human Development Index

The increase intake of new students will eventually improve


Indonesian Human Development Index. In four consecutive years
from 2012 and 2015, the rank of Indonesian HDI did not improve.
It is in 108. The index is 0.684. Mean years of schooling in
Indonesia is 7.51 year, with the expected years of schooling is
12.7. The statistic goes on stating that adult literacy rate (% ages
15 and older) is 92.8%. As for gross enrolment ratio for tertiary
education of population of tertiary school age 27%. This
percentage is certainly lower than the data released by Ministry
of Education and Culture in 2014 which stated the percentage of
tertiary school age in 2014 was only 30%. The Ministry intended
to improve the participation up to 35 % by 2015 and 40% by
2020. In comparison, currently Thailand's participation in tertiary
education is 51%, Australia is and Korea is 90%. Here is
comparison of tertiary enrolment among neigh boring countries
based on UNDP HDI statistic:

Chart 6
Tertiary Enrollment

One chief measure to improve the enrolment of tertiary


education is by increasing the intake of new students. On that
basis, IAIN and UIN are committed to increase the intake of new
students of high school graduates in Indonesia to take part in
advancing society thorough improving the quality of human
resources in order that they can compete at home as well as in
foreign country. Consequently transforming IAINs into UIN and
development of UINs are something that is strongly recommended.