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Essential English Grammar


Teaching Notes - Unit 8
Table of Contents

Conjunctions
- Coordinate conjunctions
- Correlative conjunctions
- Subordinate conjunctions
- Conjunctive adverbs

Types of sentences (1)


- Statement
- Questions
- Command and requests

Types of sentences (2)


- Simple sentences
- Compound sentences
- Complex sentences
- Compound-complex sentences

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Unit 8
Conjunctions
Coordinate conjunctions

Subordinate conjunctions
__because__
Because __ , __

__ and __
__ or __
__ but __

__ if __
If __ , __

__ nor __
__ so ___
__ yet __
__ for __

__ although __
Although __ , __

Conjunctions are words that join together words, phrases or clauses. Here are some examples.

1. Coordinate conjunctions
A coordinate conjunction joining two words:
John and Mary are classmates.
(n.)

(n.)

John and Mary can do the job.


(n.)

(n.)

A coordinate conjunction joining two phrases:


People gather along the street and round the corner.
(phrase)

(phrase)

You may talk to him in the morning or in the afternoon.


(phrase)

(phrase)

The traveler cant go through the forest by car nor on horse back.
(phrase)

(phrase)

A coordinate conjunction joining two clauses:


S

S V

Fred works badly, but he plays games well.


(clause)

(clause)

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More examples:
Night came on, and the house grew dark.
You can go by car, or you can take the train.
He works many years in the company, but he doesnt get promotion.
It is raining heavily, so I stay at home.
She was not present, nor were her sisters.
I come as a friend, yet you treat me as a stranger.
She returned to school, for she wants to be a nurse.

2. Correlative conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs. Common pairs of correlative conjunctions are
both .. and, either or , neither nor , not only but also ., and whether or .
Examples:
She types both quickly and accurately.
Either you or your partner needs to find the solution.
Neither the manager nor her assistant has the key.
Not only Jane but also Mary will be given an award.

3. Subordinate conjunctions
Unlike coordinate conjunctions, Subordinate conjunctions can be used to join clauses only. It is the
first word of a subordinate clause.
Examples:
The fairy gave him all the axes [because he was an honest man].
main clause

subordinate clause

[Because he was an honest man], the fairy gave him all the axes
subordinate clause

main clause

When two sentences are joined by a conjunction to form a new sentence, they are called clauses. A
subordinate clause can be put before the main clause or after the main clause.

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More examples:
When I see our teacher, Ill tell him the news.
He came while I was speaking.
I have not seen her since I met her in her birthday party.
Please wait until I come.
He is honest, although he is poor.
I will go out tomorrow if it is fine.
He speaks English better than I do.
Here is a long sentence. It isnt a very good sentence because it has too many conjunctions in it, but
it will show you what conjunctions can do.
The woodcutter looked at the gold axe, and he looked at the silver axe,
and he looked at the iron axe , but he chose the iron axe
because he was an honest man, so the fairy gave him all the axes.
Exercise
Join these sentences with the conjunctions and, but, because, so or or. You will sometimes find it better
to leave out one or two words.
Example: We were afraid of them. We ran away.
Answer: We were afraid of them, so we ran away.
1.

The fire happened. Ian had left a towel near the stove,

2.

The doctor sent a bill to Savage. He hadnt any money. He couldnt pay it. (2 conjunctions)

3.

The boy shook his head. He said, That water would be useless. It is hot water.
(2 conjunctions).

4.

Finish your exercise. You wont be allowed to play football.

5.

I have a pencil. I have a pen.

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To join coordinating main clauses (ideas of equal importance), we have THREE ways to
do so.
1.

Using a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet),
including correlative conjunctions (either ... or, neither ... nor, both ... and,
not only ... but also).

2.

Using a semicolon.

3.

Using a semicolon plus a conjunctive adverb.

Now let's look at each method.


1.

Using a coordinating conjunction.


Coordinating

Meaning

Function

and

in addition to

to link ideas

but

however

to contrast ideas

for

as a result

to show cause

nor

negative

to reinforce negative

or

choice

to show possibilities

so

therefore

to show result

yet

however

to show contrast or difference

Conjunction

1.

Night came on, and the room grew dark.

2.

He is slow, but he is sure.

3.

I cannot see, for it is very dark.

4.

The merchant neither returned the goods nor paid the bill.

5.

Your foul temper must not occur again, or you will be dismissed.

6.

He overslept himself, so he missed the train.

7.

He is rich, yet he is not contented.

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Examples: Use coordinating conjunctions to join the following sentences.


a.

I got up.

I looked about everywhere.

I couldn't see my companion.

I got up, (and) I looked about everywhere, (but) I couldn't see my companion.
b.

Parliament refused money.

The king wanted it.

He borrowed it from the

London merchants.
Parliament refused money, (but) the king wanted it, (so) he borrowed it from the London merchants.
c.

I did not see you.

I should have spoken to you.

I had important news.

Delay was dangerous.


I did not see you, (or) I should have spoken to you, (for) I had important news, (yet) delay was dangerous.
d. He was my school-fellow.

He has become a great man.

He has grown proud.

He forgets his old friends.


He was my school-fellow, (and) he has become a great man, (but) he has grown proud , (so) he forgets his
old friends.
e.

The 2nd class carriage is full.


We may wait for the next train.

We may pay 1st class fare.


We must do one of these things.

We may not travel 1st class with 2nd class tickets.


The 2nd class carriage is full, (so) we either pay 1 st class fare, (or) wait for the next train, (yet) we must do
one of these things, (for) we may not travel 1st class
with 2nd class tickets.
Exercise
1.

A is equal to B.

B is equal to C.

2. He beat me in the race.

A is equal to C.

He is a year older. He naturally runs faster.

Next year I may do better.

3.

I lost my way.

I asked a policeman to direct me.

He couldn't help me.

He was new to his work.

He called a gentleman passing by to my assistance.

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The Uses of the Pairs of Correlative Conjunctions


Some conjunctions appear in pairs:
both

and

(He both reads Russian and speaks it well.)

either

or

neither

nor

(Neither I am to blame nor George is.)

not only ___

but also ___

(Not only is your answer wrong but mine is also.)

____ (Either George is to blame or I am.)

The use of not only ... but also


Acupuncture not only heals but also prevents illness.
(verb)

(verb)

Question form takes place if 'not only' stands at the beginning of a sentence.
Not only do they accept my views but they also support my actions.
v.

v.

We add 'do' and put the subject 'they' between 'but' and 'also'. More example:
Not only do you cut the grass but you also water the flowers.
These four pairs correlative conjunctions, in addition to linking up coordinating main clauses, can
also join parallel structures of nouns, adjectives and adverbs.
Wrong: We discuss not only politics but weather. (Missing 'also')
Right:

We discuss not only politics but also weather.


(noun)

(noun)

Wrong: We discuss not only politics but also talk about weather.
(noun)
Right:

We discuss not only politics but also weather.


(noun)

Right:

(verb)
(noun)

We not only discuss politics but also talk about weather.


(verb)

(verb)

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Wrong: A traveler's check is not only safer but also convenient.


('Safer' is a comparative degree adjective; 'convenient' is a positive degree adjective. They are not parallel.)
Right: A traveler's check is not only safer but also more convenient.
Wrong: It is not the money but also the principle that makes me angry.
Right:

It is not the money but the principle that makes me angry.

Right:

It is not only the money but also the principle that makes me angry.

Wrong: She died not of injuries in an accident but a heart attack.


Right:

She died not of injuries in an accident but of a heart attack.

Wrong: The young girl not only looks beautiful but also mature.
(verb)

(adj.)

Right: The young girl looks not only beautiful but also mature.
(adj.)

(adj.)

Wrong: You either go there by bus or on foot.


(v.)
Right:

(prep.)

You go there either by bus or on foot.


(Now 'either or' joins the prepositions 'by' and 'on')

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Exercise
1.

The belief in life after death is prevalent in both primitive societies _____ advanced cultures.
(A) and
(B) and in
(C) and also
(D) also

2. This new machine is used not only to detect ______ smoke poisonous gas.
(A) but determining
(B) but also determining
(C) but to determine
(D) but also to determine
3.

It is usually ____ lava but gas that kills people during volcanic eruptions.
(A) not only
(B) not
(C) neither
(D) no

4. Both viruses as well as genes are made from nucleoproteins, the essential chemicals
(A)

(B)

with which living matter duplicates itself.


(C)
5.

(D)

Either the assistant nor the manager has the solution to the problem.
A

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2.

Using a semicolon.

To join coordinating main clauses, we now come to use the 2nd method:
(A semicolon shows that the two main clauses (independent clauses) are closely related.)
My family is Chinese; we celebrate Chinese New Year.
'Chinese' and 'Chinese New Year' are closely related, and the relationship is seen by putting them
into the same sentence. In fact, ';' is equal to 'and', so we can also write this way:
My family is Chinese, and we celebrate Chinese New Year.

Right:
My father is a coach at the university; we get free tickets to any sports event.
(Being a coach and getting free tickets are closely related.)
Wrong:
My father is a coach at the university; we have some cousins living in Texas.
(Being a coach and having cousins in Texas are NOT closely related.)
Right:
My father is a coach at the university. We have some cousins living in Texas.
(We have to separate the two unrelated main clauses with a period.)

Right:
I have three dogs; two of them are golden retrievers.
Also Right:
I have three dogs, and two of them are golden retrievers.
('Retriever' is a type of dog that picks up a bird which the dog's owner shoots.)
Exercise
Join these two sentences with a semicolon.
It was the best of times.
It was the worst of times.

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3.

Using a semicolon + a conjunctive adverb.

To join coordinating main clauses, we come to the 3rd method.

Four main conjunctive adverbs


(;) + furthermore /moreover / besides (adverbs) = and
The car was almost new; moreover, it was in excellent condition.

(;) + otherwise (adverb) = or


You must come now; otherwise, you will be unable to see him.

(;) + still / however / nevertheless (adverbs) = but


This car was old; however, it was reliable.

(;) + therefore / accordingly / hence / thus / consequently (adverbs) = so


He broke the rules; therefore, he was punished.

The following are some conjunctive adverbs:


meanwhile

accordingly

furthermore

otherwise

still

thus

moreover

then

however

hence

likewise

in fact

nevertheless

besides

as a result

also

therefore

again

nonetheless

indeed

consequently

in addition

for instance

only

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Concession

Coordinating conjunction

The car was old, but/yet it was in good

but, yet

condition.

Conjunctive adverbs

The car was old; still /however/

still/however/nevertheless

nevertheless, it was in good condition.

Subordinating conjunctions

Though/although the car was old, it was

though/although (adverb clause)

in good condition.

Prepositional phrases

Despite/in spite of/notwithstanding its

despite/in spite of/

old age, the car was in good condition.

notwithstanding (adverb phrases)

Result
Coordinating conjunction
so

The rain began to fall, so we went home

Conjunctive adverbs
therefore/ consequently/thus/
accordingly/ as a result

The rain began to fall; therefore/thus/


consequently/ accordingly/as a result,
we went home.

Subordinating conjunction
so that (adverb clause)

The rain began to fall so that we went home.

Prepositional phrases
at/ with/ under/ as a result of/
in consequence of (adv. phrase)

At the beginning of the rain, we went home


In consequence of the rain, we went home.
As a result of the rain, we went home.

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Reason
Coordinating conjunction
for

We went home for the rain began to fall.

Conjunctive adverb
hence (= for this reason)

The rain began to fall; hence we went home.

Subordinating conjunctions
because/ as/ since
(adverb clause of reason)

Because/ since/ as the rain began to fall,


we went home.

Prepositional phrases
because of/ owing to/ due to/
by reason of/ on account of

Because of/ owing to/ due to/ by reason of/ on


account of the rain, we went home.

Condition
Coordinating conjunctions
and/ or (= if. ... not)

The rain began to fall, and we went home.


We have to win, or we will die.

Conjunctive adverbs
otherwise (= if not)
in that case

The rain began to fall; in that case,


we went home.
We have to win; otherwise, we will die.

Subordinating conjunctions
if / in case/ unless (= if not)
(adverb clause of condition)

If / in case the rain began to fall, we


went home.
Unless we win, we will die.

Prepositional phrases
in case of/ in the event of
(adverb phrases of condition)

In case of / in the event of raining, we


went home.
In case of / in the event of our winning,
we won't die.

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Time
Coordinating conjunctions
and

The rain began to fall, and we went home.

Conjunctive adverbs
then / at that time

The rain began to fall; then/at that time,


we went home.

Subordinating conjunctions
when/ as/ as soon as
(adverb clauses of time)

When/as/as soon as the rain began to fall,


we went home.

Prepositional phrase
on (= when)
at (adverb phrases)

At the beginning of the rain, we went home.


On receiving the call, we went home.
('On receiving the call' = when we received
the call.)

Comparison
Coordinating conjunction
and . . . too

Indians have a belief in life after death,


and Chinese culture holds the same view too.

Conjunctive adverbs
similarly / in comparison

Indians have a belief in life after death;


Similarly / in comparison, Chinese culture
holds the same view.

Subordinating conjunction
just as (adverb clause)

Just as Indians have a belief in life after


death, Chinese culture holds the same view.

Prepositional phrases
like/ in comparison to
(adverb phrases)

Like/ in comparison to the Indians' belief


in life after death, Chinese culture holds
the same view.

At this stage, students should find that their knowledge of adverb clauses will give them a lot of
help in composing compound sentences and simple sentences.

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Exercise
Select the answer that is appropriate in the context.
1.

Cable TV revolutionized communications; ________ ,the very existence of that service is


now threatened by satellites
(A) consequently
(C) for example
(B) moreover
(D) nevertheless

2. Hospitals are competing for a shrinking market share; _____ , they are attempting to discover
the most cost-effective and highest quality care.
(A) therefore
(C) also
(B) besides
(D) furthermore
3. These ads can bring in revenue; _____ , they can keep our costs down.
(A) for example
(C) moreover
(B) on the whole
(D) however
4. The firm intends to move its plant; _____ , it will keep sales, marketing and distribution
here.
(A) to this end
(C) consequently
(B) nevertheless
(D) furthermore
5.

The contract only runs for one year; _____ , there are options to renew for two more years.
(A) meanwhile
(C) however
(B) besides
(D) moreover

6. Our sales have increased recently; _____ , we are optimistic about future growth.
(A) however
(C) nevertheless
(B) thus
(D) also
7.

Since its inception, the bank has lent twenty-eight billion dollars; _____ , its membership has
grown to include sixteen regional countries.
(A) thus
(C) in addition
(B) on the whole
(D) nevertheless

8. We are on the whole a local company; _____ , we can offer services beyond our area.
(A) nevertheless
(C) accordingly
(B) meanwhile
(D) hence
9. She had the most hands-on experience; _____ , she was hired.
(A) nevertheless
(C) however
(B) furthermore
(D) therefore
10. Our banking clients want flexibility; _____ , we provide ATMs (automated teller machines)
for 24-hour use.
(A) moreover
(C) consequently
(B) however
(D) furthermore
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Exercise
Select the one answer that is appropriate in the context.
1.

_______ she possesses such business acumen, she was able to regain control of the company.
(A) Despite
(C) Because
(B) Even though
(D) For

2. For a more effective ad campaign, we need both a new product ________ a new director.
(A) or
(C) and
(B) either
(D) so
3. Our department did not reach its monthly quota ________ we worked a lot of overtime.
(A) because of
(C) despite
(B) even though
(D) but
4. The new employee is not only ambitious ________ hardworking.
(A) or
(C) and also
(B) neither
(D) but also
5.

________ he arrives, our representatives will present the new plan to the public.
(A) When
(C) So
(B) While
(D) Since

6. The mail will be sorted ________ it arrives at our division.


(A) before
(C) or
(B) until
(D) though
7. Mr. Fagan notified security ________ he noticed something suspicious.
(A) so
(C) although
(B) when
(D) because of
8. The plane cannot leave the gate ________ all passengers are seated.
(A) if
(C) unless
(B) when
(D) but
9. ________ she opened the meeting, the project director amended the agenda.
(A) But
(C) And
(B) If
(D) Before
10. ________ the research uncovered some problems, the committee members decided to table the
proposal temporarily.
(A) Since
(C) In spite of
(B) Even though
(D) Whatever

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Types of sentences

Simple sentence
There are four types of simple sentences

Statement - A statement tells us a fact. It ends with a period.


Example: The house will be built on a hill.

Question A question asks about something. It ends with a question mark.


Example: How did you find the card?

Command - A command give an order.


Example: Cheryl, try the other door.
Sometimes the subject of an imperative sentence (you) is understood.
Example: Look in the closet. (You, look in the closet.)

Exclamation - An exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling. An exclamatory sentence ends with
an exclamation mark.
Example: The monster is attacking!

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More on commands and requests


Look at these commands or orders.
In the name of the law open the door.
Come here and speak to me.
Dont make a noise. Run!
Sometimes the verb in a command is said to be in the imperative. With a request we often add
please.
Please dont forget to write to me.
Dont make a noise, please.
Please give your sister my best wishes.
The verb in a command always has the same form as the base.
Base

Command

take
speak
go
do

Take.
Speak.
Go!
Do.

You will notice that the command form of the verb usually hasnt any subject. We sometimes say
that the subject of the command is you understood.
In commands there is generally no subject (thats why their heads are missing!).

Statement
Command

Subject
I

Verb
open
open

Object
the door
the door

A statement can be changed to a question, or it can be given negative form.


I bought a stamp.
Did you buy a stamp?
You didnt buy a stamp.
A command can have a negative form, with Dont (sometimes Do not), but it has no interrogative
(question) form.
We can also make more polite requests using the auxiliary verbs can, could and would.
Can you give me a lift?
Could you help me with this exercise?
Would you shut the door, please?

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Exercise
Write down the following sentences and put after each whether it is a statement, a question, a
command or a request. Put a question mark(?) where necessary in your answer. The first sentence
is done for you.

1. I will close the door. (statement)

2. Close the door.

3. Will you be here at five oclock.

4. I promise not to make a noise.

5. Please be as quiet as you can.

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Proofreading
Correct the mistakes on the use of commands.

For the Black Belt essay, Master Gibbons gave us this assignment:

Write about something important to you. My topic is The Right Way, the rules of life
for the martial arts. First, respect other people treats them the way you want them
to treat you. Second, helped people in need. In other words, use your strength for
others, not to use it just for your own good. Third, no lie or steal. These are the
most important rules to me.

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Three types of sentences: simple, compound, complex


1. Simple sentence
A sentence is formed by a full stop. In other words, a full stop means a sentence.

Man proposes.

(Simple sentence)

main clause
This sentence has only one clause because it has only one finite verb proposes. This clause is
called MAIN CLAUSE and this sentence is called SIMPLE SENTENCE.

2. Compound sentence
If we use one of the seven coordinate conjunctions (and, or, nor, but, for, so, yet) to introduce a
clause, this clause is called COORDINATE MAIN CLAUSE and the sentence is called
COMPOUND SENTENCE.

Coordinate conjunction

Man proposes,

main clause

but God disposes.

(Compound sentence)

coordinate main clause

Each of the sentences in a compound sentence makes complete sense by itself, but we dont
always repeat the subject if it is the same as the subject of the first sentence.
For example, the boy or he is left out of the second part in this sentence:
The boy opened the door. He walked into the room.
The boy opened the door and walked into the room.

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3. Complex sentence
If we use a subordinate conjunction to introduce a subordinate clause, the new sentence is called
COMPLEX SENTENCE.

Subordinate conjunction
If a thing is worth doing, it is worth doing well.
subordinate clause

It is too late to lock the door


main clause

(Complex sentence)

main clause

when the horse has been stolen.

(Complex sentence)

subordinate clause

Summary
In any sentence, there must be one and only one main clause, and this main clause doesnt have any
conjunction in its front. A coordinate main clause has a coordinate conjunction in its front. A
subordinate clause has a subordinate conjunction in its front.
A main clause and a coordinate main clause are also called INDEPENDENT CLAUSES. A
subordinate clause is also called DEPENDENT CLAUSE. A dependent clause together with its
subordinate conjunction can be put at the beginning of a sentence, or behind a main clause.

A MAIN CLAUSE HAS NO CONJUNCTION IN FRONT.

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More examples:

When poverty enters the home,

subordinate clause

Love goes out by the window,

main clause

love goes out by the window.

main clause

when poverty enters the home.

subordinate clause

A coordinate main clause together with its coordinate conjunction must be put after the main
clause.

You may take a horse to water,

main clause

but you cannot make him drink.

coordinate main clause

4. Compound - Complex sentence


A sentence with at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses is referred to as
a compound-complex sentence.
Example:
The dog lived in the backyard, but the cat, who thought she was superior, lived inside the house.
Independent clauses:

The dog lived in the backyard.


The cat lived inside the house.

Dependent clause:

who thought she was superior

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And, or, but, so as conjunctive adverbs


When and , or , but or so is put at the beginning of a sentence, they become conjunctive
adverbs. They are no longer coordinate conjunctions.
And, after this incident I no longer trust you as before.
(And here is only a conjunctive adverb, not a coordinate conjunction.)
But, after a long and hard struggle we finally reach our destination.
(But here is only a conjunctive adverb, not a coordinate conjunction.)
Or, you will be in trouble.
(Or here is only a conjunctive adverb, not a coordinate conjunction.)
So, after a long and hard struggle we finally reach our destination.
(So here is only a conjunctive adverb, not a coordinate conjunction.)

Exercises
A.

Make each of the following pairs of simple sentences into a compound sentence. Leave
out a word or two where necessary.

1. The boy closed the door. He walked away.

2. Richard works badly. He plays games well.

3. The children finished their lessons. They went home.

4. I like learning grammar. I dont like doing the exercises.

5. We come to school on Friday. We have a holiday on Saturday.

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B.

Underline the subordinate clauses (dependent clauses) for each of the following complex
sentences.
1. Some people act as though they could do no wrong.

2. After the vote was taken, the meeting broke up.

3. Men fear death as children fear to go in the dark.

4. When love is satisfied, its charm is gone.

5. Among the many reasons which made me glad to have been born in England,
one of the first is that I read Shakespeare in my mother tongue.

C.

Join these sentences into one. Use but and who.


The finals are on Saturday.
We'll have to compete without Paul.
He will be in court all day arguing an important case.

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Essential English Grammar
Lesson 8 Page 25
Maria English Society
(Version 1.0 2007)

Exercise
Select the answer that is appropriate in the context.
1. Either Mr. Monroe
(A) and
(B) or

Mrs. Nicholl will be organizing the meeting.


(C) nor
(D) with

2. If the goods you received are unsatisfactory, we will issue you a refund check
credit your account if you paid by credit card.
(A) for
(B) nor
(C) so
(D) or
3. Engaging in outside consulting work with competitors is
tolerated.
(A) both
(B) neither (C) or
(D) either

__

approved of nor

4. It is obligatory
to appear in person or to write to any borough
officer to renew this license.
(A) neither
(B) both (C) either (D) between
5. The company has begun to manufacture polypropylene, which is used in such things as
appliance parts
baby bottles.
(A) but
(B) and
(C) both (D) either
6. Taxi fares are calculated by zone
(A) and
(B) or

are not negotiable.


(C) to
(D) by

7. Ms. Yeh believes that the final trade negotiations should be brief
comprehensive.
(A) either
(B) nor
(C) for
(D) but
8. The executive board has not
the factory.
(A) only
(B) still

reached a decision about the expansion of


(C) yet

(D) but

9. The vice president had to take an unexpected business trip;


, the
executive director made the presentation instead.
(A) however (B) therefore
(C) moreover (D) furthermore
10.

inflation is low, many people are worried about the lack of job growth in
the Northeast.
(A) Moreover
(B) Nevertheless (C) Consequently
(D) Although

___________________________________________________________________________________________
Essential English Grammar
Lesson 8 Page 26
Maria English Society
(Version 1.0 2007)

A summary

Coordinate

Correlative

Subordinate

conjunctions

conjunctions

conjunctions

N and N

both N and N

SV ,and SV

either Adj or Adj

and

Conjunctive adverbs

Prepositions

SV [because SV]

Therefore,

( prep. Obj )

[Because SV] , SV

;therefore,

both ___ and ___

(N)

Moreover, ;moreover, In
addition, Additionally,

or

either ___ or ___

Otherwise, ;otherwise,

but

not _______ but ______

However, ;however,

not only ___ but also ___

nor

so

neither __ nor ___

so that

Therefore, ;therefore,
Hence, Thus

yet

Still
that, when, who, which,
whose, where, whom, why,
as, since, if, unless, before,
after, until, because

SV

,for SV

SV because SV

because of Obj

Because SV, SV

Although, Though

(N)

Despite, In spite of

Even though

___________________________________________________________________________________________
Essential English Grammar
Lesson 8 Page 27
Maria English Society
(Version 1.0 2007)

___________________________________________________________________________________________
Essential English Grammar
Lesson 8 Page 28
Maria English Society
(Version 1.0 2007)