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Paul of Tarsus

history
Originally Saul
Jewish, instructed in tradition of the Pharisees.
Very thorough knowledge of old testament.
Opponent of Christianity. Persecuted Christians
Acts 9:1-19- On way to Damascus to persecute the Christians Christ appeared
Revelation. Saw this as his calling
A specific call to evangelise the gentile world
He became a Christian
Devoted life to spreading the Christian faith
Preached to both Jews and gentiles
Had great deal of authority in the early church
Recognised apostle
Journeys
Missionary journeys
Three journeys are documented.
First: through Syria, island of Cyprus, south to Galatia
Second: revisited Galatia, west to Achaia and Macedonia. Great city of Ephesus
in Asia minor, and Corinth and Athens in Greece.
Third: again Galatia. More extensive travel through Asia Minor and Greece.
Taken to Rome as prisoner.
Many bibles have maps of pauls missionary journeys.
Contribution
Established local churches got elders to run them. (acts 14:23)
Supported them by writing letters, further visits, and sending others (eg timothy)
Leading role in confirming that Christianity was a separate religion from
Judaism.
Maintained that the laws of old testament were fulfilled by Jesus
Concern for racial division between Jews and gentiles (Gal 3:28)
Letters take up quarter of new testament
Gave authoritative statements about Christian belief and conduct
Peter write our dear brother Paul who writes with the wisdom that god gave
him
Peter described his writings as scriptures.
helped consolidate Christian beliefs
took teachings of jesus explained them applied them to new situations
in the church.
Provided coherent set of beliefs and practices.
Impact
Influence of expression of Christianity today.
Evangelic churches regard Pauls letters as authoritative.
Conservative scholars claim there are no differences between Jesus and Pauls
teachings
In shaping Christianity, his writings have been central to the division
between catholic and protestant churches.

Even amongst the protestants who accept Pauls writings as scriptures, there
is disagreement on how some of the writings should be interpreted, based on
topics like babtism, church government, salvation, spiritual gifts, and the role
of women.
Many of Pails passages are frequently read at weddings, funerals and other
important occasions.

Baptism
Description.
The purpose and role of baptism within Christianity are described very differently
between the variants of Christianity.
Two main variants within Protestantism:
Those who practice Adult baptism or believers baptism (water baptism)
Those who practice infant baptism, or paedobaptism.
Believers baptism usually fully immerse the believer in water, whereas
Paedobaptists generally sprinkle or pour the water.
Believers Baptism (adult baptism)
(Baptists, churches of Christ, Pentecostals)

Going under waterr represents dying of self and the old life (death and burial)
Coming up out of water symbolises new life, experienced through becoming a
Christian.
Whole process symbolises identification with the death, burial and
resurrection of Jesus.
Apostle Paul (gal 3:27) speaks of baptised Christians as having clothed
themselves with Christ.
New Christian fully connected to Christ.
Adult Baptists point out that in the new testament, those being baptised had to
demonstrate they had become Christians by exercising belief in Christ and
repenting of their sin,
The person is becoming a Christian and is prepared to acknowledge this
publicly.
Adult Baptists frequently take place in church buildings if they are
equipped for the purpose.
Often, particularly among Pentecostal groups, they take place in swimming
pools, rivers or other suitable outdoor places.

Catholics
Unlike many protestants, describe baptism as a sacrament.
Child is seen to be reborn spiritually, freed from the power of sin, and joined
to the church.
Holy spirit works through the sacrament
Pouring of water and saying I baptise you in the name of the Father, Son
and Holy Spirit is both symbol and actual reality for Catholics.
The water, for protestants, is a symbol of the grave in which the old life is
buried.

For Catholics, the washing away of sins brings about the new Christian
life for Catholics.
A prayer is prayed that god will sent the power of the holy spirit through
the water.
The sign of the cross marks with the imprint of Christ the one who is going to
belong to him
Baptism is necessary for salvation
Makes person a member of the church.

Other symbols
Sacred chrism (consecrated perfumed oil) symbolises the gift of the holy
spirit symbolises as prophet, priest and king.
White garment- symbolised that baptised person has put on Christ (gal
3:27 Paul clothed themselves in Christ). This trend is also protestant
tradition.
Lit candle- signifies that baptised child has been enlightened by Christ, who
is the light of the world.

Christians believe that the holy spirit works through baptism and seals the
Christian with the indelible spiritual mark of his belonging to Christ (catholic
catechism).
This contrasts with the Protestant view that the Holy Spirit bring about
conversion and that baptism is an outward sign of that change.

Expresses the beliefs of baptism

Central belief the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus: having been
buried with him in baptism and raised with him through your faith.
Members of the baptised community

believers (adult) baptism


Reflects Conversion, repentance, and belief
Result of genuine conversion. Obeying Christ by being baptised is ofton the
first major step in the life of obedience.
Baptism is a public confession, that person has been saved by fhrist
Indicated that the person is going to serve Christ for the rest of their life
It is the genuineness of the spiritual experience, rather than the ritual itself that
matters the most.
Paedobaptism
Covenantal theology
Gods promises to believers extend to their children
Godparents often promise to support the parents in bringing up the child to
believe in Christ.
If child grows to be a believer, baptism is followed by the rite of
confirmation at age of understanding.
Catholicism

Authority and tradition of church


Only the ordained priest may perform the rite of baptism.
Expresses sacramental belief that the grace of god is impated through the
actual rituel itself.
Thus making the person both a member of the church and an adopted
son/daughter of God.
Baptism is one of three process of initiation, followed by confirmation and
Eucarist.

Significance of Baptism for the individual and the community


Believers (adult) Baptism (Baptists, churches of Christ, Pentecostals)

Statement tat he/she is now a Christian


Shows person has repented in the past, believes in Christ, and is now
identifying with Christ through corresponding death, burial, and resurrection.
Since old life has been crucified, there is no going back
Motivation to live the holy spirit and an obedient life, and to become more like
Christ.
Adult Baptists see baptism as uniting believers together as a baptised
community.
All been baptised into Christ, baptised into the name of Christ, and baptised
into the body of Christ, the church.

Paedobaptists
Combined role of baptism and confirmation are similar to that of adult
baptism. Therefore, godparents (who are not present in believers (adult)
baptism) play a significant role in supporting the child.
Catholics
Belief: it is baptism that ultimately makes a person a member of the church.
Godparents play significant role
The catholic church sees all baptised Catholics as members of the church.
Belief that unbaptised babies do not enter heaven, but remain in an
intermediate state traditionally called limbo. this teaching was discarded in
2007.
Protestants have never believed into the existence of limbo.
Sexual ethics
Christianity
Catholics

Catholics are very much like evagelics


Although their means of reaching those conclusions are not.

Based on faith, reason (enlightened by faith), and revelation (gods will


revealed through the bible and church tradition)
Natural law
Catholics take into account traditional teaching of the church and natural law,
aswell as teaching of the bible.

Catholic view of sex and marriage is almost identical to evangelic.

Rely on natural law for teachings on contraception.


Contraception against nature- therefore is forbiddon.
Often take into consideration with contraception that it might be for
separating the ages of children, or under a means of marriage.

Reject homosexuality, like evangelics based on the new testament, and for
catholics natural law aswell.

Abortion is accepted under means of rape.