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Institute of Technology, Nirma University. M.Tech CASAD Semester I CL1105 Advanced Materials 2014-2015 Term Assignment IV Application and Case studies of Advanced Materials in Civil Engineering Fly Ash usage in various civil engineering applications.

Yash Khandol(14MCLC06) Neeraj Khatri (14MCLC12) Pragnesh Patel (14MCLC17) Ravi Patel (14MCLC18) Sachin Patel (14MCLC19) Tejas Patil (14MCLC22) M. Tech. 1st Year

November 17, 2014

Contents

1 Introduction

3

History

1.1 .

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1.2 Applications In Civil Engineering .

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1.2.1 Portland cement

 

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1.2.2 Soil stabilization

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1.2.3 Roller compacted concrete

 

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1.2.4

Bricks

 

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1.3 Avoid fly ash for,

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1.4 Use fly ash for,

 

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2 Properties and Composition

 

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2.1 Size, Shape and Colour .

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2.2 Fineness

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2.3 Specific Gravity .

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2.4 Pozzolanic Activity

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2.5 Particle Morphology

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2.6 Moisture .

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2.7 Chemical Composition

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2.8 Mineralogical Characteristics

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3 Quality of fly ash

 

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3.1 Chemical Requirements

 

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3.2 Physical Requirements

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3.3 Classification of Fly Ash

 

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3.3.1 Class F fly ash

 

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3.3.2 Class C fly ash

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4 Fly Ash : Mechanism

 

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5 Effect of fly ash incorporation in concrete

 

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5.1 Reduced Heat of Hydration

 

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5.2 Workability of Concrete

 

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5.3 Permeability and corrosion protection

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5.4 Effect of fly ash on Carbonation of Concrete .

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5.5 Sulphate Attack

 

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5.6 Corrosion of steel .

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5.7 Reduced alkali- aggregate reaction

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5.8 Bleeding

 

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5.9 Setting time .

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5.10 Strength .

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5.11 Water Demand

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6 Fly Ash : Usage and Mix Proportions

 

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6.1 Usage

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6.1.1 Simple replacement method

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6.1.2 Addition Method

 

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6.1.3 Modified replacement method .

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6.2 Mix Design

 

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6.2.1 Workability and Consistency

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6.2.2 Strength .

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6.2.3 Durability .

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6.2.4 Density

 

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6.2.5 Heat of Hydration .

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6.3 Proportioning of Concrete

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6.3.1 Selection of slump for requirement of consistency

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6.3.2 Selection of maximum size of aggregates

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6.3.3 Estimation of mixing water and air content .

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6.3.4 Selection of water cementitious materials [w /(c+p)] or

 
 

water cement ratio

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6.3.5 Calculation of cementitious material content:

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6.3.6 Estimation of coarse aggregate content .

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6.3.7 Estimation of fine aggregate content .

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6.3.8 Adjustments for aggregate moisture

 

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6.3.9 Trial batch adjustment .

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7 Fly Ash : Industrial Overview

 

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7.1 Deposition of fly-ash

 

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7.2 Flyash Disposal in Ash Ponds

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7.3 Flyash as Fill Material

 

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7.4 Environmental Considerations

 

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7.5 Fly ash transportation

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7.5.1 Airslide-airlift systems

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7.5.2 Airslide channel

 

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7.5.3 Airlift

 

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7.5.4 Dense phase pneumatic transport .

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7.5.5 Combination of airslides and pressure vessel system

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7.6 Packing of fly ash .

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2

Chapter 1

Introduction

Electricity is the key for development of any country. Coal is a major source of fuel for production of electricity in many countries in the world. In the pro- cess of electricity generation large quantity of fly ash get produced and becomes available as a byproduct of coal-based power stations. It is a fine powder re- sulting from the combustion of powdered coal - transported by the flue gases of the boiler and collected in the Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP).

1.1 History

In the past, fly ash was generally released into the atmosphere, but pollution control equipment mandated in recent decades now requires that it be captured prior to release. In the US fly ash is generally stored at the coal power plants or placed in landfills. About 43% is recycled often used to supplement Portland cement in concrete production. Fly ash was first used in large scale in construc- tion of Hungry Horse dam in America in the approximate amount of 30% by weight of cement. Later on it was used in Canyon and Ferry dams etc. In In- dia, Fly ash was used in Rihand dam construction replacing cement up to about 15%. In recent times, the importance and use of fly ash in concrete has grown so much that it has almost become a common ingredient in concrete, particularly for making high strength and high performance concrete. Extensive research has been done all over the world on the benefits that could be accrued in the utilization of fly ash as a supplementary cementitious material. High volume fly ash concrete is a subject of current interest all over the world.

1.2 Applications In Civil Engineering

1.2.1 Portland cement

Owing to its pozzolanic properties, fly ash is used as a replacement for some of the Portland cement content of concrete. The use of fly ash as a pozzolanic in-

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gredient was recognized as early as 1914, although the earliest noteworthy study of its use was in 1937.Roman structures such as aqueducts or the Pantheon in Rome used volcanic ash or pozzolana (which possesses similar properties to fly ash) as pozzolan in their concrete. As pozzolan greatly improves the strength and durability of concrete, the use of ash is a key factor in their preservation. Use of fly ash as a partial replacement for Portland cement is particularly suitable but not limited to Class C fly ashes. Class ”F” fly ashes can have volatile effects on the entrained air content of concrete, causing reduced resistance to freeze/thaw damage. Fly ash often replaces up to 30% by mass of Portland ce- ment, but can be used in higher dosages in certain applications. Fly ash can add to the concrete’s final strength and increase its chemical resistance and dura- bility. Fly ash can significantly improve the workability of concrete. Recently, techniques have been developed to replace partial cement with high-volume fly ash (50% cement replacement). For roller-compacted concrete (RCC)[used in dam construction], replacement values of 70% have been achieved with pro- cessed fly ash at the Ghatghar dam project in Maharashtra, India. Due to the spherical shape of fly ash particles, it can increase workability of cement while reducing water demand. Proponents of fly ash claim that replacing Portland cement with fly ash reduces the greenhouse gas ”footprint” of concrete, as the production of one ton of Portland cement generates approximately one ton of CO2, compared to no CO2 generated with fly ash. New fly ash production, i.e., the burning of coal, produces approximately 20 to 30 tons of CO2 per ton of fly ash. Since the worldwide production of Portland cement is expected to reach nearly 2 billion tons by 2010, replacement of any large portion of this cement by fly ash could significantly reduce carbon emissions associated with construction, as long as the comparison takes the production of fly ash as a given.

1.2.2 Soil stabilization

Soil stabilization is the permanent physical and chemical alteration of soils to enhance their physical properties. Stabilization can increase the shear strength of a soil and/or control the shrink-swell properties of a soil, thus improving the load-bearing capacity of a sub-grade to support pavements and foundations. Stabilization can be used to treat a wide range of sub-grade materials from ex- pansive clays to granular materials. Stabilization can be achieved with a variety of chemical additives including lime, fly ash, and Portland cement. Proper de- sign and testing is an important component of any stabilization project. This allows for the establishment of design criteria as well as the determination of the proper chemical additive and admixture rate to be used to achieve the desired engineering properties. Benefits of the stabilization process can include: Higher resistance (R) values, Reduction in plasticity, Lower permeability, Reduction of pavement thickness, Elimination of excavation - material hauling/handling - and base importation, Aids compaction, Provides ”all-weather” access onto and within projects sites. Another form of soil treatment closely related to soil stabilization is soil modification, sometimes referred to as ”mud drying” or soil conditioning. Although some stabilization inherently occurs in soil modifica-

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tion, the distinction is that soil modification is merely a means to reduce the moisture content of a soil to expedite construction, whereas stabilization can substantially increase the shear strength of a material such that it can be incor- porated into the project’s structural design. The determining factors associated with soil modification vs soil stabilization may be the existing moisture content, the end use of the soil structure and ultimately the cost benefit provided. Equip- ment for the stabilization and modification processes include: chemical additive spreaders, soil mixers (reclaimers), portable pneumatic storage containers, water trucks, deep lift compactors, motor graders.

1.2.3 Roller compacted concrete

The upper reservoir of Ameren’sTaum Sauk hydroelectric plant was constructed of roller-compacted concrete which included fly ash from one of Ameren’s coal plants. Another application of using fly ash is in roller compacted concrete dams. Many dams in the US have been constructed with high fly ash contents. Fly ash lowers the heat of hydration allowing thicker placements to occur. Data for these can be found at the US Bureau of Reclamation. This has also been demonstrated in theGhatghar Dam Project in India.

1.2.4 Bricks

There are several techniques for manufacturing construction bricks from fly ash, producing a wide variety of products. One type of fly ash brick is manufactured by mixing fly ash with an equal amount of clay, then firing in a kiln at about 1000 C. This approach has the principal benefit of reducing the amount of clay required. Another type of fly ash brick is made by mixing soil, plaster of paris, fly ash and water, and allowing the mixture to dry. Because no heat is required, this technique reduces air pollution. More modern manufacturing processes use

a greater proportion of fly ash, and a high pressure manufacturing technique,

which produces high strength bricks with environmental benefits. In the United Kingdom, fly ash has been used for over fifty years to make concrete building blocks. They are widely used for the inner skin of cavity walls. They

are naturally more thermally insulating than blocks made with other aggregates. Ash bricks have been used in house construction in Windhoek, Namibia since the 1970s. There is, however, a problem with the bricks in that they tend to fail or produce unsightly pop-outs. This happens when the bricks come into con- tact with moisture and a chemical reaction occurs causing the bricks to expand. In India, fly ash bricks are used for construction. Leading manufacturers use an industrial standard known as ”Pulverized fuel ash for lime-Pozzolana mix- ture” using over 75% post-industrial recycled waste, and a compression process. This produces a strong product with good insulation properties and environ- mental benefit. American civil engineer Henry Liu announced the invention of

a new type of fly ash brick in 2007. Liu’s brick is compressed at 27.58 MPa

(272 atm) and cured for 24 hours in a 66 C steam bath, then toughened with an air entrainment agent, so that it lasts for more than 100 freeze-thaw cycles.

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Owing to the high concentration of calcium oxide in class C fly ash, the brick can be described as self-cementing. Since this method contains no clay and uses pressure instead of heat, it saves energy, reduces mercury pollution, and costs 20% less than traditional manufacturing techniques.This type of brick is now manufactured under license in the USA.

1.3 Avoid fly ash for,

Elevated beams and slabs - where formwork often needs to be removed quickly.

Cold weather pours - may not be appropriate for fly ash concrete when early strength is needed.

Face mixes of architectural or precast concrete - due to the effect on color control and uniformity.

Below-grade concrete support structures for utility pipes ,avoid using fly ash for concrete in contact with metal or ductile iron pipes (as fly ash can be corrosive to metals).

1.4 Use fly ash for,

Poured-in-place concrete walls and columns, mat slabs and poured footings in earth.

Lightweight concrete on metal deck - an ideal application for fly ash be- cause the metal deck acts as a permanent formwork.

Drilled piers and piles - fly ash concrete can perform well in water con- ditions due to decreased permeability. Also building piles are often not loaded to full capacity for some time after pouring. This allows for the 56-day curing period typically required to meet strength requirements for high volume fly- ash applications.

Grouting of concrete block.

Precast concrete elements - This application is dependent on the pre- caster’s ability and willingness to allow for early strength gain before re- moval of the formwork. Conversations with several fabricators yielded a range of responses:

Typical range of 15 - 25% replacement for Portland cement in the

mix.

Certain fabricators were reluctant to use fly ash, citing concerns that it would change the rheological behavior of the mix (rheology is the

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study of the flow of matter), add cost and complicate the mix oper- ations (which are computer controlled whereas fly ash may need to be added manually to the mix)

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Chapter 2

Properties and Composition

Fly ash is part of coal ash, or the ’total residue’,created during the combustion of coal in electrical power plants. The coal that is not incinerated either settles at the bottom of the boiler (’bottom ash’) or rises in the flue (’fly ash’). In short, fly ash is the dust collected in the smokestacks as a result of combustion. Depending on the source and properties of the coal being burned, the components of fly ash vary considerably, but all fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and calcium oxide or lime (CaO).

2.1 Size, Shape and Colour

1. Fly ash particle size is finer than ordinary Portland cement. Fly ash consists of silt sized particles which are generally spherical in nature and their size typically ranges between 10 and 100lm .

2. These small glass spheres improve the fluidity and workability of fresh concrete. Fineness is one of the important property contributing to the pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash. Fly ash colour depends upon its chemical and mineral constituents. It can be tan to dark gray.

3. ” Tan and light colours are generally associated with higher lime content, and brownish colour with the iron content. A dark gray to black color is attributed to elevated unburned carbon (LOI) content. Fly ash color is usually very consistent for each power plant and coal source.

2.2 Fineness

1. Fineness of fly ash is most closely related to the operating condition of the coal crushers and the grindability of the coal itself. Fineness of fly ash is related to its pozzolanic activity.

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2. Generally, a large fraction of ash particle is smaller than 3 m in size. In bituminous ashes, the particle sizes range from less than 1 to over 100 m.

A coarser gradation can result in a less reactive ash and could contain

higher carbon content.

2.3 Specific Gravity

The specific gravity of fly ash is related to shape, color and chemical composition of fly ash particle. In general, specific gravity of fly ash may vary from 1.3 to 4.8.

Canadian fly ashes have specific gravity ranging between 1.94 and 2.94, whereas American ashes have specific gravity ranging between 2.14 and

2.69.

2.4 Pozzolanic Activity

1. property of fly ashes, possessing little or no cementing value to react with calcium oxide in the presence of water, and produce highly cementitious water insoluble products, is called pozzolanic reactivity.

2. The meta-stable silicates present in self-cementitious fly ash react with calcium ions in the presence of moisture to form water insoluble calcium- alumino-silicate hydrates.

3. The pozzolanic activity of a fly ash depends upon its (1) fineness; (2) calcium content; (3) structure; (4) specific surface; (5) particle size dis- tribution; and (6) and LOI content.Several investigators have reported that when fly ash is pulverized to increase fineness, its pozzolanic activity increases significantly.

4. However, the effect of increase in specific surface area beyond 6,000 cm2/g

is reported to be insignificant.

2.5 Particle Morphology

1. Fly ash particles consist of clear glassy spheres and a spongy aggre- gate. Several morphological investigations have been carried out on par- ticle shape and surface characteristics of various types of fly ashes using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA).

2. Scanning electron micrographs of different fly ashes show the typical spher- ical shape of fly ash particles, some of which are hollow. The hollow spher- ical particles are known as cenospheres or floaters as they are very light and tend to float on water surface.

9

3. Cenospheres are unique free flowing powders composed of hard shelled, hollow, minute spheres. Cenospheres are made up of silica, iron and alu- mina. Cenospheres have a size range from 1 to 500 lm. Colors range from white to dark gray.

4. Sometimes fly ashes may also contain many small spherical particles within

a large glassy sphere, called pherospheres. The exterior surfaces of the

solid and hollow spherical particles of low-calcium oxide fly ashes are gen- erally smooth and better defined than those of high-calcium oxide fly ashes which may have surface coatings of material rich in calcium.

2.6 Moisture

1. Any amount of moisture in Class C fly ash will cause hardening from hy- dration of its cementitious compounds. Even surface spraying may cause caking.

2. To prevent caking and packing of the fly ash during shipping and storage and to control uniformity of fly ash shipments, a 3.0% limit on moisture content is specified in ASTM C618. Therefore, it is important that such ashes have to be kept dry before being mixed with cement.

2.7 Chemical Composition

1. Chemical composition of fly ashes include silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and oxides of calcium (CaO), iron (Fe2O3), magnesium (MgO), titanium (TiO2), sulfur (SO3), sodium (Na2O), and potassium (K2O), and un- burned carbon (LOI).

2. Amongst these SiO2 and Al2O3 together make up about 45-80% of the total ash. The sub-bituminous and lignite coal ashes have relatively higher proportion of CaO and MgO and lesser proportions of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 as compared to the bituminous coal ashes.

2.8 Mineralogical Characteristics

1. X-ray diffraction study of the crystalline and glassy phases of a fly ash

is known as mineralogical analysis. Mineralogical characterization deter-

mines the crystalline phases that contain the major constituents of fly ash.

2. Generally, fly ashes have 15-45% crystalline matter. The high-calcium ashes (Class C) contain larger amounts of crystalline matter ranging be- tween 25 and 45%. Table 1.3 presents crystalline phases in fly ashes iden- tified by XRD analysis .

10

3. Although high-calcium Class C ashes may have less glassy or amorphous material, they do contain certain crystalline phases such as anhydride (CaSO4), tricalcium aluminate (3CaOAl2O3), calcium sulpho-aluminate (CaSAl2O3) and very small amount of free lime (CaO) that participate in producing cementitious compounds. Also, glassy phase in Class C ashes is usually more reactive.

4. The glassy particles in Class C fly ashes contain large amount of calcium which possibly makes the surface of such particles highly strained, and probably, it is because of highly reactive nature of Class-C fly ashes.

5. Anhydrite (CaSO4) is formed from the reaction of CaO, SO2 and O2 in the furnace or flue. Quantity of anhydrite increases with the increase in SO3 and CaO contents. It plays a significant role in fly ash hydration behavior because it.

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Chapter 3

Quality of fly ash

3.1 Chemical Requirements

1. Pulverized fuel ash, shall conform to the chemical requirements given in table

2. The fly ash may be supplied in dry or moist condition as mutually agreed. However, in case of dry condition, the moisture content shall not exceed 2 percent. All tests for the properties specified in 6.1 shall, however, be carried out on oven dry samples.

3.2 Physical Requirements

1. Pulverized fuel ash, when tested in accordance with the methods of test specified in IS 1727, shall conform 10 the physical requirements given in Table.

2. Uniformity Requirements In tests on individual samples, the specific sur- face, particles retained on 45 micron IS Sieve (wet sieving) and lime re- activity -value shall not vary more than 15 percent from the average es- tablished from the tests on the 10 preceding samples or of all preceding samples if less than 10.

3. Notwithstanding the strength requirements specified in Table, mixes in which pulverized fuel ash is incorporated shall show a progressive increase Fly ash of fineness 250 m2/kg (Min) is also permitted to be used in the manufacture of Portland pozzolana cement by intergrinding it with Port- land cement clinker if the flyash when ground to fineness of 320 m2/kg or to the fineness of resultant Portland pozzolana cement whichever is lower, meets all the requirements specified in physical and chemical requirements of the standard.

12

Figure 3.1: Chemical Properties 3.3 Classification of Fly Ash Two classes of fly ash are

Figure 3.1: Chemical Properties

3.3 Classification of Fly Ash

Two classes of fly ash are defined by ASTM C618: Class F fly ash and Class

C fly ash. The chief difference between these classes is the amount of calcium,

silica, alumina, and iron content in the ash.

3.3.1 Class F fly ash

The burning of harder, older anthracite and bituminous coal typically produces

Class F fly ash. This fly ash is pozzolanic in nature, and contains less than 20% lime (CaO). Possessing pozzolanic properties, the glassy silica and alumina of Class F fly ash requires a cementing agent, such as Portland cement, quicklime, or hydrated lime, with the presence of water in order to react and produce cementitious compounds. Alternatively, the addition of a chemical activator such as sodium silicate (water glass) to a Class F ash can lead to the formation

of a geopolymer.

3.3.2 Class C fly ash

Fly ash produced from the burning of younger lignite or sub-bituminous coal,

in addition to having pozzolanic properties, also has some self-cementing prop-

erties. In the presence of water, Class C fly ash will harden and gain strength over time. Class C fly ash generally contains more than 20% lime (CaO). Unlike Class F, self-cementing Class C fly ash does not require an activator. Alkali and

13

Figure 3.2: Physical Properties 14

Figure 3.2: Physical Properties

14

sulfate (SO4) contents are generally higher in Class C fly ashes. At least one US manufacturer has announced a fly ash brick condtaining up to 50% Class C fly ash. Testing shows the bricks meet or exceed the performance standards listed in ASTM C 216 for conventional clay brick; it is also within the allowable shrinkage limits for concrete brick in ASTM C 55, Standard Specification for Concrete Building Brick. It is estimated that the production method used in fly ash bricks will reduce the embodied energy of masonry construction by up to 90%. Bricks and pavers were expected to be available in commercial quantities before the end of 2009.

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Chapter 4

Fly Ash : Mechanism

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is a product of four principal mineralogi- cal phases. These phases are Tricalcium Silicate- C S (3CaO.SiO ), Dicalcium Silicate -CS (2CaO.SiO ), Tricalcium Aluminate- C A (3CaO.Al O ) and Tetra- calcium alumino-ferrite - C AF(4CaO. Al O Fe O ). The setting and hardening

of the OPC takes place as a result of reaction between these principal com-

pounds and water.The reaction between these compounds and water are shown

as under:

2C3S + 6H = C3S2H3 + 3CH

2C2S (dicalcium silicate) + 4H (Water) = + C3S2H3 (C-S-H gel) + CH(Calcium hydroxide)

The hydration rod s from C S and C S are similar but quantity of calcium

hydroxide (lime) released is higher in C S as compared to C S .The reaction of

C

A with water takes place in presence of sulphate ions supplied by dissolution

of

gypsum present in OPC. This reaction is very fast and is shown as under:

C3A + 3(CSH2) + 26H = C3 A(CS)3 H32

C3A + CSH2 + 10H = C3ACSH12

Tetracalcium alumino-ferrite forms hydration product similar to those of C A, with iron substituting partially for alumina in the crystal structures of ettringite and monosulpho-aluminate hydrate. Above reactions indicate that during the hydration process of cement, lime is released out and remains as surplus in the hydrated cement. This leached out surplus lime renders deleterious effect to concrete such as make the concrete porous, give chance to the development of micro- cracks, weakening the bond with aggregates and thus affect the durability

of concrete. If fly ash is available in the mix, this surplus lime becomes the

source for pozzolanic reaction with fly ash and forms additional C-S-H gel having similar binding properties in the concrete as those produced by hydration of cement paste. The reaction of fly ash with surplus lime continues as long as lime is present in the pores of liquid cement paste.

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Chapter 5

Effect of fly ash incorporation in concrete

5.1 Reduced Heat of Hydration

In concrete mix, when water and cement come in contact, a chemical reaction initiates that produces binding material and consolidates the concrete mass. The process is exothermic and heat is released which increases the temperature of the mass When fly ash is present in the concrete mass, it plays dual role for the strength development. Fly ash reacts with released lime and produces binder as explained above and render additional strength to the concrete mass. The unreactive portion of fly ash act as micro aggregates and fills up the ma- trix to render packing effect and results in increased strength. The large temperature rise of concrete mass exerts temperature stresses and can lead mi- cro crackes. When fly ash is used as part of cementitious material, quantum of heat liberated is low and staggers through pozzolanic reactions and thus reduces micro-cracking and improves soundness of concrete mass.

5.2 Workability of Concrete

Fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and reduces the water require- ment for a given slump. The spherical shape helps to reduce friction between aggregates and between concrete and pump line and thus increases workability and improve pumpability of concrete. Fly ash use in concrete increases fines volume and decreases water content and thus reduces bleeding of concrete.

5.3 Permeability and corrosion protection

Water is essential constituent of concrete preparation. When concrete is hard- ened, part of the entrapped water in the concrete mass is consumed by cement

17

mineralogy for hydration. Some part of entrapped water evaporates, thus leav- ing porous channel to the extent of volume occupied by the water. Some part of this porous volume is filled by the hydrated products of the cement paste. The remaining part of the voids consists capillary voids and give way for ingress of water. Similarly, the liberated lime by hydration of cement is water-soluble and is leached out from hardened concrete mass, leaving capillary voids for the ingress of water. Higher the water cement ratio, higher will be the porosity and thus higher will be the permeability. The permeability makes the ingress of moisture and air easy and is the cause for corrosion of reinforcement. Higher permeability facilitate ingress of chloride ions into concrete and is the main cause for initiation of chloride induced corrosion. Additional cementitious material results from reaction between liberated surplus lime and fly ash, blocks these capillary voids and also reduces the risk of leaching of surplus free lime and thereby reduces permeability of concrete.

5.4 Effect of fly ash on Carbonation of Concrete

Carbonation phenomenon in concrete occurs when calcium hydroxides (lime) of the hydrated Portland Cement react with carbon dioxide from atmospheres in the presence of moisture and form calcium carbonate. To a small extent, calcium carbonate is also formed when calcium silicate and aluminates of the hydrated Portland cement react with carbon dioxide from atmosphere. Car- bonation process in concrete results in two deleterious effects (i) shrinkage may occur (ii) concrete immediately adjacent to steel reinforcement may reduce its resistance to corrosion. The rate of carbonation depends on permeability of con- crete, quantity of surplus lime and environmental conditions such as moisture and temperature. When fly ash is available in concrete; it reduces availability of surplus lime by way of pozzolanic reaction, reduces permeability and as a result improves resistance of concrete against carbonation phenomenon.

5.5 Sulphate Attack

Sulphate attacks in concrete occur due to reaction between sulphate from exter- nal origins or from atmosphere with surplus lime leads to formation of etrringite, which causes expansion and results in volume destabilization of the concrete. Increase in sulphate resistance of fly ash concrete is due to continuous reac- tion between fly ash and leached out lime, which continue to form additional C-S-H gel. This C-S-H gel fills in capillary pores in the cement paste, reducing permeability and ingress of sulphate ions.

5.6 Corrosion of steel

Corrosion of steel takes place mainly because of two types of attack. One is due to carbonation attack and other is due to chloride attack. In the carbonation

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attack, due to carbonation of free lime, alkaline environment in the concrete comes down which disturbs the passive iron oxide film on the reinforcement. When the concrete is permeable, the ingress of moisture and oxygen infuse to the surface of steel initiates the electrochemical process and as a result-rust is formed. The transformation of steel to rust increases its volume thus resulting in the concrete expansion, cracking and distress to the structure. In the chloride attack, Chloride ion becomes available in the concrete either through the dissociation of chlorides-associated mineralogical hydration or infu- sion of chloride ion. The sulphate attack in the concrete decomposes the chloride mineralogy thereby releasing chloride ion. In the presence of large amount of chloride, the concrete exhibits the tendency to hold moisture. In the presence of moisture and oxygen, the resistivity of the concrete weakens and becomes more permeable thereby inducing further distress. The use of fly ash reduces availability of free limes and permeability thus result in corrosion prevention.

5.7 Reduced alkali- aggregate reaction

Certain types of aggregates react with available alkalis and cause expansion and damage to concrete. These aggregates are termed as reactive aggregates. It has been established that use of adequate quantity of fly ash in concrete reduces the amount of alkali aggregate reaction and reduces/ eliminates harmful expansion of concrete. The reaction between the siliceous glass in fly ash and the alkali hydroxide of Portland cement paste consumes alkalis thereby reduces their availability for expansive reaction with reactive silica aggregates.

5.8 Bleeding

Generally fly ash will reduce the rate and amount of bleeding primarily due to the reduced water demand (Gebler 1986). Particular care is required to determine when the bleeding process has finished before any final finishing of exposed slabs. High levels of fly ash used in concrete with low water contents can virtually eliminate bleeding. Therefore, the freshly placed concrete should be finished as quickly as possible and immediately protected to prevent plastic shrinkage cracking when the ambient conditions are such that rapid evaporation of surface moisture is likely. The guidance given in ACI 305, Hot Weather Concreting should be followed. An exception to this condition is when fly ash is used without an appropriate water reduction, in which case bleeding (and segregation) will increase in comparison to Portland cement concrete.

5.9 Setting time

The impact of fly ash on the setting behaviour of concrete is dependent not only on the composition and quantity of fly ash used, but also on the type and amount of cement, the water-to-cementitious materials ratio (w/cm), the type

19

and amount of chemical admixtures, and the concrete temperature. It is fairly well-established that low-calcium fly ashes extend both the initial and final set of concrete as shown in Figure. During hot weather the amount of retardation due to fly ash tends to be small and is likely to be a benefit in many cases. During cold weather, the use of fly ash, especially at high levels of replacement, can lead to very significant delays in both the initial and final set. These delays may result in placement difficulties especially with regards to the timing of finishing operations for floor slabs and pavements or the provision of protection to prevent freezing of the plastic concrete. Practical considerations may require that the fly ash content is limited during cold-weather concreting. The use of set-accelerating admixtures may wholly or partially offset the retarding effect of the fly ash. The setting time can also be reduced by using ASTM C150 Type III (or ASTM C1157 Type HE) cement or by increasing the initial temperature of the concrete during production (for example, by heating mix water and/or aggregates). Higher-calcium fly ashes generally retard setting to a lesser degree than low- calcium fly ashes, probably because the hydraulic reactivity of fly ash increases with increasing calcium content. However, the effect of high-calcium fly ashes is more difficult to predict because the use of some of these ashes with certain cement-admixture combinations can lead to either rapid (or even flash) setting or to severely retarded setting (Wang 2006 and Roberts 2007).

5.10 Strength

In conventional concrete the flexural strength reaches its maximum value be- tween 14 to 28 days. In case of concretes with fly ash as a supplement the strength keeps on increasing with age because of pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, and the strengthening of interfacial bond between cement paste and aggregate. The strength properties are strongly dependent on the quality of cement and fly ash used.

5.11 Water Demand

The water demand and workability are controlled by particle size distribution, particle packing effect, and smoothness of surface texture. As mentioned above the fly ash replacing some of the cement will increase the paste volume. The fly ash concrete is more workable and less water is needed for the same slump. Although increased fineness usually increases the water demand, the spher- ical particle shape of the fly ash lowers particle friction and offsets such effects. The use of fly ash as a partial replacement for Portland cement will usually reduce water demand.

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Chapter 6

Fly Ash : Usage and Mix Proportions

6.1

Usage

The main objective of using fly ash in most of the cement concrete applications is to get durable concrete at reduced cost, which can be achieved by adopting one the following two methods :

1. Using Fly ash based Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) conforming to IS:1489 Part-1 in place of Ordinary Portland Cement

2. Using fly ash as an ingredient in cement concrete.

The first method is most simple method, since PPC is factory-finished prod- uct and does not requires any additional quality check for fly ash during pro- duction of concrete. In this method the proportion of fly ash and cement is, however, fixed and limits the proportioning of fly ash in concrete mixes. The addition of fly ash as an additional ingredients at concrete mixing stage as part replacement of OPC and fine aggregates is more flexible method. It allows for maximum utilization of the quality fly ash as an important component (cemen- titious and as fine aggregates) of concrete. There are three basic approaches for selecting the quantity of fly ash in cement concrete:

6.1.1 Simple replacement method

In this method a part of the OPC is replaced by fly ash on a one to one basis by mass of cement. In this process, the early strength of concrete is lower and higher strength is developed after 56-90 days. At early ages fly ash exhibits very little cementing value. At later ages when liberated lime resulting from hydration of cement, reacts with fly ash and contributes considerable strength to the concrete. This method of fly ash use is adopted for mass concrete works

21

where initial strength of concrete has less importance compared to the reduction of temperature rise.

6.1.2 Addition Method

In this method, fly ash is added to the concrete without corresponding reduction in the quantity of OPC. This increases the effective cementitious content of theconcrete and exhibits increased strength at all ages of the concrete mass. This method is useful when there is a minimum cement content criteria due to some design consideration.

6.1.3 Modified replacement method

This method is useful to make strength of fly ash concrete equivalent to the strength of control mix (without fly ash concrete) at early ages i.e. between 3 and 28 days. In this method fly ash is used by replacing part of OPC by mass along with adjustment in quantity of fine aggregates and water. The concrete mixes designed by this method will have a total weight of OPC and fly ash higher than the weight of the cement used in comparable to control mix i.e. without fly ash mix. In this method the quantity of cementitious material (OPC + Fly ash) is kept higher than quantity of cement in control mix (without fly ash) to offset the reduction in early strength.

6.2 Mix Design

Cement Concrete is principally made with combination of cement (OPC / PPC/ Slag), aggregate and water. It may also contain other cementitious materials such as fly ash, silica fumes etc. and / or chemical admixture. Use of Fly ash along with cement helps to provide specific properties like reduced early heat of hydration, increased long term strength, increased rsistance to alkali aggregate reaction and sulphate attack, reduced permeability, rsistance to the intrusion of aggressive solutions and also economy. Chemical admixture are used to accelerate, retard, improve workability, reduce mixing water requirement, increase strength or alter other properties of the concrete. Criteria for Mix Design The selection of concrete proportions involves a balance between economy and requirements for workability and consistency, strength, durability, density and appearance for a particular application. In addition, when mass concrete is being proportioned, consideration is also given to heat of hydration.

6.2.1 Workability and Consistency

Workability is considered to be that property of concrete, which determines its capacity to be placed, compacted properly and finished without segregation. Workability is affected by: the grading, particle shape, proportions of aggre- gate, the quantity qualities of cement + cementitious materials, the presence

22

of entrained air and chemical admixtures, and the consistency of the mixture. Consistency is defined as the relative mobility of the concrete mixture. It is mea- sured in terms of slump. The higher the slump the more mobile the mixture- and it affects the ease with which the concrete will flow during placement. It is related with workability. In properly proportioned concrete, the unit water content required to produce a given slump will depend on several factors. Water requirement increases as aggregates become more angular and rough textured. It decreases as the maximum size of well- graded aggregate is increased. It also decreases with the entrainment of air. Certain water- reducing admixtures reduce mixing water requirement signifi- cantly.

6.2.2 Strength

Although strength is an important characteristics of concrete, other character- istics such as durability, permeability and wear resistance are often equally or more important. Strength at the age of 28 days is generally used as a parame- ter for the structural design, concrete proportioning and evaluation of concrete. Strength mainly depends on water - cement or water - cementitious material ratio [w/c or w/(c+p)]. For a given set of materials and conditions, concrete strength is determined by the net quantity of water used per unit quantity of cement or total cementitious materials. The net water content excludes water absorbed by the aggregates. Difference in strength for a given water- cement (w/c) ratio or water- cementitious materials w/(c+p) ratio (p indicates poz- zolana or supplementary cementitious materials) may result from changes in:

maximum size of aggregate; grading, surface texture, shape, strength, stiffness of aggregate particles, differences in cement types and sources, air content, and the use of chemical admixtures that affect the cement hydration process or de- velop cementitious properties themselves.

6.2.3 Durability

Concrete must be able to endure those exposures that may deprive it of its serviceability- heating cooling, wetting drying, freezing thawing in cold coun- tries, chemicals, de-icing agents etc. Resistance to some of these may be en- hanced by use of special ingredients, low-alkali cement, fly ash, Ground Granu- lated Blast Furnace (GGBF) slag, and silica fume. The durability of concrete exposed to seawater or sulfate- bearing or aggregate composed of minerals and free of excessive soft particles where resistance to surface abrasion is required can also be enhanced substantially by using above special ingredients. Use of low water-cement or water cementitious materials ratio [w/c or w/(c+p)] will prolong the life of concrete by reducing the penetration of aggressive liquids.

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6.2.4 Density

For certain applications, concrete may be used primarily for its weight char- acteristics. Examples of such applications are counterweights on lift bridges, dams, weights for sinking oil pipelines under water, shielding from radiation and insulation from sound.

6.2.5 Heat of Hydration

A major concern in proportioning mass concrete is the size and shape of the

completed structure or portion thereof. If the temperature rise of the concrete mass is not controlled a minimum and the heat is allowed to dissipate at a rea- sonable rate, or if the concrete is subjected to severe temperature differential or thermal gradient, cracking is likely to occur. Thermal cracking of foundation, floor slabs, beams, columns, bridge piers and other massive structure such as dams can or may reduce the service life of a structure by promoting early de- terioration and may need excessive maintenance. Utilization of fly ash provides a partial replacement of cement with material, which generates considerable less heat at early ages. The early age heat contribution of a pozzolana may conservatively be estimated to a range between 15 to 50 percent of that of an equivalent weight of concrete. The required temperature control measures can thus be suitably reduced.

6.3 Proportioning of Concrete

The selection of concrete proportions involves a balance between economy and various criteria defined in para 8.1 above. Proportioning or mix design of con- crete involves a sequence of logical, straight forward steps which in effect fit the characteristics of the available materials into a mixture suitable for the work. Steps to be followed for proportioning of concrete utilizing fly ash are given below. These guidelines are based on Standard Practice for Selecting Propor- tions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete (ACI 211.1-91) of American Concrete Institute (ACI).

6.3.1 Selection of slump for requirement of consistency

If slump is not specified, a value appropriate for the work can be selected from

Table (a). The slump ranges shown apply when vibration is used to consolidate the concrete. The maximum value of slump may be increased by 25 mm if the

methodof consolidation adopted is other than vibration. Recommended slumps in ACI 211.1-91 for various types of constructions-

6.3.2 Selection of maximum size of aggregates

Large nominal maximum sizes of well-graded aggregates have less voids than

smaller size aggregates.

This results in, concrete with the larger sized aggre-

24

Figure 6.1: Slumps gates require less mortar per unit volume of concrete. Therefore, the nominal

Figure 6.1: Slumps

gates require less mortar per unit volume of concrete. Therefore, the nominal maximum size of aggregates should be the largest that is economically available and consistent with the dimensions of the structure. However, nominal maxi- mum size of aggregates should not be more than (i) one fifth of the narrowest dimension between sides of forms.(ii) one third of the depth of slab (iii) three fourths of the minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars/ bun- dles of bars or pretensioning strands. These limitations are sometimes can be relaxed if workability and methods of consolidation are such that the concrete can be placed without honeycombs or voids.

6.3.3 Estimation of mixing water and air content

The quantity of water per unit volume of concrete required to produce a given slump is dependent on the nominal maximum size, particle shape, grading of the Aggregates, the concrete temperature; the amount of entrained air and use of chemical admixture. Slump is not greatly affected by the quantity of cement or cementitious material. Estimates of required mixing water for concrete, with or without air entrainment recommended by ACI (American Concrete Institutes) Approximate Mixing Water and Air Content Requirements for Different Slumps and Nominal Maximum Sizes of Aggregates is shown in table. The quantity of mixing water given for air entrained concrete are based on typical total air content requirement and as shown for ”moderate exposure” in The table above. reasonably well-shaped angular aggregates grading within limits of accepted specification. Rounded course aggregate will generally require 18 kg less water for non-air-entrained and 15 kg less for air-entrained concrete. The use of water reducing chemical admixture may also reduce mixing water by 5% or more. The volume of liquid admixture is included as part of total volume of mixing water. These quantities of mixing water are for use in computing cement factors for trial batches when 75 mm or 150 mm nominal maximum size aggregate is used.

25

Figure 6.2: Approximate Mixing Water and Air Content Requirements for Dif- ferent Slumps and Nominal

Figure 6.2: Approximate Mixing Water and Air Content Requirements for Dif- ferent Slumps and Nominal Maximum Sizes of Aggregates

26

They are average for reasonably well-shaped coarse aggregate, well graded from coarse to fine. When using large aggregate in low cement factor concrete, air entrainment need not to be detrimental to strength. In most cases, mixing water requirement is reduced sufficiently to improve the water cement ratio and to thus compensate for the strength reducing effect of entrained air concrete. Generally, therefore, fo these large nominal maximum sizes of aggregate, air contents recommended for extreme exposure should be considered even though there may be a little or no exposure to moisture and free water.

6.3.4 Selection of water cementitious materials [w /(c+p)] or water cement ratio

The approximate values corresponding to compressive strength at 28 days under standard laboratory conditions are given in table (c), which can be used for selection of water cementitious materials [w /(c+p)] or water cement (w/c) ratio for concrete proportioning.

or water cement (w/c) ratio for concrete proportioning. Figure 6.3: Relationship between water cementitious

Figure 6.3: Relationship between water cementitious materials ratio and com- pressive strength of Cement

* Values are estimated average strength for concrete containing not more than 2% air for non-air-entrained concrete and 6% total air content for air- entrained concrete. For constant water-cement ratio, the strength of concrete is reduced as the air content is increased. Strength is based on 152 x305 mm cylinder moist-cured for 28 days in ac- cordance with standard norms specified in relevant ASTM code. The relationship given in the above table is based on the nominal maximum size of about 19 to 25 mm. For given source of aggregate, strength produced at

27

given water -cement ratio will increase as nominal maximum size of aggregates decreases. Fly ash 15-35% by weight of total cementitious material can be used as part replacement of Ordinary Portland cement. When high early strength is required, the total weight of cementitious material (Cement + fly ash) may be kept greater than the quantity that would be need if Portland Cement were the only cementitious material. When high early strength is not required higher percentage of fly ash can be used. When fly ash is used in concrete, a water-to- cement + fly ash ratio by weight must be considered in place of the traditional water-cement ratio (w/c) by weight.

6.3.5 Calculation of cementitious material content:

The amount of cementitious material (c + p) per unit volume of concrete can be determined by selecting the mixing water content and the water to cementitious material ratio as described in step 3 4. However, if minimum cementitious material requirement is specified for strength and durability criteria, in that case higher quantity of cementitious content will be used in the mix.

6.3.6 Estimation of coarse aggregate content

Nominal maximum size and grading will produce concrete of satisfactory worka- bility when a given volume of coarse aggregates, on an oven dry-rodded basis, is used per unit volume of concrete. The approximate value of dry mass of coarse aggregate required for a cubic meter of concrete can be worked out by taking value corresponding to nominal maximum size of aggregate from table (d) and multiplying by the dry- rodded unit mass of aggregates in kg.

by the dry- rodded unit mass of aggregates in kg. Figure 6.4: Volume of Coarse Aggregate

Figure 6.4: Volume of Coarse Aggregate Per Unit of Volume of Concrete

28

6.3.7 Estimation of fine aggregate content

The fine aggregate content can be worked out from the formula given below:

Wet density of concrete (kg/m3) - weight of (cement + fly ash + water + coarse agreegates) in kg. Normally wet density of concrete is taken as 2400 kg/m3

6.3.8 Adjustments for aggregate moisture

The aggregate quantities actually to be weighted out for the concrete must allow for moisture in the aggregates. Generally, aggregates are moist and their dry weights should be increased by the percentage of water they contain (both absorbed and surface). The mixing water to be added in a batch must be reduced by an amount equal to the free moisture contributed by aggregate i.e. total moisture minus absorption.

6.3.9 Trial batch adjustment

The estimated mixture proportion is to be checked by trial batches prepared and tested according to standard practice for compressive strength, slump, unit weight etc. In the trial batch sufficient water should be used to produce the required slump regardless of the amount assumed in selecting the trial propor- tions. The trial batches should be carefully observed for proper workability, freedom from segregation and finishing properties. Appropriate adjustment should be made in the proportions for subsequent batches. By following above-mentioned steps, designing of cement concrete mix using fly ash as a ce- mentitious material for partly replacing cement can be carried out for desired strength and durability.

29

Chapter 7

Fly Ash : Industrial Overview

COAL-based thermal power plants have been a major source of power generation in India, where 75% of the total power obtained is from coal-based thermal power plants. The coal reserve of India is about 200 billion ton-nes (bt) and its annual production reaches 250 million tonnes (mt) approximately. About 70% of this is used in the power sector. In India, unlike in most of the deve-loped countries, ash content in the coal used for power generation is 30-40%. High ash coal means more wear and tear of the plant and machinery, low thermal efficiency of the boiler, slogging, choking and scaling of the furnace and most serious of them all, generation of a large amount of fly ash. India ranks fourth in the world in the production of coal ash as by-product waste after USSR, USA and China, in that order. Fly ash is defined in Cement and Concrete Terminology (ACI Committee 116) as the ’finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of ground or powdered coal, which is trans-ported from the fire box through the boiler by flue gases’. Fly ash is fine glass powder, the particles of which are generally spherical in shape and range in size from 0.5 to 100 ?m. Fly ash is classified into two types according to the type of coal used. Anthracite and bituminous coal produces fly ash classified as class F. Class C fly ash is produced by burning lignite or sub-bituminous coal. Class C fly ash has self-cementing properties.

7.1 Deposition of fly-ash

1. Thermal Power stations using pulverized coal or lignite as fuel generate large quantities of ash as a by-product. There are about 82 power plants in India, which form the major source of flyash in the country. With the commissioning of super thermal power plants and with the increasing use of low grade coal of high ash content, the current production of ash is about 85 million tonnes per year. This figure is likely to go upto 100

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million tonnes per year by the year 2000 AD and pose serious ecological problems.

2. Although the scope for use of ash in concrete, brick making, soil-stabilization treatment and other applications has been well recognized, only a small quantity of the total ash produced in India is currently utilized in such applications. Most of the ash generated from the power plants is dis- posed off in the vicinity of the plant as a waste material covering several hectares of valuable land. The bulk utilization of ash is possible in two ar- eas, namely, ash dyke construction and filling of low-lying areas. Coal ash has been successfully used as structural fills in many developed countries. However, this particular bulk utilization of ash is yet to be implemented in India. Since most of the thermal power plants in India are located in areas where natural materials are either scarce or expensive, the availability of flyash is bound to provide an economic alternative to natural soils

7.2 Flyash Disposal in Ash Ponds

1. Primarily, the flyash is disposed off using either dry or wet disposal scheme. In dry disposal, the flyash is transported by truck, chute or conveyor at the site and disposed off by constructing a dry embankment (dyke). In wet disposal, the flyash is transported as slurry through pipe and disposed off in impoundment called ”ash pond”. Most of the power plants in India use wet disposal system, and when the lagoons are full, four basic options are available: (a) constructing new lagoons using conventional construc- tional material, (b) hauling of flyash from the existing lagoons to another disposal site, (c) raising the existing dyke using conventional construc- tional material, and (d) raising the dyke using flyash excavated from the lagoon (”ash dyke”). The option of raising the existing dyke is very cost effective because any fly ash used for constructing dyke would, in addition to saving the earth filling cost, enhance disposal capacity of the lagoon. The constructional methods for an ash dyke can be grouped into three broad categories: (a) Upstream method, (b) Downstream method and (c) Centerline method. Fig.1 shows typical configurations of embankments constructed using the different methods. The construction procedure of an ash dyke includes surface treatment of lagoon ash, spreading and com- paction, benching and soil cover.

2. An important aspect of design of ash dykes is the internal drainage sys- tem. The seepage discharge from internal surfaces must be controlled with filters that permit water to escape freely and also to hold particles in place and the piezometric surface on the downstream of the dyke. The inter- nal drainage system consists of construction of rock toe, 0.5m thick sand blanket and sand chimney. After completion of the final section including earth cover the turfing is developed from sod on the downstream slope.

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Figure 7.1: Fly Ash Deposition 32

Figure 7.1: Fly Ash Deposition

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7.3 Flyash as Fill Material

1. Large scale use of ash as a fill material can be applied where (a) fly- ash replaces another material and is therefore in direct competition with that material, (b) flyash itself is used by the power generating company producing the flyash to improve the economics of the overall disposal of surplus flyash; and (c) at some additional cost, flyash disposal is combined with the rehabilitation and reclamation of land areas desecrated by other operations.

2. Fills can be constructed as structural fills where the flyash is placed in thin lifts and compacted. Structural flyash fills are relatively incompressible and are suitable for the support of buildings and other structures. Non- structural flyash fill can be used for the development of parks, parking lots, playgrounds and other similar lightly loaded facilities. One of the most significant characteristics of flyash in its use as a fill material is its strength. Well-compacted flyash has strength comparable to or greater than soils normally used in earth fill operations. In addition, lignite flyash possesses self-hardening properties which can result in the development of shear strengths. The addition of illite or cement can induce hardening in bituminous flyash which may not self-harden alone. Significant increases in shear strength can be realized in relatively short periods of time and it can be very useful in the design of embankments.

7.4 Environmental Considerations

1. The environmental aspects of ash disposal aim at minimizing air and wa- ter pollution. Directly related to these concerns is the additional envi- ronmental goal of aesthetically enhancing ash disposal facilities. The ash produced in thermal power plants can cause all three environmental risks - air, surface water and groundwater pollution. The pathways of pollutant movement through all these modes are schematically represented in Fig.

2. ” Air pollution is caused by direct emissions of toxic gases from the power plants as well as wind-blown ash dust from ash mound/pond. The air- borne dust can fall in surface water system or soil and may contaminate the water/soil system. The wet system of disposal in most power plants causes discharge of particulate ash directly into the nearby surface water system. The long storage of ash in ponds under wet condition and humid climate can cause leaching of toxic metals from ash and contaminate the underlying soil and ultimately the groundwater system. However, most of these environmental problems can be minimised by incorporating engi- neering measures in the design of ash ponds and continuous monitoring of surface and groundwater water systems.

3. Air pollution is caused by direct emissions of toxic gases from the power

plants as well as wind-blown ash dust from ash mound/pond.

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The air-

Figure 7.2: Pollution borne dust can fall in surface water system or soil and may

Figure 7.2: Pollution

borne dust can fall in surface water system or soil and may contaminate the water/soil system. The wet system of disposal in most power plants causes discharge of particulate ash directly into the nearby surface water system. The long storage of ash in ponds under wet condition and humid climate can cause leaching of toxic metals from ash and contaminate the underlying soil and ultimately the groundwater system. However, most of these environmental problems can be minimised by incorporating engi- neering measures in the design of ash ponds and continuous monitoring of surface and groundwater water systems.

7.5 Fly ash transportation

For the fly ash collection and transportation we can design and supply different pneumatic transportation system such as:

1. Airslide-Airlift system

2. Dense phase pneumatic transport

3. Vacuum type pneumatic transport

4. Mechanical ash collection transport

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5. High concentration ash slurry disposal system

6. Positive pressure lean phase pneumatic transport.

7. Silo technologies.

7.5.1 Airslide-airlift systems

The Airslide-Airlift material transport is usually used together. It is a simple and well proven design and suitable to transport large quantities for short dis- tances. Typical application when the fly ash has to be collected from the large number of ESP hoppers and has to be transported into a near-by fly ash storage silo.

7.5.2 Airslide channel

Technical parameters:

1. Standard transport capacity: 1 - 500 t/h

2. Standard transport distance: 10 - 200 m

3. Specific air demand: 100 - 500 m3/h/m2

Advantages of the application:

operational safety, simplicity, flexibility and high transport capacity depending on channel size. It has no moving part and transports the material with low speed, in a protecting operating mode. There is a stable working point in wide range according to change of the loading, that is, the same channel is able to operate even for a considerably changed material

7.5.3 Airlift

The Airlift is used for vertical transportation of fly ash, cement and fine-grained materials. Technical parameters

1. Standard transport capacity: 10 - 150 t/h

2. Standard vertical lifting height: 10 - 80 m

Advantages of the application:

The Airlift has simple structural constructions, contains no moving part, its operating cost is low and can be operated safety in wide operating range. The airlift has a stable working point and the equipment is self-adjusting. The most frequent application fields:

In fly ash handling systems, cement works chemical plants vertical transporta- tion of bulk material in large quantities into large-size silos, intermediate storage tanks.

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7.5.4 Dense phase pneumatic transport

In the last 15-20 years it is a trend world-wide to use dense phase pneumatic conveying for fly ash collection and transportation. Why dense phase?

1. High material to air ratio, big quantities can be transported for long dis- tances with less air.

2. Due to lower velocity less wear

3. Long conveying distance in one stage up to 1500 m.

4. No storage in ESP hoppers, fly ash is collected in the transporting vessels.

5. No sucking of flue gas, therefore danger of condensation is minimized while filling and during conveying no danger of plugging.

6. Due to dense phase smaller transport pipes required, consequently less structure and erection works

7. Lower power consumption compared to other methods.

Typical arrangements usually offering:

1. Direct, multi dense phase transport from each ESP hoppers to storage silo. This simple solution can be used for silo distance up to 500 m. For this direct transportation system we have developed pair and group operation of the transport vessels. It means that up to 4 Nos. of vessels can be operated simultaneously is such a way that the transport vessels are working onto one common delivery pipeline. It results simpler and maintenance friendly operation since the number of valves is reduced. This arrangement is usually recommended under the 3rd , 4th and 5th row of the E-precipitator hoppers.

2. Two stage dense phase transport. In the first stage the fly ash is collected by individual vessels into a transfer bin and the long distance transporta- tion from transfer bin to storage silo (up to 1500 m distance) is made by Jumbo transport vessel.

3. Two stage transportation, where the fly ash collection is done by airslide, mechanical or vacuum system and the long distance transport by single Jumbo transport vessels.

Advantages of the application:

The equipment can be operated in wide operating range. Main operating pa- rameters of working point belonging to quantitative and qualitative changes of the material to be transported can be changed, resp., adjusted flexibly. Low

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power consumption and operating cost. With PLC control, full automatic oper- ation of the transport equipment of transport vessel can be realized. Because of the low delivery air demand, on venting of the receiving silos we need filters of smaller size compared to the conventional, thin-phase flow pneumatic transport equipment. Additional advantages against vacuum type systems in case of big fly ash quantities: The fly ash is collected in the transporting vessel, therefore ESP hoppers have no storage function, consequently the plugging of hopper outlet is eliminated. Several transport vessels can be connected to a common pipeline, thereby a possibility is afforded to construct more complex systems as well.

7.5.5 Combination of airslides and pressure vessel system

For power plants over 300 MW where big size ESP-s with large number of hoppers are required and silos are far from units there is an alternative solution to individual pressure vessels. This is combination of airslides and pressure vessels. A typical 600 MW unit with two ESP including 32 NOS of collecting hoppers each working as follows:

1. From the four hoppers belong to one path, fly ash is conveyed by airslide into big size conveying vessels instead of 4 NOS of smaller ones. Resulting eight (8) pressure vessels instead of thirty-two (32).

2. Out of the total eight (8) pressure vessels two (2) or four (4) can even receive boiler ash via short distance pneumatic conveying, making easier to transport the boiler ash to long distance by mixing it with the finer fly ash from ESP.

3. Moreover four pneumatic conveying vessels belong to one ESP can be connected to one common ash conveying line in such a way that two-two vessels can be coupled and connected to one common ash outlet valve forming conveying pairs

7.6 Packing of fly ash

1. Single spot fly ash packing machine The air filler type single spout fly ash packing machine is designed to fill fly ash under ESP hopper of power plant and fill valve type bag. Material is pushed by the pneumatic feeder and filled in the bag through the spout which is connected to machine with a flexible hose pipe. The material is fluidized and easily flows into the bag through the nozzle. Weighing is provided through mechanical weighing beam. This is an economical machine to pack low cost powdered materials in valve type bags.

2. Double spot fly ash packing machine

Double spout fly ash packing machine is capable of filling and packing at least 400 bags of fly as per hour. Compressed air requirements for this

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machine are 750 lpm @ 7 kg / cm2. Height and other specifications, fea- tures

machine are 750 lpm @ 7 kg / cm2. Height and other specifications, fea- tures of both the machines are same, both uses pneumetic filling mathod to fill the bags.

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Figure 7.3: Double spot fly ash packing machine Figure 7.4: Packing parameters 39

Figure 7.3: Double spot fly ash packing machine

Figure 7.3: Double spot fly ash packing machine Figure 7.4: Packing parameters 39

Figure 7.4: Packing parameters

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