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62318
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MARK G. BREITER
KAR. POHLHAUSEN
rrI
ii
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A275562
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March 1962
i wr
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ARL 62318
MA.9K C. BREITER
KARL POHLHAUSEN
APPLIED MATHEMATICS
RESEARCH BRANCH
"MARCH 1962
31.366 9 1367
FURE WORD
This report was prepared in the Applied Mathematics Research 13)
Aeronautical Research Laboratory, Office of Aeroispace ResearC., Wr
Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio~.
The authors extend grateful acknowledgement to Dr. K. G. Guderlt
the Applied Mathematics Research Branch, for encouragement and muadvice.
The numerical calculations were carried out partly with the Recon
graciously made available by Professor R. T. Harling of the Air Forc,
of Technoulogy, and partly with the 1103A computer of the Digital CFriip
Branch, Systems Dynamic Analysis Division.
Captain R. V. Hendon of
BEST
AVAILABLE COPY
FOREWORD
i
This repo t was prepared in the Applied Mathematics Research Branch of the
Aeronautical Research Laboratory, Offlce of Aerospace Researc'., WrightPatterson Air Force Base, Ohio.
The authors extend grateful acknowledgement to Dr. K. G. Guderley, Chief of
the Applied Mathematics Research Branch, for encouragement and much helpful
advice.
The numerical calculdtions were carried out partly with the Recomp computer,
graciously made available by Professor R. T. Harling of the Air Force Institute
of Technology, and partly with the 1103A computer of the Digital Computation
Branch, Systems Dynamic Analysis Division.
.a,
Physics", Ta k 7043
ii
of Mathematical
ABSTRACT
The report inrestigates the viscous flow between two parallel disks rotating in
the same direction with the same velocity.
The centrifugal
The arrangement
For large
radii the deviation from rigid body rotation (with the angular velocity of the disks)
is smail.
, analytically.
The
velocity profile. dePenc! ipon a parameter containing the kinematic viscosity, the
angular velocity and the distance of the disks, but not the radius.
The nonlinearized parabolic differential equations are approximm.Led by a
difference scheme and solved numerically.
sional form with the entrance velocity and the distance of the disks as parameters.
Furthermore, the efficiency of the pump is computed from the gain of the total
pressure and the torque at the shaft of the rotating disks,
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Section
1. Introduction
111.
IV.
11.
10
14
17
Appendix
iv
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Page
Figure
1.
21
2.
k I and k 2 versus ad
22
3.
g(ad) versus ad
23
4.
various values of ad
5.
0 =o. 5 d=0.5
7.
8.
= 0,
.5
or
27
.
C .5
= 0.5
0. 1 adi0=
9.
ao = 1.0 a=l.O
10.
29
30
i0 = 0. 5 d=l. 0
11.
5 0' 0. 25
12.
31
= l.0
0o= 0. 1
32
=l.0
Page
Figure
13.
Radial velocity i
a 0= 1.0 d 1.5
14.
Radial velocity
33
i and relative tangential velocity V for
34
f0 =0.5 d=l.5
'A5.
36
a 0=0.1 j= 1.5
17.
18.
u0 =0.5 d=2.a
19.
38
39
i0=0.5 d=2.0
20.
5 o= 0.
40
2=2.0
d
21.
&1
22.
41
23
Radial velocity 5i
42
24.
25.
Fi()
0v1
vi
42
for d=0.5
43
Figures
26.
44
27.
F(0
44
28.
29.
for d:.5
for
d =0.5
10.
46
31.
47
32.
45
48
i
fo49
I.
INTRODUCTION
Investigated in this report is the viscous flow between two parallel disks,
which rotate with the same constant angular velocity in the same direction.
The
fluid enters the space between the disks in radial direction through a cylindrical
surface (Figure 1).
velocity components are due to the friction forces and to the centrifugal forces
respectively.
The pressure will increase with the radius because of the centrif
One might
suspect that the absence of blades leads to low values of the efficiency, but if the
blades are spaced very closely and the mass flow is low, the efficiency may be
quite acceptable.
On the other hand, such a pump would not encounter the problem
of cavitation and also its characteristics over a wide operatin ange might be
more favorable than in i conventional turbo pump.
nized by Mr. S.: . Hasinrer, Mr. L. G. Kehrt and Dr. J. P. von Ohain of the
Thermomechanics Research Branch of this laboratory.
*Advances
1956, p. 166.
F. K. Moore:
But
an approach of this kind is not feasible in the present case because of the presence
of the seccid disk and the fact that the flow enters the space between the disks at a
radius different from zero.
For any practical application the distance between the disks must be very small,
for otherwise the friction would not be sufficiently effective to produce a tangential
f1jv,.
But then the approximations made in boundary layer theory apply reducing
A first insight into the basic characteristics of the proble n is obtained if one
assumes that the velocities of the fuid relative to the disks are small so that
quadratic ternr. , .
gligible.
the general character o" the velocity profiles; these profiles are governed by one
dimensionless pararmeter which contains the angular velocity, the vicosity and
the distance, but not the mass flow and the radius.
important for the practical design.
This
region is most critical from the point of view of cavitation, and also the principal
losses are encountered there.
been integrated numerically.
fl.
We
denote by
ai
w
2d
ri
the density
the viscosity,
v =
wT:
w
ur
+ u. v
z
2z
8z
.!
8w
u
+r
+ V
8z
Or
Oz
+4v8V
22
8r
__ +
8z
.+
r Or
(2.1)
8r2
au
vz
8
I Ip + V+ &u
A..
L
!u
a:
p Or
8z 2
Or
Ou +
Or
8z
3
(2.2)
OU 2
MV+
r
au
w 2=.Oz
22u
Oz2
dr
(2. 3)
u
u. .v + ww K
r
z
Pr
Xv
2
8w X 0
+r2uu+ L
r
r'
Or
(2.4)
8z3
V1, v  rw
(2.5)
Ou V
Vrr
8V
=
iz
u[V+,rw] +
r
V
z =
dp
Pdr
2u
O(2.6)
av
az 2
(2.7)
u (r, *d) =0
(2.8)
V(r, *d)= 0
To determine the boundary value problem com.pletely, one must also prescribe
the velocity disti ioution in the entrance cross section.
u(ri, z)a
One has
u0
(2.9)
V(r
,z)rw
8z2
dr
V
0
(3.2)
az
u
In these equations
(3.1)
dr
assumption thai rhe pre sure does not depend upon z. The unknown w does not
appear, and so it is possible to solve these equations separately; w is determined
from Eq (Z.4) afterwards.
sion
p'aw
dr
rw = F (r)
(3.3)
term that occurs in the equations and in the boundary conditions; therefore, it will
enter the solution for u and V a a a factor which depends only on r.
5
This factor
is determined by the condition that the mass flow between the disks is constant for
Thus u and V as well as
dr
can be found.
2
P
2rZ
Setting
4V
d V + 2V z F(r)
dz 4
(3.4)
dV + 4a 4V
4
24F(r)
(3.5)
dz...
An the most general solution of Eq (3. 5) that satisfies the symmetry conditions at
the plane z v 0,
a
ac
V=A
.,: 1
cosh(az)cos(az)+ F(r)
2
(3.6)
The
V=0
(3.7)
1
22
d2 V
2
dz
A,
F(r) k
1
1 2
k2
F(r)
38
(38
with
(3.9)
k2
2 cosh(ad).cos (ad)
2 cosh (2ad)+cos(2ad)
dV
F(!) ! (k
dz
One finds
Let
t)he
a surface
+d
Q= 27r f
d
Hence
(3.10)
(320
*a2
udz= I
a
d
+d
2
df
dz
dz =
(3.11)
dV
a
d
. ..
a
F(r). g (ad)
(3.121
where:
g(ad) a
Figure 3 shows
(3.13
g(ad) as a function of ad
IFW
4 eQ
w r.g(ad)
(3.14)
where
w. g(ad)
(3.15)
One thus obtain, finally tor the velocity components, expressed in terms of the
mass flow
v U3 [
k,
(3. 16)
(3. 16)
Ua
[kl
cosh(az)cos(aL.k
Inserting these expressions into the continuity equation Eq (2.4) one finds w = 0.
The velocities in the middle plane between the two disks are found by setting z = 0.
Z,
=0 r
(3. 17)
zZO=
5U
r kl
Figure 4 shows the radial velocity component for different values of ad as a function of z/d for q/r = I.
is flat in the rviddle. for higher valie of ad the flow is moro and more concentrated
in the neighborhood of the disks.
The tangential velocity V is represented in Figure 4 for q/r = 1.
For small
values of ad it also has a parabolic shape, but with increasing ad the slope in the
vici;:ity of the disks becomes steeper and the relative velocity in the middle plane
ajroaches 1.
Actually the profiles for high values of ad must be viewed with considerable
caution.
One sees that in this case the velocity u may become n 1gative in the
middle; i. e. for such cases one has a radial outflow close to the disks with a
radial inflow in t'k
roddle.
to produce such
o, pattern physically,
ial arrangement
This
For a
given w and a given v, I. e. . a given fluid, the only quantity that can be influencid
in thi3 parameter is the distance of the disks.
pw [r 2q
dr
(3.18)
and by integration
2
p=
[r.
(3.19)
. 2qlnr +const]
The momentum required at the ahaft of the rotor can be determined in two
different ways, either from the moment of the shearing forces on the inner side
of two disks, or by applying the law of conseration for the moment of momentum.
One has in the first case
r r z I dVd
M =2 z.
'
ri
'dr
(3.20)
iz zd
in the second
l4 u2,rr 2 p
u.vdz
(3.21)
d
10
Thus, we may
adopt a numerical scheme for the integration of the parabolic differential equations.
For our computations we assumed that the rotating disks lie in horizontal
planeR, and introduce a new system of coordinates x, y, whose origin lies in the
entrance cross section at the lower disk.
loder disk.
We have
x~rr
y = z+d
uO
0
ri
and (2.4)
uo
r.
1
r.
r.1
Y=Y"; r~
1
m
11
equations
+
!:
+
+2
"[
(4.2)
F'(r) a r.
1421r Z d
dr
=d.

The channel
by a symmetry coiidition at i = d.
0)
(4. 3)
0)=0
V,(; 0) =0
a,! (q(,a)
=0
aV(x,d)
=0
(4.4)
V(;, a) = 0
The coefficients of the derivatives with respect to ;., in Eq (4. 2) may become very
sma)l for large values of i and italso is small in the vicinity of y
is necessary to use a very fine mesh size in the ;
d, but then it
are computed
become unstable.
For this reason it was decided to use an ";nverse" difference procedure where
the Ierivatives are formed along the line ; a const for which the state is to be
Imputed.
This brings about a rather severe complication, for the stat. along
tion method.
Sirw
If a
The state along the new line can then be obtained by a suitable superposition
of particular solutions of the linear equatioa which arises in this manner.
The
linear system of equation which arises in this process has a rather simple structure insofar as the matrix of systems has elements that are different from zero
on only a few lines that are paraUel to the main diagonal.
certain simplifications in the inversion of the matrix.
13
1. 0, 0. 5, 0. 25 and 0. 1.
1i
The
For the
as parameter.
inlet velocities
0 and ;00 wb ch are constant over the cross section, are immedi
radial velocities at the wall causes the velocities in the middl. *.o increase.
fore the radial ve)c . iE , &the profiles close to the entrance c.
shoots the entra, "e prnf;,, in the middle.
There
us section over
because of the increase of the available cross section with r, finally the profile
approaches the form given by the linearized theory.
behavior again; here the radial velocities Vm in the median plane of the
(z = 0) are plotted versus r /r..I
i41.
As
profiles at the wall Eq (3. 18); but it appears to be preferable (from the numerical
point of view) to compute it from the radial and tangential velocities Eq (3. 19).
The pressure distribution is computed from the function F()
in the numerical procedure as a function of r/r
direction of r is required.
which is found
The
dynamic pressure for the average velocity is slightly lower than the aerage of
the dynamic pressures; in other words in defining the dynamic pr :ssure with
average velocities one takes into account the mmxing losses.
PLI2
av
Pd
Figures 29 thru
versus
depend upon the flow field at smaller radii, thus dynamic pressure and torque are
determined only by the exit cross section.
15
The losses
in static pressure.
The exit cross section does not play a special role in the computation; in
other words, each value of .r can be considered as the other radius of the rotor.
In the vicinity of the erncrance, one has always a slight pressure drop, for
large volume flow the pressure drop is more pronounced, and this fact is of
interest from the point of view of computations.
nrental from the point of view of efficiency.
16
APPENDIX
For the numarical solution of the system of equations (4. 2) we set up a network of lines xconstant and y
along the x and ; axes.
The length
is chosen as uzi
respectively
u i+l,kmUi, k
rv
i+l,k+l
1i+l, kI
(A 1)
a2 j
i+l, k+l
I+l,
l2 k
t2
8j2
5I+1, kI
and k  1, k, and
Starting with given
k'
defined by
Ak
'ui+
lk
"ui,.k
and similarly for AVk , and &Ck' and neglect all terms in the equations of higher
order in the A's.
(Naturally these A's will also depend on i, but only one value
of i is needed at a time).
17
Equations (4.2) then lead to the following linear difference equations in the
unknown differences

1,k
,ii,AV, and A
2  i,k
.
+a)+ (2 + 4L
k+
Lz
(
i, k1(1+ "
Wi,k) + Ui, I
I2
+I1k+l
rl,)
Ak
;wk
(ik+li,
Wi,k)
(lw.
ik
)A
wik+i+
VkI
zx 2
ik(
(1+Z)
v itkl
x, (+ IZVk I
2~
A2t
kI&d
I
k I h
h
X
Auk_
Itk1
itk~
k2i,kki
itk
zI a1
v
ik
k
i,k+l
+V
iLkl
18
Since
= W=
A 50 = A
Since
0.*0
(A 3)
AV
21
= 0,
a Iv20
(A4)
0.
In the continuity equation there appear only first derivatives with respect to
',
derivtive of
is lost.
'v
0,
As a consequence or.
equation
Thus
5= f(4
=
8w,
f',( ).
f,(i)
I
K
2
7v =A(;) y2
19
=A
(A5)
~1
wi,l
 4
1.w,2
and so

J.
A*,' i
I "A'
( "1
i,
wt, ) )

Here the second term ought to be zero, but by proceeding in this fashion we are
more sure th.L C
':
of error accumu
lation.
By numerically integrating the radial velocity a with respect to
fixed value of ;,
j for any
surface characterized by ;,
20
cd
0 +d
r.r
21
1.0'
I
kk
0.8i
~
K,~~~~4
:u12
I'
1~
41
0.
if
T
k, anti+g4.4+
versus ad
H
i f I
1,4

I.0
10
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