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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

In this research the researcher discusses five topics related with the
research. The topics include background of the study, statement of the study,
purpose of the study, significance of the study, and limitation or scope of the
study.

1.1

The Background of the Study


In this globalization Era, the challenge of life is more complicated now.

We need to know the development of the information of the word. Information is


the key to control this word because information is the basic of science. The
information can be got from many other media, such as; Television, internet, news
paper, magazine and so on. They can give us the information about this word and
the development of this word. But to get the information from them, we must
know the language that is used in that media. Language is the basic thing to get
the information and it is transformation tool to give the information to others. It is
like the definition of the language itself. Language is the tool to communicate one
another. Because language is the important thing to get the information, we must
know the language that is often used in the media. English is one of language that
becomes one of tool to get the information.
We all know that English an international language that must be learned
and understood especially by the foreign students, so they try to master in English
and try to make English easy to learn. The reality of society in Indonesia
especially to get English is lower. It is different from Malaysia, Singapore, India
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or any other countries that force the community themselves to learn English and
turn English become the second language, but in Indonesia, English becomes
complementary language only. The majority of Indonesia thinks that English is
language that is studied to pass the final test of study. Not only does they think
that English is not important but also English is very difficult to learn. It is caused
by their opinion that English is something difficult and not important to learn.
Because of those, Government tries to increase the system of English education
but it faces many trouble things. They come from the system that the students
happen and that have not realized about the importance of English language
because they think that English is language that is screaming and difficult.
English is one of the lessons that are avoided by many learners because
English can not be studied instantly. It needs high concentration to master English
education. The last exam of nationality uses English also and it emphasizes in
grammar, listening, reading, writing and speaking to get the standard of passing
the final test nationality. The learners think that Grammar is very elaborate that
others.
Grammar constitutes language element (language component) one that its
implementation shall integrated into 4 (four) skill gets language (Language skill)
which is Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing Skill. In brief learning can be
integrated on listening, speaking, reading or writing even. If it is looked on urgent,
therefore grammar needs to be taught by communicating to props skill to get
student language. Grammar learning makes an abode to have ices fringe:
Communicative approach, Students Centered Learning, and integrated minimal

covers 2 skill get language (Listening speaking or Reading Writing, etc.).


Therefore to prop learning success that gets text basis (Genre Based Teaching and
Learning) Grammar role is very important. Grammar is not necessarily being
taught specially but as auxiliary as to prop understanding the level of success and
production a text.
Grammar is one of the most important parts that we need to master when
studying English. Grammar is essentially about the systems and patterns we use to
select and combine words. In order to communicate we must share a common
system, which is why people who speak different languages cannot understand
one another because they are using different systems. For people to communicate
through language there must be common systems and grammar one of the
essential systems. Grammar is the study and practice of the rules by which words
change their forms and are combined into sentences (Longman dictionary of
contemporary English 1978.) If there no grammar, language would simply be a
chaotic collection of separate words without the indispensable guidelines for how
they can be ordered and modified (Batstone 1994:4). By studying grammar, we
come to recognize the structure and regularity which is the foundation of language
and we gain the tools to talk about our language system (Joyce,Helen. 1999:5).
The beginner English learners feel that English as something scarred that
always makes them confused how to go out from the problem so they use many
ways to increase their ability in English and to be easy to learn and understand the
English.

Because of its belief, English is difficult to learn so the departments of


the education or many teachers make many ways to master it. They try to increase
their ability by using the new methods in English. The students are confused about
English, especially to arrange the word by word, phrase by phrase, clause by
clause and sentence by sentence or we often call them syntactical structure.
In Indonesia many masters of English education have made many
methods to increase the ability of English, but they can not always be received by
many learners of English. Moreover, they can make the learners of English more
confused and this makes the learners of English dislike English more and more.
Nowadays, there are some techniques used in teaching grammar English,
one of them is EGRA (Experience, Generalization, Reinforcement, and
Application). By using this technique, the students are given opportunity to find
out the form and function of the sentence by themselves. Brown (1994:351) says
that it is built more intrinsic motivation by allowing the students to discover rules
rather that being told them.
Every stage of EGRA has a particular objective. The objective of the
experience unconsciously learners to expose a particular structure item in use; the
objective of generalization is that learners better remember conclusion about form
and function, they make by themselves; the objective of the reinforcement helps
the learners to check or revise their generalization; and the objective of the
application uses or applies structure items learned in the previous stage to
communicate information or messages (Adrian, 1998)

To be more interesting, the teachers have to create many ways to explain


the English material so that it can be understood by the students. Especially in
teaching grammar, the teacher must create a way that can make the students
interest to study English, grammar especially. So, the teacher must be able to
manage the situation in the classroom. A good class management will create a
good interaction in teaching and learning. Teacher should give motivation,
interesting material, understanding the student characteristics and appropriate
method. We must remember that teaching Grammar for beginners is different
from teaching Grammar for advance.
Based on the condition, the researcher gets that assumption learning
Grammar shall get character dribbles active studying student, creative, effective
and agreeable. Grammar learning emphasis should be optimally to involve the
role of student too. This is following one of alternative method Grammar's
learning, EGRA (Exposure, Generalization, Reinforcement, and Application). It is
help the students learning English especially Grammar, because it offers different
way. It can be a very useful teaching method for the effective and joyful learning
that can give the positive effect on the students interest and motivation in
studying English as well as to increase their Grammar ability.
Based on the observation of the second year students of MTs Jamiyatul
Ulum Demangan Kras, the researcher found that ability of students in Grammar
was still low. We can see the mean score of the students in grammar was
categories as very poor level. For this reason the researcher propose a research in

grammar entitle The effectiveness of Using EGRA toward Students Grammar


Achievement of the Second Grade in MTs JAMIYATUL ULUM .
1.2

Research Problem
Based on the background of the study, the problem of this study is

formulated as follows:
1. How is students Grammar Achievement before being taught by using
EGRA?
2. How is the students Grammar Achievement after being taught by using
EGRA?
3. Are there any significant different scores of the students grammar before
and after being taught by using EGRA?
1.3

The Purposes of the Study


Based on the research problem, the study is intended to:
1. To find out the students Grammar Achievement before being taught by
using EGRA.
2. To find out the students Grammar Achievement after being taught by
using EGRA.
3. To find out significant different scores of the students grammar before and
after being using EGRA.

1.4

The Significance of the Study


There are two kinds of significant of the study discussed in this research.

The first is theoretical benefit and the second is practical benefit. The theoretical

benefit is the significant of study based on the reference or the source of the book.
The practical benefit is the significant of the study based on the real subject.
1.4.1

Theoretical benefit of study


Theoretically, EGRA method is one of method that gives new motivation

to the students and gives good effect to the students. The students are more
interested in teaching and learning English and they are closer to the teacher and it
is easier to them to get the science. Hugh c. Foot and Rosalyn H. Shute (1990,
107).
1.4.2

Practical benefit of study


Practically, EGRA is an effective method because it can solve the

students problem of studying, especially in teaching and learning English


grammar that happens in MTs Jamyatul Ulum.
The EGRA method is hoped that this study will give many contributions
and the researcher hopes the result of this study will be useful for and it will
provide information concerning the achievement of the students in English lesson
and the researcher hopes that this researcher will give the new method and give
bravery to the new learner of English to love and to study English.

The researcher hopes that result of the study will give contribution to:
1.

The English Students


The students can improve their Grammar structure by using EGRA that is

more affective, interesting, and enjoyable for students. The researcher also hopes
that it can make them easy to understand and to master English and can lose the
scaring lesson in our mind. So, it can give new stimulus to love English and can
make them realize that English is not difficult but easy.
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2.

The Teachers
The researcher hopes that the method of EGRA can give the additional

method and new method to increase the quality of education and the researcher
hopes that it can increase the quality of the teacher and can give mixed method
next time.
3. For the department
It can be the icon of method that can give special method to the students and it
can great the quality of the department or the teacher itself.
4. For the readers
The researcher hopes that it can give new information that the method of
studying or teaching English is not monotonous. We can use many kinds of
method to master in English.
5. For the society
The researcher hopes that it can increase the awareness of the society that
English is essential language that must be learned by all aspects of society to face
the globalization era.
6.

The Writer
The writer can enrich her method of teaching Grammar structure because it

will give some knowledge about EGRA as the affective method. Therefore, the
researcher knows the benefit of teaching Grammar by using EGRA optimally, the
researcher gets useful experiences in teaching English Grammar by using EGRA.
1.5

Scope and Limitation of the Study


In this research, the writer limits the study about the effects of treatment

using EGRA in teaching Grammar. It is conducted only for the second grade
student at MTs Jamiyatul Ulum. Thus, the result of this study only generalized or

applied to the target population, especially to the second grade student at MTs
Jamiyatul Ulum.
The scope of the research was restricted by the discipline, content, and
activity.
a. By discipline, this research was bringing the students to use good grammar in
four English skills.
b. By content, this research used the variety of the text recount such as Toms
experience, an unlucky day and My football experience.
c. By activity, this research applied EGRA technique as a strategy to improve the
ability especially to write recount texts, its procedures were:
- Experience
Experience: The structure is presented to the students before they learn the
form of its rules. Example: the students read a dialogue a text that inside it,
there are some examples of its structure.
-

Generalization

Generalization: The students cooperate to find its rules or the usage of its
rule; teacher must help and guide them in this step. Example: the students
are asked to make generalization about the form of text or must fill the table
with the relevant structure or same.
-

Reinforcement phase

Reinforcement: The students do the controlled exercise that must them to


use the structure. Example: the students are asked to describe a picture and
arrange the irregular sentences.
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Application

Application: The students must use structure itself, at least or not is helped
by teacher. Example: write a story by having a conversation, giving a
demonstration on the map or describe a picture.
1.6

Definition of Key Terms


Some operational definitions relate to this research here, as follow:
Effectiveness: Effectiveness here means that it can be a useful thing or

method to bring or make the better one. It can be a result of interactional between
individual ability and his environmental climate.
Grammar: grammar here means that we use to select and combine word
about the system and pattern. It is emphasized on simple sentence not in
compound, complex, or compound complex. The grammar that is used here about
tenses and only simple present, present progressive, simple past, past progressive,
simple future, and future progressive.
EGRA: is the ways of teaching grammar which it stands for E for
Experience, G for Generalization, R for Reinforcement, A for Application. We use
EGRA when we teach grammar.
1.7

Research Hypothesis
Hypothesis is a temporary answer on the research till it is proved by

collecting the data. There are two hypotheses in research study. The first is Null
hypothesis (HA) and the second is Alternative hypothesis (HO).
1.7.1. Null hypothesis
Null hypothesis or we can call statistic hypothesis is hypothesis that is
done by statistic. It means that it is calculated by statistic and according to its

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name that Null hypothesis is hypothesis that has no different or the influence
between two variables.

If t-table was higher than t-test, null hypothesis was accepted and
alternative hypothesis was rejected. It means that there was no significant
difference between the students ability in writing recount text before and after the
use of EGRA technique.
1.7.2. Alternative hypothesis
Alternative hypothesis that is often called HA states that it has
relationship between variable X and variable Y or it has different thing between
variable X and variable Y.

If t-test was higher than t-table, null hypothesis was rejected and
alternative hypothesis was accepted. It means that there was significant difference
between the students ability in writing recount text before and after the use of
EGRA technique.

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The review of literature has purpose to give a brief of what is related to


and discussed in this study. It describes what literature is used. Some literatures \
give some definitions and some explanations about something that is discussed
above. This chapter discusses about teaching, English language teaching, learning,
EGRA, grammar and achievement.
2.1.

Previous research findings

There have been some researchers done related to this research some of them are
stated below:
1. Isna (2008) in her research on A Descriptive Study on the Method of
Teaching Writing and the Problem Faced by The Students at SMA
Muhammadiyah 2 Gemolong Surakarta she found that the teacher at SMA
Muhammadiyah 2 Gemolong Surakarta have used EGRA technique for teaching
and faced the problem their students.
2. Heri (2009) conducted a research on Teaching Recount Text to Improve
the Writing Ability of the Second Year Students of MTs Mahad Ponpes DDI
Pangkajene through EGRA Technique. The result of his research indicated that

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the students writing for experimental group was higher than control group
because they wrote recount paragraph through EGRA technique.
3. Dedi (2011) conducted a research on The Effect of Using Egra Technique
in Learn Structure Towards Students Ability in Speaking English at The Second
Year Students of Ma Ummatan Wasathan Pesantren Teknologi Riau Siak Hulu
District Kampar Regency. It was concluded that the speaking ability of the
second year students of Ma Ummatan Wasathan Pesantren Teknologi Riau Siak
Hulu District Kampar Regency could be improved after they were taught by using
EGRA technique.
Based on the explanation above the researcher found that the previous
research and this research are about the same technique that is EGRA technique
and how to use the technique in teaching and learning English. The differences
between previous researches from this research are the focus, procedures or
process and the population of the research. Isna with her A Descriptive Study on
the Method of Teaching Writing and the Problem Faced by The Students at SMA
Muhammadiyah 2 Gemolong Surakarta she found that the second year students
of SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Gemolong Surakarta have a better ability in English
using EGRA technique. Heri used EGRA as technique to improve the students
ability in writing recount text and also used experimental; Dedi used EGRA
technique to improve speaking ability of the second year students of Ma Ummatan
Wasathan Pesantren Teknologi Riau Siak Hulu District Kampar Regency.
Based on the findings above, the writer concluded that the students need
many exercises to improve their English grammar. In this case the teachers are

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expected to give some tasks about grammar lesson. Indeed, there are some
manners to develop that English grammar. Concerning with that, this research
tried out the use EGRA technique to teach English grammar. In this research, the
researcher only used one class: experimental class.
2.2

Teaching and Learning


In a country where English is used as a second language the teaching

might not be so important since the learners can get exposure to the language
somewhere outside the classroom. They might listen, read, speak and write to
communicate with them in English anywhere.
It is very important for the teacher of English as a foreign language to
provide classroom activities so that the students get enough input of the language
and enough practice to develop their language skills. None of the four language
skills should be neglected and also, if any of the four skills should get more
emphasis, it is the writing skill especially giving the tutorial method to the
students, as it is the most difficult or that makes the heaviest processing demands
for the foreign language learners because they must store information in short
term memory at the same time as they are working to understand the information
(Rubin, 1995) as stated in a book Learners Strategies.
Rivers and Temperly (1978:63) in A Practical Guide to the Teaching of
English as A Second or Foreign Language state that teaching is giving the
information to others or transform to others.

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H. Douglas Brown (1980:07) states that Teaching is showing or helping


someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of
something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand. Teaching is
guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the
conditions for learning.
After we know some definitions above, we go through the concepts of
learning process. Bower and Hilgard (1981:542) Note psychologists have always
stressed that learning is best fostered by capturing the learners interest in the
subject matter. Its mean that learning is influenced by interest but here we will
talk more abut learning itself. Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary (1991) states
that learning is the science or trying to get something new or getting new
information in order to complete the old information that the learners got before.
Kimble and Garmezy (1963, 133). Learning is a relatively permanent
change in a behavioral tendency and is the result of reinforced practice. It means
that learning gives the permanent effect to the learner in change of behavioral
tendency or it is the result of the reinforced result and Kimble and Garmezy states
also that Learning is acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or a skill by
study, experience, or instruction.
According to H. Douglas brown (1980, 07), there are seven concepts that
indicates to the learning. These concepts are (1) Learning is acquisition or
getting, (2) Learning is retention of information or skill, (3) Retention implies
storage system, memory, cognitive organization, (4) Learning involves active,
conscious focus on and acting upon events outside or inside the organism, (5)
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Learning is relatively permanent, but subject to forgetting, (6) Learning involves


some form of practice, perhaps reinforced practice, (7) Learning is a change in
behavior.
Learning here means that the learners want to get the knowledge
especially, about grammar. The learners study more and more to increase the
knowledge that they have ever got before.
2.3. English Teaching
Before we talk more about English Language Teaching, we have to know
what language is. According to H. Douglas Brown (1980;04) taken from
Finoccahiaro (1964:4) and Pei (1966:141)
Language is a system of arbitrary, vocal symbols which permit all people in a
given culture, or other people who have learned the system of that culture, to
communicate or to interact.
Language is a system of communication by sound, operating through the
organs of speech and hearing, among members of a given community, and using vocal
symbol possessing arbitrary conventional meaning.

From the texts explained above, the researcher concludes that Language
is toll of communication and it gives stimulus and respects one another.
H. Douglas Brown (1980, 239) states that language teaching has as its
foundation certain theoretical underpinning. And these foundations almost always
combine more than one discipline. Language teaching is not just linguistics or just
psychology, but involves both, along with pedagogical, sociological, and other
interdisciplinary considerations.
Helen de Silva Joyce and Anne Burns (1999:102) states that in language
teaching, especially in teaching spoken, language teaching is important to
consider how we can systematically make students aware of the different element
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which enable us to participate in spoken interaction. One of the aims of language


teaching is to enable students to become independent users of the language;
however, in the classroom it is important to move towards this independent in a
systematic way which provides a basis for selecting and sequencing activities and
task. He also states that language teaching is as transformational information that
it is used in social context.

2.4 Grammar
Helen de Silva Joyce and Anne Burns (1999:03) states that grammar can
be taken from two definitions. The first definition is from the Macquarie
dictionary. It is focused on grammar as a system, while the second definition that
is from Longman definition. It is focused on the idea of grammar as a rule. He
only states that grammar is essentially about the systems and patterns we use to
select and combine words. In order to communicate we must share a common
system, which is why people who speak different languages cannot understand
one another they are using different system, grammar is one of the essential
system, so it means that people must know about grammar in order to use the
language appropriately in social context.
David Nunan (1999:96) states that there are three kinds of definition of
the grammar. The first is an analysis of the structure of a language, either as
encountered in a corpus of speech or writing (a performance grammar) or a
predictive of a speakers knowledge (a competence grammar). A contrast is often
drawn between a descriptive grammar, which provides a precise account of actual
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usage, and a prescriptive grammar, which tries to establish rules for the correct
use of language in society. The second is an analysis of the structural properties
which define human language (a universal grammar). The third is a level of
structural organization which can be studied independently of phonology and
semantic.
David Nunan (1999:96) also takes the definition that is used by Richards,
Platt and weber (1985). It is said that grammar is a description of the structure of a
language and the way in which linguistic units such as words and phrases are
combined to produce sentences in the language.
Dan Isaac Slobin (1939) states that grammar is the rule of how educated
people, that is also called prescriptive grammar. It is also described that grammar
attempts to describe the knowledge people must have in order to speak and
understand language.
According to J. A. Bright and G. P. McGregor (1970: 08) nobody
disputes that the foreign student must learn the grammar of English in the sense
that the sentences he produces must conform to English patterns in the accepted
model. We cannot be content with communication, however clear the pain sense,
if it carries also such depressing messages to the reader about the writers level of
literacy. The learner has got to master the conventional use of the grammatical
signals of the language.
Grammar is sometime defined as the words are put together to make a
correct sentences Penny Ur (1996:75). However, we can apply the term
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grammatical to unit smaller than sentence. A specific instance of grammar is


usually called a structure. Example of the structure would be present tense, past
tense, future tense, noun plurals etc.
2.5 Achievement
Achievement is the aid both the teacher and the student in assessing
learning readiness, monitoring learning process, diagnosing learning difficulties
and evaluating learning outcomes.
According to Ebel (1978:238) achievement is an out come of education.
He states that most of cases achievement is shown by students grades or scores. It
can describe the achievement that the students have although it can not show
achievement completely but it can hold.
2.5.1

Internal achievement
a. Willingness
It comes from the bottom of the students heart. The students
will lose their achievement if the do not have any willingness to get the
knowledge. The students should know that their achievement is in their
hold, not from others. The students also should know that their
achievement in knowledge is same with other, but sometime they do not
know and care.
b. Intelligence
Commonly students who have good intelligence have high
performance and who have less performance have low performance.
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The students who have good performance, they have good confidence.
Because of that, they have better achievement than students who has no
intelligence.
2.5.2

External achievement
a. Motivation
It can be started from the family that always supports the
learners to get good achievement. Commonly, students that have good
achievement always get the motivation not only form their family and
their friend, but also they can motivate themselves. Because, when they
students get so many motivations from their family and friends, they
can motivate themselves.
b. School
School is one of factor that can increase the achievement of the
students. It can be the infrastructure that is in that school. Infrastructure
here means that the school has complete infrastructure to support the
students to get the knowledge. Infrastructure is not always expensive,
can be our environment and make by themselves.
c.

Teacher
Teacher is one of element that can increase the students
achievement. Commonly the students will easy to get the knowledge if
the students themselves love the teacher first. If the students do not like
the teacher first, they will difficult to get the lesson so that the
achievement of the students will be down.
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d. Method
The students will have good achievement if the teacher that
teaches them has different method and creative method. The method
that the teacher uses will influence the students achievement.
Method is the level at which the theory is put into practice and at
with choices are made about the particular skill to be taught, the content
to be taught the order in which the content will be presented. Another
word, method is a generalized set of classroom specification for
accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to be concerned
primarily with teacher and student roles and behavior and secondarily
with such features as linguistics and subject matter objectives,
sequencing and materials.
2.6 Definition of EGRA
In oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of current English states that
technique is method of doing something expertly. Richards (1968:15) states that
technique is implementation that which actually take place in a classroom. It is a
particular trick, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplishing an immediate
objective. Further, Brown (1994:51) says that technique is any of a wide variety of
exercises, activities, or devices used in the language classroom for realizing lesson
objectives. According to Anthonys model (1998:15), technique refers to the level
at which classroom procedures are described (implementation). By this technique,
classroom can run well because the teacher teaches according to the procedures.

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Procedures deals with classroom technique, practices, and behavior observed


when the method is used.
In learning and teaching process, teacher must master some certain
techniques. A variety of techniques will at least partially ensure that a maximum
of students will be reach, Brown (1994:21). The techniques also determine
when there the process of transferring knowledge is effective and efficient or not.
The technique, which will be used, must be suitable with the material will be
taught in order to get good result.
EGRA stands for E, which is experience; G is generalization; R is
reinforcement, and A is application. The following is the brief explanation each
stage of EGRA technique.
a. Experience
Experience is a learning stage where students are subconsciously
expose to the meaningful use of particular structure item. It is also effective for
presenting previously taught structures, which have some functions.
This learning experience makes the students more active from the
beginning of the teaching process where they will come into a great discovery.
Wernon (1980) states that activity involving direct experience is highly inquiry
oriented. The student here is an active participant rather than the passive observer
of the teacher. The experience in this research refers to guiding the students to
learn every element of grammar for example, verb, noun, adjective and adverb
e.t.c.

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b. Generalization
In this stage the students are led through tasks to discover form,
meaning and function of a structure they have been exposed to. The rational for
the generalization is the learner better remember conclusion about the form and
function(s) they make for themselves. Harmer (1991:113) says that the best way
to ensure learning was for the students to work out the rule himself.
Ramirez (1995:22) says that this stage focus on grammatical items
themselves. The objective here is to move away from the context and concentrates
on the rules govern the various aspects of the structure.
The teacher will not tell the students about the form, meaning, and
function of the sentence but let them find out by themselves. Krashen (1987:62)
states that learning is facilitated if the learners discovers or creates rather than
remember and repeats what is to be learned.
The generalization is the central of EGRA technique where students are
expected to make a discovery of language structure. Rivers (1968:77) says that
generalization become more comprehensive as the students advanced in
knowledge of language and is able to recognize characteristics feature of the
language structure.
In this step the teacher will guide through leading questions to find out
the generic structure of the text, for example, the form, meaning, and function of
the sentence. Learning experience, which the students have gained, will facilitate

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them in the discovery process, which becomes the main purpose of the
generalization.
c. Reinforcement
Reinforcement is a learning stage where students are provided with
correct and conscious knowledge of the form, and functions of the structure item
that they have been exposed to. The objective of this stage is to help learners to
check or revise their generalization that students should have corrected and
consciousness of the form and function of a certain structure item.
In this step, the teacher explains again what the students have
discovered so that they get reinforcement. Alexander (1980: XXI) says that the
aim behind all explanation should be to reinforce theoretically what the students
has already practiced.
After the students have got self confidence through teachers
reinforcement or explanation, they will do task again. Thomas (1984:81) says that
reinforcement practices also tend to help individual focus on special activities. In
other words, reinforcement sharpens the individuals attention or concentration for
the second task.
Giving full attention to the classroom situation is also very important
for the teacher in order to get effectiveness of using reinforcement in learning and
teaching process (Grasha 1978:82). Furthermore Kenneth (1976:82) says that
reinforcement occupies a central and crucial role in the behaviorist learning
strategy.

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It is stated above that the real form or example of this reinforcement


stage is that the researcher gave more tasks to the students so that what they have
learned before can again be sharpened. This can make them better understand the
material.
d. Application
Application is learning stage where students are given opportunities to
use or apply the structure item that they have learned in communication either
receptively or productively.
Kenneth (1976:83) says that the objective of the application is to
determine whether the students know how to apply grammatical forms that have
previously been presented. Rivers (1968:376) states that a period for the practical
application of what has been learnt may involve reading a passage for which
previous has prepared the class; it may be a necessity for some forms of writing
exercises, or it may take the form of a dramatization in front of the class.
From the statement above, it is clear that language, which has been
taught, must be applied in its situation. This step also mirrors about the
importance of the application in learning and teaching process, especially in
teaching English structure. This is the moment of truth where they can compose
recount text by themselves well.
Based on the explanation of EGRA above, the researcher thinks that
every step of EGRA which stands for Experience, Generalization, Reinforcement,

25

and Application will lead the students to be better at teaching grammar and
interested in English.
2.8

Testing Grammar Structure


According to Djiwandono, Soenardi M (1996;47) Testing grammar test is

a test that discusses about understanding, using, and forming of the word, phrase,
and sentence. Testing grammar structure can be essay, multiple choices,
completing test, short question test, and others.
Hughes Arthur (1990;141) states whether or not grammar has an
important place in institutions teaching, it has to be accepted that grammar ability
or rather the lack of it, sets limits to what can be achieved in the way of the skills
performance. Many, if not most, language testing handbooks encourage the testing
of grammar by means of multiple choice items, often to the exclusion of just
about any other method. Here the types of grammatical test:
2.6.1 Test forming word
a. Shows the root of the word
The students remain the root word of the word :
e.g. Dangerous . (From Danger)
Heroes ..( From ...)
Horses..( From )
b. Give the bound morpheme
The students give the bound morpheme in each root word:
e.g. King ..( become Kingdom)
Write .( become )
Child.( become .)
c. Make the appropriate word
The students determine the appropriate word in the sentence:
e.g. The sun (to rise) in the east. (become rises)
You have to finish your work (quick). (become ..)
He said he wanted (to talk) to the teacher. (become .)
2.6.2 Test forming phrase
a. Arrange the word
The students arrange the word become the right pharse:
e.g. book, read ..(Become reading book)
Water, fresh (Become )
Difficult, homework ..(Become)
b. Completing word
26

The students complete the word become right phrase:


e.g. Dog .. ( become barking dog)
Beautiful (Become ..)
Night ..(Become ..)
c. Explain the meaning of the phrase
The students explain the meaning of each phrase:
e.g. Village people= People who live in village
Forbidden City =
Return ticket =
2.6.3

Test forming sentence


a. Multiple choice
The most common type of multiple-choice structure item presents a
context in which one or more word missing, followed by several
alternative completions.
e.g.Mary ____________ in New York since 1960.
a. Lives
c. Has lived
b. Is living
d. Will live
b. Completion (supply type)
We may use the completion item type as a fill-in exercise.
e.g. Mary __________ (live) in New York since 1960.

27

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter presents the research method. It focuses the method used in
conducting this study. The decision covers research design, population, sampling
and sample, variable data, data source, data collecting method and instruments
and technique of data analysis.
3.1

Research Design
This study is conducted in an experimental design using quantitative

approach. Experimental research is a scientific investigation in which an


investigator manipulates and controls one or more independent variables and
observes the dependent variable or variables for variation concomitant to the
manipulation of the independent variables (Ary,1985:26). Experimental research
can be done in the laboratory, in the class and in the field. In this study the
experimental research will be done in the class with taking students as population.
The researcher uses experimental research with quantitative approach. The
researcher wants to know the effectiveness of using EGRA in teaching Grammar
to the students grammar achievement by experimental research. The impact is
assessed by providing a specific treatment. The effectiveness will be known after
know the significant differences between the students who are taught before using
EGRA and those are taught after using EGRA.
28

In this research, the researcher uses pre experimental design. Preexperimental design is so named because they follow basic experimental steps but
fail to include a control group. In other words, a single group is often studied but
no comparison between equivalent non-treatment groups is made. The method
used in this research was pre experimental method with one group pre-test and
post-test design. one group pre-test and post-test design is A single case is
observed at two time points, one before the treatment and one after the treatment.
Changes in the outcome of interest are presumed to be the result of the
intervention or treatment. No control or comparison group is employed.
A diagram of One-Group Pretest-Posttest design:
O1

Pretest

O2

Treatment

Posttest

(Independent variable)

(Dependent variable)

Where: O1: Pre-test


X: Treatment
O2: Post-test
(Gay, 1981:225)
The procedures of experimental research that use One-Group PretestPosttest design:
1. Administering a pretest with a purpose of measuring grammar
achievement of second grade students at MTs Jamiyatul Ulum.
29

2. Applying the experimental treatment teaching grammar by using EGRA


as a technique to the subjects (second grade students at MTs Jamiyatul
Ulum).
3. Administering a posttest with a purpose of measuring grammar
achievement of second grade students at MTs Jamiyatul Ulum.
Differences attributed to application of the experimental treatment are
determined by comparing the pretest and posttest scores.
The researcher uses experimental research with quantitative approach. The
researcher wants to know the effectiveness of using EGRA in teaching Grammar
to the students grammar achievement by experimental research. The impact is
assessed by providing a specific treatment. The effectiveness will be known after
know the significant differences between the students who are taught before using
EGRA and those are taught after using EGRA.
3.2

Population and sample


Population and sample are the way to get the valid information that the

researcher researches. Population here means that the researcher collect the data
from the population to count the data that is made as basic sampling then and
sample here means that data that we use here takes one of method to get or
sampling to collect the data.
Population is the group to which the researcher would like the results of a
study to be generalizable; it includes all individuals with certain specified
characteristics stated by (R. Fraenkel 1996:587). The population of the research
30

was the second year students of MTs Jamiyatul Ulum Demangan Kras in
academic year 2011/2012, which has one class only. The number of population
this class was 26 students.
After defining the population here, the researcher selected the sample
from the population. A good sample must be as nearly as representative of the
entire population, so that the generalization that is true of the sample will be true
of the population. Sample is a subset of individuals or cases from within a
population (Nunan, 1989: 232).
Sample is a technique to taking the sample according to Sugiyono (2007).
Sample is also as a way the researcher select number of individuals as a sample
which represents the population. In this study, the researcher used purposive
sampling technique. Because the population only consist of one class, the
researcher took the class one as the sample, thus, it used total sampling technique.

3.3

Variable
A variable is a concept- a noun that stands for variation within a class of

objects. Variables can be classified in into two classifications. The most important
classification is on the bass of their use within the research under consideration,
when they are classified as independent variables or dependent variables (Ary,
1985:30).
3.3.1

Independent variable: is variable that consequence of or upon antecedent


variables. One independent variable must be the treatment variable. One or

31

more groups receive the experimental manipulation or treatment. In this


study the teaching grammar by using EGRA is independent variable.
3.3.2

Dependent variable: is the response or the criterion variable that is


presumed to be caused by or influenced by the independent treatment
conditions and any other independent variables. In this study the
dependent variable is students achievement in grammar ability.

3.4

Data and Source of Data


Source of data in this study only uses primary data source. Ary (1985) stated

that the primary data is data which are collected directly from the sample.
Primary data source of this study is students VIII class of MTs Jamiyatul Ulum.

3.5

Techniques of Collecting Data


Data of this study were collected by the way of the operational technique.

The technique used in this study was administering a test. Test here means as test
to know the ability of the students. Test that is used in this research is pre-test and
post-test. Pre-test is used to take the first ability in grammar and post-test is used
to take the ability after getting EGRA method.
Arikunto (1992; 29) describes that Test is a set of the question or exercise or
other instrument used to measure skill, knowledge, intelligence and talent of an
individual or group.

32

3.5

Research Instrument
This study uses test as instrument for getting the data. It is supplying the

correct form test which asks the students to supply the correct form or words in
the bracket. The main point of this test is that the students can use the correct form
the complete sentence. The test consist of two, they are pre-test and post-test. Pretest is used to measure the students grammar ability before having treatment.
Post-test is used to measure the students grammar ability after receiving the
treatment. The result of those tests will be the data of this study.
Students in the control and experimental are provided with the same form of
form of test containing 25 items for pre-test, the total score is 100 points. It means
score in every item is 4 points. It is administered with a time limitation, forty five
minutes for the students to finish the test. The source of pre-test is taken from
Betty Schrampfer Azar (1999). Understanding and using English Grammar and
A.J. Thompson Martinet (1989), A practical English Grammar Exercise 2.
Then for the post-test, it contains 25 items also with 100 total score. It
means that in every item has 4 points. It is administered with a time limitation,
thirty minutes for the students to finish the test. The post-test that is used is the
same as pre-test and it is taken from the same source but it has different test.

33

TABLE 3.5.1
Categorization in pre test and post test result
No

Score

Categorization

00 40

Poor

41 55

Less

56 69

Fair

70 79

Good

80 100

Best

3.6.1. Validity of test


The validity question is concerned with the extent to which and
instrument measures what one thinks it is measuring. It is absolutely that the
researcher asks this question. The question of instruments validity is always
specific to the particular situation and to the particular purpose for which it is
being used a test that has validity in one situation may not be valid in a different
situation. The types of validity are content validity. (Toha, 2003:111).
In this study, the research used one-validity: Content validity is a kind of
validity which depends on careful analysis of the language being tested and of the
particular test subjective. According to Gay in his book, Educational Research
Competencies for analysis and Application Fourth Edition, Content validity is of
prime importance for achievement test. A test score cannot accurately reflect a
students achievement if it does not measure what the student was supposed to
learn (Gay, 1992:156). A test is said to have content validity if its contents
constitutes a representative sample of the language skill, structure, etc. Being

34

tested, the try out test was valid in terms of content validity because this test
accord with Syllabus.
3.7

Technique of Data Analysis


In this research, the writer uses a quantitative data analysis technique. The

quantitative data of this research is analyzed by using statistical method. This


technique is used to find the significant difference on the students achievement
after taught by EGRA.
The researcher in this research uses T-Test stated by Arikunto (2006:86) as
formulated below:

t=
Notes:
Md
Xd
x2d
N
d.b

: means of different pre-test and post-test


: deviation in every subject (d Md)
: total of quadrate deviation
: subject of sample
: decide by N-1

Criteria of testing hypothesis:


The statistical hypothesis in this research as follows:
Ho: 1 = 2
H1: 1 = 2
To test the hypothesis, the researcher used grammar test with 0.05 level of
significant for non independent sample, the formula degrees of freedom (df) n 1
(25), for = 0.05 and df = 25, the t-table 2.060.

35

1.

If T-Test score is bigger than T-table, the alternative hypothesis


(Ha) is accepted. It means that there is different score to the first grade before
using EGRA and after using EGRA. The difference is significant. It is

suggested that EGRA is effective to be used.


2.
If T-Test score is smaller than T-table, the Null Hypothesis (Ho) is
rejected. It means that there is no different score to the first grade before
using EGRA and after using EGRA. The difference is not significant. It is not
suggested using EGRA in teaching Grammar.

CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter the researcher wants to describe two sub-chapters including
findings and discussion.
4.1

Findings
The findings obtained through the writing test in the second year students

of MTs Jamiyatul Ulum Demangan Kras, 2011-2012 academic years were


presented as follows:

36

4.1.1 The result of Pre test on Grammar Test


The finding through pre-test on grammar test of the second students of
MTs Jamiyatul Ulum was tabulated as follows:
Table 1 The Frequency and Percentage of the Result of Pre-test through
Grammar Test.
No

Classification

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Best
Good
Fair
Less
Poor

Pre-test

Score
80 - 100
70 - 79
56 - 69
41 - 55
0 40

Total

Frequency (F)

Percentage (%)

0
0
0
9
17

34,6%
65,4%

26

100 %

Table 1 show that before giving treatment in grammar teaching, none of


the students was classified as best, good, fair, less and poor classification. The
data shows that all of the students got less and poor score. This means that the
students grammar ability was very poor and less.

4.1.2. The Result of Post-test through grammar Test


The result of the students post-test through grammar test was tabulated as
follows:
Table 2 The Frequency and the Percentage of the Result of Post-test through
Grammar Test
No

Classification

Pre-test

Score
37

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Best
Good
Fair
Less
Poor

80 - 100
70 - 89
56 - 69
41 - 55
0 40

0
0
9
13
4

34,6%
50%
15,4%

Total
26
100 %
The table of post- test depicts that after giving the treatment, none of the students
was best and good, 9 (34.6%) students out of 26 students was classified as fair
classification, 13 (50%) classified as less classification, and 4 (15.4%) classified
as poor classification. The data indicate that the students grammar test especially
simple present tense, simple past and future tense were getting better.

4.1.3 The mean score and standard deviation of the students pre-test and post- test
The mean scores and standard deviation of the students pre-test and posttest result on grammar test are:
a. Calculating the mean of grammar pre-test
=

x
N

= 40.15

b. Calculating the mean of grammar post test


Mx

=
=

x
N

= 49.84

c. Calculating the Standard Deviation Pre-test

38

s2 =

= 5.6

So the standard deviation of mean pre-test is 5.6


d. Calculating the Standard Deviation Post-test

s2 =

= 7.5

So the individual score deviation of mean post-test is 7.5


39

The mean score and standard deviation of the students pre-test and students posttest.
Tests

Mean Score

Standard deviation

Pre- test

40.15

5.6

Post- test

49.84

7.5

The table above points out that the mean score and standard deviation obtained by
the students in pre- test (40.15) and (5.6) were smaller than the post- test (49.84)
and (7.5); it reveals that the result of the pre-test and post- test were different.
4.1.4 The Result of the Calculation of t-Test Value and t-Table Value
The result of t-test value and t-table value was tabulated as follows:

SCORE OF PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST OF CONTROL GROUP


Student
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q

48
48
36
40
40
32
48
48
40
40
48
36
44
44
40
32
32

DAFTAR NILAI
POSTPRE-TEST
TEST
44
52
40
48
52
52
56
52
36
44
48
56
60
60
40
32
52

40

Xd (dMd)

(Xd)2

-4
4
4
8
12
20
8
8
-4
4
0
20
16
16
0
0
20

-14
-6
-6
-2
2
10
-2
-2
-14
-6
-10
10
6
6
-10
-10
10

196
36
36
4
4
100
4
4
196
36
100
100
36
36
100
100
100

R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

36
36
44
40
48
32
36
40
36

44
48
56
60
56
44
52
56
56

8
12
12
20
8
16
16
16
20

-2
2
2
10
-2
6
6
6
10

4
4
4
100
4
36
36
36
100
2

1512
After getting d, we can search Md with formulated below:

Md =

=
= 10
To know the degree of freedom (df) or (db), we can find the result from the
formula bellow:
Df/db

=N - 1
= 26 - 1
= 25

After finishing those steps, insert t - test formula:

t=
41

= 6.667

After counting by using t-test is gotten t-count = 6.667


The Result of t-test and t-table Value:
Table 4.1.4

4.2

t-test Value

t-table Value

6.667

2.064

Hypothesis Testing
The table above point out us that the result of t-test (6.667) is greater

than t-table value (2.064) with n = 26, degree of freedom (df) n-1 = 26-1 = 25 in
the level of significance 0.05.
It is proved that teaching tenses (simple present, simple past and simple
future) to improve the grammar ability of the second year students of MTs
Jamiyatul Ulum Demangan Kras through EGRA technique has a significant
influence in increasing the students ability to understand the tenses has influenced
42

the students grammar achievement. Nevertheless, the difference results of student


grammar achievement between pre-test and post-test. It showed that the mean
score of pretest only 40.15 while the posttest was 49.84
According to the data of the used EGRA as a technique to improve
grammar ability of second grade students at MTs Jamiyatul Ulum Demangan
Kras is significant because t-count > t-table.
The researcher analyzed the collected data by quantitative data analyzed
through t-test statistical analysis. After analyzing was done, there are there were 2
possibilities, Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted or Ho is accepted and Ha is
rejected.
4.3

Discussion
Before giving treatment, most of students achievement at grammar was

categorized poor and less. It was proven by the percentage of the total score of
pre-test. The mean score from the pre-test obtained by the students was lower than
the criterion. In the other words, the class that the researcher observed previously
had very poor ability at grammar specially composing tenses.
Based on the research method in chapter III in this study, teaching and
learning process was divided into three steps. First step is preliminary' study
where the researcher conducted a preliminary study to know the students'
grammar ability by using administering pre-test by teaching without using EGRA.
The second step was given treatment to the students. The treatment here
was teaching grammar by using EGRA technique. The students were given
material about tenses (simple present tenses, simple past and future tense). At the

43

first treatment, the researcher gave key word. The researcher decide student into
four groups. Each group there was six students. Then the researcher asked the
students to identify some sentences about simple present tenses, simple past and
future tense by using EGRA. After got the treatment, the students are more active,
effective and enthusiasm to study grammar because they enjoyed in teaching
learning grammar.
The score of grammar before taught by using EGRA is categorized less
and poor because the mean of the total score of 26 students was only (40.15). After
got treatment the mean score of grammar was (49.84). It was improved, with the ttest analysis that used by researcher, the result of t count was (6.667).
Then, the researcher gave interpretation to First, she considered the db = N
- 1 with the db is (25). She consulted to the score table t, at the significance
level of 0.05. In fact, with the db is (25), she can get the critic value or table at 0.05
significance t, is (2.064)
By comparing the t that she has got in calculation t = (6.667) and the
value of t on the t score table = (2.064 ). It is known that t0 is bigger than t1 =
2.064<6.667.
After giving treatment for four times, the students grammar achievement
showed a significant improvement. It is showed t-count was bigger than t-table
the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and the null hypothesis is rejected, it
means that there is different grammar score of the second grade students at MTs
Jamiyatul Ulum Demangan Kras between before using EGRA and after taught by
using EGRA. The different is significant. It was indicated by the higher mean

44

score from the post-test obtained by the students. It was greater than their mean
score before getting special treatment. This figures out that students had better
ability at grammar (tenses) after being taught through EGRA technique.
Moreover, the achievement of the students after they were directed through EGRA
technique had a significant difference from their achievement before the
application of EGRA technique.
Based on the research finding, EGRA was the real effectiveness to
improve grammar ability. It was because EGRA can encourage the young learners
to study grammar more active, effective and enthusiastically. EGRA technique can
be one way that English teachers apply. They can make their students have better
ability through such a way that unconsciously involves more exercises.
EGRA technique is the way to teach which gives opportunity to the
students to explore their knowledge. The students can study by themselves and
easy to memorize the lesson because they study by themselves. In here, teacher is
tutor, giving motivation so the students can study enjoy and easier.

45

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This chapter content of two sub-chapters namely conclusion ad suggestion.


A. Conclusion
Based on the findings and the discussion presented in the previous chapter, the
researcher tries to conclude this research that:
1.

Students grammar achievement before taught by using EGRA is very low,


we can see from the mean score in pre test is (40.15)

46

2.

Students grammar achievement after taught by using EGRA is higher, we can


see from the mean score in post test is (49.84)

3.

There is a significant difference between the students ability in grammar


before and after using EGRA technique. EGRA technique can stimulate,
develop and improve the grammar ability of the second year students of MTs
Jamiyatul Ulum Demangan Kras in composing tenses. It is supported by the
data, in which the mean score of the students in the pre-test (40.15) has been
improved in the post-test, in which the students mean score is (49.84). In
applying the t-test formula the researcher found that the t-test value (6.667) is
much higher than the value of the t-table (2,064). However, there were still
some students categorized in poor classification; it was out of what the
researcher hopes. The other way or method can be applied too in improving
students grammar ability instead of the application of EGRA technique.

B. Suggestion
Based on the conclusion presented in the previous sub-chapter, the researcher
tried to give some suggestions for the future research about the English teaching
method as follows:
1. For the Students: Grammar is one of the most important parts that we need to
master when studying English. Grammar is essentially about the systems and
patterns we use to select and combine words. In order to communicate we must
share a common system, which is why people who speak different languages
cannot understand one another-they are using different systems.

47

2. For the Teacher: The result of this research can contribute the information and
idea to the English teachers. The researcher suggests using EGRA technique to
teach English especially teaching grammar. From the data analysis we can find
that EGRA technique is effective to master English grammar. The teacher
should create the comfortable atmosphere in order that the students can enjoy
writing activity in learning process. The teacher of English should give the
students motivation, homework and review their lesson more frequently.This
researcher shows that the students achievement is reflected in their score. The
score becomes indicators of the students to succeed in teaching and learning
English grammar especially at MTs Jamiyatul Ulum Demangan Kras.
3. For the Readers: In order that the students can master grammar well, the
researcher can find the way in teaching and learning English grammar by
using EGRA technique. The researcher finds that the students who have been
taught grammar by using EGRA technique have better result; moreover, it
does not only give knowledge but also give an advantage for the readers that
use tutorial method. It can help the students in teaching and learning English
grammar.

48

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