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1.

COMPANY PROFILE
UNICO Associates was established in 2012 as structural engineering consultancy,
with the purpose of working with imaginative architect and developers to make
outstanding structures. Companys portfolio includes a wide range of structure
including residential, commercial and projects varied from small renovation to
school building to design and construction of residential building.
Managing director Manjunath has worked with some of the innovative and
emerging architects and structural engineer in Bangalore. Based on this diverse
portfolio and experience company can guarantee an excellent outcome of the
project. Company enjoy the technical , logical, engineering principles that
reinforce engineering profession; applying them creatively to help architects and
clients bridge the gap between concept and reality, to meet our clients individual
needs.
Most recently company is engaged in the design of various multi-storey
residential building. Structural engineer in the consultancy is heavily involved
constantly evolving technology around new design methodologies and
strategies.
Company experience with providing feasibility assessment and in working with
multi disciplinary teams enables them to make a constructive contribution at an
early stage in the design of the project. When engineering input can often help to
achieve a sophisticated solution that is also financially beneficial. Company are
always striving to find better ways to tackle the challenges of each project.
Company Provides structural design and construction services for a variety of
agencies and private sector clients.

3. TASK PERFORMED
Any project can be designed only after a combined effort of various professionals.
First of all an architect prepares a conceptual plans. He then circulates the conceptual plans to
various other related professionals like structural engineer, sanitary engineer, electrical
engineer, interior designers and site engineer. After getting feedback from those professionals
he finalizes the plans and elevations and starts making working drawings.
During consultation with structural engineer, the structural engineer works out the
structural schemes and also gives the sizes of the structural members like beam, column, slab,
etc. the architect. After working drawings have been prepared, detailed structural designs are
carried out. Safety is the prime concern of the structural design. Serviceability and economy
are other basic requirements that need to be considered during structural designing. A
building needs to be designed for all loads acting on it. On keeping that things in mind I have
started making the detail analysis of the building given to me.
The building should be designed not only for vertical loads but also for horizontal
loads such as wind and earthquake loads. The structural engineer is to take care of the safety
of the building against the loads mentioned above. He is concerned in designing both
superstructure and the substructure of the building. A building must be strong enough to
transfer all the loads acting on it safely to the ground. It should be able to withstand all loads
acting on it.
Designing building against earthquake forces does not mean that we are making the
building proof against it. Although, we can design a building earthquake proof, it would be
too expensive to build. It would be far cheaper to rebuild the building again instead of
making it proof against earthquake. Hence, the buildings are made seismic resistant rather
than seismic proof. According to this philosophy, no matter how much severe earthquake
occurs, the building wont collapse although it may be irreparably damaged. The building
will be able to resist minor to moderate earthquakes without any damage.
The contractor who is selected by the client does construction of the building. The
role of the contractor is of paramount importance as he is the one who will execute the
construction work at the site. He is required to execute the work according to the drawing
supplied by the consultant to him. Design and construction are inter-related jobs. If the
construction is not done as per design requirement the objective of design will not be
fulfilled. A large percentage of failure of the building is attributed to poor quality of
construction. Past experiences from damages have shown that quality of material and
workmanship plays an important role in good seismic behavior of the buildings. Hence,
quality assurance in both design and construction is foremost important.
Followings are the task performed in design of building

Studying the given project thoroughly.

Understanding the soil and site condition by geotechnical report if given.

Understanding the architectural plan, levels.

Defining the structural difficulties in architectural plan and discussing

the same with guide.


Calculation of dead load, live load and earthquake or wind load

based on codal specifications.


First column positions are done for any given building plan. Once the
column positions are finalised then the centreline of all floors are done
as well beam layout. Import the centre line in the design software

(ETABS) or directly the plan is modelled in ETABS.


Modelling of whole structure, assigning respective supports,

sectional properties, assigning loads, load combinations.


Defining specifications such as releases, truss, compression, tension, cable,
etc.(if any)

Design of concrete or steel sections.

Performing the analysis and studying the output file.

Using column reactions and moments the column and footings are

designed using design sheets and appropreiate sizes are fixed.


Then plinth and floor beams are been designed.

Finally slab are designed.

Detailing of sections in AUTOCAD based on IS code specifications.

ABOUT THE PROJECT

It is a Seven-storied building. The typical floor-to-floor height is 3.5052 m and the


floor height for basement floor is 2.4384 m. The site is located at Mysore. The building has
been designed as Ductile Moment Resisting RCC framed structure. The footings consist of
Isolated Footings. Beam Size of 228.6 mm X 228.6 mm for support of stair landing and
228.6 mm X304.8 mm for floor support has been adopted. Column size of 228.6 mm by
457.2 mm and 228.6mm by 381mm has been adopted. The slab thickness has been calculated
as 127 mm thick. The bearing capacity of soil is taken as 250 kN/m.

Fig: Floor plan

Fig: Elevation

Fig:Section
MATERIALS
Reinforced Concrete of grade M25
Reinforcement bars of grade TORSTEEL (FE 415).
Unit weight

= 25 kN/m3

Unit mass

= 2.55 tonnes/m3

Youngs Modulus of Elasticity

= 5000 fck = 25 x 106 kN/m2

Poissons Ratio

= 0.15

MODELLING
Since this is normal moment resisting frame structure, main components to be modeled are:
Beams and Columns, Slabs, Foundation and Staircases, Walls, plinth beams. No parapet wall
is modeled.
For the purpose of analysis, following material properties are assumed for concrete:
Grade of Concrete
Grade of Steel
Unit weight

= M25
= Fe415
= 25 kN/m

Unit mass

= 2.55 tonnes/m

Youngs Modulus of Elasticity

= 5000 fck = 25 x 106 kN/m2

Poissons Ratio

= 0.15

LOADS
Live Load

: 2 kN/m at typical floor


: 1.5 kN/m on terrace

Floor Finish

: 1.5 kN/m on terrace


: 1 KN/m on typical floor

Wind Load
: As per IS:875- Not designed for wind load, since
earthquake load exceed wind load
Earthquake load
As per IS-1893(part-I)-2002
Zone Factor

0.1 Mandya

Importance Factor

1.50

Response reduction factor

5.00

LOAD CASE
Following loads have been considered in the analysis of the building as per IS
456-2000 and IS: 1893:2002.
1. Dead Load (DL)
2. Live load (LL)
3. Earthquake load in +ve X-direction (EQX)
4. Earthquake load in +ve Y-direction (EQY)
LOAD COMBINATION
Following load combinations have been adopted as per IS1893:2003
1.5(DL+LL)
1.2(DL+LL EL)
1.5(DL EL)

0.9 DL 1.5 EL
SEISMIC LOAD CALCULATION
Earthquake analysis has been done using Seismic Coefficient method. According to this
method base shear is calculated using the formula given in IS1893:2002, which is as, follows:
V = Ah* W
C is given by:
Ah = Z I Sa/ 2Rg
This calculated base shear is then distributed at each floor level according to the formula
given below:
F i= VWihi/Wihi
After distributing at each floor level the floor forces are then distributed to individual frames
according to their stiffness.
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
ANALYSIS
A two dimensional linear analysis has been carried out using the standard software
ETABS. The Structure is assumed to be fixed at the foundation level. The brick wall is
considered as the filler wall only. The beams are modelled as rectangular beams. The flange
effect of the beams has been neglected. Centre to centre dimension of the structure has been
considered. The rigid end effect has also been considered in the analysis.

Fig: Floor plan

Fig: Isometric view of whole structure

Fig: Load assign

Fig:Bending moment distribution

Fig: Shear force diagram

Fig: Deformed view


DESIGN

The design of the members has been done as per philosophy of limit state method. For
the design of the members IS 456:2000 and design aid SP 16 has been used extensively.
Footings have been designed for vertical loads and moments developed at the base due to
dead load and live load only. Square footings have been adopted from seismic point of view
that reversal stress may occur. And footing beams are provided for column at foundation for
more rigidity of building and also need for the column located at boundary. Longitudinal
reinforcement in columns has been calculated based on critical load combination among the
five load combinations. A symmetric arrangement of the reinforcement has been adopted
from seismic point of view that reversal stress may occur. Longitudinal reinforcement in
beams is also based on critical load combination. It is calculated from the envelope of
bending moment diagram. Spacing of the shear reinforcement has been calculated as per the
ductility principle. IS 13920 -1993 have been used for this purpose.
Calculation of the reinforcement for the typical members has been included in the
Sample Calculation Section of this report.
SAMPLE CALCULATION
Load Calculation
Member self
weight
Column(350*350)
column rectangular(230*600)

3.0625 kN/m
3.45 kN/m

Main
Beam(230*550)
Secondary beam(230*300)
Slab(150mm thick)
Brick wall external(230mm
thick)
Floor wall(height 3m)
Brick wall internal(100mm
thick)
Ground Floor wall(height
0.533m)
Terrace Parapet(height 1m)

3.1625 kN/m
1.725 kN/m
3.75 kN/m
4.85 kN/m
14.55 kN/m
7.14 kN/m
2.58505 kN/m
5.4805 kN/m

Slab load
calculation
On Roof
Self
Floor Finish
Live load
Factored Load

3.75
1.5
1.5
10.125

kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m

On Floor
Self
Floor Finish
Live load
Factored Load

3.75
1
2
10.125

kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m

Design of Beam
Categorization of Beam:
Category-I: Both end continuous
Beam number

Category II: One end simply supported and


other continuous

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,18,19,20,21,22 17,24,31,23,30,37
25,26,27,28,29,31,32,33,34,35,36

Location
from

Mu

Mu/bd

type

Pt

(mm
)

mm

Left support

(kNm
)

0.2

-33.83 230

515

0.5545

Singly

0.34

2.0356

21

230

515

0.344

Singly

4.33

-27.51 230

515

0.45

Singly

Pc

Ast

Asc

mm

mm

402.12

0.34

402.12

0.34

402.12

N/mm

Summary of longitudinal reinforcement provided in beam


At Supports

Top bars

Bottom bars

At centre

2-16mm,Ast=402.12mm, with
160mm internal radius at bend

2-16mm

Top bars

2-16mm

Bottom bars

2-16mm

Check for reinforcement


(IS13920; clause 6.2.1)
1.10.3.2 (a) Minimum two bars should be continuous at top and bottom.

Here 2-12mm bars continuous throughout at top and 3-12mm are continuous at bottom.
Hence Ok.
(b) Pt,min=0.24fck/fy =0.24*25/415
=0.00289 i.e 0.289%
Ast,min= (0.289*230*515)/100 =365.585 mm
Provided reinforcement is more. Hence ok.
(IS 13920; clause 6.2.2)
Maximum steel ratio on any face at any section should not exceed 2.5, i.e,
Ast,max= (2.5*230*515)/100 =2961.25mm.
Provided reinforcement is less. Hence ok.
(IS 13920; clause 6.2.3)
The positive steel at a joint face must be at least equal to half the negative steel at that face
Joint A
Half the negative steel =402.12/2 =201.06mm
Positive Steel = 402.12>201.06 mm
Hence Ok.
(IS 13920; clause 6.2.4)
Along the length of the beam,
Ast at top or bottom>0.25 Ast at top at joint support
Ast at top or bottom >0.25*402.12
>100.53 mm
Hence ok.
(IS 13920; clause 6.2.5)
At the external joint, anchorage at top and bottom bars=Ld in tension + 10db
Ld for Fe415 M25 concrete is 40.3db
Here minimum anchorage= 40.3 db+10db= 50.3db
(i.e 50.3*16 = 804.8 mm ) into the column.

1.10.4 Web reinforcement


Vertical hoops shall be used as shear reinforcement (IS 13920; clause 6.3.1 and 3.4)
Hoop dia6mm
8mm for span more than 5m
Clear span= 4445-200-115 =4130mm
Use 6 mm dia 2 legged hoops
The moment capacity of the beam at the support are 74.77kNm
1.2(DL+LL) for UDL load on the beam 1.2(11.3145+1.666)=15.5766KN/m
Va(DL+LL)=Vb(DL+LL)=0.5*15.5766*4.445= 34.61899 KN
Beam B17
Sway to right
Vu,a=VaD+L-1.4[Mur,maxAS+Mur,maxBH]/Lab
=34.618-1.4[74.77+74.77]/4.445
=-12.48KN
Vu,b=81.717 KN
Sway to left
Vu,a=VaD+L+1.4[Mur,maxAH+Mur,maxBS]/Lab
=81.717 KN
Vu,b=-12.48KN
Maximum design shear at A= 81.717KN
Maximum design shear at B=81.717 KN

B17

A
B

Distance(mm)

2.035

4445

36.1088

12.31

-34.38

Shear from analysis(KN)

Shear due to yielding(KN)

81.717

81.717

-81.717

Design shears(KN)

81.717

81.717

-81.717

The shear force to be resisted by hoops shall be greater of:


-calculated shear force as per analysis
-Shear force due to formation of plastic hinges at the both ends of the beam plus the factored
gravity load in the span.
As per clause 6.3.5 of IS 13920:1993, the first stirrups shall be within 50mm from the joint
face.
Spacing s, of hoops within 2d(2*515=1030mm) from the support shall not exceed:
1. d/4 =128.75mm
2. 8 times diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar= 8*16 =128mm.
Hence spacing of 128 mm c/c governs.
Elsewhere in the span, spacing
sd/2 =257.5 mm
Maximum nominal shear stress in the beam
Tc= 81.717*1000/(230*515) =0.689 N/mm< 3.1 N/mm (Tc,max for M25 mix)

DESIGN OF COLUMN
Since all the column are laterally supported by the wall, they can be assumed to be
braced and column end not free to sway. For the top column Leff may be taken equal to L and
for intermediate storeysLeff may be taken approx. as 0.8L. Thus, depending on the ratio of
Leff/b for column in different stroreys having width 400mm or 230 mm the column type is
decided.Details of column type for slenderness for columns in different storeys
Top storey

Middle storey

bottom
storey

Column length L mm

3000

3000

3533

Beam depth D mm

550

550

550

Unsupported legth L mm

2450

2450

2983

Leff

2450

1960

2386.4

Width of column

b mm

230/400

230/400

230/400

Leff/b

10.65/6.125

8.52/4.9

10.375/5.96
6

Column type

Short/short

Short/short

Short/short

Categorization of Column
Category 1: Axially loaded column: All interior column
Category 2: Column subjected to axial compression and uniaxial bending: the entire column
on the side between corners.
Category 3: Column under axial compression and biaxial bending: corner column.
Design of Column C2
This column is subjected to biaxial bending.
Colum
n
C2
Size of column (400*400)
Pu=71.0
Design loads
996
Mux=5.9
894
Muy=17.
853
Clear cover
40
Diameter of bar to be
used
d'
48
Check for short Column
Unsupported
length
Lx = 3 m
Effective
Lex=
length
2.4m
Lex/D
6<12
Ley/B
6<12
Let us assume Pt= 1%
2779.
Puz
2 kN
Moment due eccentricity
ex
ey
Mex
0.02
0.02
1.42
Moment to be considered in
design
Pu/fck b D
0.018

kNm
kNm
kNm
mm
16 mm
mm

Ly = 3
m
Ley= 2.4 m
Short
Short

Mey
1.42
the

P/fck
0.04
As per chart 45 of SP16 For
0.15
Mux1/fck b D
0.088
As per chart 45 of SP16 For
0.15
Muy1/fck b D
0.088
Mux1
140.8
Muy1
140.8
Pu/Pu
z
0.031
n
1
(Mux/Mux1)n + (Muy/Muy1)n < 1
IS 456-2000 Cl 39.6

d'/D =

d'/D =

kNm
kNm

0.17

Result < 1 ok
Provid
e
Nos.
4
4

Reinf. details at support


dia
Asc
mm
mm2
16
1608.50
16

p prov.

%
1.01

Design of transverse reinforcement


As per IS 13920:1993
A.Design of general hoops
Rectangular hoop may be used in rectangular column. Here rectangular hoop of 8mm dia are used.
Here h=400-40-8(using 8mm dia ties) =352mm>300mm (clause 7.3.1 IS13920:1993)
Spacing of bars =352/4 =88mm which is more than 75 mm .Thus cross ties on all bar
are required.(Clause IS456:26.5.3.2(b))
Provide 3 open cross tie in X and Y direction.
B. Spacing of hoops
As per IS 456 clause 26.5.3.2(c) , the pitch of ties shall not exceed
a) 400mm
b) 16*16= 256mm1
c) 300 mm
The spacing of Hoops can also be checked from clause 26.5.1.5
b*d= 400*352 Using 8mm dia hoops.
Asv=4*50 =200mm
The spacing should not exceed
0.87fy*Asv/(0.4b) = 564.14 mm
0.75d= 0.75*352 =264mm
256 mm
As per IS 13920:1993
Spacing of hoops b/2 of column = 400/2 =200mm
Maximum spacing of stirrups is 200mm.
Design Shear
As per clause 7.3.4 IS13920:1993, the design shear force for column shall be maximum of:
a. Calculated factored shear force as per analysis
b. Factored shear force given by:
Vu=1.4[(Mur,max,bL+Mur,max,bR)/Hst]

From analysis shear force is calculated as 25.7955 KN