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A/C & Ref. ME 73 2 Dr. Ahmed F. Elsafty M ec h an ical

A/C & Ref.

ME732

Dr. Ahmed F. Elsafty Mechanical & Marine Engineering Dept. College of Engineering and Technology

Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport

References:

• ASHRAE Handbooks.

• Mc-Quiston, F. C. et al. “HVAC Analysis and Design”, John Wiley& Sons Inc. USA. 2000.

Wang, S. K. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration”, Mc Graw-Hill, Singapour,2001.

TROTT, A. R. and Welch T., Refrigeration and

Air-Conditioning 3 rd ed”, Butterworth-Heinemann

2000.

What you will learn?

You will develop an understanding of the basics of air conditioning systems, the components of air distribution systems, considerations of human comfort, load and occupancy demand, and how codes and standards affect the design of air systems. After completing the course, you should know:

– The functions of the components of an air distribution system, including major equipment types and auxiliary components.

– The principles of air distribution as they relate to human comfort.

– The principal codes and standards affecting air system design.

– How to layout and size a simple duct system and calculate pressure losses in the system.

– Common methods for reducing airborne sounds in systems and

How to start an air system and diagnose common problems associated with air system start-up.

A/C & Refrigeration Contents:

• Definitions

• Types of A/C

• IAQ

• Direct expansion Systems

– Unitary A/C Systems

• Central A/C Systems

– All Air Systems.

– All Water Systems

Refrigeration Methods

– Vapour Compression System.

– Thermo-electric Air Conditioning-

Thermo-acoustic Air Conditioning

– Steam Jet Air Conditioning

-VRV and VRF.

-Air-Water Systems

- Absorption Air Conditioning - Desiccant systems

• Methods of Heat Transfer

• Methods of Air Distribution

• Duct System Design - Design overview, duct materials, duct construction, design and sizing, and sample systems.

• Air Outlets

• The principal codes and standards affecting air system design.

• BMS

Definitions:

Refrigeration:

The process of removing heat.

Air-conditioning:

A form of air treatment whereby temperature, humidity, ventilation, and air cleanliness are all controlled within limits determined by the requirements of the air conditioned enclosure. Trott, 2000

Definition

Air treatment (conditioning)

The purpose is to keep -within well defined limits- acceptable (comfortable) inside air dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, air cleanliness, odor level, noise level and air movement.

This is to be done keeping in mind that the

cost

importance.

and

the

control

are

of premium

The Air Conditioning System

A/C

is

the

temperature,

simultaneous

humidity,

Control of

quality

and

movement of air in a conditioned space or building. • An Air conditioning unit is understood to consist of heat transfer surface for heating and cooling, a fan for air circulation, means of cleaning the air, a motor, a drive, and a casing.

Introductd

ion

Purpose of air conditioning

Luxury:

ResidentialIntroductd ion • Purpose of air conditioning Luxury: C ommercial Necessary Pharmaceuticals industry Laboratories IT

Commercial ommercial

Necessary

Pharmaceuticals industry industry

Laboratoriesion • Purpose of air conditioning Luxury: Residential C ommercial Necessary Pharmaceuticals industry IT Industry

IT Industryion • Purpose of air conditioning Luxury: Residential C ommercial Necessary Pharmaceuticals industry Laboratories

Purpose of air conditioning Luxury: Residential C ommercial Necessary Pharmaceuticals industry Laboratories IT Industry
Air Conditioning Central Unitary
Air Conditioning
Central
Unitary
Air Conditioning Central Unitary
Air Conditioning Central Unitary

There are four basic system categories:

1 Central chilled water air conditioning systems - All Air Systems

1.1 Single zone

1.2 Reheat

1.3 Variable Air Volume

1.4

Dual Duct

1.5

Multizone

2 Central chilled water air conditioning systems - Air-and Water Systems

2.1 Induction

2.3

Two-pipe

2.2 Fan Coil

2.4

Three-pipe

3 Central chilled water air conditioning systems - All Water Systems,

including cooling towers which can also be applied to systems 1, 2 above

3.1 Fan-coil units

3.2 Central chilled water air conditioning system with fan coils and other devices

3.3 Water cooling tower

4 Direct expansion Systems [i.e. direct expansion of refrigerant, without the chilled water cooling medium ]

4.1

Window air conditioners

4.3

Split type and package air conditioning systems

4.2

Unitary and Rooftop Air Conditioners

4.4

Heat pumps

Commonly used temperature scales.

C ommon l y use d t empera t ure sca l es .

Psychrometry is the science dealing with the physical laws of air – water mixtures.

Psychrometry is the science dealing with the physical l aws o f air – wa t
A psychrometer . aspiration psychrometer. Sling psychrometer

A psychrometer.

A psychrometer . aspiration psychrometer. Sling psychrometer

aspiration psychrometer.

Sling psychrometer

Psychometrics

Dry-bulb Temperature: The temperature of air as registered by an ordinary thermometer. Wet-bulb Temperature: The
Dry-bulb Temperature: The temperature of air as registered by an ordinary thermometer.
Wet-bulb Temperature: The temperature registered by a thermometer whose bulb is covered by a welted wick and
exposed to a current of rapidly moving air.
Dew point Temperature: The temperature at which condensation of moisture begins when the air is cooled.
Relative Humidity: Ratio of the actual water vapor pressure of the air to the saturated water vapor pressure of the air at
the same temperature.
Moisture Content: The weight of water vapor in grains or pounds of moisture per pound of dry air.
Enthalpy: A thermal property indicating the quantity of heat in the air above an arbitrary datum, in Btu per pound of dry
air. The datum for dry air is 0°F and, for the moisture content, 32 F water.
Enthalpy Deviation: Enthalpy indicated above, for any
given condition, is the enthalpy of saturation. It should
be corrected by the enthalpy deviation due to the air
not being in the saturated state. Enthalpy deviation is in
Btu per pound of dry air. Enthalpy deviation is applied
where extreme accuracy is required; however, on
normal air conditioning estimates it is omitted.
Specific Volume: The cubic feet of the mixture per
pound of dry air.
Sensible Heat Factor: The ratio of sensible to total
heat.
Alignment Circle: Located at 80 F db and 50% RH and
used in conjunction with the sensible heat factor to plot
the various air conditioning process lines.

Air Handling Unit

BASIC UNIT:

FAN

■ COIL (AND/OR)HEATER ■ FILTER ■ MIXING BOX
■ COIL (AND/OR)HEATER
■ FILTER
■ MIXING BOX

Cooling process

AMBIENT: 105 o F db, 78 o F wb ROOM: 75 o F db, 50% RH MIXING: 81 o F db, 44% RH COIL: 53 o F db, 95% RH

o F db, 78 o F wb ROOM: 75 o F db, 50% RH MIXING: 81

Comparison between split and central air conditioning systems

Item

Central System

i

Spl t System

Temperature control

Better Control Quality

Higher Temperature Fluctuation

Air Cleanness

Satisfactory Any Type of

Not Satisfactory Low-

Air Filter Ma

y

be installed

Efficienc

y

Air Filters are

 

installed

Outdoor Air

Yes

   

No!!

Space Sound Level

Lower Space Noise Criteria [NC] Curve with better Sound Attenuator and Design

Lower Space NC Curve

Load Diversity

Higher Diversity

No Diversity

Comparison between split and central air conditioning systems

Item

Central System

Split System

System Efficiency

Higher

Low

Equipment Life

Longer

Shorter

Maintenance

Less Maintenance Work

More Maintenance Work

Smoke Control

Easier

More Difficult

Operator

Operator Required

No Operator

Comparison between split and central air conditioning systems

Item

Central System

Split System

Initial Cost

Higher

Lower

Energy Cost

Lower

Higher

Plant Room

Chiller Plant and supply return fan rooms are needed

Separate Equipment Room not required

Flexibility of Operation

Less Flexible

More Flexible

Installation

Complex

Simple and Fast

Comparison between split and central air conditioning systems

Item

Central System

Split System

Energy Metering for individual Tenants

Difficult

Sim le

p

Future Expansion

Less Flexible

Flexible

If an existing Split air-conditioning system is renovated into a central system serving the same floor area, a life- cycle cost payback period of 3.9 years can be achieved in Hot Climates.

Refrigeration Methods

• Vapour Compression System.

Vapour Absorption System. • Desiccant Systems.

• Steam Ejectors.

Thermo-electric System.

• Thermo-acoustic System.

Comfort Chart

Comfort Ch art

Psychrometric processes

Psychrometric processes
Summer cooling loads
Summer cooling loads