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^

JI
'EM. JONES, LX.HQ*

AND
D.

MORROW

lORlZEB FOR USE IN THE HIGISCHOOLS OF NOY& SCOTIA

AND SASKATCHEWAN;

TOFtONTO
J.

M. DENT

SONS'-LTD,

?E

FROM THE LIBRARY OF


L.

E.

HORNING,

B.A., Ph.D,

(1858-1925)

PROFESSOR OP TEUTONIC
PHILOLOGY

VICTORIA COLLEGE

A HIGH SCHOOL

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR

A HIGH SCHOOL

GRAMMAR

ENGLISH

BY

GEORGE

M.

JONES

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF METHODS IN ENGLISH, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO


(ONTARIO COLLEGE OF EDUCATION)

L.

E.

HORNING

PROFESSOR OF TEUTONIC PHILOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO


(VICTORIA COLLEGE)

JOHN

D.

MORROW

CLASSICAL MASTER, DAVENPORT HIGH SCHOOD, TORONTO

AUTHORISED FOR USE IN THE HIGH


SCHOOLS OF NOVA SCOTIA
AND SASKATCHEWAN

1922

J.

TORONTO AND LONDON


M. DENT & SONS LTD,

All rights reserved

G 6

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN

PREFACE
position of English Grammar in the High School
course of study has been so vigorously assailed in recent
years, that the time seems opportune to consider carefully

THE

how much

of the material usually presented in text -books


should be retained, and how much may be safely discarded.
The aim of the authors of this book has been to treat concisely all the grammar that they think should be studied

While nothing important has been


and names that have had a
time-honoured place in High School Grammars, have been

in the

High School.

omitted,

many

distinctions

omitted as unnecessary, or useless.


The terminology recommended by the (American)
National Joint Committee on Grammatical Nomenclature
has been used throughout with two or three exceptions.
The term complement has been retained with a
very definite meaning, because the Committee did not
suggest a substitute. The classification of the uses of
the subjunctive mood given by the Committee has been
much simplified, because that subject is always a very
difficult one for High School classes.
Chapter I. is a review of Public School work, which will
be found useful even for well prepared pupils. As this
chapter and the next seven are, to a considerable extent,
a review and amplification of the grammar studied in the
Public School, the inductive treatment characteristic of
the Public School English Grammar has been abandoned;
but the teacher will, of course, use the so-called inductive
method of presenting any portions of the subject which
are

new

to his class.

In the chapter devoted to the history of the English


language, the emphasis has been laid on the growth and
evolution of our mother tongue as a living organism.

PREFACE

vi

tells of the relationship of English to the other


Teutonic languages, and to the Indo-European family in
general. Section 2 deals with the growth of the vocabulary, making reference constantly to the historical back-

Section i

ground. Section 3 shows inductively, by means of parallel


passages, the general development of English grammar.
Section 4 is an attempt to show how English spelling has
come to be the curious thing it is, and, in this connection,
the help to be derived from the use of a phonetic alphabet
is illustrated.

section

The

great influence of stress

is

shown

in

5.

In the appendices more formal aid in the historical study

Grammar is given. Appendix A shows how


and conjugations have developed. In
declensions
English
Appendix B, the verb has been fully dealt with from the
of English

point of view of

modern

conditions.

Appendix C

treats of

composition and derivation, in regard to the Teutonic, as


well as the Romance or Latin elements of our language.
All through this portion of the work, the practical as well
as the historical has been kept strictly in view.
While this book is the joint work of the three authors
named on the title page, Prof. Jones is specially responsible
for the text of Chapters I.
VIII., Prof. Horning for the
historical outline of the language (Chapter IX. and appendices), and Mr. Morrow for the exercises.
In the preparation of this grammar, the best modern
authorities have been consulted. For the benefit of teachers
a practical bibliography is given (see pp. ix-xi), from which
books may be chosen for the private or the school library.

CONTENTS
PAGE

CHAP.
I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

THE
THE
THE
THE
THE

SENTENCE AND

NOUN
PRONOUN
ADJECTIVE

ITS

PARTS

....
.......

VERB

....

......
....
.....

The Verb

C.

Derivation

,,

D.

Summary

,,

E.

Extracts for Analysis

INDEX

.173
.178

Brief Historical Review of English Declension and Conjugation

B.

,,

of the

Verb

Parsing Scheme.

VII

187

228
233

239

.257

..........
F.

87

161
.

IX. HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

67

105

THE ADVERB
THE PREPOSITION
THE CONJUNCTION

APPENDIX A.

33

259
268
269

BIBLIOGRAPHY
DICTIONARIES

New
1. Murray, Dr. J. A., and many other Editors, A
"
The
English Dictionary on Historical Principles (often called
Oxford Dictionary"). Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1884.
(An invaluable work, full of dated quotations and of great
the most scientific dictionary
nearing
philological learning
completion will consist of ten large volumes.)
2. Fowler, H. W., and
Fowler, F. G., The Concise OxClarendon
ford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford, The
"
The Oxford
Press.
based on
(Very handy and reliable
Dictionary.")
3. Weatherley, Cecil, The Standard-Imperial Dictionary of
the English Language. Toronto, The Musson Book Co. (Con"
The Oxford " and Skeat's useful appencise
based on
;

dices.)
4. Skeat, Rev. Walter W., A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. Oxford, The Clarendon Press.
(A work of deep research, brilliant sagacity, and admirable
completeness.)
5. Jones, Daniel, An English Pronouncing Dictionary on
Toronto, J. M. Dent and Sons.
Strictly Phonetic Principles.
contains a useful bibliography.)
(Invaluable
6. Kluge, Frederick, Etymologisches Worterbuch der Deutschen Sprache.
Strassburg, Triibner.
(Exceedingly helpful
;

for English.)

GRAMMARS, ETC.
1.

Sweet, Henry, A New English Grammar, Logical and


Oxford, Clarendon Press.
(A scientific English

Historical.

Grammar.
2. Wyld, Henry
)

Tongue.

Cecil, The Historical Study of the Mother


London, John Murray, 1906. (Up-to-date, valuable

for philology.)

London,
3. Wyld, Henry Cecil, A Short History of English.
John Murray, 1914- (Valuable bibliographies good historical
;

method.)
4.

Wyld, Henry

Cecil,

History
ix

of

Modern

Colloquial

BIBLIOGRAPHY

London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1920. (Very interesting


but no index.)
5. Jespersen, Otto, Growth and Structure of the English
Language. Leipzig, Teubner. Second Edition, 1912. (A very
suggestive little book by a Danish scholar.)
English.

and

instructive,

Jespersen, Otto, A Modern English Grammar on HistoriVol. I., Sounds and Spellings.
Heidelberg,
Carl Winter. (Both of Jespersen's books are in English. The
latter is a great mine of information, with a wealth of illustrations treated on a strictly phonetic basis, of which Jespersen
is one of the acknowledged world-masters.)
6.

cal Principles.

Toronto, The
7. Bradley, Henry, The Making of English.
Macmillan Company.
(A very suggestive little work by an
"
The Oxford Dictionary.")
editor of
8. Greenough, J. B., and Kittredge, G. L., Words and their
Ways in English Speech. New York, The Macmillan Company,
1905. (Answers to the questions of busy men.)
9. Trench, R. C., The Study of Words. The Macmillan Company. (A good pioneer work which has gone through many
editions and been revised by A. L. Mayhew.)
10. Smith, L. P., The English Language. London, Williams
and Norgate. (A fine little book in the "Home University
Library.")

Emerson, O. F., The History of the English Language.


York, The Macmillan Company.
(Clear outline, good
methods.)
12. Sweet, Henry, A Short Historical English Grammar.
Oxford, Clarendon Press. (Very clear.)
13. Morris, Richard, Historical Outlines of English Acci11.

New

dence,

revised

by

L.

Macmillan Company.

The
Kellner and Henry Bradley.
a good introduction to English

(Still

Philology. )
14. Kellner, L., Historical Outlines of English Syntax.

The

Macmillan Company. (Brief, clear, reliable, practical.)


15. Lounsbury, T. R., English Spelling and Spelling Reform.
New York, Harper and Brothers, 1909. (The book of a
"

reformer.")

Lounsbury, T. R., The Standard of Usage in English.


York, Harper and Brothers, 1908.
17. Lounsbury, T. R., The Standard of Pronunciation. New
York, Harper and Brothers.
1 8.
Ripman, Walter, Elements of Phonetics, Toronto,
16.

New

J.

M. Dent and Sons.

Ripman, Walter, The Sounds of Spoken English and


Specimens of English. Toronto, J. M. Dent and Sons. (A very
19.

useful book).
20. Jones, Daniel, The Pronunciation of English. Cambridge
University Press, 1912. (Has good phonetic transcriptions.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

xi

21. Sweet, Henry, The Sounds of English.


Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908.
22. Krapp, G. P., Pronunciation of Standard English in
America. New York, Oxford University Press, 1919. (Has

interesting phonetic texts.)


23. Gray, A. K., A Dictionary of Synonyms. "London, T. C.
and E. C. Jack. (A very handy little volume of The People's

Books.")
24. Fowler, H. W. and F. G., The King's English. Oxford,
The Clarendon Press. (Discusses many difficult points.)
Toronto,
25. Nesfield. J. C., Outline of English Grammar.
The Macmillan Company of Canada. Revised, 1917. (A good
author opposed to new terminology.)
reference book
26. Sonnenschein, E. A., A New English Grammar. Oxford,
Clarendon Press, 1917.
(For secondary schools ; uses the
new English uniform terminology.)
27. Kittridge and Farley, A Concise English Grammar.
Boston, Ginn and Company. Revised, 1918. (For secondary
schools; concise but useful.)
28. (English) Joint Committee, On the Terminology of
Grammar. London, John Murray, Revised 1911. (Very useful.)
National Joint Committee, Report on
29. (American)
Grammatical Nomenclature. Washington, National Education
Association, 1913.
(Very useful in connection with this
;

grammar.)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
THE Authors

are pleased to acknowledge their indebtedthe following authors, publishers, and others,
who have generously permitted the quotation of extracts
from copyright works: J. F. Edgar, John W. Garvin,
Robert S. Jenkins, J. D. Logan, Agnes Maule Machar,
Duncan Campbell Scott, W. P. McKenzie, Stuart Livingness

to

stone,
Co.,

The Estate

Harper

Brown &

Co.

of

Samuel

L. Clemens,

&
,

The Mark Twain

Brothers, Houghton, Mifflin


and the Ryerson Press.

&

Co., Little,

Acknowledgments are also due and are hereby cordially


to Lord Beaverbrook and Messrs. Hodder &
Stoughton Ltd., for a passage from Canada in Flanders,
on p. 34; to Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co., for three
extracts from Andrew Lang's Letters to Dead Authors, on
pp. 147 and 181; to Messrs. Cassell & Co., Ltd., for two
passages from H. O. Arnold- Forster's History of England,
on pp. 95 and 167; and to Messrs. Macmillan & Co., Ltd.,
for two extracts from Lang, Leaf & Myers' translation of
Homer's Iliad, on pp. 261 and 266, as well as for a passage
from Lonsdale & Lee's translation of Virgil's Georgics,
on p. 261.

tendered:

Kill

HIGH SCHOOL

GRAMMAR

ENGLISH

CHAPTER

THE SENTENCE AND

PARTS

ITS

PUBLIC SCHOOL
(A REVIEW OF THE CONTENTS OF "A
"
ENGLISH GRAMMAR ')
1.

A SENTENCE

is

a word or a group of words ex-

pressing a complete thought.

John is running. Have they succeeded


The value of sport. Did the boys ?

Go away.

The groups of words in the first line are sentences


because each expresses a complete thought. Each group in
line 2 is incomplete in thought, and neither, therefore, is
a sentence.
2. Every sentence either tells something, or asks a
question.
1.

tells

Our

one

is

that

have returned.
honour to the brave men.

soldiers

Give

The

DECLARATIVE SENTENCE

something.
all

of these sentences

first

tells

something about the

soldiers.

The second sentence

tells

something about the wish of

the speaker.
2.

An INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

is

one that

asks a question.

Have you
3.
it is

eaten your dinner ? Did you skate to-day ?


a sentence expresses an outburst of emotion

When

EXCLAMATORY.
The enemy are already
Have they really failed
1
This chapter may be omitted with
Beware

here

well prepared classes.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

As

these examples show, both declarative and interrogative sentences may be exclamatory.
4. Each sentence is composed of a SUBJECT and a

PREDICATE.
1
subject of a sentence designates the thing spoken
the predicate is what is said of the subject. In written
work, subject and predicate may be conveniently separated
by a slanting stroke as follows

The

of

The great war

has ended.

When the sentence is interrogative you


rearrange the words.
Have they hurt you ?
they / Have hurt you ?
command

Sentences expressing
omit the subject.
/

Pay

may have

to

or exhortation usually

close attention in class.

EXERCISE

Classify each of the following sentences as declarative or


and
interrogative, and exclamatory or non-exclamatory
divide each into subject and predicate.
;

1.

2.

There

a beauty
at the goal of life.
"
A. LAMPMAN, The Goal of Life.
O daughter thy God thus speaketh within thee!
Talk not of wasted affection affection never was wasted.
is

O,

3.

what a noble mind

LONGFELLOW, Evangeline.
here o'erthrown
SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet.
!

But not the less do thou aspire


Light's earlier messages to preach.

4.

J.
5.

is

R. LOWELL, Above and Below.

Old friends are the great blessings of one's later years.

HORACE WALPOLE.
6.

When

you watch with me again

will

C.

BRONTE, Jane

Eyre.

Thus Nature spake

7.

8.

How

Is it ever

soon

thing

is

There's a fountain to sport

BROWNING, Up
The word

hot in the square

and splash

The work was done

Lucy's race was run


WORDSWORTH, Three Years She Grew.

my

at

a Villa,

Down

in the City.

used here to denote whatever we can think

of.

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE


g.

Him

shall

no sunshine from the

fields of azure,

No drum-beat from

No

the wall,
morning gun from the black forts' embrazure,

Awaken with

its call

LONGFELLOW, The Warden

EXERCISE

of the Cinque Ports.

Write a paragraph containing declarative, interrogative,


and exclamatory sentences about the following picture.

5. The essential part of the subject of a sentence, the


part which names or represents the thing spoken of, is
called the SUBJECT SUBSTANTIVE.

The War

Many

/ came to an end in 19 19.


representatives of the nations /

met

at Paris.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

4
6.

The

essential part of the predicate, the part which


is called the P REDI-

enables one to speak of the subject,

CATE VERB.
The Peace Conference

/ discussed

many important

questions.

The Conference

/ created a

League of Nations.

7. Both the subject substantive and the predicate verb


may usually be modified by other words, or groups of
words, which are called MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT and MODIFIERS OF THE PREDICATE.

In the following sentences these modifiers are put within


brackets.

(Much) (bloody) fighting

/ occurred (after the armistice)

(in Berlin).

(Many) (German) people

/ were killed (in this fighting).

EXERCISE

Divide each of the following sentences into subject and


predicate, underline the subject substantive and the predicate
verb, and enclose within brackets modifiers of the subject
and modifiers of the predicate. This is an exercise in analysis.
1

2.
3.

4.

The King with his escort was now seen in the distance.
The south-east wind frequently blows before rain.
There is another life/ hard, rough, and thorny, trodden
with bleeding feet and aching brow. J. A. FROUDE,
England's Forgotten Worthies.
In honour of Caesar's achievements, a thanksgiving of
twenty days' duration was decreed by the Roman Senate.
C;ESAR, The Gallic War.

Truth and Justice then


Will down return to men,

5.

Orb'd in a rainbow.

MILTON, The
6.

7.

8.

Hymn

on

the

Morning

of Christ's Nativity.
In this narrow passage stands a man, looking through
the palisades into the burying-place. DEFOE, A Journal
of the Plague Year.
to Sir Andrew in the club-room sits Captain Sentry,
a gentleman of great courage, good understanding, but
invincible modesty.
R. STEELE, The Spectator.
There were also in the same place two other ways besides
the one coming frofti the gate. BUNYAN, The Pilgrim's

Next

Progress.

CLASSES OF VERBS
In your lord's scale

9.

And some few

is

nothing but himself,

vanities.

SHAKESPEARE, King Richard

II.

Cold the haughty Spartan smiled.

10.

ISABELLA CRAWFORD, The

EXERCISE

Helot.

Write a paragraph of ten sentences about your school, and


then analyse each sentence as you did the sentences in the
last exercise.
8.

All predicate verbs are either TRANSITIVE

or

IN-

TRANSITIVE.
1.

A TRANSITIVE

which requires an

The boy

VERB

expresses

action

object.

The man built the


Have you helped him ?

struck the ball.

Study your

an

lessons.

house.

A word like ball, house, lessons, or him, which names


or represents the thing affected by the action expressed
by the verb, is called an OBJECT.
2.

9.

INTRANSITIVE.

All other verbs are

two kinds, COMPLETE, and

Intransitive verbs are of

LINKING.
1.

A COMPLETE VERB

expresses an action which

does not require an object.

Men
2.

work.

Boys

play.

The sun

A LINKING VERB

is

shines.

used to join the subject

and another word which describes the subject.

He

is

industrious.

The gun seems

useless.

They

are

friends.

Each of the words, industrious, useless, and friends, not


only describes the subject (really the thing denoted by
the subject), but helps the predicate verb to express a
thought. A word used in this way to complete the verb and
modify the subject
1

is

called a

Latin transeo, go over.


passing over to the object.

The

COMPLEMENT.

action of the verb

is

represented as

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

EXERCISE

Classify the italicised verbs in the following sentences as


transitive, complete, or linking, and pick out the objects
and complements of those verbs.
1.

Bishop Grantly died as he had lived, peaceably, slowly, without pain and without excitement. A. TROLLOPE, Barchester
Towers.

And then

2.

Full

at last our bliss

and perfect

is.

MILTON, Nativity Hymn.


3.

Two

the abbreviation of time and the failure of


hope, will always tinge with a browner shade the evening of
life.
GIBBON, Autobiography.

The fire, with well-dried logs supplied,


Went roaring up the chimney wide;
The huge hall-table's oaken face.
Scrubbed till it shone the day to grace,
Bore then upon its massive board
No mark to part the squire and lord.
SCOTT, Marmion.

4.

5.

6.

Russia became a republic a short time ago.


This year appeared the comet-star in August,
and shone every morning, during three months, like a sun-

A.D. 678.

beam.
7.

8.

causes,

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

writing thus,
Aurora Leigh.
I,

am still what men call young.

E. B.

BROWNING,

they came not with the Spring,


as from its treasure,
Giving dull eyes light again,
Grief were without measure.

If

Stamped

Glow upon the shining meads


All the bright

Ah, the

little

Soon they

May

day.

golden heads,
grey
R. S. JENKINS, The Dandelions.

will be

EXERCISE 6
Write a paragraph of ten sentences about your favourite
pastime, and then classify the verbs, and select the objects
and complements in your sentences.
10. Nearly every sentence you have had so far in this
chapter has consisted of one statement, or one question,
containing a subject and a predicate. Frequently, however,
a sentence consists of two or more related statements or

CLAUSES AND PHRASES

questions, each containing a subject and a predicate, and


each called a clause.
A CLAUSE, therefore, is a group of words consisting
of a subject and a predicate.

went
went

to Gaul, and (he) conquered the country.


to Britain, but he did not remain long.
3. After Cezsar had conquered Gaul, he went to Britain.
4. Caesar went to Britain, because the Britons had helped
the Gauls.
1.

2.

Caesar
Caesar

two sentences the clauses are of


clause might stand alone as
and
each
equal importance,
In each of the

first

an independent sentence, thus


Caesar went to Gaul. He conquered the country.
In each of the other sentences (3 and 4) the italicised
clause is not only less important than the other, but serves
like a single word to modify, or change the meaning of,
the predicate of the other clause, and could not stand
Such a clause is called SUBalone as a sentence.
:

ORDINATE. Each
and each
is

called

of the unitalicised clauses in 3

of the clauses in I

and

2,

and

4,

could stand alone, and

PRINCIPAL.

Clauses are of two kinds, principal and subordinate.


II.

CLAUSES AND PHRASES.

clause

is

a group of words consisting of a subject and

a predicate.

A PHRASE

is

a group of words in a sentence having the

function of a single word, and not consisting of a subject

and predicate.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

When I returned, I heard the news. (Clause.)


On my return, I heard the news. (Phrase.)
I heard that he had returned home.
His return home has delighted me.
What he did interested me much.

This

He

(Clause.)
(Phrase.)
(Clause.)

what he did. (Clause.)


a ne'er do well.
(Phrase.)

is

is

Notice that a clause may be used as a modifier (No. i),


as subject substantive (No. 5), as object of a verb (No. 3),
or as complement (No. 6). Likewise a phrase may be

used as a modifier, a subject substantive, an object, or a

complement.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
EXERCISE 7
1. Classify the clauses of the following sentences as principal
or subordinate.
2. Define the use of each italicised phrase.

Mr. Johnston, who lives on Evelyn Avenue, has a summer


near the lake.
When March comes, we expect blustery weather.
The boys often tell me that after seven o'clock is a splendid

1.

home
2.
3.

time for sleeping.

When the train was ready to start, the conductor shouted


All aboard!"
5. How many pupils in this class know what a Sabbath-day's

" 4.

journey

is ?

That the Northern Spy is the best apple on the market


is the opinion of many good judges.
7. The late Mr. Roosevelt, who was an enthusiastic sportsman, hunted big game in Africa.
8. When I went to school in the country, through the fields
was the shortest way home.
9. The reeve speaks with confidence, as he knows all the ins
and outs of this business.
6.

10. These good-for-nothings will bring disgrace on us, if they


are not checked.
11. Some of the girls knew at once that over the fence was

out.
12. Any Canadian child can tell you that no man's land is
the area between our trenches and the enemy's.
13. You had better be what you seem.
14. Though the old man has had many ups and downs, he
has never lost faith in humanity.
1

6.

We

were the first that ever burst


Into that silent sea.

COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.

17.

As I spoke, I tore
The paper up and down, and down and up.
E. B. BROWNING, Aurora

He

could neither step nor stand,

till

he had his

Leigh.

staff.

LANGLAND, Piers Plowman.


18.

can rid your town of rats,


Will you give me a thousand guilders ?
BROWNING, The Pied Piper of Hamelin.
If I

EXERCISE

1. Write a paragraph of ten lines about the


in which you live, taking care that most of
shall contain more than one clause each.
2. Classify the clauses in your paragraph.

town or

district

your sentences

KINDS OF SENTENCES
12. Sentences are classified as simple,

plex,

compound, com-

and compound-complex.
1.

A SIMPLE SENTENCE

consists of a single prin-

cipal clause.

The boys and

girls

played ball together.

A COMPOUND SENTENCE

consists of two or
more principal clauses.
The boys played ball, and the girls played house.
The boys played, the girls danced, and the older folks
2.

talked.
3.

A COMPLEX SENTENCE

consists of a principal

and one or more subordinate clauses.


The boys are returning, because it is getting dark.
If they come, I shall learn what they have done.

clause

COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE is a
4. A
combination of two or more sentences, at least one of
which is complex.
If he comes, I shall help him
but, if he fails to come,
I shall abandon him.
You are my friend and for that reason, I know that
you will help me.
;

EXERCISE 9
Classify the sentences in the following extract

This great King (Alfred), in the first year of his reign, fought
nine battles with the Danes. He made some treaties with them,
too, by which the false Danes swore they would quit the
country. They pretended to consider that they had taken a
very solemn oath, but they cared little for it. Indeed, they
thought nothing of breaking oaths, and treaties too, as soon
as it suited their purpose. One fatal winter, in the fourth year
of King Alfred's reign, they spread themselves in great numbers
over the whole of England
and so dispersed and routed the
King's soldiers, that the King was left alone. He was obliged
to disguise himself as a common peasant, and to take refuge
in the cottage of one of his cowherds, who did not know his
face.
DICKENS, A Child's History of England (adapted).
;

13. The Subject Substantive


word, a phrase, or a clause.

This boy has fished

all

day.

of

a sentence

The Duke of Connaught was Governor-General.


What they wanted was very surprising.

may

be a

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

io

When

a subject contains only one subject substantive


when it contains more than one subThe following
ject substantive it is called compound.
sentences have compound subjects:
called simple;

it is

These boys and girls are tired.


What he wants and what he gets are different things.
14.

The predicate verb

of a sentence

be a word or a

may

phrase:

You
You

When
when
15.

it

worked hard. You have worked hard.


have been working hard.

a predicate contains only one verb, it is simple


contains more than one verb, it is compound.

The

following

is

an easy method of showing the

analysis of a sentence:
1.

(All) (the)

2.

I /asked

boys

(of

the class) / helped (willingly).

\, (the)

leader

(repeatedly)

\ what he wanted and what he had

done,

(our) (best) friend.


3.

(This) (industrious)

4.

What

man

is/'

he did / interested (very much).


\(his) friends

5.

(The)

boy (who did

it)

/ will receive (when he returns).


\(a) reward

6. Caesar

/went

(to Britain)

||

but he / did

(not)

conquer
i

(the) island.

Subject and predicate are separated by a short slanting line.


Subject substantive and predicate verb are underlined. Modifiers are enclosed in brackets. An object is put on the line
below, and is connected with the verb by a diagonal line.
A complement is put on the line above, and is connected

with the verb by a diagonal line.


ated by double vertical lines.

Principal clauses are separ-

ANALYSIS

ii

EXERCISE 10
1. Analyse the sentences in each of the following extracts,
using the graphic method explained above.
2. Classify the sentences in the following extracts
:

1.

Shortly

Tom came upon

the juvenile pariah of the village,

Huckleberry Finn. Huckleberry was cordially dreaded by all


the mothers of the town, because he was idle, lawless, vulgar,
and bad.
Besides, all their children admired him so, and
delighted in his forbidden society, and wished they dared to
be like him. Tom was like the rest of the respectable boys,
because he envied Huckleberry his gaudy outcast condition,
and was under strict orders not to pla}*- with him. So he played
with him every time he got a chance. Huckleberry was always
dressed in the cast-off clothes of full-grown men, and they were
His hat was a
in perennial bloom and fluttering with rags.
vast ruin with a wide crescent lopped out of its brim. His
coat, when he wore one, hung nearly to his heels, and had the
rearward buttons far down the back. But one suspender supported his trousers. The fringed legs of his trousers dragged in
the dirt when not rolled up. Huckleberry came and went at
He slept on door-steps in fine weather,
his own sweet will.
and in empty hogsheads in wet. He did not have to go to school
or to church, or call any being master, or obey anybody. He
could go fishing or swimming when he chose, and could stay
as long as he liked. Nobody forbade him to fight. He could sit
up late, if he pleased. He was always the first boy that went
barefoot in the spring. He was also the last to resume leather
He never had to wash or put on clean clothes.
in the fall.
Everything that goes to make life precious that boy had. So
thought every harassed, hampered, respectable boy in St.
Petersburg. MARK TWAIN, Tom Sawyer (adapted).
2. Arthur Wesley 1 entered the army in 1787, as he received
a commission in the 4ist regiment of foot. He held the rank
of ensign for some months, and then became a lieutenant.
The following anecdote proves that he was still a shy and
awkward lad, and that the fair sex saw nothing to admire in him.
He was at a ball one night, and could not find a partner. As
he inherited his father's taste for music, he consoled himself
by sitting down near the band. When the party broke up,
the other officers took home their lady friends; but young
Wesley was, by common consent, left to travel with the fiddlers.
Old Lady Aldborough once reminded the Duke of the circumstance, after he had become a great man. He laughed heartily,
"
and she added, We should not leave you to go home with the
fiddlers now."
GLEIG, Life of Wellington (adapted).
"

3.

When Michael lay on his dying bed,


His conscience was awakened
He bethought him of his sinful deed,
And he gave me a sign to come with speed
;

This was the early form of the

Duke

of Wellington's family

name.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

12

I was in Spain when the morning rose,


But I stood at his bed ere evening close.
The words may not again be said,
That he spoke to me, on death-bed laid
They would rend this Abbaye's massy nave,
;

And

heaps above his grave."


SCOTT, Lay of the Last Minstrel.

pile it in

16. There are eight so-called parts of speech. This means


simply that words, phrases, and clauses are grouped in
eight classes according to their functions in the sentence.
The parts of speech are
:

Nouns

Adjectives

Conjunctions

Pronouns
Verbs

Adverbs

Interjections

17.

Prepositions

A NOUN

is

name

the

of

something.

Nouns

are

divided into two classes.


(a)

A PROPER NOUN

is

A COMMON NOUN

is

the

name

of a particular

thing.
(b)

name

applied to each one

of a class of things.
Paris, Montreal, France, Great Britain, Gladstone. (Proper.)
(Common.)
girl, cat, dog, army, country.

boy,

Note that each proper noun begins with a capital


18.

A PRONOUN

is

something without naming

Who

(what man)
General Byng.
That (that book)

letter.

a substitute for a noun. It represents

is

is

it.

your friend

He (my

This

your book.

(this

friend)

boy)

is

is

my

brother.

The pronouns of one class are called PERSONAL, because


they distinguish between the person speaking (first person)
the person spoken to (second person), and the person or
thing spoken about (third person). The personal pronouns
,

are

First person

Second person
I, we.
(thou), you, (ye).
Third person
he, she, it, they.
and pronouns are very much alike in use.
:

19. Nouns
Both designate things, nouns by naming them, pronouns by
For this reason
representing them without naming them.

the general

name

SUBSTANTIVE

is

given to both nouns

NOUNS AND PRONOUNS


and pronouns.

and

The word

13

substantive denotes "existence,"

words

appropriately used, therefore, to designate


that name or represent things.
is

20. It should be remembered that the classification of a


word depends largely on its use in the sentence. The same
word may, for instance, be used as a noun in one sentence
and an adjective in another.

The Klondyke produces much

We gave him
Love

They

is

a gold watch.

a great force in the world.


mother. (Verb.)

(Noun.)

love their

EXERCISE
Select the nouns

and name

(Noun.)

gold.

(Adjective.)

all

and pronouns

n
in the following passages,
objects of verbs, and

subject substantives,

complements.
1. Then I saw

in my dream that these good companions gave


to Christian a loaf of bread, a bottle of wine, and a cluster of
raisins.

2.

BUNYAN,
The sun,

Had

Pilgrim's Progress.

right up above the mast,


fixed her to the ocean ;

But in a minute she 'gan stir,


With a short uneasy motion
Backwards and forwards half her
With a short uneasy motion.

length,

COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.


Three years she grew in sun and shower,
Then Nature said, " A lovelier flower
On earth was never sown

3.

This child I to myself will take;


She shall be mine, and I will make
A lady of my own."

WORDSWORTH.
4.

Light thickens, and the crow


Makes wing to the rooky wood
Good things of day begin to droop and drowse,
Whiles night's black agents to their preys do rouse.
Thou marvell'st at my words but hold thee still
Things bad begun make strong themselves by ill.
So, prithee, go with me.
SHAKESPEARE, Macbeth.
:

EXERCISE 12
Write a paragraph of ten
day, and then select the
paragraph.

about what you did yesternouns and pronouns in your

lines

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

14

Nouns and pronouns have two numbers, singular


Most nouns, and a number of pronouns, are
changed in form, or inflected, to show number. The details
of their inflection will be given in the next two chapters.
22. Nouns and pronouns have four principal functions
These functions are called CASES,
(uses) in the sentence.
and are given four names, as follows
21.

and plural.

NAME
Nominative
Accusative

Dative

FUNCTION
Subject of verb.
Direct object of a verb or
a preposition.
Indirect object of a verb.

case.
case.

case.

and
Denoting
possession,
modifying another sub-

Genitive case.

stantive.

EXAMPLES
John gave the woman his father's book.
Who had told his friend the story ?
Roy's dog has bitten both me and him.

1.

2.
3.

first sentence, John is in the nominative case,


because it is the subject of the verb gave
the word woman
is in the dative case, because the woman is the indirect
object of the giving (the person to whom the book was
father's is in the genitive case, because it denotes
given)
book is in the
possession, and modifies the word book
accusative case, because the book is the direct object of
the giving (the thing given). Explain the case of each of
the italicised words in sentences 2 and 3.
In the next chapter, you will learn that the names
nominative case, accusative case, etc., are used to designate
other functions of the noun, similar to those just explained.
23. While nouns have four cases, they have only two
case-forms, a common case-form for the nominative,
accusative, and dative cases, and a genitive case-form.

In the

The word boy

is

inflected as follows

Common

SINGULAR
boy

Genitive

One pronoun has three


whom gen., whose).
;

boy's

PLURAL
boys
boys'

case-forms (nom., who

acc.-dat.,

NOUNS AND PRONOUNS


All the personal pronouns except
case-forms.

you and

Nom.

Acc.-dat.

me

PI.

Sing.

we you

(thou)

us

(thee)

have two

THIRD PERSON
PL
Sing.

FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON


Sing. PI.

it

15

you he, she, it they


you him, her, it them
have
other
Most of the
only one case-form.
pronouns
I

you

EXERCISE

13

Name

the case of each italicised noun and pronoun in the


following sentences
:

We are men now we possess men's rights.


Him who cares to give me the lie, I shall be prepared to meet

1.

in the woods.
2.

Come,

tell

ERCKMANN-CHATRIAN, The Story


me how you live

of a Peasant.

3.

But while

4.

room to rise.
GOLDSMITH, The Traveller.
Though the mist comes up from the marshes grey,

this softer hrt their bliss supplies,

It gives their follies also

And

covers the earth in its phantom fold,


Though it shrouds for a moment the golden day,
There must come a time when it back is rolled;

And then

thou wilt see that the day so dull


in its heart as it had of yore,
the world as ever with bliss is full,
nought is changed from the scene before.

Has the glow


That
That

R.
5.

When

Ceres heard

this,

she

S.

JENKINS, Mist.

stood for a while like one

stupefied.
6.

But that I am forbid


the secrets of my prison-house,
could a tale unfold, whose lightest word

To
I

tell

Would harrow up thy

soul, freeze

thy young blood.


SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet.

"
" Whose
said I to a dapper7.
body is in that hearse ?
looking individual, seemingly a shopkeeper, who "stood beside
me on the pavement, looking at the procession.
The mortal
relics of Lord Byron, the illustrious poet, which have been just
brought from Greece," said the dapper-looking individual.

BORROW, Lavengro.

EXERCISE 14
Write a paragraph of about ten lines about what you would
like to do to-morrow, and then select from your paragraph all
subject substantives, direct objects of verbs, indirect objects,
and words in the genitive case.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

i6

VERB

is a word by means of which we make a


24. A
declaration, or ask a question. You have already learned
that verbs are classified according to their meaning, as

follows

(a)

Transitive

(6)

Transitive verbs require objects; linking verbs require

complements; but a complete verb can make a declaration,


or ask a question about something, without the assistance
of either object or

complement.

We reward our brave men.

(Transitive.)

Our men are brave. (Linking.)


Our brave men fought well. (Complete.)

Verbs are inflected (changed in form) for tense, person,


distinctions are shown

number and mood. Sometimes these


by means of verb phrases.

TENSE indicates time, present, past, and future.


PERSON and NUMBER in the verb correspond with
MOOD
person and number in subject substantives.
indicates the attitude of mind of the speaker. Declarations
or questions which he treats as matters of fact are in the
Commands or exhortations are in
INDICATIVE MOOD.

the IMPERATIVE

MOOD.

MOOD which

be

The

mood

will

There

a SUBJUNCTIVE
Chapter V.

also

is

fully explained in

present, past, and future tenses of the indicative


of the verb live are as follows
:

INDICATIVE

MOOD

PRESENT
ist

person
2nd person
3rd person

PAST

Plural

Singular

Singular
I lived

Thou

You

Thou

You

He

They

He

They

livest
lives

live
live

livedst
lived

FUTURE
Singular
ist

person

and person
3rd person

Plural

We lived

We live

I live

I shall live

Thou

He

wilt live

will live

Plural

We

shall live
will live
They will live

You

lived
lived

VERBS AND ADJECTIVES

17

EXERCISE 15
Classify the verbs in the following sentences as transitive,
complete, or linking. Name the tense of each italicised verb.
Name the case of each italicised substantive.
1.
Merrily the feast I'll make ;
To-day I'll brew, to-morrow bake
Merrily I'll dance and sing,
;

For next day

will

a stranger bring.
GRIMM, Household Tales.

2. Hobson Newcome was a better man of business than his


more solemn and stately brother, at whom he laughed in his
and he said rightly, that a gentleman had to get
jocular way
up very early in the morning who wanted to take him in.
THACKERAY, The Newcomes.
3. The Scots are a bold hardy race, and delight much in war.
When they invaded England, they were all usually on horseback
they brought no carriages and carried no provisions.
Under the flap of his saddle each man had a broad plate of metal
and behind his saddle a little bag of oatmeal. So that when
occasion needed, he made cakes of the oatmeal, and baked them
upon the plates. FROISSART, Chronicles.
4.
They do me wrong, and I will not endure it
Who are they that complain unto the King
That I, forsooth, am stern and love them not ?
;

holy Paul, they love his Grace but lightly


fill his ears with such dissentious rumours.
SHAKESPEARE, King Richard III.
ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your

By

That
5.

If

Father forgive your trespasses. MATTHEW vi. 15.


"
"
he said, and pointed toward the land,
6.
/
" Courage
This mounting wave will roll us shoreward soon."
In the afternoon they came unto a land
In which it seemed always afternoon.

TENNYSON, The

Lotos-Eaters.

EXERCISE 16
Write out the present, past, and future indicative tenses of
the following verbs

help, save, walk, talk, skate, step.

25. An
stantive.

ADJECTIVE

is

a word that modifies

a sub-

^he word modify"


grammar it means
application."

In
usually means "to change somewhat."
"
to change the meaning," or
to limit the
For instance, in the sentence,
The happy boys are playing,

the adjective happy limits the


application of the word boys in this
sentence to a particular class of boys. Moreover, the addition of the
adjective happy changes the meaning of the whole subject, and
indeed of the whole sentence.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

i8

These beautiful pictures belong to the National Gallery.


These pictures, beautiful and costly, belong to the
National Gallery.

Many pictures

in the National Gallery are beautiful

and

costly.

Notice the positions of the adjectives in these sentences.


first adjective comes before the substantive it modifies ; the second and third ones follow the substantive
closely ; the last two are in the predicate of the sentence,
but modify the subject pictures.
is a word that modifies a verb, an
26. An
adjective, or another adverb.

The

ADVERB

The man drove furiously.


The man drove very furiously.
The driving of the man was very
Explain the function

(use) of

furious.

each italicised adverb.

EXERCISE 17
Select the adjectives and adverbs in the following sentences,
and explain the grammatical function of each one:

have observed that a reader seldom peruses a book with


till he knows whether the writer of it be a black or a
fair man, of a mild or choleric disposition, married or a
bachelor, with other particulars of like nature, that conduce
very much to the right understanding of an author. ADDISON,
The Spectator.
1.

pleasure,

Imperious Caesar, dead and turned to clay,


Might stop a hole to keep the wind away.
SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet.
"
Allan," he said, as soon as the ranks had become some3.
what firm again, " lead them down hill to support Lord Evandale, who is about to need it very much."
SCOTT, Old Mortality.
2.

4.

Soon the assembly, in a circle ranged,


each look was changed
Stood silent round the shrine
To sudden veneration women meek
Beckon'd their sons to silence.
KEATS, Endymion.
Near yonder copse, where once the garden smiled,
And still where many a garden-flower grows wild,
There, where a few torn shrubs the place disclose,
;

5.

The

village preacher's

A man he was to all


And

modest mansion

rose,

the country dear,

pounds a year.
GOLDSMITH, The Deserted

passing rich with forty

Village.

ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS

19

In the Acadian land, on the shores of the Basin of Minas,


Distant, secluded, still, the little village of Grand -Pre
Lay in the fruitful valley.

6.

LONGFELLOW, Evangeline.
Behold

her, single in the field,


Yon solitary Highland lass
Reaping and singing to herself

7.

Stop here or gently pass


Alone she cuts and binds the grain,
And sings a melancholy strain.
WORDSWORTH, The Solitary Reaper.
Canada, rich as she is in natural resources, has been found
!

8.

to be richer

still

in her heroic sons.

For three whole days across the sky,


In sullen packs that loomed and broke,
With flying fringes dim as smoke,
The columns of the rain went by.

9.

ARCHIBALD LAMPMAN, After Rain.

The crow doth

10.

When

neither

sing as sweetly as the lark,


is

attended.

SHAKESPEARE, The Merchant

of Venice.

EXERCISE 18
each blank with an adjective or an adverb, and then
explain the grammatical function of the word you have
Fill

supplied.

4.

The road now became


The lilacs smell
The flag came
The moon does not shine

5.

Lloyd George

6.

The

1.

2.

so that

we had

to drive

3.

is

as the sun.

considered

and

doctor,

was highly respected

in the

community.

7.
8.

This made my friend


He did his work
well, as

9.

He

10.

lived in Mitchell

The room has become


kind they were to us
think the man

14.

His

visit

15.

He was up

12.

27.
to

because the

fire

he goes,
sooner he
was enjoyed by all.

show the

will

overtake them.

before daylight.

A PREPOSITION

is

a word used to form a phrase


and another

relation between a substantive

word.

Foch

has gone

faster

13-

and

We

ii.

I.

ago.

led an army into Germany.


Wilson worked with zeal for a league of nations,

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

20

In the first sentence the preposition into helps to form


an adverbial phrase, into Germany, and shows the relation
Exbetween the substantive Germany and the verb led.
plain the function of each of the prepositions in the second
sentence.

The substantive
position

is

which immediately follows the preand is in the

called the object of the preposition,

accusative case.

Have you received letters from your friends ?


The noun friends is the object of the preposition from,
and is in the accusative case.

CONJUNCTION

is a word used to join together


28. A
words, phrases, or clauses (but not to form phrases).

Cartier and Champlain were great explorers.


Love of right and hatred of wrong were his great virtues.
What he did and what he tried to do are known to all.
29.

An INTERJECTION

is

a word thrown into the

some kind. An interjection


is equivalent to a whole sentence, and has no grammatical
connection with the other words in the sentence.
sentence to express feeling of

Oh

Faith

they have failed in their attempt.


! you are a fine warrior.

When used

in answering questions, the words yes and no


They are called RESPONSIVES.

are whole sentences.

Have they come

Do you

Yes.

wish our assistance

No.

EXERCISE 19
Select the prepositions, conjunctions and interjections in
the following sentences. Explain the function of each preposition and conjunction.

Maitre Jean could not bear the man, but Catherine, his
would keep for him a choice morsel of bacon, and answer
her husband, who seemed put out about it
"
I have my seat in church, and I wish to have my seat in
Heaven and you, too, will be glad to sit by my side in the
i.

wife,

Kingdom

of

Heaven."

that he would laugh, and say no more.


CHATRIAN, The Story of a Peasant.

Upon

ERCKMANN-

CONJUNCTIONS INTERJECTIONS
Ah

21

then and there was hurrying to and fro,


gathering tears, and tremblings of distress,
cheeks all pale, which but an hour ago,
Blushed at the praise of their own loveliness
And there were sudden partings, such as press
The life from out yourig hearts, and choking sighs

2.

And
And

Which

ne'er

might be repeated.

BYRON, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.


and far away.
teacher what he had planned and what

3.

Let us go over the

4.

The boy

told his

hills

he had done.

He had

5.

nothing to

except this farm.

sell,

here, for the birds have returned.


7. Our friend Bert had been away from home, but he hurried
back to Fullarton for the wedding.
6.

is

Spring

Tut, tut,
Thou troublest

8.

me

am

not in the vein.

SHAKESPEARE, King Richard III.

EXERCISE 20
each blank with a preposition or a conjunction, and
then, in connection with the word you have supplied, tell what
part of speech it is, and explain its function.
1. Joe ran
the stairs,
he never walked
he
Fill

could run.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

Russians have died


hunger.
was a boy, I used to walk
the wood.
All roads lead
Rome.
He left his children nothing
a good name.
Five
them were wise,
five
them were

Many

foolish.
7.
8.

cannot assent
His home is in
I

this proposal.

Toronto

9.
10.

Never trouble trouble


The storm was so severe

1 1

Let us dispense

Hamilton.

trouble troubles you.


we were unable to set out.
our
ceremony,
proceed

work.
12.

13.

This house

14.

The

151 6.

17.

snow

still
is

the valleys, the

lay

different

hills

were bare.

ours.

my garden is rich,

the weeds are high.


he keeps a cheerful countenance.
It's easy enough to be pleasant,
life flows along
a song.
It ceased;
still the sails made on

soil

his troubles

pleasant noise

noon.

COLERIDGE, The Ancient Manner.


1

8.

19.

20.

These cadets march


These cadets march

Up

up

my

soldiers.

they have been taught to do.


friend,
quit your book,

surely you'll

grow double.

WORDSWORTH, The

Tables Turned.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

22

PHRASES AS PARTS OF SPEECH.

30.

Phrases as

well as words are classified as parts of speech.

This ne'er-do-well is lazy. The Duke of Richmond has


come.
Pronouns We admire each other. They praise one another.
Verb We shall have done it. He would have come, if he had
known the hour.
The people of this city will help the men of the
Adjectives
army.
Our friends work in the city, but we work on the
Adverb
farm.
Your friend came by way of London.
Preposition
He did it in order that they might be free.
Conjunction
Upon my word ! what has the fellow done ?
Interjection

Nouns

31. Subordinate
adjectives,
(a)

Clauses

are

as

classified

substantives,

and adverbs.

A SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSE

sentence as a

noun

or

is

pronoun would be

and pronouns are substantives.)


What he did interests me very much.
I know that our friends have come.
verb.)
I shall give what he says
object.)

my closest

one used in the


used.

(Subject.)
(Direct object of

attention.

What is your opinion of what they propose


object of preposition.)
(b)

An ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE

(Nouns

is

(Indirect
?

(Direct

one that modifies

a substantive.

Have you

seen Harry Lee, who has just returned from

France ?

The mouse that always trusts to one poor


Can never be a mouse of any soul.

hole,

POPE.

They never taste who always drink


They always talk who never think.

MATTHEW
(c)

An

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

is

PRIOR.

one that modifies

a verb, an adjective or an adverb. Like simple adverbs,


In
the adverbial clauses express a variety of ideas.
what
determine
the
sentences,
following
examining
word or words are modified by each adverbial clause.

KINDS OF CLAUSES
1.

Place

23

go where he leads me.


Whither thou goest, I will go

I shall

Ruth

I will lodge.
2.

Time

i.

and where thou

lodgest

16.

friends will come, when their work is done.


Since he left, I have been reading this book.

Our
3.

Manner:
acted, as we did.
as you wish (to do) about that matter.

They have

Do

4.

Cause

because we were friends.


Since you have helped me, I shall help you.

They came,
5.

Purpose

They came, in order that they might help us.


Neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they
Matthew vii. 6.
trample them under their feet.
6.

Condition:
If you help me, I shall help you.
If our friends were here, we should rejoice.

7.

Concession

Even if help came now, we should fail.


Though He slay me, yet will I trust Him.
8.

Result:
They were so exhausted that they fell.
I told such a story that they pitied me.

9.

Degree

He

Job

as good as his word (is good).


This man's speech is better than his brother's
32. Notes
1.

xiii. 15.

is

(is

good).

on Adverbial Clauses.

Notice that in each of the

first

sixteen sentences

quoted in section 3ic, above, the adverbial clause modifies


the verb in the principal clause. Adverbial clauses modify
verbs more frequently than they modify adjectives or
adverbs.
2.

clause of purpose always refers to a time subse-

quent to that of the principal clause. Moreover, a clause of


purpose always implies a wish. These two characteristics

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

24

help one to distinguish the clause of purpose from the


clause of cause.
3. A clause of concession is similar to one of condition,
but implies a concession of some point by the speaker.

The

following sentences illustrate this point


I concede that Smith

Even
4.

if

Smith

is rich,
he is

is rich,

but he is not happy.


not happy.

Clauses of degree might be called clauses of com-

them assists in expressing a comtwo clauses of degree given above


that
the
Notice
parison.
do not modify verbs. The first one modifies the adjective
good, and the second one modifies the adjective better.
5. Be careful not to confuse, clauses of result with either
clauses of degree or those of purpose. The clause of result
explains the result or consequence of some action or state.
parison, since each of

He was

so tired that (as a result) he could not sleep.

Such a clause does not help to express a comparison (as


does a clause of degree) nor does it express purpose.
,

EXERCISE 21
In connection with each adjectival and adverbial clause in
what word or phrase is modified by the clause.

section 31, tell

EXERCISE 22
Select and classify the subordinate clauses in the following
sentences. Give the relation of each.

The Allies
their side.

1.

on

2.

When

were victorious in the war because right was

the battalion returned to the

city,

the bells rang

and the whistles blew.

My

friend, Mr. Gourlay, tells his pupils that children cry


3.
for algebra.
4. The zero hour was three o'clock in the morning when the

enemy trenches were usually quiet.


5. Though many were invited to the banquet, few came.
6. Dr. Smith told the family that, if his directions were
followed, the patient would recover.
7. The difficulties to be overcome by the first settlers of this

province were greater than the


us so much.

little

annoyances, which trouble

CLAUSES

25

That you have wrong'd me doth appear in this.


SHAKESPEARE, Julius Ccesar.

8.

He is as bold as a lion.
He saw that, though there was

g.
10.

east, the night

was

still

a glimmer of light in the

so dark that nothing could be

at-

tempted.

The boys in Mr. Mclntosh's charge were so anxious to


he was compelled to prevent them from studying

11.

learn, that

too much.
12. The scout hid in the dense forest, lest he should be seen
by the enemy.
13. The book lay where it had fallen.
14. As the twig is bent, the tree inclines.

1.

The

delayed

you have been pleased to take of


but it has been
early, had been kind
Bos WELL,
indifferent and cannot enjoy it.

my

notice which

had

labours,

till

it

been

am

Life of Dr. Johnson.


2. Don Quixote had always showed himself such a goodnatured man, that he was beloved, not only by his family,
but by everyone that knew him. CERVANTES, Don Quixote.
3. He told me that nothing would give him greater pleasure
than to see me dance a minuet with his wife after the marriage
dinner.
BORROW, Romany Rye.
4. I was bid go this way by a man who directed me also to
and as
yonder gate, that I might escape the wrath to come
I was going thither, I fell in here.
BUNYAN, The Pilgrim's
;

Progress.
for boys I bade men write
And, would they learn not, I beat them with a broom.
LANGLAND, Piers Plowman.

Grammar

5.

Yet now despair itself is mild,


Even as the winds and waters are.
SHELLEY, Stanzas Written in

6.

God, in cursing, gives us better

7.

Than men

in benediction.

E. B.

have passed

Dejection.

gifts

BROWNING, Aurora

Leigh.

am

later years in this city, where I


frequently seen in most public places, though there are not
above half-a-dozen of
select friends that know me.
8.

my

my

ADDISON, The
9.

Spectator.

Oft in the stilly night,


Ere slumber's chain has bound me,
Fond memory brings the light
Of other days around me.
T. MOORE, The Light of Other Days.

10. This neighbourhood is as quiet as any


though there are hundreds of pounds' worth

know

and,

of plate in the

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

26

has never been attempted by robbers


was a house. C. BRONTE, Jane Eyre.
11. Because she was extremely zealous for the education of
my younger brother, her desire was that he might be sent with
me to Lewes. EVELYN, Diary.
12.
Get work, get work
Know 'tis better than what you work to get.
E. B. BROWNING, Aurora Leigh.
plate-closet, the Hall

since

it

33. PARTICLES. Certain words resemble parts of speech,


but are not fully enough like any one of them to be classified

as parts of speech.
They are called particles, and are
classed as adverbial, prepositional, or conjunctive according
to the part of speech they resemble most.

There are

Even

many

my friends

friends here.
criticized

me.

My friends even criticized me.


My friends criticized me, even.

,.

,.

(Adverbial Particles.)
}

Here is a horse to ride on. (Prepositional particle.)


As chairman of the meeting he was successful. (Conjunctive
particle.)

The word

there

adverbial force, and

in

sentence

has

lost

its

original

here used simply as an introductory


word by means of which we are enabled to put the subject
after the verb. Even resembles an adverb more than any
other part of speech, and yet it may be used to emphasise
is

any part of speech. Justify the name prepositional particle


for the word on in sentence 5.
The word as in the last
sentence does not join one clause to another, or even one
to another, yet it is conjunctive in origin. This is
best shown by substituting when, and adding a verb, as

word

follows

When
34.

he

was chairman of the meeting, he was

CLAUSAL ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.

successful.

You have

already learned to analyse sentences into subject and


predicate, objects, complements, and modifiers. There is
another kind of analysis, called clausal, which simply
divides the sentence into clauses, and defines their relations.

In clausal analysis, the principal clause should be stated


and then the subordinate clauses in turn.
The

first,

following form

is

suggested for written work (see p. 267)

CLAUSAL ANALYSIS

27

SENTENCES
be made, because the war is over.
1. Peace
2. The war has been fought, and peace is being made.
3. Our soldiers went to Europe, because there was a war
there
and now they are coming home, because the war is
will

over.
4. If the statesmen in Paris are wise, and
just peace, shall we not be happy?

Sentence

if

they arrange a

over.
Peace will be made
i. Peace will be made,
war is over.
(a) because the
.

Complex

declarative,

Principal.

Subord., adv. of cause, mod. will be made.

Sentence 2:
The war
made. Compound declarative.
1. The war has been fought,
Principal.
2. (and) peace is being made.
.

Principal, co-ordinate

with No.

Sentence 3:
Our soldiers
over.
Compound-complex declarative.
1. Our soldiers went to Europe,
Principal.
(a) because there was war there;
Subord., adv. of cause, mod. went,
2. (and) now they are coming home,
Principal, co-ordinate with No. i,
(a) because the war is over.
Subord., adv. of cause, mod. are coming.
Sentence 4:
.

the statesmen
happy ? Complex interrogative,
shall we not be happy ?
Principal.
(a) If the statesmen in Paris are wise,
Subord., adv. of condition, mod. shall be happy,
(b) (and) if they arrange a just peace,
Subordinate adverbial of condition modifying
shall be happy, co-ordinate with (a).

If

i.

The noun clause which is subject of a principal clause,


should be stated both with the latter and separately, as in
the following example
:

What

they have accomplished

is

very important.
Principal declarative.

What

they have accomplished.


Subord. subst. subj of is.
Likewise, when a substantive clause is a complement,
or the object of a verb or preposition, it should first
(a)

Co-ordinate

means

" of the

same rank."

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

28

be included in the principal

and then stated

clause,

separately.

This book

is

what we want.

(Complement.)

We know that they are sincere. (Obj. of


We are satisfied with what he has done.

verb.)
(Obj. of prep.)

EXTRACTS FOR ANALYSIS


Analyse each sentence in these passages, according to the
plan just described.
1. But, sir, I wish to

tell you that the noblest prospect which a


Scotchman ever sees, is the high road that leads him to England.
Bos WELL, Life of Dr. Johnson.
2. Then he went on, till he came to the house of the interpreter,
where he knocked over and over at last one came to the door and
asked who was there. BUNYAN, The Pilgrim's Progress.
Never love unless you can
3.
Bear with all the faults of man
;

Men sometimes
Though but

be
cause they

will jealous

little

see,

And hang the head in discontent,


And speak what straight they will

repent.
T. CAMPION, Advice to a Girl.

THE ROMAN MISSIONARIES COME TO BRITAIN


4. Augustine had, by order of Pope Gregory, taken interpreters
of the nation of the Franks, and, sending to King Ethelbert of Kent,
announced that he was come from Rome, and brought a joyful

message, which most undoubtedly assured to all that took advantage


of it, everlasting joys in Heaven, and a kingdom that would never

BEDE,

end.

Ecclesiastical History.

THE NIGHT

IN

THE INN

5. His antagonists, though inferior in strength, had both swiftness and daring, and above all they had settled how to attack him.
When he reared his axe, they flew at him like cats, and both together. If he struck a full blow with his weapon, he would most
he saw this,
likely kill one, but the other would certainly kill him
and understanding the danger, he thrust the handle fiercely in
Denys's face, and, turning, jabbed with the steel at Gerard. Denys
went staggering back, covered with blood. Gerard had rushed in
like lightning, and, just as the axe turned to descend on him, drove
his sword so fiercely through the giant's body that the very hilt
sounded on his ribs like the blow of a pugilist, and Denys, staggering
back to help his friend, saw a steel point come out of the Abbot's
;

back.

6.

that

C.

READE, The

Cloister

and

the Hearth.

THE RESCUE OF SOPHIA


was so much taken up by Mr. Burchell's account
scarce looked forward as he went along, till we were alarmed

My attention
I

by the

cries of

my

family

then, turning, I perceived

my

youngest

CLAUSAL ANALYSIS

29

daughter in the midst of a rapid stream, thrown from her horse,


and struggling with the torrent. Although she had sunk twice,
I was so overcome by my sensations that I was unable to attempt
her rescue. She must have certainly perished, had not my companion, perceiving her danger, instantly plunged in to her relief,
and with some difficulty brought her in safely to the opposite
shore.
By taking the current a little further up, the rest of the
family got safely over, where we had an opportunity of joining our
Her gratitude may be more readily
acknowledgments to hers.
she thanked her deliverer more with
imagined than described
looks than with words, and continued to lean upon his arm. My wife
also expressed the hope that she might have the pleasure of returnO. GOLDSMITH, The Vicar of
ing his kindness at her own house.
;

Wakefield.

MR. FAGIN'S HATRED OF LAZINESS


was rendered the more anxious to be actively employed
by what he had seen of the stern morality of Mr. Fagin's character.
Whenever the Dodger or Charley Bates came home at night, emptyhanded, he would expatiate with great vehemence on the misery
of idle and lazy habits
and that he might enforce upon them the
necessity of an active life, he would send them supperless to bed.
On one occasion, indeed, when they had returned with nothing, he
was so righteously indignant, that he even knocked them both down
a flight of stairs but this was carrying out his virtuous precepts to
7.

Oliver

an unusual extent.
"
If the
"

DICKENS, Oliver Twist.

attacks the right wing," Andrew said to himthe Kiev grenadiers must defend their positions till they
can be supported by the reserves in the centre, and then the dragoons
can make a flank movement and cut them to pieces. If they attack
the centre, which is covered by the principal battery, we can concentrate the left flank on this height and retire in good order to the
reserve." As he made these reflections, he could still hear the voices
in the officers' hut, though he did so without paying the slightest
attention to what they were saying.
TOLSTOI, War and Peace.
O good old man how well in thee appears
9.
The constant service of the antique world,
When service sweat for duty, not for meed
Thou art not for the fashion of these times,
8.

enemy

self,

Where none will sweat but for promotion,


And having that, do choke their service up
Even with the having it is not so with thee,
:

But, poor old man, thou prun'st a rotten tree,

much as a blossom yield


thy pains and husbandry.
But come thy ways we'll go along together,
And ere we have thy youthful wages spent,
We'll light upon some settled low content.
That cannot
In lieu of

so

all

SHAKESPEARE, As You Like

It.

FRIEND WILLIAM AND THE BUCCANEERS

When we had taken this ship, our next difficulty was, what
do with the negroes. The Portuguese in the Brazils would have

10.

to

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

30

all of us, and been glad of the purchase, if we had not


shown ourselves enemies there, and been known for pirates but,
as this was the case, we durst not go ashore anywhere thereabouts,
or treat with any of the planters, because we should raise the whole
and, if there were any men-of-war in their ports,
country upon us
we should be sure of being attacked by them, and by all the force
they had by land or sea.
At last, our never-failing friend, William the Quaker, helped us
out again. His proposal was this, that he should go as master of
the ship, taking a few men whom we could best trust, and attempt
to trade privately, upon the coast of Brazil, with the planters, not
at the principal ports, since that would not be admitted.
D. DEFOE,

bought them

The

A dventures of Captain Singleton.

THE VILLAGE SCHOOL-MASTER


Yet he was kind, or, if severe in aught,
The love he bore to learning was in fault.
The village all declared how much he knew.
'Twas certain he could write and cipher too
Lands he could measure, terms and tides presage;

1 1.

And

e'en the story ran that he could gauge


In arguing, too, the parson own'd his skill,
For e'en though vanquished, he could argue still,
While words of learned length, and thund'ring sound,
Amazed the gazing rustics ranged around
And still they gazed, and still the wonder grew
That one small head could carry all he knew.
But past is all his fame. The very spot,
Where many a time he triumph'd, is forgot.
;

GOLDSMITH, The Deserted

Village.

DISCIPLINE AT DOTHEBOYS HALL


"

"

took to her bed on


Mobbs' mother-in-law," said Squeers,
hearing that he wouldn't eat fat, and has been very ill ever since.
She wishes to know, by an early post, where he expects to go if he
and with what feelings he could turn up
quarrels with his victuals
his nose at the broth, after his good master had asked a blessing on
it. This was not told to her by Mr. Squeers, since he is too kind and
good to make trouble for anyone, and it has vexed her more than
Mobbs can imagine. She is sorry to find he is discontented, and
Mr. Squeers will flog him into a happier state of mind."
hopes
"
A sulky state of mind," said Squeers, after a terrible pause,
which he had moistened the palm of his right hand again,
during
"
won't do. Cheerfulness and contentment must be kept up. Mobbs,
"
12.

come to me
Mobbs moved slowly towards the
!

desk, rubbing his eyes in anticiand he soon afterwards retired


pation of good cause for doing so
by the side door, with as good cause as a boy need have. DICKENS,
Nicholas Nickleby.
;

13.

Alas, alas for Hamelin!


There came into many a burgher's pate
A text which says that Heaven's gate
Opes to the rich at as easy 9, rate

CLAUSAL ANALYSIS

31

As the needle's eye takes a camel in!


The Mayor sent East, West, North, and South,
To offer the Piper, by word of mouth,
Wherever it was men's lot to find him,
Silver and gold to his heart's content,
he'd only return the way he went,
bring the children behind him.
But when they saw 'twas a lost endeavour,
And Piper and dancers were gone forever,
They made a decree that lawyers never
Should think their records dated duly
If, after the day of the month and year,
These words did not as well appear,
"
And so long after what happened here,
On the twenty-second of July,
Thirteen hundred and seventy-six."
R. BROWNING, The Pied Piper of Hamelin.
If

And

14.

THE BROTHERS OF BIRCHINGTON


Among them there was one whom if once I begun

To

describe as I ought, I should never have done,


Father Richard of Birchington, so was the Friar
Yclept [called] whom the rest had elected their Prior.

Now

Nature,

'tis said, is

a comical jade,

And among the fantastical tricks she has play'd,


Was the making our good Father Richard a brother,
As

like

him

in

form as one pea's

like

another

He was tall and upright, about six feet in height,


His complexion was what you'd denominate light,
And, though he had not shorn his ringlets of brown,
He'd a little bald patch on the top of his crown.
But

here, it's pretended, the parallel ended


no doubt his life might have been mended,
And people who spoke of the Prior with delight,
Shook their heads if you mentioned his brother, the Knight.

In

fact, there's

R. H. BARHAM, The Ingoldsby Legends.

DON QUIXOTE NAMES HIS CHARGER


Don Quixote was four days considering what name

to give
horse
for he argued with himself that there was no reason that
a horse bestrid by so famous a knight, and withal so excellent in
and
himself, should not be distinguished by a particular name
therefore he studied to give him such a one as should demonstrate
not only what kind of a horse he had been before his master was a
15.

his

knight-errant, but also what he was now. And he thought it but


just, since the owner had changed his profession, that the horse
should also change his title and be dignified with another
it must
be a sonorous word
such a one as should fill the mouth, and seem
;

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

32

consonant with the quality and profession of his master. And thus,
after many names which he devised, rejected, changed, liked, disliked, and pitched upon again, he concluded to call him Rozinante,
a word composed of two parts, Rozin meaning an ordinary horse,
and ante meaning formerly a name, lofty sounding, and significant
of what he had been before, and also of what he was now
in a word,
a horse before or above all the vulgar breed of horses in the world.
;

CERVANTES, Don
1

6.

Quixote.

You, merchant, have you anything to say ?


But little I am arm'd and well prepar'd.
Give me your hand, Bassanio fare you well

Portia.

Antonio.

Grieve not that I am fallen to this for you


For herein Fortune shows herself more kind,
Than is her custom it is still her use [custom]
To let the wretched man outlive his wealth,
To view with hollow eye and wrinkled brow
An age of poverty from which lingering penance
Of such misery doth she cut me off.
Commend me to your honourable wife
Tell her the process of Antonio's end
Say how I lov'd you, speak me fair in death;
And when the tale is told, bid her be judge
Whether Bassanio had not once a love.
Repent not you that you shall lose your friend,
And he repents not that he pays your debt
For, if the Jew do cut but deep enough,
I'll
pay it instantly with all my heart.
;

SHAKESPEARE, The Merchant of

HENRY ESMOND MEETS

HIS

Venice.

FUTURE WIFE

17. Her heart melted, I suppose, at the notion that she should do
for, when she reanything unkind to any mortal, great or small
turned, she had sent away the housekeeper upon an errand by the
door at the farther end of the gallery and, coming back to the lad,
with a look of infinite pity and tenderness in her eyes, she took his
hand again, placing her other fair hand on his head, and saying
some words to him, which were so kind, and said in a voice so sweet,
that this boy, who had never looked upon such a beauty before,
felt as if the touch of a superior being or angel smote him down to
the ground, and kissed the fair protecting hand as he knelt on one
knee.
THACKERAY, The History of Henry Esmond.
;

NOTE

Other extracts

for analysis will

be found in Appendix E.

NOUNS CLASSIFICATION

CHAPTER

33

II

THE NOUN
I.

35.

A NOUN

36.

Nouns are

is

the

CLASSIFICATION

name

divided

of

into

something.

two

classes,

common

and

proper.
1.

A COMMON NOUN

is

name which may

be

whatever
applied to any one of a class of things (thing
may be spoken of, or thought of). For instance, the

word

city in

the sentence,

Montreal

is

a great

city,

a common noun, because it may be used to name any


one of the class of things we call cities.

is

2.

A PROPER NOUN

thing.
is

the

The word Montreal,

name

of

is the name of a particular


as used in the sentence above,

a particular city

it

is

proper to that

means " belonging to.")


3. A common noun is significant, i.e., has a meaning.
A proper noun is not significant. The word city has a
definite meaning, and is used to name only places of a
certain size and character. The word Montreal, on the
other hand, has now no meaning, and is used to name
a city, an island, and a river.
the
4. The proper noun begins with a capital letter
common noun usually begins with a small letter.
5. A common noun becomes a proper noun when used
(Proper

city.

as the special

Send

name

of one thing.

me

a copy of the Herald.


The Tower (of London) has held
6.

many

notable prisoners.

proper noun, on the other hand, becomes a

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

34

common noun when

applied to

all

the

members

of a class

of things.

There are two Titians in this gallery.


Several budding Miltons are in this class.
7. When some lifeless thing, some lower animal, some
quality, or some emotion is personified, a common noun
becomes a proper noun, and is written with a capital.
These shall the fury Passions
of the mind,

tear,

The Vultures

Disdainful Anger, pallid Fear,


And Shame that skulks behind.
GRAY, On a Distant Prospect of Eton College,
37.

Nouns are sometimes

CONCRETE,

classified as

but the distinction

An

is

ABSTRACT

of little or

and

no value

in

the name of a quality,


grammar.
condition, or relation that has no material existence. A
concrete noun is the name of something that has a material
existence outside of our minds.
abstract

Abstract nouns

noun

is

beauty, strength, kindness, poverty.


is the name of a group,

A COLLECTIVE NOUN 1

38.
or class of things,

such as

army, navy,

flock,

crowd, assemblage.

EXERCISE 23
Classify the nouns in the following passages as common and
proper, and, when a noun is collective, state that fact also.
i. And here is a story of a Brigade Headquarters that lived
in a house surrounded by a moat over which there was only
one road. On Thursday, the enemy's artillery found the house,
and later on, as the rush came, their rifle fire found it also.
The staff went on with its work till the end of the week, when
The
shells set the place alight, and they were forced to move.
road being impassable on account of shrapnel, they swam the
moat, but one of them was badly wounded, and for him
swimming was out of the question. Captain Scrimger, medical
officer attached to the Royal Montreal Regiment, protected the
wounded man with his own body against the shrapnel that was
coming through the naked rafters, and carried him out of the
1
"It is recommended that the term collective be not used except
when needed in explaining the occasional use of a plural verb with

a singular noun." (Report of the American Joint Committee on


Grammatical Nomenclature.)

NOUNS GENDER

35

blazing house into the open. Two of the staff, Brigadier-General


Hughes (then Brigade-Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade)
and Lieutenant Thompson (then Assistant Adjutant, Royal
Montreal Regiment) re-swam the moat, and, waiting for a lull
in the shell fire, got the wounded man across the road on to a
stretcher and into a dressing-station, after which they went on
with their official duties. BEAVERBROOK, Canada in Flanders.
field, the young Buccleuch
English knight led forth to view;
Scarce rued the boy his present plight,
So much he longed to see the fight.
Within the lists, in knightly pride,

Prize of the

2.

An

High Home and haughty Dacre

ride

Their leading staffs of steel they wield,


As marshals of the mortal field
While to each knight their care assigned
Like vantage of the sun and wind.
Then heralds hoarse did loud proclaim,
In king and queen and warden's name,
That none, while lasts the strife,
Should dare, by look, or sign, or word,
Aid to a champion to afford.
SCOTT, Lay of the Last Minstrel.
;

EXERCISE 24
Analyse the above extracts into clauses.

EXERCISE 25
Explain the grammatical relation of each of the
nouns in the extract 2 above.

II.

39.

and

Nouns are

CLASSIFICATION:
classified as

italicised

GENDER

MASCULINE, FEMININE

NEUTER.
1.

A noun

denoting a male being

is

of the

masculine

gender.
2.

A noun

denoting a female being

is

of the feminine

gender.
All other nouns are of the neuter gender.
They are
two kinds, (a) the names of things without sex, (b) the
names that are given indifferently to beings of both sexes.
3.

of

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

36

4. Gender in Modern English is a distinction in words,


corresponding to the distinction of sex in the objects
Modern English is said, therefore, to
they represent.
have natural gender. Latin, French, and German, on
the other hand, have grammatical gender, because the
gender of nouns in these languages has been determined
For
largely by the forms and derivations of words.
instance, Latin murus, wall, is masculine, and French

Old English had grammatical

fourchette, fork, is feminine.

gender.

The distinction of gender in nouns is of importance


Modern English only in connection with the use of
personal pronouns and possessive adjectives.
Except
in such connection, the gender of a noun may be ignored.
5.

in

40.
1.

GENDER
father,

2.

indicated in several ways.

is

Different words are used

mother

lord,

heir, heiress

Georgina

Some

uncle,

hart, hind.

feminine by the

prince, princess

aunt

made

are

hero, heroine

George,

Henry, Henrietta.

words retain their foreign forms:

foreign

Latin

French

Italian

Russian

Dutch

Spanish
3.

lady

Some masculine nouns

addition of an ending

executor,
beau,

executrix.

signer,
czar,

signpra.
czarina.

landgrave,
don,

landgravine.

One feminine noun

is

belle.

donna.

made masculine by

the

addition of an ending:
widow, widower.

Gender is sometimes indicated by adding or prefixing a noun or a pronoun


4.

salesman, saleswoman landlord, landlady manservant,


maidservant he-wolf, she-wolf bride, bridegroom.
;

5.

Some

names are applied

Christian proper

only, others to

women

William, Thomas,

only

Henry

Mary, Ruth, Edith.

to

men

NOUNS NUMBER

37

EXERCISE 26
Write the corresponding gender forms of the following nouns
witch

Joseph
bull

master
baron
actor
host
brother

deaconess
sorcerer

doe
lion

wife

vixen

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

38
(a)

Many nouns
leaves

leaf,

ending in / or fe change the


wives
thieves
thief,

wife,

/to

shelf,

shelves.

But
cliff, cliffs

muff, muffs

(b) Most nouns ending in


change y to i and add -es

chief, chiefs.

preceded by a consonant

flies

fly,

ladies

lady,

country, countries

berry,

berries.

But nouns ending


add -s
monkey, monkeys

in

preceded by a vowel simply

(c)

m, m's

6, 6's

Nouns ending
(a)

When
When

preceded by a vowel,
cameo, cameos.

boy, boys.

if, if's.

is

the o

usually added

and quoted words generally form

in o are mostly of foreign origin.

the o

folio, folios
(b)

chimney, chimneys

by adding -s

their plurals

2.

Letters, figures,

is

-s is

added

preceded by a consonant,

-es is

buffaloes, cargoes, dominoes, echoes, heroes, mottoes,


potatoes, tornadoes, vetoes, tor-

mosquitoes, negroes,
pedoes, volcanoes.
(c)

But many

of the last class

add only

-s

albinos, banjos, cantos, casinos, contraltos, dynamos,


lassos, octavos, pianos, provisos, quartos, solos, stilettos,
tyros, virtuosos.
It will be noticed that many of the nouns in list (b) are
used more frequently in familiar speech than are those in
list (c).

(d)

In the case of a few nouns the spelling


They take either -5 or -es

settled.

halo,

B.

un-

memento,

zero, portico, grotto, calico.

few nouns change the vowel sound of the stem. 1


man, men woman, women foot, feet goose, geese
;

is

tooth, teeth ; brother, brethren.


This method of forming plurals is used with a large number of

nouns in German, as

Mann, Manner
(The mark

Fuss, Fiisse Gans, Ganse Zahn, Zahne (tooth).


over a vowel indicates a change of sound.)
;

NOUNS NUMBER
C.

One noun adds

39

-en to the singular;

ox, oxen.

Three words have double plurals,


a form already plural

-(e)n

being added to

brother, brether (M.E.),


children ; cow, kye, kine.

brethren;

child,

childer,

For further information concerning the plurals of native


nouns see Appendix A.
43. FOREIGN PLURALS. A number of words taken
from foreign languages form their plurals according to the
rules of those languages. Many of these words have both
foreign and English plurals, sometimes with different

meanings

for the

phenomenon
nebula

two

George

NOUNS NUMBER
castaway

looker-on

coat of mail

major-general

commander-in-chief
court-martial

man-eater
man-of-war

courtyard

milkman

Dr. Armstrong

man-servant
mother-in-law

Dutchman
footstool

45.
1.

police magistrate
president-elect
privy-councillor

runner-up

wild-goose

EXCEPTIONAL

41

stepchild
tooth-paste

Miss Barr
William Pitt

USES.

Some nouns have

the same form for singular and

plural, either generally, or in certain cases

swine, deer, fish, trout, salmon, sheep, pike, pair,


dozen, heathen, people, ton, head, yoke, cannon, shot.

In a large class of Old English neuter nouns, such as


swine, deer, and sheep, one case-form was used for the

nominative and accusative cases, singular and plural,


and in Middle-English times many other nouns came
to have the same peculiarity through analogy.
Although the words mentioned above generally have
the same forms for singular and plural, they sometimes
have plurals in -(e)s.
There are several fishes (kinds of fish) in this lake.
We have six dozen eggs. Dozens of eggs are for sale.

The people
of
2.

Europe are

are tired of war.


tired of war.

Some nouns,

especially

The peoples

names

of

(nationalities)

material,

are

seldom or never used in the plural, on account of their

meaning
tin,

copper, lead, clay,

ice, earth.

But
a ship's coppers, tins (kinds of tin, or, tin dishes, or
cans), the clays (varieties of clay) of Quebec, earths (kinds
of earth), the beauties of the St. Lawrence valley.
3.

Some nouns

are used ordinarily in the plural only

aborigines, annals, antipodes, archives, athletics, bellows, breeches, credentials, dregs, eaves, filings, nuptials,
pincers, premises, proceeds, scissors, shears, spectacles,
statistics, suds, tidings, tongs, trousers, victuals, vitals,
wages (but, a living wage).
4. A few nouns are plural in form but singular in
meaning, unless specially used in the plural.
amends, barracks, billiards, gallows, innings, mathe-

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

42
matics,

means (by

this means), measles,

mumps, news,

optics, pains (trouble), physics, politics.

Several

5.

meanings

nouns have two plurals with

different

brother

brothers (by birth)


brethren (of a society)

cloth

clothes (clothing)
cloths (varieties of cloth)
dice (cubes used in games)
dies (for coining)

die
fish

heathen

fish (collective)
fishes (individuals or kinds of fish)
heathen (collective)

heathens (individuals)
peas
pease (collective)
pennies (separate coins)
pence (sum of money)
people (persons)

pea

penny
people

peoples (nations)
shot (bullets)
shots (discharges)

shot

staffs (groups of officers)


staves (sticks used for support)
For other examples see list under " Foreign Plurals."
staff

EXERCISE 29

Which of the italicised forms


Give reasons for your choice.

is

preferable in each case?

Mathematics is (are) studied with delight by most girls.


The ashes was (were) carried out by the janitor.
3. News of the victory is (are) sent far and wide.
4. How much did you pay for this (these) spectacles ?
5. The United States has (have) taken part in the war against
Germany.
6. Checkers is (are) a favourite game with Mrs. Dykes.
1.

2.

7.
8.

The seventh innings

is (are) decisive.

Riches does (do) not bring happiness.


9. The eaves of the house is (are) thirty feet above the
ground.
10. Alms is (are) given to the needy.
11. The people of Canada is (are) proud of the Canadian
soldiers.
1

2.

13.

The mob demands (demand) the release of the


The committee is (are) now in session, and

its (their)

report

is

brought

in, it (they) will

go home.

prisoners.
as soon as

NOUNS CASES
14.

ment
15.
1

6.

7.
8.

19.

43

The annals of Canada is (are) concerned with the governof our country. All should be interested in it (them).
Statistics is (are) said to be dull.
These men are heathen (heathens).
The archives of Canada is (are) preserved at Ottawa.
By this (these) means he was able to accomplish his ends.
The brothers (brethren) of this society are to attend church

in a body.

IV.

CASE

You have

already learned that English nouns have


nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative,
and two case-forms, the common and the genitive. The
46.

four cases,

common

case-form

is

used for the nominative, dative,

and accusative cases, but


nouns have special forms.
47.

for the genitive case English

FORMATION OF THE GENITIVE.

Singular nouns not ending in


to form the genitive case-form.
1.

an

sound, add -s

Mary's, John's, man's, cat's.

Singular nouns ending in an s sound, add an


apostrophe, or -'s, according to the sound of the word.
Sometimes both forms are used. When in doubt add -'s,
or avoid the use of the genitive case.
2.

Moses' laws, for his acquaintance' sake,


James's house, Jones's barn, Rice's store,
^Eneas' (^Eneas's) voyage, Beatrice' (Beatrice's)
3.

4.

5.

doll.

Plural nouns ending in s add an apostrophe only:


girls' skates, boys' boats, Canadians' rights.
Plural nouns not ending in an s sound, add
women's hats, the policemen's union.

Compound nouns and noun

-'s

phrases add the genitive

sign at the end:

John Workman's house, her sister-in-law's carriage, the


Prince of Wales' palace.

The same method is followed when a noun is preceded


by a title, or descriptive or limiting words:
Mr. John Thomas Crawford's algebra, John Carlyle

or followed

Esquire's house, her dear friend Mary's letter.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

44

48. When a thing belongs to two or more joint owners,


only the last proper name has the sign of the genitive case
Noden, Hallit and Johnston's store. This is William
and Henry's chance (a joint chance) to have a holiday.
But when the ownership is not joint, each proper name
should have the genitive form
Noden's, Hallit's, and Johnston's stores. (Each has a
:

store.)

THE PHRASAL GENITIVE. In most cases the


genitive case-form may be replaced by a phrase with of:
49.

Hindenburg's defeat: the defeat of Hindenburg.


the noun that would be in the genitive case
not the name of a living being, we prefer the phrase:

When

the ravages of the disease, the top of the

is

hill.

We

sometimes avoid ambiguity by using a phrase:


the bat of the boys, the message of the girls.
Sometimes euphony decides our choice.
50.

The case-forms

Common
Genitive

of the

noun may be arranged thus:

SING.

PLUR.

SING.

PLUR.

boy

boys

man

men

boy's

boys'

man's

men's

EXERCISE 30
all the case-forms of the first ten nouns of the following
and the singular and plural genitive forms of the rest.

Give
list,

(This should be a written exercise.)


actress

NOUNS SYNTAX
3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

10.
1 1.

12.
13.

The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The

warehouse of Knox Morgan and Co.


children of Mr. and Mrs. Jermyn.
novels of Scott and Dickens.
oldest sons of Smith and Brown.
home of my father-in-law.
troubles of the teacher of mathematics.
Funeral Oration of Pericles.
students of either McGill or Toronto.
loads of the pack-horses.
wars of Frederick the Great.
victory of William the Conqueror.

V.

SYNTAX OF THE CASES

51. NOMINATIVE OF THE SUBJECT.


The commonest use of the nominative case

of a verb

is

as subject

The
52.

45

nations have formed a league.

NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE.

The enemy having yielded, our soldiers came home.


They (the enemy) having yielded, our soldiers came
home.
3. Because the enemy had yielded, our soldiers came
home.
1.

2.

You

will notice that the italicised phrases in the first

and second sentences, and the subordinate clause in the


third sentence, are all adverbial, since they tell why our
soldiers came home. In the clause, the noun enemy is in
the nominative case, because

it is

the subject of the clause

in the phrases, the noun enemy and the pronoun they are
in the nominative case because of settled usage, not because

of their grammatical relations with other words.


Because of this lack of dependence on other words for

enemy in No. i, and they in No. 2, are said to be


used absolutely, and the construction in which they are
used is called the Nominative Absolute. 1
their case,

In Old English the noun or pronoun in the absolute construction


in the dative case
while in Latin the ablative, and in Greek
the genitive was used. In German the accusative is used.
In Milton are found examples of the accusative case used ab"
him destroyed." These are probably due to the
solutely, e.g.,
influence of the Latin ablative absolute.
1

was

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

46

A phrase containing a substantive (noun or pronoun) in


the nominative absolute case, consists usually of a suband a participle, but sometimes the participle
omitted for the sake of brevity.

stantive

The boxes were

piled, tier (being piled)

upon

is

tier.

phrase containing a substantive in the nominative


absolute can usually be changed into an adverbial clause.

The snow coming very

late,

we had no

sleighing for

Christmas.

Because the snow came very

late,

we had no

sleighing

for Christmas.

The task

(being) finished,

we went home.
1
we weut home

When the task had been finished


When we had finished the task

We

'

often use the nominative absolute construction in

preference to an adverbial clause, for the sake of brevity


or variety.

EXERCISE 32
In each of the following sentences select the noun or proin the nominative absolute, and change each adverbial
phrase containing a nominative absolute into an adverbial

noun

clause.
1.

The labours

of the

day being ended, you may now go

to

rest.

do the best
2. My friend having failed to be
can without her.
3. The weather and the tide being favourable, Caesar set sail
present, I shall

for Britain.

My story being done,


my pains a world of sighs.

4.

She gave

me

for

SHAKESPEARE,
5.

This duty performed,

6.

The

7.

departed.
King lay down, his heart heavy with sorrow.
"
Doth God exact day-labour, light denied ? "
I

8.

fondly ask.

MILTON, On

his Blindness.

All things forgotten besides, they gave themselves


To the maddening whirl of the dizzy dance.

LONGFELLOW,
g.

10.

Othello.

all

Other help

failing, I

must

die

Evangeline.

your debtor.

Whoso
The

up

ask'd her for his wife,


riddle told not, lost his life.

GOWER.

NOUNS SYNTAX

47

EXERCISE 33
Construct ten sentences containing nominative absolutes.
53.

NOMINATIVE OF ADDRESS.
O
O

Judge me,

1.

2.

But Thou,

3.

Sir, I entreat

God, and plead my cause.


Lord, be merciful unto me.

you home to dinner.

In these sentences the italicised words are used to name


In
or indicate the persons addressed by the speaker.
sentence 2, the pronoun thou has the nominative case-form,

and so we say that substantives used in


the nominative of address.

this way are in


Some languages have a special

In Latin

case-form for nouns used in address.


the Vocative.
Cur, amice, patriam
love your country ?)
54.

amas

(My

friend,

called

why do you

NOMINATIVE IN EXCLAMATION.
Immortal gods I how much does one man excel another

Fools
whole.

Ye gods

they know not

Must

endure

how much

all this

half exceeds the

Substantives used in exclamations like


above, differ in function from those used
only because they are used in exclamations,
persons named or indicated by them are
addressed.
55.

it is

those italicised
in address, not

but because the


not necessarily

NOMINATIVE IN APPOSITION.
1.

When

Herod,, the

King, had heard these things, he

was troubled.
Foch, the French general, defeated the Germans.
Good health, your greatest asset, is of supreme importance.
4. She, my best friend, will surely help me.
5* My friend, he of the Club, will be here to-day.
2.

3.

sentence the noun King is placed near the


after it), in order to describe the person
Herod. In each of the other sentences the second

In the

first

noun Herod (and

named

used similarly, in apposition with


next
first
the
italicised substantive, in order
(i.e., placed
to)
to describe the thing named or indicated by the latter.

italicised substantive is

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

48

The phrase containing the substantive

in apposition is
usually separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
That the second substantive, the one in apposition, is
in each instance in the same case as the first substantive,
is shown in sentence 5, where the pronoun he has the

nominative case-form.
Since the second substantive

named
of a

or indicated

noun

by the

in apposition

is

is

first

used to describe the thing


substantive, the function

manifestly adjectival.

EXERCISE 34
Classify the examples of the nominative case found in the
following sentences, and explain the use of each.
"
Well done,
Said Blaise, the listening monk,
1.
I doubt not thou art heard, my son."
2.

"

You

BROWNING, The Boy and the Angel.


are old, Father William," the young man said.
CARROLL, Alice in Wonderland.

The Niobe

3.

Childless

of nations

there she stands,

and crownless, in her voiceless woe.


BYRON, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.

4. The ships being built according to the General's instructions, nothing remained but to wait for suitable weather.
5.
Say, Heavenly Muse, shall not thy sacred vein

Afford a present to the Infant

MILTON, On
Alas, poor Yorick!

6.

7.

the
I

God

Morning of Christ's Nativity.


knew him, Horatio.
SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet.

Harry Lauder, the Scottish comedian,

is

now

visiting

Canada.
Beautiful soup, so rich and green,
for a hot tureen
Who for such dainties would not stoop ?
Soup of the evening, beautiful soup
CARROLL, Alice in Wonderland.

8.

Waiting

But

9.

hail,

thou Goddess sage and holy,


Melancholy
MILTON, // Penseroso.

Hail, divinest

Rats

10.

They fought the dogs and

And

11.

hand.
12.

killed the cats,


bit the babies in the cradles.

BROWNING, The Pied Piper of Hamelin.


aware that thy follower, Black Quentin, lost a
SCOTT, The Fair Maid of Perth.

am

Avenge,

Lord, thy slaughter'd saints.

MILTON, Sonnets.

NOUNS SYNTAX

49

13. Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, was


born in a humble Welsh cottage.
to have lost her pride and her cow.
14. Poor old Molly
!

LAMB,

C.

Letters.

EXERCISE 35
1.

Construct ten sentences, each one containing a nomin-

ative of address.
2. Construct ten sentences, each one containing a nominative in exclamation.
3. Construct ten sentences, each containing a nominative
in apposition.

PREDICATE NOMINATIVE.

56.
i.

This

is she.

2.

It is he.

3.

He became my

friend.

She seems a goddess. 5. She seems generous.


In each of the first four sentences the italicised substantive completes the verb and modifies the subject.
This use of the substantive is like that of the adjective
generous in No. 5 in fact, each of the italicised substantives is used adjectivally to modify another substantive,
as well as to complete a verb. The case-forms of she and
he in sentences i and 2, show that the italicised words are
in the nominative case. A substantive used in this way to
modify a subject in the nominative case, and to complete
a verb, is said to be in the predicate nominative ease.
4.

EXERCISE 36
Select
examples of the predicate nominative case,
explain the relation of each.
all

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

10.

and

Italy is a narrow country.


Mr. Church has remained mayor for five years.
A part of France became a desert during the war.
Mr. Clarke was president of the Literary Society.
This cloth will become a good coat.
England became a democracy many years ago.
This hat becomes the lady.
What you have done is a proof of your kindness of heart.
Ah then, if mine had been the painter's hand.
!

Man

is

WORDSWORTH,
own fortune.

Elegiac Stanzas.

the architect of his

EXERCISE 37
1.

2.

Construct ten sentences containing predicate nominatives.


Construct ten sentences containing nominative absolutes.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

50
57.
1.

SPECIAL USES OF THE NOMINATIVE CASE.


Sometimes the subject

clearness, or emphasis, or in

repeated for the sake of

is

summing up a

series.

There as I passed with careless steps and slow,


The mingled notes came softened from below
The swain, responsive as the milkmaid sung,
The sober herd that lowed to meet their young,
The noisy geese that gabbled o'er the pool,
The playful children just let loose from school,
The watch-dog's voice that bayed the whispering wind,
And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind,
These all in sweet confusion sought the shade,
And filled each pause the nightingale had made.
GOLDSMITH, The Deserted Village.
;

In the above passage the word these is inserted for


the sake of clearness, as the first subjects are not near
the verb.

Was there one flinched ? Not a boy, not a boy of them


Straight on they marched to the dread battle's brunt.
LIVINGSTON, The Volunteers of '85.

Here the subject

is repeated for the sake of emphasis.


Sometimes, after a sentence is begun, the writer
or speaker changes the construction, and the substantive which was to have been the subject of the
sentence is left without grammatical connection.

2.

He whom

When was

royal eyes disown,


his form to courtiers

known

SCOTT, The Lady of the Lake.

EXERCISE 38
Select the nouns in these sentences which are in the nominative case, and explain how each is used.
1.

Caesar

was declared Emperor.

2.

listen, listen, ladies

No haughty

feet of

gay
arms I

tell.

SCOTT, Rosabella.
3.

The

4.

There never was knight

skipper, he blew a whiff from his pipe,


And a scornful laugh laughed he.

LONGFELLOW, Wreck
like the

of the Hesperus.

young Lochinvar.
SCOTT, Lochinvar.

NOUNS SYNTAX
Break, break, break

5.

At the

foot of thy crags,

51

Sea

TENNYSON.
In full-blown dignity see Wolsey stand,
Law in his voice, and fortune in his hand.
S. JOHNSON, The Vanity of Human Wishes.
thou remain a beast with the beasts ?
7. Wouldst
SHAKESPEARE, T-imon of Athens.
8.
Sweet bird thy bower is ever green.
LOGAN, To the Cuckoo.
6.

Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears.


SHAKESPEARE, Julius Casar.
10. These nations, which were once our enemies, have now
become our friends.
Our masters then
1 1
g.

Friends,

Were
12.

still,

at least, our countrymen.

BYRON, The Isles


The service past, around the pious man,
With steady zeal, each honest rustic ran.

of Greece.

GOLDSMITH, The Deserted


13.

How

in the castle yard,


it screams to the lightning, with its

Jagged plumes overhanging the parapet


E. B.
14.

Village.

The tame hawk

Tears, idle tears,

BROWNING,

wet

Isobel's Child.

know not what they mean,

Tears from the depth of some divine despair


Rise in the heart, and gather to the eyes.

TENNYSON.
58.

ACCUSATIVE OF THE DIRECT OBJECT.

The commonest use

of the accusative case is as direct

object of a verb or a preposition.


General Foch saved Paris.
Give assistance to your friends.

A few verbs take two direct objects, one of the person,


the other of the thing affected or produced by the act.
They asked him many questions.
The warrior struck me a blow.
Occasionally a verb that

is

regularly intransitive, takes

noun whose meaning resembles its own. 1


and
verb
Sometimes
object are derived from the same root.
ran
races.
The boys
The allies have fought a good fight.
The children ran errands.

as direct object a

objects are called cognate.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

52

ACCUSATIVE OF TEE RETAINED OBJECT.

59.
1.

Our

2.

3.

We were given

4.
5.

friends gave us a present.


was given to us by our friends.

present

a present by our friends.


They asked me three questions.
7 was asked three questions by them.

and 2 illustrate the common and reasonable


an active sentence into a passive one.
Notice that the direct object of the active verb becomes
Sentences

of turning

way

Sentence 3 represents an
unusual and illogical method of turning an active sentence
into a passive one. The indirect object, us, of sentence i
the subject of the passive verb.

becomes the subject, we, of sentence 3, while the direct


object, present, remains in No. 3 as a Retained Object.
Such sentences as No. 3 violate our practice of simple and
direct speech. 1 In sentence 4 there are two direct objects.
One of them becomes the subject of the verb in No. 5, and
the other object, question, remains in No. 5 as a retained
object.

EXERCISE 39
Select the substantives in the accusative case, and explain
the use of each.
1

2.
3.

The premier was given a hearty reception on

Thou
For

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

10.
11.

his return.

His friend asked Antonio the reason of his sadness.

now a sweeter song


the world to hear.

singest
all

The bells were ringing a merry peal on November i ith,


The men were given more pay for working at night.
His eyes looked daggers at his

1918.

foes.

The cowardly man struck the boy a heavy blow.


I would fain die a dry death.
SHAKESPEARE, Tempest.
Longboat ran his fastest.
A small boy asks his parents many difficult questions.
Fight the good fight with all thy might.

1
In Latin, French, and German, the indirect object of the active is
never made the subject of the passive. For instance, the French
equivalents of the examples given above would be
:

Nos amis nous ont donne un cadeau.


Un cadeau nous a ete donne par nos amis.

NOUNS SYNTAX

53

ADJUNCT ACCUSATIVE.

60.

Mother makes the tea sweet.


Mother sweetens the tea.

1.

2.

The adjective sweet in the first sentence has two functions

acted upon, and


of
verb
makes.
This last
it
the
sense
the
completes
(2)
point is shown clearly by the fact that sweetens in sentence
2 expresses the same idea as makes sweet in sentence i.
it

(1)

describes the tea after the latter

Nouns

same construction.

are used in the

1.

I call

2.

The

3.

We

him

is

my

friend.
society elected me president.
consider them our benefactors.

In each of these sentences the italicised noun completes


the sense of the verb, and modifies the direct object. If
the infinitive to be were supplied in the third sentence,
We consider them to be our benefactors.
the word benefactors would be the complement of to be,
and would, therefore, be in the same case as the pronoun
them (accusative). We may, therefore, consider all the
italicised nouns in sentences 1-3 to be in the accusative case.
Nouns used in the predicate of the sentence to complete
the sense of the verb, and to modify the direct object of
the verb, are said to be in the Adjunct Accusative Case.
(Adjunct means joined
61.
1.

2.

to.

Latin ad,

to,

and jungo,

join.)

ACCUSATIVE WITH INFINITIVE.


I consider
I consider

In sentence

that he

is

our friend.

him to be OUT friend.

the clause that he is our friend is the object


In sentence 2, the object of consider
the infinitive clause him to be our friend, in which him
i,

of the verb consider.


is

subject and friend is complement of the verb to be. The


pronoun him has the accusative case-form, and friend, as
the complement of to be, and the modifier of him, must also
be in the accusative case. Both subject and complement
of an infinitive are, therefore, in the accusative case. 1

is

"

In English we may say either He thinks me to be his friend,"


He thinks (that) I am his friend," though the latter construction
is more
but in Latin we must use the accusative
frequently used
with the infinitive, as, " Existimat me esse amicum."
1

or

"

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

54
The

following sentences contain other examples of this


construction.

2.

They declared him


The crowd saw her

3.

We

1.

to be a

madman.

depart.
believe our leader to have been wronged.

EXERCISE 40

Name, and explain the use of, each accusative case found in
the following sentences
1. The people elected Washington President of the United
:

States.
I judged him to be a foreigner.
Mr. Gladstone lived a long and useful life.
4. He frankly avowed himself to be Wilfred of Ivanhoe.
SCOTT, Ivanhoe.
And the gods of Greek tradition
5.
Make the earth their dwelling-place.
A. M. MACHAR, Schiller's Dying Vision.
2.

3.

This worthy

6.

emblem

man was

appointed guard and given the

of his office.

SHAKE7. I do call him a slanderous coward and a villain.


SPEARE, King Richard II.
Sometimes a-dropping from the sky
8.
I heard the sky-lark sing.
COLERIDGE, The Ancient Manner.
of the eminent writers in Queen Anne's reign, he
Talking
"
I think Dr. A. the first man among them."BOSWELL, Life of Dr. Johnson.
10. I am sure that indolence is the true state of man.
9.

observed,

C.

LAMB,

Letters.

who guided through the gloom


the pale death-lights of the tomb
Bade the dead arise to arms.
SCOTT, Lay of the Last Minstrel.

11.

Chiefs,

By
1 2.

13.

father of Penrod asked Sam many questions.


So he commanded his man to light the candle. BUNYAN,

The

The Pilgrim's Progress.


14.

62.

Jesse expected his eldest son to be

king.

ADVERBIAL ACCUSATIVE.

1.

The boys walked ten

2.

My string is

3.

made

He

miles.

three inches longer than yours.


works a long distance away.

The noun

The noun
The noun distance

miles modifies the verb walked.

inches modifies the adjective longer.

NOUNS SYNTAX

55

Each of these nouns, therefore,


used adverbially. In Old English, nouns used in this way

modifies the adverb away.


is

had the accusative case-form, and we therefore call this


use of the noun in Modern English the Adverbial Accusative.
63.

ACCUSATIVE OF EXCLAMATION.

Unhappy me

Ah me

In such exclamations as the above, the accusative form


of the pronoun is used. Since the nominative case is also
used in exclamations (see section 54), nouns used in this
same way are treated as being in the nominative case,
since they have no special
Alas the day

form

for the accusative

EXERCISE 41
Select all substantives in the nominative or the accusative
and explain the grammatical relation of each.

case,

The trench was seven feet deep.


The landlord consented to allow me a pound a week.
BORROW, The Romany Rye.
1.

2.

3.

4.

This place

LAMB,
5.

6.
7.

is

called the Slough of

You

will find
Letters.

Alas

Despond.
Spencer mentioned a page or two before.

man

his child is very sick.


French to be splendid fighters.
Under the keel nine fathom deep,
From the land of mist and snow,

poor

We know the
The

spirit slid.

COLERIDGE, The Ancient Manner.


Talbot was given a grant of land in Upper Canada.
9. But on the preceding night, my landlord having behaved
very rudely to me, I had resolved not to remain another night
in his house.
BOSWELL, Life of Johnson.
10. As I walked home last night, I saw a shooting star rush
across the sky.
8.

11.

Before their eyes the wizard lay,


if he had not been dead a
day,
His hoary beard in silver rolled,
He seemed some seventy winters old.
SCOTT, The Lay of the Last Minstrel.

As

64.

DATIVE OF THE INDIRECT OBJECT

The commonest use

of the dative case is as

Indirect

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

56

Object of a verb, to denote the thing to which something


or is not, done.

is,

He gave the boy money.


He sent them presents.
65. DATIVE OF REFERENCE OR CONCERN.
The dative case is used also to denote the thing for
which something is, or is not, done.
His silver hairs will purchase us a good opinion.
You made your brother a kite.
This construction is called the Dative of Reference or
Concern.

Notice that both the dative of the indirect object and


the dative of reference or concern may be replaced by
phrases.

He gave money to the boy.


You made a kite for your brother.
66. SPECIAL USES OF THE DATIVE.
1. With certain impersonal verbs, most of which
now archaic.
Methinks there is much reason in his sayings.
Meseemeth then

it is

no

are

policy.

In these sentences methinks and meseemeth both mean


"
Thinks in methinks is derived from
it seems to me."

an Old English verb thyncan, to seem, not thencan,


Another example of such a dative is

think.

to

It likes me.
2.

In a few exclamations like

"

Woe

is

me!

"

EXERCISE 42
Select the nouns or pronouns in the dative case in these

sentences,
1

2.

3.

and
Once

how each is used.


did Katie a good turn.

tell
I

Methinks King Richard and myself should meet


With no less terror than the elements
Of fire and water.
SHAKESPEARE, King Richard II.
In him woke the noble wish
To give his child a better bringing-up
Than his had been.
TENNYSON, Enoch Arden.

NOUNS SYNTAX
4.
5.

57

He did his people lasting good.


Me lists not tell what words were made,
What Douglas, Home, and Howard said.
SCOTT, Lay of the Last Minstrel.

6.
7.

That was the four-year-old I sold the Squire.


Woe worth the chase, woe worth the day,
That cost thy life, my gallant gray
SCOTT, Lady of
!

the

Lake.

am

not yet of Percy's mind, the Hotspur of the north


he that kills me some six or seven dozen of Scots at a breakfast.
SHAKESPEARE, i King Henry IV.
9. Yes, sir, it does that lady honour, but it would do nobody
else honour.
BOSWELL, Life of Johnson.
"
"
send me an arrow through yon
10.
Archers," he cried,
8.

monk's frock."

EXERCISE 43 (REVIEW)

Name

the case-construction of each italicised substantive,

and explain its grammatical relation.


1. The sun having risen, we went our way.
2.

Many

years ago, in a distant country lived a witch

name was Gerthilda.


3. The teachers have made Mr. Bennett

whose

their representative

on the committee.
4. Premier Clemenceau of France has been appointed
chairman of the Peace Conference.
5. The ladies tell us that this gown becomes the hostess.
6. This gentleman does his friends many favours.
7. Sir Thomas White was given the office of Minister of
Finance.
8. Florence

tells

her father that

it is

necessary to give

women

their rights.
9. Mr. Jermyn has spent
causes of the Great War.

10.
11.

much

time teaching his pupils the

The carpenters will build Mr. Clarke a house.


We knew the inhabitants of the island to be kind-hearted

peasants.
12.

Do you

think that these words will become a proverb ?


would rather be first man

Caesar told his friends that he


in a village than second in Rome.
13.

14.

15.
1 6.
17.

little distance from the prow


Those crimson shadows were.
COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.
Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.
By this legislation the slaves were made citizens.
Our wounded soldiers should be given every attention.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

58

GENITIVE OF POSSESSION.

67.

The commonest use

of the genitive case is to denote

ownership.

Whose kite is this ? It is John's kite.


Canada's resources are very great.
68.

GENITIVE OF CONNECTION.

An

outgrowth

nection with."

The

of the idea of possession is that of

war's

For instance
delays = The

"

con-

delays

connected with the

war.

A three weeks' holiday = The holiday connected with


three weeks.
This man's assistance is valuable.
Lincoln's election was a great triumph.

69. The genitive case is often replaced by a phrase


introduced by of. In the case of the names of animals and
inanimate things, such a phrase is usually preferred to
the genitive case.

The

legs of the table.

Sometimes we

The horns

of the dilemma.

have a phrase with of containing a

genitive case.

A speech of Wilson' s = One of Wilson's speeches.


A horse of my uncle's =One of my uncle's horses.

That nose of your

The

brother's.

third of these expressions


will have noticed that

is

quite illogical.
the substantive in the
genitive case, in each of the uses explained above, modifies
another substantive, as an adjective would. In the phrase
John's book, the meaning of the word book is modified by
the word John's, just as it is modified by an adjective in

You

the phrase yellow book, or this book.


1
The name genitive of connection is wide enough to include all uses
of the genitive case except that of possession. The last two examples
of the genitive given in section 68 are classified by some grammarians
The distinctions indicated
as subjective and objective genitives.
by these names are, however, of no practical value. The classification of case-uses should be made simple, especially in school

grammars.

NOUNS SYNTAX

59

EXERCISE 44
Select the nouns in the genitive case in the following sentences, and tell which use of the case each one illustrates.
Give the relation of each.
" Look at the clock! "
1.
quoth Winifred Pryce,
As she open'd the door to her husband's knock.
BARHAM, The Ingoldsby Legends.
2. This fate was Wolsey's.
isle.
3. The blind old man of Scio's rocky
the day
4. The German General's defeat at the Marne saved
for the French.
was washing her head in
5. His wife's remedy for the plague
DEFOE, Journal of the Plague Year.
vinegar.
6. Lincoln's assassination brought evil to the South.

By how much better than my word I am,


By so much shall I falsify men's hopes.

7.

SHAKESPEARE,
8.

This

is

King Henry IV.

to be a story in which jackdaws will wear peacocks'

The Newcomes.
feathers.
THACKERAY,
"
"
let not that madman's threats trouble
Sir," said he,
9.
you." CERVANTES, Don Quixote.
10. The great World-victor's victor will be seen no more.
the Duke of Wellington.
the spicy breezes
soft o'er Ceylon's isle!
R. HEBER.

TENNYSON, Ode on
1 1

Blow
12.

70.

Death of

the

What though

contented mind lessens

life's

troubles.

SUBSTANTIVES IN APPOSITION.

In Sect. 55 the nominative in apposition was explained,


and you learned that when one substantive is in apposition
with another, the two are in the same case. From the
following examples you will learn that all the cases are

used in the appositive construction.


John, the King, was faithless. (Nominative.)
The barons defeated John, the King. (Accusative.)
Give my friend, John Jones, my compliments. (Dative.)

We rarely find a substantive in the genitive case in


apposition with another substantive, since a sentence
containing two genitives in succession would be clumsy.
The following sentence illustrates our method of avoiding
such constructions:
The boat of my friend, George,
71.
i.

is

new.

SPECIAL CASES.
Construction with

as.

Sometimes two substantives are apparently connected

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

60
by the

particle as, which, however, does not affect the

noun following

case of the

As

an alderman, he

They

elected

him

it.

is useful.

as president.

word alderman, in the nominIn the second


apposition with he.
in
the
accusative
word
the
case, is
sentence,
president,
an example of an adjunct accusative. In neither case
In the

sentence, the

first

ative case,

is

in

does the word as do more than introduce the substantive


that follows

it.

This construction is doubtless the result of ellipsis.


In the complete sentence, as would be a conjunction.
As used here, it has largely lost its conjunctive value,
and therefore is called a Conjunctive Particle (sect. 33).
Construction with to be.
to be is also used sometimes to connect two
substantives without affecting the case of either.
2.

The verb

He
He

seems to be victor in this struggle.


seems victor in this struggle.

In each of these sentences the word victor modifies the


subject he. In the first sentence, victor is complement of
in the second one, it is complement of
seems to be
;

seems.
72.

SUMMARY

NOMINATIVES

Nom.
Nom.

ORDINARY CASE-USES.

OF THE

The boys like good reading.


OUT friends having done their

of the subject

absolute

we

Nom.
Nom.
Nom.

of address
in exclamation
in apposition

shall assist

Friends, help

me

best,

them.
in this task.

Horrors ! they have come.


Lloyd George, Premier of Great
Britain.

He

Predicate nom.

ACCUSATIVES

is

my friend.

Ace. of the direct obj


Ace. of ret. obj.

Adjunct ace.
Ace. and infinitive
Adverbial ace.
Ace. in exclamation

I gave it to
praised him.
him.
I was given a book.
They chose her queen.
I believe him to be my enemy.
This stick is six inches long.

They

Ah me

NOUNS PARSING
DATIVES

Dat. of the indirect obj.


Dat. of ref. or concern

GENITIVES

Give

Mm this book.

I shall

buy him a

sled.

Tom's dog is a good one.


Thursday's lesson.

Gen. of possession
Gen. of connection

ANY

61

CASE IN APPOSITION

Sect. 70.

PARSING OF NOUNS.

73.

parse (Latin, pars, a part) a word is to give its


classification (part of speech, class, and sub-class), inflection,
and relation in the sentence. Since the classification of

To

nouns as common, proper, abstract, etc., and as masculine,


feminine, and neuter, is not usually very important, it is
customary to confine the parsing of a noun to the following
part of speech, number, case, relation. The
particulars
italicised nouns in the following sentence would, therefore, be parsed as indicated below.
(See page 268.)
invited
have
their
brothers
friend, the explorer.
My
:

brothers, noun, plural,

nominative,

noun,
explorer, noun,

ace.,
ace.,

friend,

(It is

last

sing.,
sing.,

subject of have invited.


dir. obj. of have invited.
in appos.

with friend.

customary to abbreviate, as has been done in the

two

cases.)

EXERCISE 45

A
Parse the italicised nouns in the following sentences
1. The children of the poet have been told many fairy stories.
How like a prodigal doth Nature seem.
2.
J. R. LOWELL, To the Dandelion.
:

3.

And lo among the menials, in mock state,


Upon a piebald steed, with shambling gait,
!

His cloak of fox-tails napping in the wind,


King Robert rode.
4.

and

LONGFELLOW, King Robert of Sicily.


father died when I was about seven years old,
left me to the care of four guardians.
DE QUINCEY,

My

Confessions of an English Opium-Eater.


5. Athens'
triumph at Salamis was
civilisation.

the

triumph

of

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

62

And we prayed

6.

the prayer of soldiers, and

we

cried the

gathering cry.

Would you

7.

AYTOUN, The Burial March of Dundee.


rather hear the locust and the grasshopper

Their melancholy hurdy-gurdy play ?


LONGFELLOW, The Birds of Killingworth.
Then, because his wound was deep,
The bold Sir Bedivere uplifted him,
Sir Bedivere, the last of all his knights,
And bore him to a chapel nigh the field.

8.

TENNYSON, Morte

The attempt

9.

cost

d' Arthur.

France the most industrious and

virtuous part of her population.

PARKMAN, Montcalm and

Wolfe.
10.

This wise father taught his son

much

Latin and Greek.

B
1. Dr. Leach told his friend, Mr. McMahon, that in
early
life he had intended to be a teacher.
A year and more, with rush and roar
2.
The surf had rolled it over.
J. R. LOWELL, The Finding of the Lyre.
Each age has deemed the new-born year
3.

The
4.
5.

These

fittest

time for festal cheer.

tailors will

make a man a

suit

SCOTT, Marmion.
on very short notice.

The dog had been through three months' space

dweller in that savage place.

WORDSWORTH,
6.
7.

Fidelity.

The

slaves were given their freedom by this proclamation.


Julius Caesar was appointed Governor of Gaul.

8.

Sometimes a-dropping from the sky

9.

heard the sky-lark sing.


COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.
Rose then a sage old warrior
I

Was

five-score winters old

Whose beard from chin to girdle


Like one long snow-wreath rolled.
10. The next morning we all set out together, my family on
horseback, while Mr. Burchell, our new companion, walked
along the footpath. GOLDSMITH, The Vicar of Wakefield.
74. You have already learned, in Chapter I., sections 30,
31, that phrases and clauses are used as parts of speech.

Noun and pronoun phrases and substantive clauses are


"
used in most of the constructions described under
Syn-

SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES
tax of the Cases," in sections 51-72.
examples

The

following are

PHRASES
1.

The Duke

of Devonshire

is

Governor-

General.
2.

wells having failed, we


finish their task.
of the hottr, help us in this

These ne'er do
shall have to

Man

3.

Mr.

4.

Our Governor-General, the Duke

5.

This

difficulty.

7.
8.

They admire each other (one another]


I was given a pig in a poke.
The King made him Duke of Cornwall.
.

man

of war to have sunk.


10. Give this ne'er do well a thrashing.
11. I shall purchase the Duchess of Rich9.

the

I believe

mond a

horse.

12.

We

took each

13.

The

Man

Nom.

absolute.

Nom.

of address.

Nom.

in apposition.

good for

nothing.
6.

of the subject.

of

Devonshire, is here.
fellow is certainly

Nom.

books.
in the Moon's duties are light.
other's

Pred. nominative.
Ace. of direct obj.
Ace. of retained obj.

Adjunct

ace.

Ace. with infin.


Dat. of indir. obj.

Dat. of ref. or concern.


Gen. of possession.
Gen. of connection.

CLAUSES
he did interests me
he wanted having

2.

What
What

3.

The

4.

What he wants

1.

much.
been granted,

he

is delighted.
fact that he has escaped is
is

damaging.
not always what he

needs.
5.

6.

Do you know that the house is on fire ?


He was content with what he had
acquired.

7.
8.
g.

10.

He was

given what he had asked.


We were told that the waves were high.
Fate made me what I am.
I found what I had ordered to be what I
needed.

75.
i.

Nom.

of the subj.

Nom.
Nom.

absolute.
in apposition.

Pred. nom.
Ace. of dir. obj.

Ace. of dir. obj.


Ace. of retained obj.
Ace. of retained obj.

Adjunct ace.
Ace. with infin., (i) a
subj., (2) as comp.

SPECIAL USES OF SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES.


As

logical subject or object,

grammatical subject or object.


It was evident that they were angry.
Is it true that he has failed ?
It pleases me that he has succeeded.

when the word

We shall arrange it that he is punished.


We consider it unjust that he should be punished.

it is

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

64

Although the subordinate clause in each of the

first

three examples is logical, or thought, subject of the


sentence, it is grammatically in apposition with the
pronoun it. In each of the last two sentences the subis logical object of the verb,
in
grammatically
apposition with the pronoun
Noun phrases are used in the same way.

ordinate clause

It is

easy

to

do

We consider it
2.

With

but

is

it.

that.
to

unjust

injure our neighbours.

but that.

cannot believe but that he is honest.


You did not know but that they would come.
In each of these sentences the substantive clause
commencing with that is the object of the preposition
but. Each sentence is elliptical. The first one might be
filled out as follows
I

cannot believe anything but that he

3.

In

many

clauses

cases

that

is

honest.

are substantive in

perform the functions of adjectives or adverbs.


(a) I insist that you do this (on your doing this).
(b) We are glad that you have come (of your coming).
(c) There is great hope that peace will come soon (of
peace coming soon).

origin,

The subordinate clause in (a) tells what I insisted on,


when the clause is changed to a phrase, on is used.

and,

is omitted before the


considered to modify
be
the
latter
clause,
may properly
the verb insist, and to have the value of an adverb. In
clause modifies the adjective glad.
(b) the subordinate
In (c) it modifies the noun hope, and is, therefore,

However, since the preposition

adjectival.

Other examples are

There is great need that you should work.


I do not care what you think about it.
We were sorry that you failed.
There is evidence that they will try again.
4.

After an interjection.
my friend had come

O, that

SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES

65

The substantive clause is here the object of the wish


implied in the use of the interjection.
5.

Infinitive clauses.

him to be my friend,
The public considered him to
I believe

be honest.

Since the expression him to be my friend consists of


a subject and a predicate, it may properly be called a
clause.

EXERCISE 46
Select the noun and pronoun phrases and the substantive
clauses in the following sentences, and explain the grammatical
relation of each.

2.

We were promised what was left by the others.


A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

3.

The truth of the matter

1.

is

that they do not try to help each

other.
4.
5.

6.

We laugh at the idea,

that the sun goes round the earth.


heard.

The lawyer was very angry at what he had


What more I have to say is short.

WORDSWORTH, Simon
could forget what

Lee.

have been,
Or not remember what I must be now
SHAKESPEARE, King Richard
O, that

7.

II.

"In my
"

youth," Father William replied to his son,


I feared it might injure the brain
But now that I'm perfectly sure I have none,

8.

Why,

do

it

again and again."

CARROLL, Alice in Wonderland.


your own fault that I have been roused to speak so
unguardedly. C. BRONTE, Jane Eyre.
9.

10.

It

is

O, that this too, too solid flesh would melt

SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet.
11.

The

heart, distrusting, asks

if

this

be joy.

GOLDSMITH, The Deserted

Village.

Feeling now quite at ease with him, I expressed a regret


that I could not be so easy with my father. BOSWELL, Life
of Dr. Johnson.
13. Perhaps you take it to heart that you were unhorsed the
other day.
CERVANTES, Don Quixote.
12.

14. There is nothing but ups and downs


CERVANTES, Don Quixote.

in this world.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

66

You may have

15.

happen

in

this comfort, that the calamity will not


BEDE, The Ecclesiastical History o

your days.

England.
1 6.
Surprised at his saying that I had fifty pounds in my
pocket, I asked Mr. Petulengro what he meant
whereupon he
told me that he was very sure that I had fifty pounds in my
"
Done,"
pocket, offering to lay me five shillings to that effect.
said I: "I have scarcely more than the fifth part of what you
;

BORROW, The Romany Rye.


Sancho told her Grace that he was accustomed to take
a good nap, some four or five hours long, in a summer's afternoon but to do her good honour a kindness, he would break an
old custom for once, and do his best to hold up that day, and
wait on her worship. CERVANTES, Don Quixote.

say."
17.

PRONOUNS PERSONAL

CHAPTER

67

III

THE PRONOUN

A PRONOUN

76.

is

a substitute for a noun.

something without naming it.


77. Pronouns are classified as follows
Personal

It

represents

Possessive

Interrogative
Relative

Demonstrative

Indefinite

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

78.

distinguish

between the

person speaking, the person spoken to, and the person or


thing spoken of.
The forms of the personal pronouns are as follows
:

FIRST PERSON
Sing.

Plural

Nom.

we

Acc.-Dat.

me

us

SECOND PERSON
Plural

Sing.

you (thou)
you (thee)

you
you

(ye)

THIRD PERSON
Sing.
Fern.

Masc.
he

Nom,
Acc.-Dat.

Neut.

she
her

him

Plural
All genders

it

they

it

them

For the Old English forms of these pronouns see

sect. 232.

EXERCISE 47
"

We

Why

are very industrious pupils."


do you say that
and the plural number ? Change we
to the corresponding forms of the second and third persons.
1.

we

in the first person

is

What
2.

difference in meaning does each change make ?


cases have the personal pronouns
case-forms ? What causes this difference ?

How many

many

How

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

68

is the acc.-dat. case-form


3. In which of these pronouns
the same as the nom. case-form ?
4. In which instances are the acc.-dat. case-forms quite
different words from the nom. case-forms ?
5. Which of the personal pronouns distinguishes gender ?

79.

USE OF GENDER FORMS.

The masculine and feminine forms in the singular


of the third person are used to mark distinctions of sex,
either in living creatures or in personified objects.
The moon is up, for I can see her in the sky.
1.

Our custom with regard to personification is varied


and inconsistent, since both Latin and French influence
have altered more or less Old English usage. However,
11

the general principle is to give the masculine gender


to words suggesting such ideas as strength, fierceness,

the feminine gender

terror, while

is

associated with the

opposite ideas of gentleness, delicacy, beauty, together


" *

with

fertility.

masc.
fern.

summer, time, winter, death, rage, war.


moon, spring (season), dawn, mercy, peace,
sun,

earth.

He is frequently used when no distinction


made concerning the person mentioned.

2.
is

Each person must decide

for

of sex

himself which leader he

prefers.

EXERCISE 48
Classify the personal pronouns in the following sentences,
and explain the relation of each.
"
i.
They told me you had been to her,
And mentioned me to him
She gave me a good character,
But said I could not swim.
;

"

He

sent them word I had not gone


(We knew it to be true

If

she should push the matter on,

What would become


' '

of

you

gave her one, they gave him two,


You gave us three or more
They all returned from him to you,
Though they were mine before.

Sweet,

New

English Grammar.

PRONOUNSPERSONAL
"

69

she should chance to be


Involved in this affair,

If I or

He

you to

trusts to

set

them

free

Exactly as they were.


"

notion was that you had been

My

(Before she had this fit)


An obstacle that came between
Him, and ourselves, and it.
"

Don't let him know she liked them best,


For this must ever be
A secret, kept from all the rest,
Between yourself and me."
CARROLL, Alice in Wonderland.

"

God save thee, Ancient Mariner


From the fiends, that plague thee thus

2.

"

thou so ?
COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.
3. We all thought the boy to be you.
What can the matter be ?
4. Ah me
5. I heard thee speak me a speech once, but it was never
acted.
SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet.

Why

look'st

EXERCISE 49
the blanks in the following sentences with the proper
forms of the personal pronouns.
Give the reason for each
Fill

choice.
(a)

I or me.

1.

He

2.

It

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

(b)
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

is

as good a scholar as

was

who rang

the

No one is here but


He thought the stranger
He came in before

bell.

to be

Between you and


What would you do,

He
He

if

he has been treated badly.


?
you were

such a man as
informed me that it was
dislikes

we or

who had been

chosen.

us.

They are better than


They reached school as soon as
He said that it was
who had been
.

invited.

Everyone believes the culprits to be


If it had been
they would have answered at once.
.

The teacher detained

all

except

Mother divided the candy between them and


Whom did he blame, you or
?
Which team will win, Parkdale or
?

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

70

he or him.

(c)

but

had

1.

All

2.

They declared

3.

4.

coward

it

fled.

to be

would never enlist.


know that you are younger than
Which of the boys will go, if not
?
We all went home,
among the rest.

5.

6.

We

7.
8.

like

all

to be the winner.

thought

Which should do

this work, John or


?
that plays best, the boys will make captain.

9-

(d) she

or her.

both you and


more than

1.

I like

2.

He

3.

They declared

studies

it

was

Who can answer this


We saw Sarah and

4.
5.

were

6.

If I

7.

Whom

shall

we

question, if not
driving to town.
I should go to school.

reward,

The teacher supposed

8.

9. All the girls

but

if

not

to be
are present.
it

they or them.

(e)
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

80.

I have given as much as


succeed.
Pupils such as
We thought the visitors to be
The minister replied that it was
There was no one in the room but
You are not as foolish as
that desert, the law will punish.
He spoke little to anyone except
Whom are you going to send, if not
.

who had come.


.

SPECIAL

USES OF THE PERSONAL PRO-

NOUNS.
1. The plural forms, we and us, are sometimes used
instead of / and me by such persons as sovereigns,

editors,

and clergymen.

We

wish our readers to understand the situation.


We, George V., King of Great Britain and Ireland.

The pronouns thou,

thee and ye (see table, section 78)


used in ordinary speech only by a section of
the Quakers. In poetry, however, in Scripture, and in
other solemn and impassioned literature, they are used
2.

are

now

frequently.

PRONOUNS PERSONAL
Stern lawgiver

71

yet thou dost wear

The Godhead's most benignant grace


Nor know we anything so fair
As is the smile upon thy face.

WORDSWORTH, Ode to Duty.


Matthew x. 8.

Freely ye have received, freely give.


3.

We

In such a sentence

boys play

ball,

as,

and you

girls

watch the game,

the pronouns we and you are used as demonstrative


adjectives to modify the nouns boys and girls. Another
view is that boys and girls are in apposition with the

pronouns we and you.


4. The pronoun it has one special use

As impersonal

How

far

is it

They footed

What time

subject or object.

to Montreal
it

*
:

through the mud.

is it ?

These uses are called impersonal because the pronoun


in these sentences does not represent any definite
thing that can be named. No noun can be substituted
for it in any one of these sentences.

it

EXERCISE 50
Classify each italicised word, and explain
relation in the sentence.
It is going to

Ye Mariners

3.

grammatical

be a fine day.
England!
We shall take for our text these verses from the Book of Job.
// was evident that the man was suffering.

1.

2.

4.

its

of

Two

other special uses of the pronoun it are mentioned by some


// is described as the expletive, or representative,
It is easy to
subject or object in such sentences as the following
do that. I shall arrange it that he helps you. It is said to represent the
clause or phrase that follows. Then it is described as a colourless
substantive, or an indefinite subject, in such sentences as the follow1

grammarians.

It is John who spoke.


Who is it ? It is my friend. These dising
tinctions are of little value, as far as the treatment of the word it
is concerned, since in all these examples it is plainly the grammatical
subject or object of the verb. For a discussion of the grammatical
value of such phrases as to do that and such clauses as that he helps
you, in the first two examples above, see Sect. 75 (i). For these
special uses of it see Report of American Joint Committee, p. 28.
:

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

72
5.

The wise teacher makes

6.

Go

Proverbs

wise.
7.
8.

it plain that work must be done.


to the ant, thou sluggard
consider her ways and be

vi. 6.

When you have finished


What time of day is it ?

this book, bring

it

to me.

10.

It is often said that a rolling stone gathers no


Some men like to lord it over their inferiors.

1 1.

Twas now

12.

9.

moss.

the merry hour of noon.


SCOTT, Lay of the Last Minstrel.
will now show thee who it was that deluded thee.

BUNYAN, Pilgrim's Progress.


13. But it was not fated that

should sleep that night.

CHAR-

LOTTE BRONTE, Jane Eyre.


14.

will

fight

it

out on this line

if

it

takes

summer.

all

GENERAL GRANT.
15.

Roll on, thou deep

Ten thousand
1

6.

He

8.

19.

it right to see the best in everyone.


In these far climes, it was my lot
To meet the wondrous Michael Scott.
SCOTT, Lay of the Last Minstrel.

thinks

17.

and dark blue Ocean, roll


sweep over thee in vain.
BYRON, Ocean.

fleets

It was the winter wild,


While the heaven-born child
All meanly wrapped in the rude manger lies.
MILTON, Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity.
Come and trip it as you go,

On

the light fantastic toe.

MILTON, L' Allegro.


There was nothing for it but to return.
21. The officer thought it unfair that he should be passed over
this way.
22.
And now there came both mist and snow,
And it grew wondrous cold.
COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.

20.
in

23. It was not till the year 1628, that


Latin declensions. EVELYN, Diary.

81.

was put to learn

COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS

following forms
Sing.

have

my
the

myself, thyself, ourself, yourself, himself, her-

self, itself.

Plural

ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

These pronouns have three uses:


i.

As

My

substitutes for the simple personal pronouns.

brother and myself

(I)

are ready to go.

PRONOUNS PERSONAL
2.

To mark emphasis.
You yourselves will suffer
This boy did

it

73

for this.

himself.

In this construction the compound pronoun


apposition with the substantive it emphasises.
3. As reflexive object of a verb or a preposition.
I

awoke one morning and found my self famous.


man was talking to himself.

in

is

BYRON.

This

These objects are called reflexive because they represent the

same thing

verb

therefore, reflected

is,

as the subject, and the action of the


back to the subject.

EXERCISE 51

A
Construct sentences illustrating the use of each of the
compound personal pronouns, (a) for emphasis, (b) as a reflexive object.

B
In connection with each compound personal pronoun,
its use, and explain its grammatical relation.
1. I myself will be your leader.

name

Dr. Hackney treated these patients himself.


Before the Armada, the Spaniards thought themselves
masters of the sea.
This child I to myself will take.
4.
WORDSWORTH, Three Years She Grew.
2.
3.

Myself will to

5.

my

darling be

Both Law and Impulse.

WORDSWORTH,

me

answer

6.

Let

7.

It is as least certain

Three Years She Grew.

this question myself.

that the greatest poets are those

who

have allowed themselves the fewest of such liberties. FROUDE,


Arnold's Poems.
8.
Henceforth I'll bear
Affliction till it do cry out itself
"
Enough, enough."
SHAKESPEARE, King Lear.
Ourself will mingle with society
9.

And play

the humble host.

SHAKESPEARE, Macbeth.
As soon as Gregory was himself made Pope, he did this
work, sending other preachers to England, but himself by his
prayers assisting the preaching. BEDE, Ecclesiastical History.
10.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

74

But

11.

swift as dreams, myself I found


Pilot's boat.

Within the

COLERIDGE, The Ancient Manner.

What

they win by their spinning,


This they must spend on the rent of their houses,
Ay, and themselves suffer with hunger.
LANGLAND, Piers Plowman.

12.

While e'en the peasant boasts these rights to scan,


And learns to venerate himself as man.
GOLDSMITH, The Traveller.

13.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
82.

The following words are

NOUNS,

called

POSSESSIVE PRO-

because they denote possession.

mine

his, hers, its

yours (thine)
yours

ours

theirs

These words, all of which are derived directly from the


Old English personal and demonstrative pronouns, are
used both as adjectives, and as pronouns. When they
when they do
modify substantives, they are adjectives
;

not modify substantives, they are pronouns.

ADJECTIVES
This book is mine, that is yours.
His friends are ours also.
:

PRONOUNS

have their letter and yours.


There are many good horses, but his
Of all the schools in town ours is the
I

The words my,

our,

your

(thy),

and

as adjectives, never as pronouns.


Notice the peculiar use of the word

sentence

is

the best.

largest.

their are

own

always used

in the following

He came

unto

The two words


pronoun phrase.

his

own, and his own received him not.

his

My

also used adjectivally.

own form an emphatic

possessive
etc., are

own, our own, your own,

PRONOUNSDEMONSTRATIVE

75

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

83. The
chief demonstratives are

The

Sing.
Plur.
1.

2.
3.
4.

this

these

point out.

that.
those.

This is mine, that is yours.


These are cheap, those are dear.
I have my own books, and those of my friends.
To make a happy fireside clime

To weans and

wife,

That's the true pathos

Of human

and sublime

life.

BURNS.

When

and that, or these and those, are used, as


in sentences i and 2, they serve to contrast the nearer
thing and the more remote one.
both

this

Two other words, such and


demonstrative pronouns.

so,

are sometimes used as

told me to study. I shall do so (that).


Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid
them not, for of such (beings like that) is the Kingdom of

The teacher

God.

Mark

x. 14.

To

such

my errand

is.

MILTON, Comus.

EXERCISE 52

A
Construct short sentences containing the words, my and
mine, our and ours, your and yours, her and hers, their and
1.

theirs.

When is the first word of each pair used, and when the
second ?
2. Construct two sentences, in one of which the word mine
is a possessive pronoun, and in the other an adjective.
that one is small.
3. This book is large
What difference between the books is marked by the use of
;

and that ?
The Latin word demonstro means point out.
Why are this and that called demonstrative ?

this

4.

B
Classify each italicised word in the following sentences,
explain its grammatical relation in the sentence.
i.

That which must be done, should be done quickly.

and

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

76
2.

What
"

3.

4.

is

yours

is

mine.

"
So says the Book.
much, spend generously
LANGLAND, Piers Plowman.
yours sincerely, John Smith.
Oh dream of joy is this indeed

Heist them

am

5.

The

light-house top

see

COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.


6.

You

see the

two groups. These are our

friends, those

our

enemies.
7.
8.

9.

His farm is larger than ours, but ours


Let us do our work as well.

nearer town.

are so blind as those who will not see.


love such as love me.
must recognise the difference between mine and thine.

None

10.

1 1

We

is

The willows and the hazel copses green


Shall now no more be seen,

12.

Fanning

their

joyous leaves to thy soft lays.

MILTON, Lycidas.
a short excursion to the country last summer
and that is the extent of our travelling this year.
14. What's yours is mine, what's mine is my own.
I'll keep my own.
15. Take your ball
13.

We made

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
84.

The

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS,

and what, are used


1.

Who

who, which,

to ask questions.

is inflected,

and has the following forms


SING. AND PLUR.

Nom.

who

Acc.-dat.

whom

Gen.

whose

Who has come ? Who have come ? Whose book have


you ? Whom did he see ? To whom did they speak ?
Which and what are not
singular or plural in meaning
2.

declined.
;

what

is

Which

is

either

always singular.

Which of the boys has (have) come ?


Which of the boys did you see ? Which of the
do you want ?
What has startled you ? What have you seen ?

sleighs

who is
3. As will be seen from the sentences above,
used of persons, which of persons or things, and what of
things only.

PRONOUNS INTERROGATIVE
4.

What is sometimes used adverbially.


What (how) mighty contests rise from trivial

77

things!

POPE.

What (how) shall it profit a man, if he gain the whole


world, and lose his own soul ? Mark viii. 36.
5.

What

is

What

used frequently as an interjection.


did he revile his

own

friends

Interrogative pronouns are used in both principal

6.

and subordinate
1.

clauses.

Who has come ?


Do you know who

has come ?
What has he done ?
4. They ask what he has done.
The clauses who has come in sentence
2.

3.

has done in sentence

2,

and what he

are called subordinate questions.

4,

EXERCISE 53
i

Explain the grammatical relation of each italicised pronoun


n the following sentences
1. Which of your boys will do this for me ?
2. Whose house is on fire ?
what has he done now ?
3. Alas
4. Who did he say was the leader ?
5. Which of you have done this ?
:

6.

What

has this thing appear 'd again to-night

SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet.
7.
8.

Of whom is he speaking ?
What can all that green stuff be

To whom did you send the money ?


10. They asked who had helped us.
n. I know who has sent this present.
12. Did you hear whom Parliament has chosen
9.

EXERCISE 54
Supply either who or whom in each
Give a reason in each case.

of the following sen-

tences.

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

sent the letter ?


have we offended

you think has come ?


you consider best fitted for the position
you believe the man to be ?
you think will be chosen ?
did you say was the president ?
do you intend to visit in Montreal ?

do
do
do
do

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

78

RELATIVE PRONOUNS
85.

The words commonly used

NOUNS

RELATIVE PRO-

as

are:

who, which, what, that.

They are

1.

relative

called

has two functions

pronouns, because each

(a)

As a pronoun

(b)

By

replaces a noun.

it

some word in
shows the relation between two

referring, or relating back, to

a preceding clause,

it

clauses.

The word

to which the relative pronoun refers back

is

called its antecedent.


is the ship that brought my father.
Here are the men who will help us.
Your horse, which ran away, has been caught.

This

The pronoun that refers back to the noun ship,


who refers back to men, and which

antecedent

its

to

horse.

The antecedent

of which

in a preceding clause,

They have

refused

may

and not a

all

my

be the idea contained


single word.

offers,

which annoys

me much.

What, as a relative pronoun, is equal to that which.


What (that which) he does is important.
2.

The word what

in this sentence is equivalent, therea relative pronoun and its antecedent. Who is
occasionally used in the same way.

fore, to

Who

(he

who)

steals

my

What and who, when used

purse, steals trash.

SHAKESPEARE, Othello.
way, are called

in this

indefinite relatives.
3. What, which, and that, when used as relatives, are
uninflected, but who is declined as follows
:

Nom.

4.

Who

is

SING AND
who

Acc.-dat.

whom

Gen.

whose

used of persons only

PL.

which

is

used of

PRONOUNS RELATIVE

79

that is used of
things, or persons taken collectively
what is used of things only.
persons or things
;

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

5.

My

friends

who

This box which


This mob, which
The boy that
The horse that

But and as

are

used as negative

occasionally

relative pronouns.

There

is

(There

is

no man present but has heard this report.


no man present that has not heard this report.)

Such goods as he

has, will do.

(Those goods which he has, will do. )

This

That

the same picture as (which) you saw.

is

is

a falsehood, as you know.

In the last sentence the antecedent of as


contained in the principal clause.

is

the idea

6. Compound indefinite relative pronouns are formed


by adding -ever, or -50 or -soever to who, which, and what.

Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.


Galatians vi. 7.
Whatever is worth doing at all, is worth doing well.

CHESTERFIELD.
Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by
be shed. Genesis ix. 6.
7. The relative pronoun
number as its antecedent.
I,

is

who

am

your

is

of

man

shall his blood

the same person and

friend, will assist you.

That the word who is singular and of the first person,


shown by the person and number of the verb am.
8.

its

The

use in

case of a relative pronoun


its

own

is

determined by

clause.

Nom "
}

subJ' of

Acc - obi' of

*"

9. It is sometimes a little difficult to distinguish


between the use of what as an interrogative pronoun in
a subordinate question, and the use of the same word as
an indefinite relative.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

8o

What has he done


I
I
I

ask what he has done \


know what he has done I
value what he has done

Interrogative.
Interrogative in subordinate
questions.
Indefinite relative.

In the last sentence only, what

is

equivalent to that

which.

EXERCISE 55
1.

Of what parts of speech do

relative

pronouns perform

the functions ? (Sect. 85, i.)


2. Construct sentences in which as is used as a relative pronoun.
What two words are usually followed by this pronoun ?
(Sect. 85, 5.)

EXERCISE 56
Select each relative pronoun in the following sentences.
Show clearly its use in its own clause, and also its relative
value.

5.

The house that we built last summer is for sale.


Our soldiers, who won glory in France, have come home.
What you say is true.
This was an occupation of which she was fond.
We appreciate what you did.

6.

This

7.
8.

2.
3.

4.

is the little girl about whom I wrote to you.


have done the same exercise as you.
What had just passed was fresh in my mind.
9. There was no one in the room but saw what happened.
10. Get advice about these plants from your neighbour,
whose garden is in such good order.

1.

What

done

is

cannot

be

undone.

SHAKESPEARE,

Macbeth.
2.

the house-tops was no woman


But spat towards him and hissed,

On

No child but screamed out


And shook its little fist.

curses,

MACAULAY,

Horatius.

In yonder village there dwells a gentleman whose name


is Legality, that has skill to help men off. with such burdens
as thine are from their shoulders.
BUNYAN, The Pilgrim's
3.

Progress.
4. His beard, which he wore a
brownish colour. EVELYN, Diary.

little

peaked, was of a

PRONOUNS RELATIVE

81

Cut off the heads of too-fast-growing sprays


That look too lofty in our commonwealth.
SHAKESPEARE, King Richard II.
I'll tell everybody what you are, and not what you have

5.

6.

done.
7.

Who

8.

There

was the thane

lives yet.
SHAKESPEARE, Macbeth.
not one of the company but speaks of him as a
STEELE, The Spectator.
well-bred, fine gentleman.
Such morals as play
9.
Through life's more cultured walks, and charm the way.
is

GOLDSMITH, The

10. I cleared

Traveller.

a space on the glass through which

might

look out.
11. We sailed by several Spanish forts, out of one of which
came a Don on board us, to whom I showed my Spanish pass,
which he signed. EVELYN, Diary.
12. This was the first time that my parents had seen all their

PEPYS' Diary.

children together in prosperity.


13.

The long-remember 'd beggar was his guest,


Whose beard descending swept his aged breast.
GOLDSMITH, The Deserted

Village.

This miry slough is such a place as cannot be mended.'


BUN VAN, The Pilgrim's Progress.
14.

EXERCISE 57
Tell

which of the

italicised

forms

is

correct,

and give the

reason in each case.


1

2.

One of the men that works

You

(work] in our factory made it.


are the only one of the applicants that has (have) the

necessary qualification.
3. Captain Martin is the first of these officers that has (have)
received the Military Cross.
4. Art thou that Egyptian which made (madest) the uproar ?

The

5.

6.

last of all the

is

he

He

is

sings (sing) of Border chivalry.


the only one of these boys that has (have) the

work ready.
7. He was one
come to Canada.
8.

Am

9.

He was one

(do)

bards

Who

the one

of the fastest runners

who

has (have) ever

who am (is) to be blamed for this ?


of those unfortunate individuals who does

not take advice.

EXERCISE 58
Supply the proper form, "who," or "whom," in each of
these sentences. Give reasons.
- I knew could be trusted.
1. He was a man
2.

He

has a brother

expect

is

with him.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

82
3.

4.

John is the one


There was a boy

the house.
5. I don't

know

6.

He

7.

We met a man

8.

he is likely to choose.
I learned
in the class

feels

we

contempt

Speculation was

would pass

are going to see.

he imagines are poor.


thought to be your brother.
would be the lady of his
as to

for those

we

rife

all

choice.

This we supposed to be the guide


we should find waiting for
10. Why did you recommend one
not think likely to succeed ?

we had been given

9.

to understand

us.

you confess you did

EXERCISE 59
Classify the italicised pronouns in the following sentences
as interrogative or relative, and give a reason in each case.
Name the case, and explain the relation, of each of the italicised

words.
1.

This

is

the house in which

we

live.

He

told us what you were saying.


3. I shall find out who he is.
4. Do not listen to what he says,
5. That is the city to which he is going.
2.

6.
7.

8.
9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Whoever wishes may come.


These are the people about whom I spoke.
I asked about what he had done.
I shall do whatever you wish.
I cannot discover whom they blamed.
I ask who came with them.
The general inquired what the rebels wanted.
I know which of the books will please you.
We all admire what this man has accomplished.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
86.

do so

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
much

less clearly

We had many

books.

Some are

They want

My

point out objects, but

than demonstratives.
missing.

fifteen suits, but I cannot give


brother and I like each other.

them

any.

pronouns points out more or less


or
an
Some, for instance,
objects.
indefinitely
object
leaves us quite in doubt as to which particular books, and

Each

of the italicised

how many

books, are missing.

PRONOUNS INDEFINITE
The following words are used

1.

each

many

either
neither

few

some
any

both
one

none
aught
naught
enough

all

83

as indefinite pronouns
more
certain

most

such

several

other

sundry

much

divers

should be remembered, however, that most of these


words are used also as adjectives, and that some of them
are used as nouns.
All citizens are expected to do their duty. (Adjective.)
We have millions of citizens. All of them will do their
It

(Pronoun.)

duty.

The poor widow gave her

2.

all.

(Noun.)

few indefinite pronouns are inflected.

other, plur. others; the other, gen. the other's, plur. the others,
gen. plur. the others'; another, gen. another's; one, gen. one's,
plur. the ones.

Compound

3.

Indefinites.

indefinite pronouns are formed by


adding to some, any, every, and no, the words, one,
thing, and body :
someone, something, somebody, etc.
(a)

Compound

Each

and one

another, which are practically


as phrases, are called
written
compounds although
reciprocal, because they indicate mutual or recip(b)

other

rocal relations

These two

The

each other.

soldiers helped one another.

One

4.

between things.

men admired

indefinite pronoun, the same,

because
mentioned.

fying,

it

denotes

the

person

is

called identi-

or

thing just

There was a man sent from God, whose name was John
same came for a witness. John i. 6, 7.

the

5. Certain words or phrases commonly used with


other functions are sometimes used as indefinite pronouns you, they, who, what, it, a man, a body, a fellow,
:

people.

They say a revolution has broken out.


you what ; people will say you are
Do you know who's who in this town ?
I'll tell

foolish.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

84

EXERCISE 60
Parse the italicised words in these sentences
1. Love one another.
2. One would think that he had studied Greek.
3. None of the men selected was found fit for this work.
4. They say that the crops in Saskatchewan are good.
others were late.
5. Some were on time
6. What is a man to do when he can't get work ?
Gin (if) a body meet a body,
7.
Coming through the rye.
8. We found nobody at home.
9. Few, few shall part, where many meet.
10. Bear ye one another's burdens.
1 1
There was nothing so very remarkable in that.
1 2.
She did not like to drop the jar for fear of killing somebody
underneath. CARROLL, Alice in Wonderland.
13. Did you ever hear of such a strange idea as to dye one's
:

hair blue

succeeds
Nothing
"

like success.
It is naught, it is naught," says the buyer.
Each is certain that the other is wrong.
HEYWOOD.
17. All's well that ends well.
14.

Proverbs.

15.
16.

PARSING OF PRONOUNS
87. As with nouns,
made very simple. It

the parsing of pronouns should be


is usually quite sufficient to tell to
which class the pronoun belongs, and to give its number,
case, and relation in the sentence.
(See page 268.)

That boy, who told us the story, has departed.


Many of our friends have come.
who, relative pron.,
cedent boy.

sing.,

nom., subj. of

told,

ante-

us, person, pron., plur., dat., indir. obj. of told,

many,

indef. pron., plur.,

nom.

subj. of have come.

EXERCISE 61

A
Parse the italicised pronouns in the following sentences
i.

Perhaps their loves, or else their sheep,


Was all that did their silly thoughts so busy keep.
on the Morning of Christ's Nativity.
MILTON,

Hymn

PRONOUNS PARSING

85

Old Meg she was a gypsy,


And lived upon the moors
Her bed it was the brown heath turf,
And her house was out of doors.
KEATS, Meg Merrilies.
//
3. She was the first woman with whom I was in love.
but she and I shall
dropped out of my head imperceptibly
always have a kindness for each other. BOSWELL, Life of
2.

Dr. Johnson.
4. I look

Bos WELL,

good-humoured

Accursed be that tongue

5.

6.

upon myself as
Life of Dr. Johnson.

Thou hast
That

France

her,

Have no such

that tells

me

fellow.

so.

SHAKESPEARE, Macbeth.
her be thine, for we

let

daughter, nor shall ever see

face of hers again.

SHAKESPEARE, King Lear.


7.

i.

Childe Harold basked him in the noonday sun.


BYRON, Childe Harold.

Cold

Nor

is

the heart, fair Greece


that looks on thee,
the dust they loved.
Childe Harold.
!

feels as lovers o'er

happened that the king passed through the village


and asked what news was stirring, " Master Brock,"
"
has a little son who they say is a luck's-child
said the people,
when he is fourteen years old, he is to marry the king's
daughter." This did not please the king, so he went to Master
Brock and asked him to sell him his son. GRIMM'S Fairy Tales.
2.

// so

in disguise

3.

Was

it

so late, friend, ere


lie so late ?

you went to bed,

That you do

SHAKESPEARE, Macbeth.
4.

5.

Things that love night,


Love not such nights as these.

SHAKESPEARE, King Lear.


Naught men could do, have I left undone
And you see my harvest, what I reap
:

This very day,

now a year

is

run.

R. BROWNING, The Patriot.


6.

And hard

it

were for bard to speak

The changeful hue


7.

of Margaret's cheek.

SCOTT, Lay of the Last Minstrel.


Then turn to-night, and freely share
What e'er my cell bestows.
GOLDSMITH, The Hermit.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

86
8.

Her love was sought, I do aver,


By twenty beaux and more
The King himself has follow'd her
;

When

she has walk'd before.

GOLDSMITH,

An

Elegy on the Glory of her Sex,


Mrs. Mary Blaize.

While both contend

9.

To win

her grace,

whom

all

commend.
MILTON, L' Allegro.

10.

But who can paint the deep serene


The holy stillness of thy mien
The calm that's in thy face,
Which makes us feel, despite of strife,

And

all

Earth

the turmoil of our


is a holy place ?

life

ALEXANDER M'LACHLAN, Indian Summer.

CLASSES

ADJECTIVES

CHAPTER

87

IV

THE ADJECTIVE
88.

An ADJECTIVE

is

word that modifies a sub-

stantive.
89. Adjectives are classified as descriptive

and

limiting.

DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES

A DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVE

one that describes


man, hard ball.
The adjective good here tells the kind of man he is,
while sick describes his condition.
By far the larger
90.

the thing spoken of, as in good

number

man,

is

sick

of adjectives belong to this class.

COMPARISON.

Most descriptive adjectives are


show comparison. Thus the adjective strong

91.
inflected to

has three forms


George

John

is

is

Thomas
The

1.

strong.

stronger than George.


is the strongest of the three.

positive degree of the adjective is its simplest

form.

The strong boy. The


man.

brave soldier.

The

fast horse.

The

noble

2. The comparative degree of the adjective,


usually
formed by adding -er to the positive, is the form used in
comparing two things, or groups of things.

This boy

George

Men

is

stronger than that one.


braver than Thomas or John.

is

are taller than

women.

3. The superlative degree of the adjective, usually


formed by adding -est to the positive, is the form used

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

88

show that, out of a number of things, one possesses


a certain quality in a greater degree than any of the rest.
to

is

George

The

the strongest of the boys.


is the bravest of the company.

soldier

92. USE OF COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE


DEGREES. The following sentences represent incorrect

uses that should be avoided.


"
1.
She is the largest of the

two girls." Larger should


be employed in this sentence, since the superlative is
used only when more than two things, or groups of
things, are
"

The

compared

than any ocean in the world."


This sentence is illogical, since the Pacific is an ocean.
The sentence should be : " The Pacific is larger than
any other ocean."
"
Lake Superior is the largest of the other lakes of
3.
the world." This sentence is also illogical. The word
other should be omitted.
2.

93.
1.

Pacific is larger

METHODS OF COMPARISON.
By

positive

inflection,

by the addition

of -er

and

-est

to the

short, shorter, shortest

fit, fitter, fittest.

In some adjectives a change of spelling takes place


when -er and -est are added.
(a)

Adjectives ending in silent e drop this letter:


tame, tamer, tamest.

wise, wiser, wisest


(b)

Most adjectives ending

in

y change

that letter

to i:

(c)

mossy, mossier, mossiest.


Adjectives ending in a consonant after a short

vowel double this consonant


fit,

2.

fitter, fittest

slim, slimmer, slimmest.

Phrasal comparison.
(a)

By means
beautiful,

(b)

By means

more and most


most beautiful.

of the adverbs

more

beautiful,

of the

adverbs

less

and

least

interesting, less interesting, least interesting.

ADJECTIVESCOMPARISON

89

Euphony, or pleasantness of sound, largely determines


which method is employed in comparing a particular
Most short adjectives are inflected.
With
adjective.
the

of

many

longer

adjectives

we

use

the

phrasal

comparison.
94.
lative

THE ABSOLUTE SUPERLATIVE. The


form

is

frequently used

super-

when no comparison

is

intended.

My dearest mother is
He is

man

We mean
a

here.
of the greatest honour.

that

my

mother

is

very dear, and that he

is

man

of very great honour.


Such superlatives are called

95.

absolute.

The ordinary

is relative.

superlative

IRREGULAR COMPARISON.

(a)

The

following adjectives are

POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

better
good
well (in health) better

bad

ill

compared

irregularly:

SUPERLATIVE
best

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

COMPARATIVE

POSITIVE
(

SUPERLATIVE

former

foremost,

fore

(further
t

hinder
inner
outer

hind
in (adverb)

out (adverb)

<

(utter)

up (adverb)

upper
nether

top
northern

more northern

southern

more southern
more eastern
more western

eastern

western

first

furthest,

furthermost

hindermpst
inmost, innermost
outmost, outermost
utmost, uttermost
uppermost
nethermost
undermost
hithermost
topmost
northmost
northernmost
southmost
southernmost
easternmost
westernmost

A few adjectives which are comparative in meanand


in form, cannot now be used in the comparative
ing
(c)

construction with than

senior, superior (Latin comparatives), elder, former, inner.

This partner is older than the other.


Of the two partners, this one is senior.
96.

SOME ADJECTIVES NOT COMPARED. Owing

to their meaning, some descriptive adjectives cannot be


compared unless used in a limited sense. The following

are examples

straight, level, round, perpendicular,

monthly, English.
cannot
be straighter but
really straight,
we often use straight in the sense of more or less straight,
and we can then say
If

a stick

is

it

This stick

is

straighter (more nearly straight) than that.

EXERCISE 62
Write the comparatives and superlatives of the following
adjectives
able

ADJECTIVES

ARTICLES

EXERCISE 63
Write the other degrees of the following adjectives
better
elder

least

evil
fairer

oldest

91

more
outer

farther

upmost

hindmost

worst

LIMITING ADJECTIVES l
97.

ARTICLES. There

1.

The

because

Indefinite Article, a or an.

It is called indefinite

used to indicate any one of a class of things.


You have an orange.
a pencil.

it is

me

Give

are two:

derived from the O.E. numeral an (one),


of the force of the numeral, especially
in such expressions as
twenty-five cents a pound, two
dollars a yard, where a is equivalent to one or each.
A is used before a word beginning with a consonant

This article

is

and retains some

sound.

A whistle, a youth, a
An is used before

one, a university.

a word beginning with a vowel


and most people use it also before a word
beginning with an aspirate h, when the word is accented

sound

on the second syllable, because in such a case the h


not fully sounded.
An apple, an edition, an hotel, an historical personage.

is

2. The Definite Article, the, is derived from the Old


English demonstrative adjective, and retains some of
its demonstrative force.
It points out one or more
particular things, or a whole class of things.

The apple you want


want,

is

here.

(That apple which you

etc.)

The King is dead (a particular king).


The horse is a useful animal. (The horse == the whole
class, horses.)

The

limiting adjective limits the idea conveyed by the substantive, as in this girl, or what book; or it intimates absence of
limitation, as in any girl. (American Report, p. 16.)
1

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

92

With two

or more connected nouns or adjectives the


should be repeated whenever it is intended to
designate more than one thing or class.
article

The secretary and treasurer is here (one person).


The secretary and the treasurer are here (two persons).
The red white and blue flags (flags of one kind)
The red, the white, and the blue flags (flags of three
kinds).

98.

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.

These are so called

because they are all derived from pronouns, and they are
classified very much as the pronouns are, into possessive,
demonstrative, interrogative, etc.
99.

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES: my, mine;

our, ours;

thy, thine ;

your, yours ; his, her, hers, its ; their, theirs.


These adjectives are derived from the possessive cases
of the Old English personal and demonstrative pronouns.

For the Old English pronouns see Sect. 232.

The

adjectives my, thy, her, its, our, your, and


used when a substantive follows. Mine, thine,
hers, ours, yours, theirs are now used only in the predicate.
His is used in both ways.
1.

their are

My book, his pen, our pencils,


This book is mine. That pen

their desks.
is his.

The

pencils are

ours.

In older English, both mine and thine were used


followed, especially when the latter
began with a vowel sound.
2.

when a substantive
I will

wash mine hands

thine altar,
3.

and

Lord.

The forms mine,

in innocency
Psalms xxvi. 6.
thine,

his,

used as pronouns
Here are your book and mine.
They took their boat and ours.
theirs are

hers,

so will

its,

compass

ours, yours,

also.

4. The word own (an old past particle) is used along


with the possessive adjectives to form emphatic possessive

adjective phrases.

Give us our own hats.


These balls and bats are our own.

POSSESSIVE

ADJECTIVES

93

When not used to modify substantives, these phrases


are pronominal.
I used my money, and he used his own.
EXERCISE 64
Classify the possessive words in the following sentences,
explain the syntax of each.
1

My

skates are not with yours.

We
We

shall carry

and

Where is your notebook ? I forgot to bring mine.


Mr. Woodley drove his own horse to town.
This cottage is ours. We spend our summers in it.
We do not borrow our neighbour's spade, for we have our

2.
3.

4.
5.

own.

hope that those boys do their own work.


our baskets, and send yours by the stage.
8. From your history you have learned of Alfred the Great.
9. Some of you may think you owe your greatness to yourselves, but Alfred owed part of his to his teacher.
10. As you grow older, you may come to the same opinion
6.
7.

in regard to yours.
11. But you will be thinking,
doesn't he talk of
"
Alfred's greatness, instead of moralising about ours ?
12. Perhaps you have heard your father say, "If it rains
on St. Swithin's day, there will be forty wet days to follow."
13. Mine used to repeat to us this old saying.
14. Swithin was a real person, and it was his privilege to be
Alfred's tutor.
15. Alfred's talents were developed by his teacher's training,
and so also are yours.

"Why

Fill

EXERCISE 65
each blank in the following sentences with the proper

possessive adjective.
1

Each one

of you should have


of these farmers will lend

2.

Any one

3.

England expects every one to do

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

10.
11.

12.

own

book.
horse.

you
duty.

One has to pick


steps when going through this .swamp.
Neither Mary nor Dorothy has eaten
breakfast.
Either of us will exchange
All the shareholders
expressed

There was no one but gave


Every one has expressed

Everybody thinks
Each pupil does

You

don't look like a

house for a farm.


approval.
help.

opinion.
to be important.

own work

parsing in his

own way.

man who would

leave

family

alone.
14.

Each

of the

women had

a knight gained
Either Mr. Smith or Mr.
17. No one has handed in
15.
1 6.

Many

knitting.

spurs in this battle.


Brown will sell
farm.
written work.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

94

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES:

100.

those

that,

They

yon, yonder.

because they point out.


1. The chief demonstratives are
Sing.
PI.

that
those

this

these

this, these',

are called demonstrative

This school has four rooms, that one has five.


These boys like football, those boys prefer baseball.

When this and that, or these and those, are used, as in


these sentences, they contrast the nearer thing with
the more remote.
Yon and yonder point out remote
Yon tower is very tall.
2.

things.

3. So and such are used with demonstrative force in


such sentences as
:

are lucky, and so am I.


Such boys as you should be punished.

You
101.

INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES:

which and

what.
1.

Both are used to ask questions.

Both are used

of

either persons or things.

Which friend is coming ?


Which horse do you want
What boys did you see ?
What book do you want ?
2.

What

is

sometimes used as an adverb.

What a brave man he


102.

is

(How brave a man he

is

!)

RELATIVE ADJECTIVES:

whatever.

ever,

which, what, whichLike the relative pronouns, these words,

when used as adjectives, show the relations between clauses.


Which is sometimes used with a definite antecedent.
Let him read what books he likes (those books which).
Use whatever powers you may have (those powers which).
He spoke of a book, which book he had with him.
103.
finite

INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES. Most


pronouns

are

of the inde-

used also as adjectives.

None

is

DEMONSTRATIVE

ADJECTIVES

95

always a pronoun. Every is always an adjective. (See list


of indefinite pronouns, section 86.)
Many citizens do much work for the city.
Certain men have had enough experience.
Every boy should acquire some land of skill.
This is the very 1 man I want. These are the same people
you saw.

EXERCISE 66
the following sentences,

Classify the adjectives in


explain the syntax of each.

What boy

1.

"

in the class has

Rolf the Ganger

"

3.

called

to give about

The name of this


Which pupil can
Normandy ?

2.

any information

and

sea-rover is not very familiar to us.


us why a certain part of France

tell

is

4. Students of such intelligence will ask what reason is


given for this fact.
5. If this be so, you will read these sentences.
6. The Danes, or Northmen, those fierce enemies of Alfred,
had been driven from the shores of England by the great king

and

his son.

Being

7.

8.
9.
is

still

eager to gain whatever booty they could,

them sailed south.


The chief of their band was Rolf the Ganger.
Some girl will be saying to herself, " What new word
of

many
this

"

his stature that when he rode on his horse,


touched the ground on each side
this forced him to
"
gang or go on foot."
1 1
If there are any Lowland Scotch in the class, they should
recognise this word.
10.

Such was

his feet

"

"

We

"

make some observations," as the teacher of


say, from Rolf's method of riding.
13. In the first place, the horses that he rode were about as
large as a Shetland pony.
14. So each reader can imagine Rolf's long legs touching the
ground as he bestrode one of these tiny animals.
12.

science

15.
1

6.

while

shall

would

Which girl can make the other observation ?


As we do not hear your answer, every voice must be

we make whatever attempt we can

to explain

still

it.

17. Our opinion is that Rolf's language was not unlike that
spoken in some
parts of Scotland.
"
18. The
Goer," although he did not go there on horseback,
attacked the northern coast of France.
19. A certain French king, known as Charles the Simple,
1

Very

is

adjective,

called an intensifying adjective, and same an identifying


by the Joint Committee on Grammatical Nomenclature.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

96

yield him some land, and this territory was


called Normandy after these Northmen.
20. Rolf was then summoned to Paris, and was bidden to
kneel and kiss this king's foot in token of loyalty.
21. Imagine what joy this command brought to the heart
of the proud warrior
22. Approaching the throne, before the eyes of every courtier
he seized the toes of Simple Charles and threw him backwards,
chair and all.
ARNOLD-FORSTER, History of England (adapted).
Those hard workers who have finished this exercise may
" 23.

was forced to

gang awa' hame."

NUMERAL

ADJECTIVES. The numeral adjec104.


tives are so called because they express number definitely.
They

are divided into

two

The Cardinals

(one,

1.

question,

"How many?

and ordinals.
etc.) answer the

classes, cardinals

"

two, three,

A hundred men.
One boy.
Twenty girls.
Ten thousand four hundred and fifty soldiers.
The smaller numbers are represented by single words,
the larger ones by phrases, which are treated as single
parts of speech.
The cardinals
Forty of the

may

be used also as nouns.

boys were here.

spectators came by tens and twenties.


Hundreds of women and thousands of men were

The

The Ordinals

second,
(first,
position or order in a series.
2.

third,

etc.)

there.

denote

The first boy. The twelfth girl. The one hundred and
man.
The two thousand four hundred and fiftieth soldier.

first

As with the cardinals, an ordinal may be a word, or


a phrase which is treated as a single part of speech.
Most of the ordinals are derived from the cardinals
by the addition of -th, which, in the case of phrases, is
added to the last word. First, second, and third are
exceptions.
All the ordinals except first and second are used as
nouns to name the fractions.

third of the class.


Four
Five hundredths of the sum.
3.

fifths

of the

money.

Derived from the cardinals are the adjectives two-

ADJECTIVES
fold, threefold, etc.,

double,

is

97

which, together with the adjectives

simple,
called Multiplicatives.

There

NUMERAL

triple,

treble,

quadruple, are sometimes

a twofold (double) benefit in this plan.

Twofold, threefold, etc., are also commonly used as


adverbs.
There has been a fourfold increase in value. (Adjective.)
This house has increased fourfold in value. (Adverb.)

EXERCISE 67
Classify the adjectives in the following extract, and explain
the syntax of each.

AN OLD ENGLISH GAME


you how the noble old game of back-sword is
played. The weapon is a good stout ash stick with a large
basket handle,, heavier and somewhat shorter than a common
"
Old Gamester "
Each player is called an
single-stick.
why, I can't tell you, and his object is simply to break his
for the moment that blood runs an inch
opponent's head
anywhere above the eyebrow, the old gamester to whom it
belongs is beaten, and has to stop. A very slight blow with the
sticks will fetch blood, so that it is by no means a punishing
pastime, if the men don't play savagely at the bodies and arms
I

must

tell

of their adversaries. Each old gamester going into action takes


off his hat and coat, and arms himself with a stick ; he then
loops the fingers of his left hand in a handkerchief or strap,
which he fastens round his left leg, measuring the length, so
that when he draws it tight with his left elbow in the air,
that elbow shall reach as high as his crown. There you see,
so long as he keeps his left elbow up, regardless of blows, he
has a perfect guard for that side of his head. Then he advances
his right hand above and in front of his head, holding his stick
across, so that its point projects an inch or two over his left
and thus he has his whole head completely guarded,
;
while his competitor has his protected in the same way. They
stand some three feet apart, often nearer, and feint and strike
and return at one another's heads until one cries " hold " or
blood flows. T. HUGHES, Tom Brown's School Days.

elbow

SYNTAX OF THE ADJECTIVE


105. The adjective may stand in three different relations
to the substantive which it modifies.
i.

The

PREDICATE ADJECTIVE. When

tive is in the predicate of the sentence,

and

an adjec-

is

brought

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

98
by means

of

the verb into relation with either the


or the direct object, it is called

subject substantive,
Predicate.

This boy is happy and careless all day long.


Good health makes this boy happy and careless.
We consider this boy happy and careless!

Sometimes a predicate adjective seems to modify both


the verb and the subject substantive.

The sun

shines bright.

The boy came running.

Bright describes both the sun and the shining.


an adjective is called Adverbial Predicate.

The

2.

ADHERENT ADJECTIVE. When

Such

an adjec-

placed near, and is closely connected with, the


substantive it modifies, but is not brought into relation
with the substantive by means of a verb, it is called
Adherent.
tive

is

This happy, careless boy plays

all

day

long.

Each of the italicised adjectives is closely connected


with boy, and is placed near it, but is not brought into
relation with the noun boy by means of a verb.

The adherent
tive,

This
3.

adjective usually precedes the substanit in poetry.

but occasionally follows


is

The

the forest primeval.

LONGFELLOW, Evangeline.

APPOSITIVE ADJECTIVE.

This boy, happy and

careless,

plays

all

In the sentence,

day

long.

the adjectives happy and careless modify the noun boy,


but we feel that they are less closely connected with

the noun than are the same adjectives in sub-section 2


above. This looseness of connection is indicated by
the way we punctuate the sentence and read it aloud.
The relation of the adjectives here is similar to that of
the noun in apposition, and so

is

called Appositive.

The distinctions indicated by the old terms, objective predicate,


predicate objective, and factitive objective predicate, are being
abandoned as quite useless. See p. 9 of the Report of the English
Joint Committee on the Terminology of Grammar.
1

ADJECTIVES
The appositive

SYNTAX

99

adjective usually follows the noun,

but occasionally precedes.


Young, beautiful, and

clever,

the maiden attracted

everybody.

EXERCISE 68
Classify the adjectives in the following sentences explain
the syntax of each, and name its relation to the word it
;

modifies.

1. We have decided to insert some sentences describing


the Anglo-Saxons.
2. When you are asked to learn dates, do you think the
task difficult ?
3. Perhaps it will be easier to remember that they conquered
Britain after the Romans had left the island unprotected.
4. Of course the teacher has made it clear that they came

from Germany.
5. The earliest of these invaders were not interested in
writing books.
6. But Tacitus, a Roman writer, has made us acquainted
with these far-away grandparents.
"
A fine, unmixed and
7. Here is his description of them,
independent race, unlike any other people, with stern blue
eyes, ruddy hair, of large and robust frames."
"
"
8. Do you consider your friend's hair
ruddy ?
"
Fierce and cruel in war, they were
9. Tacitus also says,
content, when the war was over, to lay aside the sword and
spear and return to their farms."
10. They were free men, living in little villages scattered
throughout a great, uninhabited country.
11. The head of each family had a plot of land.
That was

his

own.

12.

They made the pasture-land common

to

all.

reasonable to suppose that this custom tells us why


we still call an unfenced piece of ground a " common " ?
"
Eldermen."
14. The headmen of the village were the
"
Eldermen"
15. It does not require much effort to change
"
13.

Is it

Aldermen."
When they set out to attack other tribes, they were
led by chiefs who had made themselves famous in war.
"
Low German."
17. They spoke a language similar to
1 8.
Many of the words of Low German can be understood
from our knowledge of English.

to

6.

B
1.

2.
3.

He went mad.
They danced themselves tired.
He walked home, worn out with

his exertions.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

ioo

4. When Isaac returns successful, I will see that he pays


thee the money.
5. Heaven bring him safe back to shore!
6. He was struck dumb with astonishment.
7. His character rendered him odious.

The wine

8.

tastes sour.

He

talked himself hoarse.


10. Her friends thought her beautiful.
9.

The weather turned very hot in June.


went along, happy in our work.
13. Your brother looks much better.
COLERIDGE, The Ancient
14. The furrow followed free.
Manner.
15. Disconcerted by this, Mr. Ogilvie took a new position,
where, I suppose, he thought himself perfectly safe. BOSWELL,
11.

We

12.

Life of Johnson.
1 6. Thou
mayst convey thy family to this village, where
there are houses now standing empty, one of which thou mayst
have at reasonable rates
provision is there both cheap and
good and what will make thy life more happy is the fact that
thou shalt live by honest neighbours. BUNYAN, Pilgrim's
;

Progress.
17.

This Legality

is

not able to set thee free from thy burden.

BUNYAN, Pilgrim's Progress.


1 8. The
morning found the one fast asleep, the other broad
awake. CERVANTES, Don Quixote.
19. Mr. McPherson, who has been successful in his business,
did not consider this matter very important.
20. Thou found'st me poor at first, and keep'st me so.
GOLDSMITH, The Deserted Village.

106.

WORDS

AS

MORE THAN ONE PART OF

SPEECH.

Pupils should keep in mind the fact that the


value of a word, phrase, or clause is determined by its use
in the sentence.
The same word may be two or three
different parts of speech, according to its use.
1.

Many words commonly

used as nouns are used also

as adjectives.

A gold watch,
2.

a paper shade, a bone handle, an iron spike.

few words generally used as adverbs are some-

times adjectives.

The above words, the down

train, the then governor.

3. Phrases and clauses are adjectival when they


modify substantives.

SPECIAL USES

ADJECTIVES
(a)

(b)

107.

101

The cliffs along the Niagara River are very high.


The war between the Teutons and the Entente has ended.
The horses of my friends are very fast.
The books that you bought are very interesting.

SUBSTANTIVES WITH ADJECTIVAL FUNC-

TION.

Substantives in the genitive case, in apposition, or

in the predicate

nominative construction, have adjectival

functions. 1
(a) John's house, the King's navy, the people's rights,
whose books.
Give this to your friend,
(b) Tom, the tinker, is here.
the merchant.
Clemenceau was president. You
(c) John is a runner.

are he.

Each of the

genitive cases in (a) modifies the substantive


Tinker modifies Tom, and merchant modifies
In (c) each of the italicised words modifies the

following.
friend.

We

call all these italicised words


subject of its sentence.
nouns or pronouns, but each has an adjectival function

in its sentence.

108.

SPECIAL CASES. The uses of the italicised adjec-

tives in the following sentences present

some

To be virtuous is
The king's being

to be truly happy.
so young was unfortunate.

His being

was very important.

skilful

difficulty.

Virtuous and happy of sentence I are predicate adjeceach serving as complement of a verb to be. In each
case the verb and its complement express a noun idea.

tives,

This

is

shown by the paraphrase,


Virtue

Young and

is

true happiness.

and third sentences are


predicate adjectives modifying king and he, which in these
sentences are represented by the genitive case King's
and the possessive adjective his. The sentences might be
skilful of the second

paraphrased thus

The
The
1

of

fact that the king was young was unfortunate.


fact that he was skilful was important.

Compare the function

an

infinitive.

of the substantive used as

(Section 6i %)

complement

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

102
109.

PARSING OF ADJECTIVES.

the adjective

it is

sufficient to

mention

In the parsing of
its class,

and to

explain its syntax.


(See page 268.)
These busy boys are happy.
These
dem. adj., mod. the noun boys, adherently.
busy descrip. adj., mod. the noun boys, adherently.
:

happy: descrip. adj., mod. the noun boys predicatively,


and completing the verb are.
EXERCISE 69
Classify the italicised words and phrases in the following
sentences, and explain the syntax of each.

being old prevents me from changing my profession.


beguile the giver, who, if he knew the truth, would
LANGLAND,
give to the poor indeed, and help the neediest of all.
1.

My

2.

They

Piers Plowman.
3. As the up train

down

was

late,

it

had to wait here

for the

express.

not allow him to become proud.


often a sign of ignorance.
of the houses on Evelyn Avenue are owned by their

4.

His natural humility

5.

To be narrow-minded

6.

Many

will
is

occupants.
7. Balfour, the then premier of England, was a scholar as
well as a statesman.
8. The Britons are said to have used iron bars as money.
9. To be contented is a large part of being happy.
"
Adventures of Captain
10. Have any of you read Defoe's
"
?
Singleton
n. His being able to tell a story well, makes his books interesting.
12. The

wrong

no.

boy without a knowledge of Robinson Crusoe has a

to be righted.

ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES. The

these clauses

is

classification of

very simple. Like ordinary adjectives, they

are either descriptive or limiting.


Clauses.
An adjectival clause is dei. Descriptive
scriptive when it is used merely to describe the thing
represented by the substantive.
father, whom you saw yesterday, has gone home.
President Wilson, who attended the Peace Conference,
has returned to the United States.
Montreal, which is on the St. Lawrence, has many indus-

My

tries.

The nouns father, Wilson, and Montreal are so definite,


as used here, that the meaning of the sentences would

ADJECTIVES

CLAUSES

103

if the adjectival clauses were omitted.


The
clauses are used simply to describe, to give additional

be clear

information about my father, President Wilson, and


Montreal. Notice that these clauses are separated from
the words they modify by commas.
2.

when

its

An

adjective clause is limiting


to limit the application or
of the substantive it modifies.

Limiting

Clauses.

main purpose

is

meaning
The man that you saw yesterday, has gone home.
The lawyer that attended the Peace Conference, has
returned.

The nouns man and lawyer

are so indefinite, as used

in these sentences, that the adjectival clauses are

to

show what man and what lawyer are meant.

clauses describe, but their chief function

is

added

The

to limit the

application of the nouns. Notice that the limiting clause


not separated from the word it modifies by a comma.

is

The

relative

pronoun

the limiting clause, but

used to introduce
never used with the purely

that is often
is

descriptive clause.

EXERCISE 70
Classify the adjectival clauses in the following sentences,
and explain the function of each.
1. The priest who lived with Robin Hood was called the
Clerk of Copmanhurst.
2. Only the boys that have heard of Robin Hood should
be asked to do this exercise.
3. Two much more difficult ones ought to be given any
pupils that have not made his acquaintance.
4. The Clerk, who had a cell in the thick woods, was more

interested in good living than in his priestly duties.


5. Once his cell was visited by Richard the First,

who was
and who asked for a meal.
6. The host, who was trying to give the
impression that he
lived on hermit's fare, set some dried pease before the king.
7. This dish, which was just as dry then as it would be now,
did not suit the jovial monarch.
8. However, he laboriously chewed a small
helping of the
only food that was offered him.
in disguise

The American Joint Committee recommends the term determithe same term that is

It seems better, however, to


native.
keep
used in classifying ordinary adjectives.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

104

We

do not wonder when we learn that he soon asked


which was the usual drink in those days.
10. But all that the hermit gave him was water in a large can.
"
in
n. " This is from the well of St. Dunstan," said he,
heathen
betwixt
he
hundred
sun
five
and
which,
sun,
baptised
Danes and Britons."
9.

for wine,

12. The king made the best of the beverage, which, to his
mind, was better fitted for the use to which the saint had put
it than for drinking.
13. Looking at the hermit's huge body, which gave indica"
The
tion of neither privation nor scanty diet, he observed,

small morsels which you eat, and this thin beverage, seem to
have agreed with you excellently."
14. After a few more hints, the king persuaded him to look
in the pantry again, to see if all the food that was there had
been placed on the table.
15.

As a

result,

venison, appeared

a huge pasty, in which were great


upon the scene.

pieces of

who have

spent all their lives in Canada, do not


pasty."
17. The king was the only person that had the right to hunt
the deer in this forest. This fact added to Richard's amusement.
18. Later, some wine, which was kept in a leather bottle
holding a gallon, was discovered.
19. This took the place of the water from the well in which
the pagans had been baptised.
20. The hermit, who for some reason was now in high spirits,
invited Richard to sing a song.
21. As his own share of the entertainment, which was loud
"
The
if not long, he gave the old English song known as
1

call

6.

Girls

a meat-pie a

"

Barefooted Friar."
22.

Next came a duet, which was interrupted by a loud

knocking.

23. You may imagine the vexation which the hermit felt at
in this strange performance.
being caught
"
visitor that did not know my serious character,"
24.
Any
"
said he,
might make the mistake of regarding my kindly

hospitality to
25.

But the

you as mere drunkenness and revelry."


travellers whose knocks had disturbed his peace

of mind, proved to be friends.


26. The incident is described
which you should read.

more

fully in Ivanhoe,

a book

VERBS

CLASSES

105

CHAPTER V
THE VERB
I.

CLASSIFICATION

in. A VERB is a word or phrase by means of which we


make a declaration or ask a question. It is the essential
part of the predicate of a sentence.
112. Verbs are classified according to meaning and use,
as follows
:

Transitive
...

Intransitive

VERB

113. A TRANSITIVE
action which requires an object.

Henry

split

The verbs

Linking

one that expresses an

is

the wood, and his brother piled

split

and the pronoun

and piled express

action.

it.

The noun wood

represent the objects of the action.


114. All verbs that are not transitive are called intransitive. They fall into two classes, complete and linking.
1.

it

A LINKING VERB

simply joins the subject and

a complement.
(a)
(6)

The

He

picture

remains

is beautiful.

my

friend.

The verb is does not express action, but serves to


complement beautiful to the subject picture.
This complement modifies the subject, and completes
join the

the verb in the sense that


assertion.

The noun

it assists

friend in

(b)

the verb to

make an

modifies he and com-

pletes remains.
2. A COMPLETE verb is one that requires neither
an object nor a complement, in making a declaration,

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

106

or asking a question.
It may, however, be modified by
an adverb, as in the following sentences
The boys run fast.
She skips well.
Birds fly rapidly.
I walk quickly.
:

115. Use in the sentence determines the


of a verb as transitive, complete, or
linking.
1.

classification

This boy writes his exercise, and then reads

it.

Transitive.
2.

He

3.

This

4.
5.
6.
7.

writes

man

The
The
The
The

and reads every day.


appeared suddenly on the

Complete.
stage. Complete.

people appeared sad.


farmer grew many potatoes.
potatoes grew rapidly.
boys grew tired of the game.

Linking
Transitive.

Complete.
Linking.

should be remembered that in each case the difference


in use in these verbs corresponds to a difference in meaning.
This is very plain in sentences 5, 6 and 7. Grew in 5 means
raised, or caused to grow
grew in 7 means became.
It

116. Linking verbs are sometimes difficult to recognise.


The student should remember that the substantive, or

which completes a linking verb,

adjective,

modifies the subject.


in such sentences as

refers to, or

The

reflexive object (section 81, 3),

"He

praises himself," represents the

same person as does the subject, but it is unlike a complement in that it is the object of a transitive verb. The chief
The
linking verbs are used in the following sentences.
verb be is by far the commonest of the class.

You

are

my

He

friend.

mad. The sky grew dark.

They continued

silent.

seem vexed.

You

stands open.

The dog

became

my

enemy.

It turned cold.

spiteful.

look vexed.
lies still.

He

went

Henry remained

You appear vexed. You


You feel vexed. The door

My blood runs

cold.

They

sat quiet.

117.

To

be is usually a linking verb,

but

is

sometimes

complete.

God

He

is.

is

a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.

Hebrews

The

first is

xi. 6.

means

joins the subject


is a linking verb.

and is complete. The second is


the complement rewarder, and so

exists,

He and

VERBS

CLASSES

107

EXERCISE 71
Classify the verbs in the following sentences,
the syntax of italicised nouns and pronouns.
1

2.

and explain

George became King of England in 1 760.


Although the street was narrow, the chauffeur turned

the car easily.


3.

4.
5.

6.

Judas turned traitor for thirty pieces of silver.


She seemed a goddess.
The gardeners grow these fragrant onions in hot-beds.
The poor fellow went insane, and now lives in the hospital.

And now there came both mist and snow,


And it grew wondrous cold.

7.

COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.

The
Red

8.

bride hath paced into the hall,


as a rose is she.

COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.


g.

10.

His virtues walked their narrow round.


DR. S. JOHNSON.
Calm is my soul, nor apt to rise in arms,
Except when fast-approaching danger warns.

GOLDSMITH, The

When

Traveller.

aloud the wind doth blow,


And coughing drowns the parson's saw,
And birds sit brooding in the snow,
And Marian's nose looks red and raw.

11.

all

SHAKESPEARE.

My lady-mother

12.

there

Sits lonely in her castle-hall.

My
14.

6.

full

Perhaps their loves, or

Was

15.

SCOTT, Rosabelle.
furnace of this hour
keen
and clear.
thoughts grow
LAMPMAN, Heat.

In the

13.

that did their

else their sheep,

thoughts so busy keep.


MILTON, Ode on The Morning of Christ's Nativity.
I muse (marvel) your
Majesty doth seem so cold,
When such profound respects do pull you on.
SHAKESPEARE, King John.
all

Be

silly

thou the trumpet of our wrath.

SHAKESPEARE, King John.

He

17-

To him

will

that proves the King,

we prove

loyal.

SHAKESPEARE, King John.


1

8.

Rescue these breathing

That here come

sacrifices for

the

lives

field (of battle).

SHAKESPEARE, King John.


19.

And then
Full

at last our bliss

and perfect

is.

MILTON.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

108

we weep to see
haste away so soon
As yet the early-rising Sun
Has not attained his noon.

20. Fair daffodils,

You

Stay, stay,
Until the hasting

Has run

day

But

to the even-song
And, having pray'd together, we
Will go with you along.
HER RICK, To Daffodils.

II.

INFLECTION

TI 8. Verbs are inflected to

mark

distinctions

of tense,

person, number, and mood. These distinctions and that of


voice are marked also by means of verb phrases. TENSE
indicates time. PERSON and NUMBER in verbs correspond

with person and number in substantives. MOOD indicates


the attitude of the speaker. VOICE shows whether something acts or is acted upon.
1
119. According to their method of inflection, verbs are
divided into two classes, or conjugations, called weak and
strong.
1.

WEAK VERBS

form the past tense and the past

participle by adding -(e)d, or


form of the word.

-t

to the stem, 2 or simplest

walk, walked, walked ; wish, wished, wished


burn, burned or burnt, burned or burnt.
2.

Some weak
(a)

verbs have minor peculiarities

few have two forms for past tense, or past

participle, or both:
learn, learned or learnt, learned or learnt:
spill, spilled or spilt, spilled or spilt

bend, bent, bended or bent


build, built, builded or built

1
The inflection of a verb is often called its conjugation.
verb is
said to be conjugated, when it is inflected.
secondary meaning
"
of the word conjugation is
class" (according to inflection).
8
The simplest form of a word, the form to which inflectional
endings are added, is called the stem. In nouns and pronouns it is
the nominative singular, in adjectives and adverbs the positive,
and in verbs the infinitive.

VERBS
(b)

the stem

considerable

when adding

CLASSES

109

number shorten the vowel


-d or

-t

of

creep, crept, crept


l
deal, dealt, dealt

bereave, bereft, bereft (or


bereaved, bereaved)

flee, fled, fled

say, said, said

sleep, slept, slept


(c) A few verbs change entirely the vowel
stem when adding -d or -t.

of the

sold, sold
seek, sought, sought

buy, bought, bought


bring, brought, brought

sell,

(d) A good many verbs whose stems end in -d or -t


do not add -(e)d or -t, because the latter could not be

conveniently pronounced.
cast, cost, hit, hurt, spread, shed.
(e) The invariable characteristic of weak verbs is
the addition of -(e)d or -t, except in the case of verbs
Consult section 238.
like those in (d).
VERBS
3. STRONG
change the vowel of the stem in

forming past tense and past participle, and many of


-(e)n to the past participle. (See section 235.)

them add

drink, drank, drunk


cling, clung, clung

blow, blew, blown


bid, bade, bidden

rise, rose, risen

lie,

choose, chose, chosen

fall, fell,

4.

and

IRREGULAR VERBS.

lay, lain
fallen

(Compare sections 233

239.)

Be

(a)

is

made up

of parts

from several

different

roots.

am,

is,

(b)

was, been.

Go has a past tense which belonged

originally

to another verb wend.

Go, went, gone.


(c)

Do

has a past tense formed by reduplication, 3

or doubling of the stem.


Do, did, done.
1

The vowel has

not show
*

really

been shortened, although the spelling does

German

verb, thun, that, gethan, and the Latin verb,

it.

Compare the

cado, cadere, cecidi.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

no

(d) Can, may, shall, will, have neither infinitives


nor participles. Their present tenses are old strong
past tenses, whose places as past tenses have been
taken by new weak pasts ending in -d or -t.

could, might, should, would.


(e)

Must and

ought,

which likewise have neither

nor participles, are now present tenses.


Formerly they were weak past tenses.
(/) Wit (present tense wot) is obsolete, except in
the expression to wit.

infinitives

5. The infinitive, the past tense, and the past participle


are called the principal parts of the verb, because from
them, except in a few cases, all the other parts of the

verb can be formed.


6.

will

Lists of peculiar weak verbs and of strong verbs


be found in Appendix B.

EXERCISE 72
Classify the following verbs as weak, strong, or irregular,
of each:

and give the principal parts


abide

speak
spin
spit

spring
strike

swear
swell

swim
swing
take
tear

throw

wake
weep
will

win
wring
write

EXERCISE 73
(a)

Classify each verb in the following extract as transitive,

linking, or complete.

VERBS TENSE
(b)

give

Tell
its

whether each verb

is

in

weak, strong, or irregular, and

principal parts.

Burn'd Marmion's swarthy cheek like fire,


And shook his very frame for ire,
And " This to me " he said,
"
An 'twere not for thy hoary beard,
Such hand as Marmion's had not spared
To cleave the Douglas' head
And, first, I tell thee, haughty Peer,
He, who does England's message here,
Although the meanest in her state,
May well, proud Angus, be thy mate
And, Douglas, more I tell thee here,
Even in thy pitch of pride,
Here in thy hold, thy vassals near,
(Nay, never look upon your lord,
And lay your hands upon your sword,)
!

I tell thee,

And if thou
To any lord

thou'rt defied

am

not peer
saidst, I
in Scotland here,
Lowland or Highland, far or near,
Lord Angus, thou hast lied "On the Earl's cheek the flush of rage
O'ercame the ashen hue of age
!

Fierce he broke forth,

"

And

darest thou then

To beard the lion in his den,


The Douglas in his hall ?
And hopest thou hence unscathed to go
No, by Saint Bride of Bothwell, no

drawbridge, grooms what, Warder, ho


Let the portcullis fall."

Up

Lord Marmion turn'd

well

was

his need,

And

dash'd the rowels in his steed,


Like arrow through the archway sprung.
The ponderous grate behind him rung
To pass there was such scanty room,
The bars, descending, razed his plume.
:

The

steed along the drawbridge

flies,

trembles on the rise


Nor lighter does the swallow skim
Along the smooth lake's level brim
And when Lord Marmion reached his band,
He halts, and turns with clenched hand,
And shout of loud defiance pours,
And shook his gauntlet at the towers.
SCOTT, Marmion.
Just as

it

ILL TENSE
120. Tense indicates time.

By means of its tense-forms


the verb distinguishes between present, past, and future

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

ii2
time.
phrases.

verb

Tenses are formed by means of inflections and


The three simple tenses (indicative mood) of the

call are as follows

PRESENT

We

ist Per. I call


2nd Per. Thou call-est

He

3rd Per.

PAST

Plural

Sing.

You

call
call

We call-ed

Thou call-ed-st You call-ed


call-ed
They call-ed

He

They call

call-s

Plural

Sing.
I call-ed

FUTURE
Plural

Sing.

istPers.

I shall call

We

2nd

Thou

You

Pers.
3rd Pers.

He

shall call
will call
They will call

wilt call

will call

Notice concerning these verbs: (i) the way the past


is formed from the stem call, (2) the way the future
tense is formed, (3) the way person and number are shown.
Although the verb-forms given above with thou are not
now used in everyday speech, they are still found in
literature. For the sake of simplicity, the forms with you
are treated as plural, although we use them in the singular
tense

also.

121. As you learned in section 119, many strong verbs


form their past tenses by means of a change in the vowel
of the stem. The past tenses of drink and choose are as

follows
I

We drank

drank

Thou drank-est You drank


He drank
They drank
122.

The verb

be is

We

chose

Thou

He

chos-est

chose

chose
chose
They chose

You

very irregular. Its present, past, and

future tenses are, therefore, given.

PAST

PRESENT
I

We

am

Thou

He

is

art

are
You are
They are

We

was

Thou wast
He was

(wert)

FUTURE
be

I shall

Thou

He

wilt be

will

be

We

shall be
will be
They will be

You

were

You were
They were

PRESENT TENSES

VERBS

The very common verb have

is

113

irregular in the present

tense.

We

have

have

Thou hast

You have

He

They have

has (hath)

EXERCISE 74
1.

(a)

Write in

full

of pray.

State clearly

(b)

What

(i)

the past tense,

how you formed each

(2)

the future tense

of these tenses.

and past tenses


to indicate the person of the verb ?
3. (a) Supply the proper form of the present tense of be in
"
You
a soldier."
the sentence,
What
(b)
peculiarity is there in the number of the word
you have supplied ?
(c) From your study of personal pronouns, account for this
2.

inflections are used in the present

peculiarity.
(a)

4.

Conjugate the following verbs in the present, past,

and future tenses


Classify

(b)

them

walk, run, go, see, eat, fly, carry.


Give your
as weak, strong, or irregular.

reason in each case.

PRESENT TENSES (INDICATIVE)


123. There are two present tenses, the PRESENT and
the PRESENT PERFECT. The former expresses present

action or state
the latter expresses the completion in
the present of some act or state. The present tense has
three forms, and the present perfect tense has two. The
following are the present and present perfect tenses of give:
;

PRESENT TENSE
Ordinary Form
I

give

Thou

givest
gives
give
You give
They give

He

We
I

Progressive
I

am

Form

giving
Thou art giving
He is giving
We are giving
You are giving
They are giving

Emphatic Form
I do give

Thou dost

He

give

does give

We do

give
give
do give

You do
They

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

ii4

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


Ordinary Form
I have given

Progressive

Thou hast given

He

has given

We have given
You have

Form

have been giving


Thou hast been giving
He has been giving
We have been giving
You have been giving
They have been giving
I

given

They have given

The

progressive form of each tense is used to express


continuity of action or state. The third form of the present
is often emphatic, but is the usual one in questions and
negations.
I

do wish you would do as

I say.

(Emphatic.)

wish me to go?
do not wish your company.

Do you
No,

124. Verbs like be (am, art, have been, hast been, etc.),
and have, when used, as here, to form the phrasal tenses

do,

of other verbs, are called auxiliary (or helping) verbs. They


retain little of their ordinary meaning, and each is simply

part of the phrasal form of another verb. They perform


the same function in English that is performed in Latin
and other languages by endings, or suffixes. 1

Notice that phrasal tenses are formed by combining


an auxiliary verb with a present participle (giving), an
infinitive (give), or a past participle (given).
Be, do, have, are also used as principal verbs,

and have

For instance, the five present tense


the usual tenses.
forms of do and have are as follows, in the first person
singular

I do, I
doing.
I have,
having.

am
I

doing, I do do, I have done,

am

having,

Be has only one present

do have,

tense,

/ am,

have had,

etc.,

have been
have been

and one present

perfect tense, / have been, etc.


125. The present tense is sometimes used to express
1

I
I

Compare the English and Latin verbs


carry: porto.
have carried portaw.
:

carry

and

porto.

was carrying: porta&aw.

shall carry

porta&o.

VERBS
There

future time.

PAST TENSES

is

marked tendency

115

in conversation

to substitute the present for the future tense.


The train arrives in a few minutes.
The Peace Conference meets in three weeks.
I

am

going to see him to-morrow.

In animated narrative, the present tense is used instead


of the past tense, and is then called the historic present.

Suddenly the enemy appears to the

left,

and opens a

merciless fire on our flank.

EXERCISE 75
forms of the present and present perfect tenses
of the following verbs

Write out

all

Make, put, buy,

seek, drink, throw,

fall,

see,

break, grind,
gild, spend,

weep, bend, burn,

strive, catch, tell, spread, flee,


kneel, knit, have, be, do.

PAST TENSES (INDICATIVE)

PAST and the PAST


former expresses past action or state;
the latter expresses the completion in the past of some act
or state. The past tense has three forms, and the past
perfect tense has two. These tenses of the verb give are
126. There are two past tenses, the

PERFECT. The

as follows

PAST TENSE
Ordinary
I gave
Thou gavest
He gave
We gave
You gave
They gave

Emphatic

Progressive
I

was giving

did give
Thou didst give
He did give
We did give
You did give
They did give
I

Thou wast

giving
giving
We were giving
You were giving
They were giving

He was

PAST PERFECT TENSE


Ordinary
I

had given

Thou hadst given

He had

given
We had given
You had given
They had given

Progressive
I

had been giving

Thou hadst been

He had

We

giving

been giving

had been giving


You had been giving
They had been giving

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

n6

As with the present

tenses, the second form of each past


used to express continuity of action or state. The
third form of the past tense is often emphatic, but is the
usual one in questions and negations.
The verb be was formerly used to form the present
1
perfect and past perfect tenses of verbs of motion.

tense

is

am

come a light into the world. John


were come down into the

And when they


ceased.

Matthew

xii.

46.
ship, the

wind

xiv. 32.

Very many examples of this use of the auxiliary be are


found in the King James version of the Bible, and in other
literature, but it is now obsolete.
EXERCISE 76
Write out the past tenses of the following verbs

send, sweep, leave, say, feed, cost, buy, sell,


begin, spin, ride, speak, break, know, slay, take, fly, sit, eat
have, be, do.
Spill, spoil, lend,

EXERCISE 77
of
the verb do in each of the following
the
function
Explain
sentences
1. He did say this, did he not ?
he did it.
2. No, he did not say it
3. Do shut the door
4. The old man does try hard to make a living.
:

Do you think that this wind will bring rain


These boys do not do their work very well.

5.

6.

Do

7.

prop
8.
9.

10.

look like a cudgel or a hovel-post, a staff or a

SHAKESPEARE, The Merchant of Venice.


We did all that was necessary.
No nightingale did ever chaunt more welcome notes.
WORDSWORTH, The Reaper.
Fair pledges of a fruitful tree, why do you fall so fast ?
HERRICK, The Blossoms.

EXERCISE 78
of the verbs be and have wherever
the
function
Explain
they occur in the following sentences
Acts iii. 6.
1. Silver and gold have I none.
2. We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced.
:

Luke

vii. 32.

In French and German, verbs of motion take as auxiliaries the


Ich bin gekomiuen.
corresponding verbs: Je suis venu.
1

FUTURE TENSES

VERBS
3.

4.

He had nothing to say.


He had had many followers,

but few

117

friends.

the Britons, those who dwell in Kent are the most


civilised.
CAESAR, The Gallic War.
6. Our friend, Mr. McKim, is now teaching in Calgary.
the genius of
7. On that evening I had been lecturing on
some of our comic writers. My audience was scanty, perhaps
5.

Of

all

my deserts. THACKERAY, The Newcomes.


While I was thus musing, my worthy friend, the clergyman, who was at the Club that night, undertook my cause.
ADDISON, The Spectator.

equal to
8.

9.

Have you guessed the riddle yet ?


The Dormouse, who had just woke

up, said, without


Of course, of course, just what I was going
to remark myself."
CARROLL, Alice in Wonderland.
11. I have been working at this problem for half-an-hour.
12. Miracles are ceased.
SHAKESPEARE, Henry V.
13. My Lord Chesterfield had killed another gentleman, and
was fled.
SHAKESPEARE, The
14. I am debating of my present store.
Merchant of Venice.
15. Here, too, we drank tea, which now was become an
and as we had it but seldom, its
occasional banquet
preparation gave us new joy. GOLDSMITH, The Vicar of
10.

opening

its

"

eyes,

Wakefield.
1

6.

They had the whole house

FUTURE TENSES

painted.

(INDICATIVE)

127. There are four future tenses. Two of these are the
and the
PERFECT. The former

FUTURE

FUTURE

expresses future action or state ; the latter expresses the


completion in the future of some act or state. Each of
these tenses has two forms. The following are the future
and future perfect tenses of the verb give:

FUTURE TENSE
Ordinary

Progressive

I shall give

I shall

Thou

Thou

He

wilt give

will give

We shall

give
You will give
They will give

He

be giving

wilt be giving

will

be giving

We shall be giving
You

will be giving
will be giving

They

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

n8

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


Ordinary
have given
Thou wilt have given
He will have given
We shall have given
You will have given
They will have given

Progressive

have been giving


have been giving
He will have been giving
We shall have been giving
You will have been giving
They will have been giving

I shall

Shall
Shall

is

and

I shall

Thou

wilt

will are the auxiliaries of the future tenses.

used

in

the

person, will in the second and

first

When used in this way, these verbs


persons.
have little or none of their original meaning, and simply
help to form the tense of the main verb. The use of
third

will

and

later.

shall as principal verbs will

be explained a

little

Remember

that shall

is the only correct auxiliary for


of
the
future
tense. Many people use will,
person
but they do so incorrectly. I shall give is the first person
/ will give is no part of the
of the future tense of give

the

first

future tense at
128. There

FUTURE

all.

are

and the

two other future tenses, the PAST


PAST FUTURE PERFECT, which are

used only in reported speech after a verb of saying or


i.e., when some declaration or
question is reported by a speaker who uses the past tense.
The following sentences illustrate the point

reporting in the past tense,

You

will

come.

{
I

.,,

rp,

They

will

come.

He
He
He
He
He

says

I shall

come.

said I should come.

says you will come.


you would come.
says they will come.
e said they
*>m*.
said

wW

After verbs of saying or reporting in the past tense,


the auxiliaries shall and will are replaced by their past
tenses should and would.

Some grammarians speak

of a promissive future tense, in which


used in the first person, and shall in the second and third
persons, thus I will give, thou shalt give, he shall give, etc. This,
however, is not really a tense of the verb give. For a treatment of
1

will is

this point, see sect. 142.

VERBS

SEQUENCE OF TENSES

119

This correspondence between the tenses of the verbs


in the principal and subordinate clauses of reported speech
is called SEQUENCE OF TENSE (Latin sequens, following).
It occurs with all the tenses. Usually a present or future

tense in the principal clause is followed by a present or


future tense in the subordinate clause, while a past tense
is followed by a past tense.

say that he is, or will be, my friend.


say that he is, or will be, my friend.
I said that he was, or would be, my friend.
You have reported that he is reading, or will read.
You had reported that he was reading, or would read.
They declare that he has failed, or will have failed.
They declared that he had failed, or would have failed.
I

I shall

This rule

is

not always followed

when

the subordinate

clause states something that is always true.


Columbus believed that the earth is (was) round.

PAST FUTURE
Progressive
should be giving
Thou wouldst be giving
He would be giving
We should be giving
You would be giving
They would be giving

Ordinary
I should give
Thou wouldst give

He would

give
give
You would give
They would give

We should

PAST FUTURE PERFECT


Ordinary
I should have given
Thou wouldst have given
He would have given
We should have given
You would have given
They would have given

The second form

Progressive
should have been giving
Thou wouldst have been giving
I

He would have

been giving
have been giving
You would have been giving
They would have been giving

We should

in each of the four future tenses ex-

presses continued action or state, as do the corresponding


forms of the present and past tenses.

EXERCISE 79
Write both forms of each of the four future tenses of the
following verbs
Pen, spoil, bend, deal,
:

flee, meet, cut, buy, think, spin, strike,


chide, grind, break, tread, stand, burst, give, tear, shear, shine,
drive, have, be, do.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

izo

EXERCISE 80
the tense of each italicised verb in the following
sentences, and pick out examples of sequence of tense

Name

1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

He
He

did not send us any aid.


told us that he would be going.
I had been thinking for a
long time that they would come.
Do they expect us to forgive and forget ?
We shall be digging the garden, when the warm weather

comes.

as much success as you.


nothing to show for his year's work.
It has been raining for hours.
9. The philosopher does not tell us what to expect.
10. Witt no one tell me what she sings ?
1 1. He will have
finished the work by six o'clock.
12. They do work hard, but no matter what
they do, everything seems to go wrong.
13. The captain informed his men that they would go "over
"
the top at eight o'clock.
14. They had been going to school so long, that they were
6.

They have not had

He had

7.
8.

quite at
15.
1 6.

home

there.

We shall be glad to have you visit us at any time.

17.

thought

He added

I should have died of fright.


that, the evening being calm, he

would pursue

his journey.
1 8.
Shall we sound him ?
SHAKESPEARE, Julius Casar.

129.
1.

think he will stand with us.

PECULIAR USES OF THE FUTURE TENSE.


In questions, shall

replaces

in

will

person.
Shall you be present to-morrow?

Yes,

the

second
shall

be

present.

Shall

is

used in the question because

it

is

expected

in the answer.
2.

The second and

third persons of the future tense

are used to express softened commands.


You will leave promptly at ten o'clock.
The boys will remain seated for this period.
130.
i.

VERBS WITH DOUBLE FORMS.


Dare.
(a)

When

this verb

means

to challenge it is entirely

regular.

For a full discussion of the uses of shall and will, the teacher
might consult Sweet, New English Grammar, sections 2196-2202;
and Fowler, The King's English, pp. 133-156.
1

VERBS TENSES

121

When it means to venture, its oldest meaning,


has two forms in the third singular, present indicThe former is used, when
ative, dare and dares.
followed by an infinitive without to, or by a negative
(b)

it

adverb.

The swimmer

He

dare go no further.

dare not face

these waves.
it has two forms, durst (little
The former is used when followed

In the past tense

and

used),

dared.

by a negative adverb.
2.

(For history see sect. 239.)

Need.

This verb resembles dare in having two forms, need


needs, in the third singular, present indicative.
The first form is used when followed by an infinitive
without to, or by a negative adverb.

and

Need he do this work to-day


to-morrow.
131.

He

SUMMARY OF THE TENSES

need not do

(of

it till

the Indicative

Mood).
Ordinary
Present:
Present Perf
Past:

Past Perf.
Future:
Future Perf.
Past Future
Past Fut. Perf.
:

Progressive

Emphatic

am

I do give
giving
I
I have been giving
I gave
I was giving
I did give
I had given
I had been giving
I shall
I shall be giving
give
I shall have given
I shall have been giving
I should give
I should be giving
I should have given I should have been
giving

give
have given

Notice the following points concerning these tenses :


1. The
progressive form of each tense expresses
continuance of action (or of state in some verbs).
is

2. The emphatic form (in the present and past tenses)


so called, because it is often used to express emphasis.
3. Each of the phrasal tenses is formed by prefixing

an auxiliary to the

infinitive (give), the present participle


The auxiliaries

(giving), or the past participle (given).


are italicised in the summary above.

4. The auxiliary of each ordinary perfect tense is


some form of the verb have (have, had, shall have,

should have).

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

122

The auxiliaries of the ordinary future tense are


and will, and those of the ordinary past future are
should and would, the past tenses of shall and will.
6. The auxiliary of each progressive tense is some
5.

shall

form of the verb


7.

The

be (am,

have been, was, etc.).


emphatic tenses are do and

auxiliaries of the

did.

EXERCISE 81
1.

Write out a summary of the tenses of the indicative


of each of the following verbs

mood

Spin, hide, speak, grow, hold, keep, lend, say, meet, buy,
sell, have, be, do.
2.

Name

sentences
1

2.
3.

4.

the tenses of the italicised verbs in the following

have seen everything in the city worth seeing.


have been reading Carlyle's works for a year or more.
Did he say that the sun revolves about the earth ?
I thought that I should have been able to reward him more
I shall

We

liberally.
5.

you

Bob McDonald

will have been

working for an hour before

are stirring.

They do not think it right to break the law.


Jabez, an old friend of ours, has been an invalid for some time.
Harvey did drive the car with great skill.
9. He said that his father would pay the note when it came due.
10. Mother will be thinking that we are not coming to-day.
11. I shall have finished this exercise to-day.
1 2.
I told him that I should be sixteen years old on Thursday.
13. During a long and eventful life, he had had experience of
much ill-fortune; but at last the day had come when his troubles
were to end.
shall go home now, since they are expecting us.
14.
15. He was saying that he would have completed three years'
6.

7.
8.

We

service in June.
1 6. Mr. Mulligan will not be buying sugar for a long time, as
he has laid in a great stock.
17. The old man was telling us many stories of the early settlers

of Full art on.


18.

McQuarrie had been looking for a house.

19.

informed him that

should be working in the garden

evening.

IV.
132.

Compare the

MOOD

following sentences:

friend is here to-day, and


If our friend were here to-day,

Our

we
we

are happy.

should be happy.

Be here to-morrow, and make us happy.

all

VERB SUBJUNCTIVE
In the

first

of our friend

123

sentence, the speaker represents the presence


and our happiness as facts. In the second

sentence he treats them as mere conceptions, for our friend


in fact, not present. In the third sentence, the speaker
expresses a command or exhortation. These three manners,
or modes, or moods, of expressing one's thought are shown
by the form or use of the verb, and to these forms or uses

is,

names

are given as follows

The INDICATIVE
what is represented as
The

MOOD

mood

the

is

of

fact, or

fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

is

the

mood

of concep-

tion, or thought.

The

IMPERATIVE MOOD

is

mood

the

of

command,

request, and exhortation.

You have already had the tenses of the indicative mood,


and very many examples of its use. We shall now turn to
the subjunctive mood.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
133.

The subjunctive mood has four

PRESENT PERFECT, PAST,

and

tenses, PRESENT,
PAST PERFECT. 2 It

To THE TEACHER The subjunctive mood, a difficult subject,


treated here in considerable detail. It is suggested that an accurate
knowledge of the commoner uses, such as those of wish, purpose,
and condition, should be sufficient for junior classes. Regard should
be had, also, to the amount of time to be devoted to this part of
the work.
*Two tendencies have been active since Old English times in
connection with the subjunctive mood.
First, distinctive sub1

is

junctive forms have gradually disappeared


secondly, subjunctive
phrases formed with the help of the auxiliaries may (might), should,
and would, have largely replaced the ordinary subjunctive tenses
thirdly, the indicative mood has taken the place of the subjunctive
mood in many constructions.
The result of the disappearance of the simple subjunctive forms
is that in Modern English, outside of the verb be, we have
only two
distinctive subjunctive forms, the second and third persons singular
of the present tense (thou love, he love). Even these are obsolescent,
and survive mainly in expressions of wish. " God save the King! "
"
God save thee, ancient Mariner! " " We recommend that you study
grammar." While the present subjunctive be occurs rarely, the
past subjunctive were is still much used, especially in conditional
;

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

124

has no future tenses. Each of the tenses, except the present


perfect, has more than one form ; the second and third
forms are in each case phrasal.

PRESENT TENSE

may

I give

Thou

Thou may(e)st

He

We

give
give

give

He may give
We may give
You may give
They may give

give
give
They give

You

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


I

may have

give

given

Thou may(e)st have given

He may have given


We may have given
You may have given
They may have given
EXERCISE 82

1. Compare the simple present subjunctive with the corresponding indicative tense.
2. Write out the present and present perfect subjunctive

(all forms) of the following verbs:


Take, slay, bid, drive, ring, hit, catch, feed, tell, feel, sleep,
bend, say, do, burn, spoil, spell, burst, blow, give, come, grow,
weave, strive, see, have, be.

tenses

"
If they were here,
sentences:
as if he were insane."

you would help them."

"

He

acts

Although Modern English has few simple subjunctive forms,


still express subjunctive ideas by means of phrases formed with
the help of the modal auxiliaries may (might), should, and would.
While it is correct to say that the simple subjunctive forms are dis-

we

appearing, it is quite incorrect to say that English is discarding the


subjunctive mood. It is true, however, that Old English (and to a
lesser extent Middle English), used the subjunctive much more than
For a full discussion of the stibjunctive
does Modern English.
mood, with many illustrations, see Sweet, A New English Grammar,
sections 2259-76, and Kellner, Historical Outlines of English
Syntax, sections 380-91.
Because simple subjunctive forms have so largely disappeared,
only the phrasal tenses formed with the modal auxiliaries are- given
in full, except in the case of the present tense.
l
The simple present perfect subjunctive, / have given, thou have
given, he have given, etc., is now entirely obsolete.

VERBS
I 34
I

gave

Thou gavest
(gave)

He

gave

We gave

You gave
They gave

SUBJUNCTIVE
PAST TENSE

125

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

126

EMPHATIC FORMS OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE


Present:
Past:

do give

did give

EXERCISE 83

Compare the simple past subjunctive with the corresponding indicative tense.
2. Write out the ordinary past and past perfect tenses of
1.

the following verbs

Smite, ride, hide, tear, crow, let, fly, take, see, let, wear, spin,
swing, strike, spill, spoil, pen, keep, tell, bring, cut, buy, sell,
feed, have, be, do.
3.

Write out the progressive and emphatic

tenses of

subjunctive

ride, fly, strike, tell.

136.

USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

commonest
1.

of these uses are those expressing

The

Wish.

God save thee, ancient Mariner,


From the fiends that plague thee

thus

COLERIDGE, Ancient Mariner.


that my people had harkened unto me, and Israel
had walked in my ways! Psalms Ixxxi. 13.
We all wish that he may be successful.
1 insist that he do his share.
The people demand that he should resign.
2.

Purpose.

Do

this well, lest

your employer blame you

(or should

blame you).

John works hard that he may


He helped them in order that
3.

Condition.
If they were here,
If

we

succeed.
all

might go well.

should help them.

you had been good, they would not have punished

you.
If

thou hadst been here,

my brother had not died.

John

xi. 21.

4.

Concession.

Even if they were rich, they would not be happy.


However poor he may be, he shall be welcome.
Be it ever so humble, there is no place like home.
PAYNE.

J.

H.

VERBS

SUBJUNCTIVE

127

Uncertainty.

5.

may make a good teacher.


whether he be there or no.
wonder whether it be true.

It
I
I
6.

is

possible that he

cannot

tell

Obligation.
It is right that he should do it.
It is necessary that city and country be (should be) in

sympathy.
'Twere best he speak no harm of Brutus here.
SHAKESPEARE, Julius

Ccesar.

EXERCISE 84
Select all examples of the subjunctive mood in the following
sentences. Explain why each is in the subjunctive, and name
its tense.
1. If he were here, he would tell you the same.
2. I wish that she were going with us.
"
Do so," said Don Quixote, " and Heaven be with thee "
3.
is important that the physician come at once.
It
4.
5. I should count myself the coward, if I left them, my Lord
!

Howard.
6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

Hasten, lest you be too late.


Would that he could tarry with us here awhile.
Should you find him at home, tell him what I say.
It seems probable that Dr. Burritt may build a new factory.
May our Dominion nourish then,
A goodly land and free
EDGAR, This Canada of Ours.
If he were in the room, I should say it to his face.
I wish that all my foes were thus cut off.
The pressing need is that Britain help France.
He would, doubtless, do better, if he could.
Though he should try his best, he would not pass.
If he had failed, I should have felt sorry.
Sir Walter Scott worked for years, that he might pay
!

11.

12.

13.
14.
15.
1

6.

17.

his debts.
1

Eternal blessings crown my earliest friend,


his dwelling guardian saints attend

8.

And round
19.

Even

if

he had tried

GOLDSMITH, The Traveller.


the door, he would not have been

able to enter.
20. It was not necessary that Me Kim should live so far from
the friends of his youth.
21. If the other boys were present to-day, they would have
the pleasure of doing this exercise.
22. Heaven help us
23. We have worked for a long time that we may reach this
!

sentence.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

128

SUBJUNCTIVE OF WISH.

137.

The wish expressed by the subjunctive may be

in either

a principal or a subordinate clause.

God

defend the right.


they escape serious injury.
wished that they might be very happy.
demand that they do their duty. 1

May

We
We

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.

138.
i.

Both the indicative and the subjunctive are used

in

When

our attitude toward the


condition and conclusion of such a sentence is neutral,
when we wish to represent them as possible, in either
present or past time, we use the indicative mood. When,
on the other hand, we wish to represent condition and
conclusion as contrary to fact, we use the subjunctive
conditional sentences.

mood.
Neutral 11
If he
ne is aoing
he is my inena.
friend.
that, ne
doing mat,
Contrary to fact: If he were doing that, he
(iNeutrai
would be my friend.
If he did that, he was my friend.
Contrary to fact If he had done that, he would
:

(Neutral
have

bc.p.n

mv

friend.

Our attitude towards the future

we cannot be

since

sure about

is

necessarily neutral,
we wish to make

If

it.

the future condition and conclusion more vivid, we use


if we wish to make them less
the indicative mood
;

vivid,

we

use the subjunctive mood.


vivid If he does this, he will be my friend.
Less vivid If he should do this, he would be my
:

(Morefriend.
2.

The condition and conclusion may be

times.
,-.
ix
r ri
j
/
(
If he is doing this (present),
{

he
he

is

mv

wM

in different

friend (present).
fa

my
my friend (past).
he is my friend (present).
(he
he will be my friend (future).
was

When the wish is expressed in the form of a demand, or command

some grammarians apply


of volition.

to the construction the

name

subjunctive

VERBS
139.

ARIES
1.

SHOULD, WOULD

129

USE OF SHOULD AND WOULD AS AUXILIIN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.


In the conditional clause should

is

the auxiliary

for all three persons.


If I should be present,
If you should be present,
If he should be present,

The use

our friends would


[

rejoice.

>

of would in the conditional clauses of the

following sentences
If
If

is

not an exception to this

rule.

he would only try harder, he would succeed.


you would do your duty, all this trouble would cease.

Would

It is the past
here equal to were willing.
is a principal
and
of
will,
wish,
expressing
subjunctive
Would is never used in the
verb, not an auxiliary.
conditional clause, except as a principal verb denoting
wish or desire.
2. In the conclusional clause, should is the auxiliary
is

of the first person,

and would

of the second

and third

persons.
should rejoice.

you would

rejoice.

(Ihe would rejoice.

The use of should and would as auxiliaries in the


conclusional clause, corresponds exactly with that of
shall and will as auxiliaries of the future indicative, in
which

shall is used in the first person, and will in the


second and third persons. As with shall and will, there
is one exception. Should is used instead of would in the
second person in questions, when should is expected in
the answer.

Should you be offended,


should not be offended.)

The uses

of would

if I

told

and should

you the truth


in

me,

(No,

the conclusional

clauses of the following sentences are not


to the general rule explained above.
If he should do this for
be willing to reward him).

exceptions

would reward him (should

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

130

If he should do this for you, you should reward him


would be your duty to reward him).
If we should do this for him, he should reward us
would be his duty to reward us).

(it

(it

In these conclusional clauses, would is used in the


person to express willing, and should is used in the
second and third persons to express obligation. Would
and should are here principal verbs in the past tense of
the subjunctive mood. One of the commonest errors in
conversation, and in the work of careless writers, is to
use would instead of should, as an auxiliary, in the
first person in conclusional clauses, to express simple
first

result.

140.

SUBJUNCTIVE OF CONCESSION.

The sentence containing a clause of concession is frequently exactly like a conditional sentence, except for the
use of even.
1.

2.
3.
4.

If he is your friend, I am sorry for you.


Even if he is your friend, I am sorry for you.
If you were rich, you would not be happy.
Even if you were rich, you would not be happy.

In the second and fourth sentences, the speaker concedes


a point for the moment, whereas in the .first and third
sentences no such concession is made. (See section 32 for
a fuller explanation of this point.) The use of should and
would as auxiliaries in sentences containing concessions
is

the same as in conditional sentences.


/

Even

if (I,

you) he skouM co m e now,

we

should not be happy.

ft^u^^
happy.

Should is the auxiliary in the concessive clause for all


should is the auxiliary in the conclusional clause
persons
for the first person, and would for the second and third
;

persons.

should be noted that would is never used as a subclauses of


junctive auxiliary, except in the conclusional
It

conditional and concessive sentences.

VERBS

SUBJUNCTIVE

131

EXERCISE 85
Select the subjunctives in the following
explain the reason for each.
1.

sentences,

Blest be those feasts with simple plenty crown'd.

GOLDSMITH, The
doughty deeds my lady please,
Right soon I'll mount my steed.

Graham

Speak, that

my

of Gartmore.

torturing doubts their end

WORDSWORTH, To
"

Traveller.

If

2.

3.

and

may know

a Distant Friend.

4. "If you knew time as well as I do," said the Hatter,


you wouldn't talk about wasting it. It's him." CARROLL,

Alice in Wonderland.

Nor you, ye proud, impute

5.

If

memory

o'er their

to these the fault,


trophies raise.

tomb no

GRAY,
6.

He would have won

the election,

if

his friends

Elegy.

had per-

mitted him to enter the field.


7. Though the hut of the peasant be poor, happiness often
dwells there.
8. If the reeve should

make this motion, I should support it.


thou should'st never see my face again,
Pray for my soul.
TENNYSON, The Death of Arthur.

9.

If

10.

And

oft

though Wisdom wake, Suspicion sleeps

At Wisdom's

gate.

MILTON, Paradise
1 1

The worm

begnaw thy soul


SHAKESPEARE, King Richard
resign, and do entreat
still

Thy dukedom I
Thou pardon me my

12.

13.

of conscience

If Caesar

mained

had permitted

Lost.

III.

wrongs.

SHAKESPEARE, The Tempest.


Dumnorix would have re-

it,

in Gaul.

of a perishable home
thus could build. Be mine, in hours of fear
Or grovelling thought, to seek a refuge here.
WORDSWORTH, Inside of King's College Chapel, Cambridge.
15. If I should visit Fullarton, I should find many old friends

They dreamt not

14.

Who

gone.
1

6.

Had he been more

industrious, I should

him more.
17.

If

Brown

If

the weather were

builds a small house, he will

have respected

sell it for

a good

price.
1

8.

19.

Even

with him.
20.

Long

if

fine, we should go to the woods.


he had helped you, you would have been angry

live

our noble King

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

132
21.

Now

22.

If I

tread

we a measure

"

said

Young Lochinvar.
SCOTT.

had time, I should visit all iny friends.


he had more patience, he would have made more

23. If
friends.
24.

Though he slay me, yet will

trust in him.

Job

xiii. 15.

25. If Mrs. Graham should invite us, we should be glad to go.


26. If I were sure of this, I should write to the friends at once.
27. If Britain would send us help, we should be able to repel
the invaders.
28.
Oh, had I the wings of a dove,
How soon would I see you again
!

COWPER, Alexander

Selkirk.

the death of my father, I left the University,


with the character of an odd, unaccountable fellow, that had a
ADDISON, The
great deal of learning, if I would but show it.
29.

Upon

Spectator.

141.
i.

OTHER USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.


When we

often express
treating

them

1.

am

2.

am

3.

We
We

4.

wish to speak

them by means

less

harshly of facts,

of the subjunctive

we

mood,

time as mere conceptions.


sorry that you do such things.
for the

Indicative in a plain statement.


sorry that you should do such things.
Subjunctive, less harsh.
Indicative.
regret that you have broken this rule.
regret that you should have broken this rule.

Subjunctive.

In sentence i the doing is treated as a fact


tence 2 it is treated as a conception, although it
in order to soften the declaration.

in sen-

is

a fact,

Other examples of this construction are the following


What have I done that Tom should treat me thus ?
I am not surprised that you should find Latin difficult.
It is strange that Dick should miss his swimming
:

lessons.

We
2.

are

all

sorry that she should have failed.

In clauses expressing anticipation (futurity).


Let us do

We

shall

it

before

stay

too late (usually is).


the clock strike twelve

it be

till

(usually

strikes).

3.

There are

many

uses of the subjunctive, occurring


it is unnecessary to treat in a

only in literature, which

VERBS
grammar such

SUBJUNCTIVE

as this.

All of

133

them have the common

conceptions, and will in


most cases be easily recognised by the High School
student.
4. The following uses may not be recognised at first
of

characteristic

expressing

should think you would prefer this.


We should like to see our friends.

(a) I

The softened statements

in these sentences are really

examples of conclusional clauses, conditional clauses


being understood. The first sentence, if filled out, would
read
(b)

If I

considered the matter,

should think, etc.

feared lest the teacher should write to

my

father.

an example of uncertainty. If the speaker


more certain of the teacher's writing, he would
I feared that the teacher would write,
probably have said
This

had

is

felt

etc.

(Indicative.)

EXERCISE 86
Select the subjunctives in the following sentences, and
explain the reason for each.
1. Far be it from me to say that you are making a mistake.
2. Provided he do his duty, I will forgive him.
3. Thy money perish with thee!
4. We are sorry that he should have been unfair.
5. Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there
rememberest
Matthew v. 23.
6. We hope you may win the game.
7. Even though it should snow, I should go to school.
8. If it would only snow, we should have a sleigh-ride.
9. I was afraid that they might see Mr. Stuart.
.

10.

Therefore take with thee my most heavy curse,


Whicli in the day of battle tire thee more
Than all the complete armour that thou wear'st.
SHAKESPEARE, King Richard III.

Whoever he

be, he shall not go unpunished.


necessary that your son learn obedience.
13. I was anxious lest he should find the house empty.
14. If I were a speaker, I should wish to thank you all for

11.

12. It is

your presence.
15. We were
roof.

all

frightened lest the

boy should

fall

from the

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

134
1

6.

Go

charge

my goblins that they grind their joints.


SHAKESPEARE, Tempest.

be proved against an alien


That by direct or indirect attempt
If it

17.

He

seek the

of any citizen
SHAKESPEARE, Merchant

life

of Venice.

He

pierced her brother to the heart,


(When the sun shines fair on Carlisle wall:)

8.

So perish all, would true love part,


That Love may still be lord of all.
SCOTT, Lay of the Last Minstrel.

The Mayor sent

19.

East, West, North, and South,

To
If

offer the Piper by word of mouth,


he'd only return the way he went.

BROWNING, The Pied Piper of Hamelin.


messengers had come to the general earlier in the
morning, these misfortunes would not have overtaken us, and
we should have been successful in the battle.
20. If the

21.

It is

a great pity that Mr. Patterson should be

ill

at this

time.
22.

Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny

me

thrice.

Matthew xxvi. 34.


23. Were it not that I hope thou wilt do me more service,
would strike thee now, at one blow, to the ground. BUNYAN,

The Pilgrim's Progress.


24. Prince

Poins

What would'st thou think of me,


I

if I should
weep?
would think thee a most princely hypocrite.
SHAKESPEARE, 2 King Henry IV.

25. If the pupils

were

all

MAY, WILL, SHALL,

here,

we should have a better lesson.

ETC., AS

PRINCIPAL VERBS

The ordinary tenses of the subjunctive mood are


used in present-day English, except to express wish,
and condition contrary to fact
but the phrasal tenses
formed with the help of the auxiliaries may, might,
should and would are much used. Besides their use as
auxiliaries, these verbs, as well as can (could), must, and
ought, are used frequently as principal verbs. As such,
142.

little

expresses permission ; shall (should) oblior


gation
duty ; will (would), wish or determination
can (could) ability ; must, necessity ; ought, duty. When

may

(might)

VERBS

MAY, WILL, ETC.

135

used as auxiliaries, they have lost these meanings


1
used as principal verbs, they always have them.
I will go
I shall go

when

In the first of these sentences, shall conveys no idea of


duty or obligation, but simply helps to form the future
tense of the verb go. It is a mere auxiliary. On the other

hand, will in the second sentence expresses wish, or deterIt is a principal


mination, on the part of the speaker.
verb, and does not help to form a tense of go.
I will

I shall go

Thou

Thou

He

He

wilt go
will go

go

shall go
shall go

We

We

You

You

will go
shall go
They shall go

shall go
will go
They will go

The verbs in the first column (shall go, wilt go, etc.)
form the future tense of go. In each case shall or will is a
mere auxiliary, expressing futurity. The principal verbs
in the second column (will, shalt, etc.) express wish or
determination. They are not auxiliaries, and do not help
to form a tense of the verb go.
143. Would and should, the past tenses of shall and will,
are used both as auxiliaries and as principal verbs.
I

said I should do

They

safd'he

for"
If

He

it

(indirect for

%%t i, it

Indicative, past future of

(indirect

*,

will do it").

he were here, I should help him.


were there, he would help me.

If I

,.

,.

Subjunctive past of help.

He should (ought to) do it.


He would not (was unwilling to) do it.

Indicative past of shall.


Indicative past of will.

he came, I should help him (it


would be my duty to help. Should
is pronounced emphatically)
If I were there, he should help me
(it would be his duty to help me).

Subjunctive past of

shall.

Subjunctive past of

shall.

If

1
Because some of these verbs help to form phrasal tenses of the
verb, and, because with their assistance we express subjunctive

many grammarians call them modal auxiliaries.


Should in this construction was originally a past subjunctive
used conditionally, but is now purely indicative. (See The New

ideas,
2

English Dictionary.)

If

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

36
he came,

would help him

Subjunctive past of

will.

(should be willing).
If
If

he should come, I should be glad.


he would (were willing to) give us
aid, all might be well.

Subjunctive past of come.

Subjunctive past of

will.

He

Indicative past of

We

Subjunctive past of

will.

Subjunctive past of

will.

would do this for hours (was


accustomed to do this).

would advise this (we should


wish to advise this, if our opinion
were asked).

Would that he were

here.

will.

(In this last case, would is practically equivalent to / wish, but


is subjunctive in both form and origin.)

it

144. Examine the uses of may, can, must, ought in the


following sentences:
I can go to-day. I could go yesterday.
I may go this afternoon (am permitted).
Indicative
It may rain (it is possible that it will rain).
uses of the
I said he might go (was permitted).
italicised
You must help us.
verbs.
J
They ought to do their duty.
I should assist, if I could (were able).
May he be successful.
SubjuncHe does this that he may win.
tive uses of
>
I wished that he might succeed.
the italicIf they were to come, you ought to help
ised verbs,
"]

'j

them

(it

would be your duty).

EXERCISE 87
Classify each

give

of

its

mood,
If I

If

3.

If

If

tense,

and

verb as principal or auxiliary.


special use, or meaning.

Also

should do this, they would rejoice.


he should be willing, we should go at once.
he would only call the doctor, he might recover.
he would be a candidate, I would vote for him in spite

1.

2.

4.

italicised

your threats.
5. Even though it may be old, it will serve our purpose.
6. Jane would study grammar by the hour.
7. Bob should study grammar by the week.
8. Would that he had reached the shipl
9. It may be fine to-morrow.
10. He worked hard that he might have a good garden.
11. He told us that he would come before night.
12. You may open the window.
13. You ought to know the subjunctive mood now.

VERBS
14.

May

15.
1 6.

He

7.
8.

19.

20.

all

SUBJUNCTIVE

efforts to forget it fail

137

your
answered that I should be glad to accept the offer.
might have been seen in the park any day.
We must keep Canada a free country.
We might have had the candy then.
It would be a sad blow, if you should fail in grammar.
If I should find them working, I should be glad.
!

EXERCISE 88
(a) Compose sentences to illustrate the following uses of
should. In each case tell whether it is a principal or an auxiliary verb. Name its mood, tense and person.
i.

,
3.

4.
5.

In a conditional clause.

inaconc.usiona.dausel
In a past future tense.
Denoting duty.
In a clause of concession.

(6) Compose sentences illustrating the following uses of


would. Give the same information as was asked for in the
case of should in (a).
1.

In a conditional clause.
is it used in this way ?

When

2 . in a condusiona,
3.

4.
(c)
i

2.

3.

4.

idea

must be present

Expressing persistent or repeated action.


Denoting wish.

Compose sentences
.

What

dause

illustrating the following uses of

may:

Expressing a wish.
Expressing possibility.
In a clause of purpose.
Expressing permission.

EXERCISE 89
In the following sentences select each verb in the subjunctive mood. Name its tense, and describe its use.
1

Thus, Night, oft see


Till civil -suited

2.

3.

me

Morn

in

thy pale career

appear.

MILTON, 77 Penseroso.
Could Nature's bounty satisfy the breast,
The sons of Italy were surely blest.
GOLDSMITH, The Traveller.
Should he find me in the glen,
My blood would stain the heather.
CAMPBELL, Lord Ullin's Daughter.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

138
4.

Bright star

would

were steadfast as thou

art.

Keats.
If

man

were called to fix the period in the history of


the world, during which the condition of the human race was
most happy and prosperous, he would, without hesitation,
name that which elapsed from the death of Domitian to the
accession of Commodus.
GIBBON, The Decline and Fall of
the Roman Empire.
6. If they had not so basely surprised me, they should not
have had so easy a prize. EVELYN, Diary.
At length the Mayor broke silence
7.
"
For a guilder I'd my ermine gown sell,
"
I wish I were a mile hence
BROWNING. The Pied Piper of Hamelin.
"
For there was never champion yet.
8.
5.

In Scotland or in France,

That ever did on horseback come,


But if my hap it were,
I durst encounter man for man,
And with him break a spear."
The Ballad of Chevy Chace.
g.

Should
I shall

I live a thousand years,


not find myself so fit to die.

SHAKESPEARE, Julius Casar.


10.

If there

were dreams to

sell,

Merry and sad to tell,


And the crier rang the bell.
What would you buy ?
BEDDOES, Dream-Pedlary.
1 1
Angels and ministers of grace defend us
SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet.
If I were out of prison and kept sheep,
12.
I should be merry as the day is long
And so I would be here, but that I doubt
My uncle practises more harm to me.
SHAKESPEARE, King John.
Methinks nobody should be sad but I.
13.
SHAKESPEARE, King John.
14. A farthing's worth of mussels, a farthing's worth of
LANGcockles, were a feast for them on Friday or fast-days.
LAND, Piers Plowman.
15.
Thought would destroy their paradise.
GRAY, On a Distant Prospect of Eton College.
"
Ruin seize thee, ruthless King
1 6.
Confusion on thy banners wait."
GRAY, The Bard.
Some men with swords may reap the field,
17.
And plant fresh laurels where they kill
But their strong nerves at last must yield
They tame but one another still.
SHIRLEY, Death the Leveller.
.

IMPERATIVE

VERBS
1

139

Should auld acquaintance be forgot,

8.

And never brought

to min'

BURNS, Auld Lang Syne.


It is my wedding day,
Said John,
And all the world would stare,
If wife should dine at Edmonton,
And I should dine at Ware."
COWPER, John Gilpin.
"

19.

Now

20.

let

us sing long live the King,

And Gilpin, long live he


And when he next doth ride
;

May

be there to see

abroad,

COWPER, John

IMPERATIVE
145. The IMPERATIVE
exhortations, and entreaties.

Go at once. Do your

MOOD

MOOD

best,

Gilpin.

is

used in commands,

my friend. Do

help us in this

difficulty.
1.

The imperative has one tense the PRESENT, one


the SECOND, and only ONE FORM for singular

person

and

plural.

PRESENT TENSE
Emphatic

Ordinary
Sing.

PI.

Give

Give

2.

The

Sing.

Do

give

PI.

Do

subject of a verb in the imperative

give

mood

is

usually, but not always, omitted.

My
verbs

if

son,
i.

sinners entice thee, consent thou not.

Pro-

10.

3. There are several other ways of expressing commands, exhortations and entreaties.

(a)

By

let

phrases in the

first

and second persons.

Let us help them to-day.


(Exhortation.)
Do let us help them to-day. (Entreaty.)
Let him advance at once.
(Command.)

The
phrase.

let

phrase might be called an imperative verb


let is taken by itself, however, it is a

If

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

140

weakened imperative, and help or advance

an

is

infinitive.

the use of will and

By

(b)

shall, in

the second and

third persons.

You
You

will leave at once.


(Command.)
will please do it at once.
(Entreaty.)
Thou shall not steal. (Command.)

EXERCISE 90

Name the mood and tense of each italicised verb in the


following sentences. In the case of each subjunctive, explain
why the verb is in the subjunctive mood.
1.

verbs

My
i.

2.

son,

if

sinners entice thee, consent thou not.

Pro-

10.

Whatsoever thy hand

findeth to do, do it

with thy might.

Ecclesiastes ix. 10.


3.

John,

if

4.

If

we

brother should ask you where

my

him we have gone to town.


the teacher were here now,

we

are,

tell

should have a pleasant

lesson.

we can

5.

Let us do

6.

Mary, go and

7.

all

call

to relieve the famine in India.


the cattle home. KINGSLEY.

Break, break, break,


On thy cold grey stones, O Sea
And I would that my tongue could utter
The thoughts that arise in me.
!

TENNYSON.

8.

God prosper long our noble


Our lives and safeties all

king,
!

The Ballad of Chevy Chace.


g.

But

thought he would not come,


longer would I stay.

if I

No

The Ballad of Chevy Chace.


10.

Get up, sweet slug-a-bed, and see

The dew-bespangled herb and

tree

HERRICK, Going a-Maying.


11.

let us go, while we are in our prime,


take the harmless folly of the time

Come,

And

HERRICK, Going a-Maying.


12.

Come fill up my cup, come fill up my can,


Come saddle your horses, and call up your men
Come open the West Port, and let us gang (go) free,
And it's room for the bonnets of Bonny Dundee.
;

SCOTT, Bonny Dundee.

VERBS

IMPERATIVE

The scouts are all come in


Arm, arm, arm, arm
Keep your ranks close, and now your honours win.

13.

Behold from yonder

hill

the foe appears

and spears.
J. FLETCHER, The Joy of Battle.
14. Then let him which is on the house-top not come down
take anything out of his house. Matthew xxiv. 17.
15. Then turn your forces from this paltry siege
And stir them up against a mightier task.
SHAKESPEARE, King John.
Bows,

to

141

bills,

glaives, arrows, shields,

EXERCISE 91
In the following sentences nil in each blank with shall or
Give a reason for your choice in each case.

will.

we sound him

i.

think he

stand with

SHAKESPEARE, Julius
2.

It I

do not study,

3.

The

officers

4.

How

fear

7.

You

fail.

kindly report at noon.

answer

The chase is up, but they


know
The stag at bay's a dangerous foe.
SCOTT, Lady of the Lake.
he
find them out.

5.

6.

us.

Ccesar.

see to this at once.

do it.
it, he
Students
please enter by the side door.
10. We are determined that you
come.
I
1 1
speak, and the word that I
speak
performed.
12. I guarantee that they
go.
I bring my books into the class-room ?
13.
make of thee a great nation, and in thee
14. I
the families of the earth be blest.
8.

Since you

9.

be

15.

Be angry when you

6.

17.
1 8.
19.

20.
21.
22.
23.

It

that

descend, and
is

the train,

fear

it
have scope.
SHAKESPEARE, Julius

Ceesar.

you give me leave ?


SHAKESPEARE, Julius

Ccesar.

we

miss
word.

it.

I
not have you doubt my
Ask the teacher how the pupils
plant these
I meet you there this
evening ?
Thou
not kill.

You
He

24. I

all

seeds.

kindly notify the others.

do so if he is asked.
have made up my mind that you

be there.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

142

Not

25.

as a child

we again behold her

For when with raptures wild


In our embraces we again enfold
She
not be a child.

her,

LONGFELLOW,

Resignation.

not yield to kiss the ground before young Malcolm's


SHAKESPEARE, Macbeth.

26. I
feet.

V.

THE PASSIVE VOICE

146. Transitive verbs have two voices, the ACTIVE and


the PASSIVE. The active voice is the form of the verb

used when the subject represents the doer of an action.


The passive voice is the form of the verb used when the
subject represents the object of an action.
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.
8.

That man leads his horse to drink. (Active.)


The horse is led to drink by that man. (Passive.)
Our friends have assisted us much. (Active.)
We have been assisted much by our friends. (Passive.)

Roy

gave his friends

much

advice.

(Active.)

The friends were given much advice by Roy. (Passive.)


The villain struck me a blow. (Active.)
I was struck a blow by the villain.
(Passive.)

Usually the direct object of the active verb becomes


the subject of the passive, as in the first two pairs of
but sometimes we quite illogically make
sentences above
the indirect object of the active verb the subject of the
passive verb, as in sentences 5 and 6. In such cases, the
direct object of the active verb becomes a retained object
in the passive sentence.
When the active verb has two
;

direct objects, as in No. 7, the one object becomes the


subject of the passive verb, while the other becomes a

retained object.
(See section 59.)
147. The passive voice of a verb

is formed by means
verb phrases each of which consists of some form
of the auxiliary be together with the past participle of
the principal verb.
The following are the tense-forms
for the verb give.

of

VERBS

PASSIVE VOICE

143

PASSIVE VOICE
INDICATIVE

MOOD

PRESENT
Progressive

Ordinary
I

am

given
Thou art given
He is given

am

being given
art being given
is being given

Thou

He

We

We are given

are being given


are being given
They are being given

You

You

are given
They are given

PRESENT PERFECT
Plural

Singular

We

have been given


You have been given
They have been given

have been given


Thou hast been given
He has been given
I

PAST
Ordinary
I

Progressive

was being given


Thou wast being given
He was being given

was given

Thou wast given

He was

given

We were

We

You were

You were

given
given
They were given

were being given


being given

They were being given


PAST PERFECT
Plural

Singular
I

We

had been given

had been given


You had been given
They had been given

Thou hadst been given

He had

been given

FUTURE
Plural

Singular

We

be given
Thou wilt be given
He will be given

be given
be given
They will be given

I shall

shall
You will

FUTURE PERFECT
Plural

Singular

have been given


Thou wilt have been given
He will have been given
I shall

We

shall have been given


You will have been given
They will have been given

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

144

PAST FUTURE
Plural

Singular

We should

should be given
Thou wouldst be given
He would be given
I

be given

You would be

given

They would be given

PAST FUTURE PERFECT


Singular
should have been given
Thou wouldst have been given
He would have been given
I

Plural

We should

have been given

You would have been

given

They would have been given

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

PRESENT
be given
Thou be (beest) given
He be given
We be given
You be given
They be given

be given

may

Thou may(e)st be given

He may be given
We may be given
You may be given
They may be given

PRESENT PERFECT
I

may have

been given

Thou may(e)st have been

given

He may have been given


We may have been given
You may have been given
They may have been given
PAST

were given
Thou wert (were) given
He were given
We were given
You were given
They were given
I

might be given

Thou might(e)st be given

He might

be given

We might be

given
given
They might be given

You might be

were being given

Thou wert

He were

(were) being given


being given

We were

being given
being given
They were being given

You were
I

should be given

Thou shouldst

(wouldst) be
given
He should (would) be given
We should be given
You should (would) be given
They should (would) be given

VERBS

PASSIVE VOICE

145

PAST PERFECT
I

had been given

might have been given

Thou hadst been given

Thou might(e)st have been given

been given
been given
You had been given
They had been given

been given
been given
You might have been given
They might have been given

He had

We had

He might have

We might have

should have been given

Thou shouldst

(wouldst) have been given


should (would) have been given
We should have been given
You should (would) have been given
They should (would) have been given

He

IMPERATIVE

MOOD
Emphatic

Ordinary

Singular and Plural


Do be given

Singular and Plural


Be given
148. Intransitive verbs cannot,

from

their very nature,

have a passive voice. Their one voice-form is called active.


Except in special cases, however, it is not necessary to
define the voice of intransitive verbs.

EXERCISE 92

Name

the tense, mood, and voice of each italicised verb in


the following sentences
:

he should

1.

If

2.

Men

away, he would be missed by us all.


say that he will be stripped of his cowl and cope.
be sent

SCOTT, Ivanhoe.
3. That, now, is one of the questions that are more easily
asked than answered.
4. God's will be done.
5

6.
7.
8.

seen

I am bound to have vengeance.


His commands were obeyed.
Everything has been done in due form.
Bennie will be sent to the kitchen, that he

by the

9.

Had

may not

be

callers.

the war not been won, civilisation would have been

crushed.
10.

of the

The Germans were summoned

to Paris to hear the terms

Peace Treaty.

11. If

the book were completed,

it

would be published im-

gladly, that

he might learn grammar.

mediately.
12. Bill

went to school

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

146
13.

work were being done for us free of charge, we


by our neighbours.
Many demands are being made upon Canadians in these
If this

should be envied
14.

trying days.
15.

Lloyd George's speech

will have been published in a

few

hours.
1

6.

17.
1 8.
19.

Wages were being paid to each man according to his skill.


The boy had been asked many questions by his teacher.
As the ship has been reported, the soldiers will soon
Would that he had been set free before this

arrive.

Even

my

if I should be given
freedom, I would not
friends.
21. He told his followers that he would not be given an office.
22. If he be praised by us, he will be blamed by them.
23. I thought that I should be seen by the guards when I
was climbing the wall.

20.

betray

my

24. He had been offered a bribe, that he might keep silent.


25. If he should have been reported to be guilty, I should

not
have been surprised by the news.
26. May you be honoured as you deserve
27. Were he being questioned now, the truth would be dis!

covered.
28. Let us leave this spot lest we be seen by the enemy.
29. Dumnorix professed to believe that he would be
dered by Caesar.

mur-

EXERCISE 93

Change the verbs of the following sentences from the active


to the passive:
1. My father did not observe my dissatisfaction.
2. I shall long remember that dinner-party.
see his drift.

3.

4.

You do not understand even

this

beggarly trade.

SCOTT, Rob Roy.

Remote from towns he ran

5.

his

godly race.

GOLDSMITH, The Deserted


6.

Had

Village.

he warned us of the danger, we should not have

crossed the bridge.

"

7.

My

sister,

and

my

sister's child,

Myself and children three,


Will fill the chaise."
8.
9.

10.

11.

COWPER, John Gilpin.


Send us help as soon as possible.
I must finish my journey alone.
COWPER, Alexander Selkirk.
Oft I had heard of Lucy Gray.
WORDSWORTH, Lucy Gray.
I shall

write you a letter next week.

NON-MODAL FORMS

VERBS

147

EXERCISE 94
Explain the use of may, might, should and would in the
following sentences. Tell whether each is a principal or an
auxiliary verb, and give its tense and mood.
Then, God grant me too
for that wicked deed.
SHAKESPEARE, King Richard III.

1.

Thou mayst be damned

you would be taught your duty.


SHAKESPEARE, King Richard III.
We come to have the warrant,
That we may be admitted where he is.
SHAKESPEARE, King Richard III.

Were you

2.

3.

well served,

This day should Clarence closely be


SHAKESPEARE, King Richard III.

4.

mew'd up

(im-

prisoned).

Had you been born some

years earlier, your scorn, your


your narrative verse would have not been known.
A. LANG, Letters to Dead Authors.
6. If you have any evidence to set forth that you may
be relieved from the burden of these accusations, now is the
A. LANG, Letters to Dead Authors.
time.
7. If he should be summoned to court, he would be disgraced
in our eyes.
8. If he would only be advised, he would be considered
5.

satire,

a wiser man.
9. May they all be forgiven this deed
10. If the teacher is ill, the school

may

be closed this

afternoon.
1 1

Would

12. I

by that

that they were all gathered at the old home


explained to him that the exercise would be done
!

class.

He

hurried down the road, that he might not be overtaken by the storm.
14. He may be elected, for he is a very popular candidate.
15. If I should be seen, I should be pursued by the enemy.
1 6. Even if he should be censured
by some, I would not be
found among his critics.
17. Each pupil should pay close attention to the difficulties
13.

of the subjunctive

VI.

mood.

NON-MODAL FORMS

There are certain forms of the verb which do not


express any mood-idea, i.e., they are the same whether
the speaker is expressing a mere conception, a command,
or what he represents as a fact. The ordinary active nonmodal forms for the verb give are as follows:
149.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

148

GERUND

INFINITIVE
Present
Past

PARTICIPLE

(to)

give

giving

giving

(to)

have given

having given

having given

be noticed that each of these non-modal forms


between present and past time, but

It will

makes a

distinction

no distinctions

number.

for either person or

THE

INFINITIVE

150. The various infinitive forms


as follows :

of the

ACTIVE
Ordinary
Pres.

Past

verb give are

PASSIVE

(to)

give

Progressive
(to) be giving

(to)

have given

(to)

The

infinitive is a verbal substantive,

(to)

have been

(to)

be given
have been given

giving
151.
of the nature of

i.e., it

partakes

both the verb and the substantive.

instance, in the following sentence


like to

Healthy boys

For

swim,

swim not only expresses the action of


swimming, but is, at the same time, the object of the verb
the infinitive

to

like.

The

following sentences illustrate the substantive uses

of the infinitive

Subject

Nom.

To

absolute

we

sible,

human, to forgive divine. POPE.


To work further with him being impos-

err is
:

retired.

Our

Predicate nom.

Exclamation

Oh,

there

to

chief desire
be in

is to

help our friends.

England now that

April's

BROWNING.

Direct Object

The nations

desire

taught him to read and


There is nothing left but
I

Retained object

He was

to

make

peace.

to write.

to assist

taught

to

him.

read and write.

The main purpose of this meeting,


Appositive
against this law, has been fulfilled.
:

to protest

VERBS INFINITIVE

149

EXERCISE 95
Select the infinitives in the following sentences,
the syntax of each.

and explain

Britain had promised to defend Belgium.


To retreat being difficult, we decided to await reinforcements.
3. The wish of all true patriots is to have peace with honour.
4. Some politicians have only one idea, to oppose the
other party.
5. They desire to be made partners in the firm.
6. Healthy boys like to be doing something.
7. To be elected to Parliament is rightly regarded as an
honour.
Be thine Despair and sceptred Care,
8.
To triumph and to die are mine.
1.

2.

GRAY, The Bard.

The Wedding-Guest

9.

He

sat on a stone
cannot choose but hear.

COLERIDGE, The Ancient Manner.


you sit and look at her.
BROWNING, My Last Duchess.
11. Whilst he lived, it was his custom to provide for the poor
and infirm, and to bestow alms on them, and assist them.
BEDE, Ecclesiastical History oj England.
12. That night he thought proper to forget even to shake
hands with me, but left the room in silence. C. BRONTE,
Jane Eyre.
"
'Twere better by far
13. And the bride-maidens whisper'd,
To have matched our fair cousin with Young Lochinvar."
Will't please

10.

SCOTT, Lochinvar.
14.

The

15.

How

lights begin to twinkle

from the rocks.

TENNYSON,
dull

it is

to pause, to

make an end

Ulysses.
!

TENNYSON,
152.
its

OTHER USES OF THE INFINITIVE.

very

common

Besides
use as a substantive, the infinitive has

three others.
(a) Adjectival use.
This boy is to be admired.
There are many houses to rent on this street.
The work to be done here is very important.
(b)

Adverbial uses.

1.

He

2.

This

3.

To make

is

competent

is riot

Ulysses.

easy

to

do anything you please.

to do.

this clear, I shall give examples.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

ISO

He was

4.

so simple as
distressed

Mary was

5.
6.

To

to believe

the story.

hear of her friend's illness.


hear him, you would think him a saint.
to

In the first sentence of (b),to do modifies competent',


In No. 3 the infinitive
in the second it modifies easy.
modifies shall give, and expresses purpose, as an adverbial
clause might do. In sentence 4 the whole phrase as to
believe the story modifies simple. The exact force of the

more

infinitive is

out thus

readily seen,

when the

ellipsis is filled

He was

so simple, as he

would be simple, to believe the

story.

The

would
In No. 5 the infinitive to hear modifies was
1
distressed, and in No. 6 it modifies would think.
infinitive in this fuller sentence modifies

be simple.

(c)

Predicative use.

him to be my friend.
They saw him carry a load.
The papers declared him to have
I believe

been killed.

In each of these cases the infinitive is the predicate


verb of a clause. Notice that in each case the subject
of the infinitive is in the accusative case, and that in the
first sentence the predicate noun is likewise in the
accusative.
153.
i.

SPECIAL CASES.
When the verbs will

(would),

shall

(should),

can

(might), must, and ought are used as principal


infinitive
the
verbs,
following is treated by some grammarians as a direct object. On the other hand, the
(could),

may

authors of

A New

English Dictionary

call these

verbs

auxiliaries of predication. If this term is accepted, it is


better to treat the so-called auxiliary and the following

a verb phrase. In that case it is unnecessary to explain the relation of the infinitive.
I will do it to-day. You should (ought to) help them.
Can they succeed ? They could succeed, if they would try.
You ought to go, and we must go. He may go at noon.

infinitive as

See

the Report of the

American Committee,

classification of the uses of these infinitives.

p.

35,

for

VERBS
When

INFINITIVE

151

may, will, and shall are used as auxiliaries, the


simply part of a tense.
You will go. He will go. Future tense of go.

infinitive is

I shall go.
If they should try, they would succeed.
he be very successful.

Past subj unctive tenses.


Pres. subjunctive of be.

May

2.

Many

apparently

difficult

cases of the infinitive

are easily explained after ellipses have been filled out.


He knows not when (he ought) to go.
Make up your mind which (you ought, or you wish) to
take.

You must act so as (one acts) to win approbation.


He is such a fool as (he would be) to believe the story.
3.

Sometimes an

infinitive

phrase used adverbially

modifies the whole sentence, rather than one

To
man.

tell

the truth, I

am

wrong.

To

be sure,

word

he

is

in

it.

a young

EXERCISE 96
Explain the use of each infinitive in the following sentences
1. I will have my own way.
And every soul cried out, " Well done "
2.
As loud as he could bawl.
COWPER, John Gilpin.
Then might all people well discern
3.
The bottles he had slung.
COWPER, John Gilpin.
4. Francis had mentioned Horncastle as a place where the
horse was likely to find a purchaser.
BORROW, Romany Rye.
"
Have you any relations ? " said the landlord. " Excuse
5.
me, but I don't think you are exactly fit to take care of your"
There you are mistaken," said I. " I can take precious
self."
good care of myself." BORROW, Romany Rye.
6. In yonder village there dwells a gentleman, that has
:

skill

to help

men

off

with such burdens as thine.

BUNYAN,

Pilgrim's Progress.
7. The Duke ordered all the roads, especially those that
Don Quixote was most likely to take, to be watched by his
servants, who had orders to bring him to the castle, right or
wrong. CERVANTES, Don Quixote.

8.

For Witherington needs must I wayle,


in doleful dumpes.
The Ballad of Chevy Chace.
Tongues I'll hang on every tree.
SHAKESPEARE, As You Like It.
should that name be sounded more than yours ?
SHAKESPEARE, Julius Ccesar.

As one

9.

TO.

Why

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

152
1 1

Think you to walk forth

Calphurnia.

You

shall

not

stir

out of your house to-day.

Ccssar. Caesar shall forth.


12.

SHAKESPEARE, Julius Ccssar.


There likewise stands a modern statue of Hercules, not

to be despised.
13.

EVELYN, Diary.
had hopes for pride attends us still
Amidst the swains to show my book-learn'd skill.
GOLDSMITH, The Deserted Village.
I still

Unpractis'd he to fawn, or seek for power,


By doctrines fashion'd to the varying hour
Far other aims his heart had learn'd to prize,
More skill'd to raise the wretched than to rise.
GOLDSMITH, The Deserted Village.
Grow old along with me
The best is yet to be.

14.

15.

BROWNING, Rabbi Ben


1

6.

Thou

8.

We may

Ezra.

shalt not covet thy neighbour's house.


17. I sent you a parcel of books to give you some idea of the
C. LAMB, Letters.
state of European literature.

the

conceive mankind to have been launched into


with no knowledge of themselves. FROUDE,

universe

Essay on

Book of Job.
had been strange, even in a dream,
To have seen those dead men rise.
COLERIDGE, The Ancient Mariner.

the

It

19.

To see the townfolk suffer


From vermin, was a pity.

20.

21.

so

BROWNING, The Pied Piper


him that had none to help him.
am monarch of all I survey,

delivered

22.

My right there

is

of Hamelin.
Job xxix. 12.

none to dispute.

COWPER, Alexander

Selkirk.

THE GERUND
154. The forms of
help are as follows:

the

gerund of the verbs give and

ACTIVE
Ordinary

PASSIVE
Progressive

Pres.

giving

Past

having been giving having been given


being helped
helping
having helped having been helping having been helped

Pres.

Past

being given

having given

i. The gerund is a verbal substantive, and is used in


a number of the usual case-constructions of the sub-

stantive.

VERBS
Subject

Nom.

we

Pred. nom.

Direct obj

Ret. obj
2.

153

Playing and working are both profitable.


Your having given satisfaction is a very important point.
Further working with him being impossible,

abs.

GERUND

Seeing

retired.

is believing.

Most boys like being praised.


Are you thinking of retiring early.
They are pleased with having been promoted.
He was taught reading and writing.

The gerund

is

sometimes used adverbially, as are

other substantives.
This book is not worth reading.

He went hunting.
They will go fishing.

The gerund, in the construction represented by the


two sentences, was formerly the object of a pre-

last

We still say,
position which has now disappeared.
"
He went a-fishing." In such a sentence,
sometimes,
the a- is a weakened preposition.
3. It should be noted that the gerund shades off into
the ordinary noun in -ing, which is verbal in origin, but
has ceased to have any verbal force.
His warning was very impressive.
Manufacturing and farming are important.
4. The present forms of the gerund are sometimes
used with past force.
I am satisfied with his giving (having given) his time.
Are you content with his being punished (having been

punished)

THE PARTICIPLE
The various

155.
kelp are as follows

participial

forms

ACTIVE
Ordinary
Pres.

Past
Pres.

Past

giving

of the verbs give

and

PASSIVE
Progressive

being given
having been giving given
having been given
helping
being helped
having helped having been helping helped
having been helped

having given

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

154

l
1. The participle
is a verbal adjective, i.e., it partakes
of the nature of both the verb and the adjective. For
instance, in the sentence,

The men, having bidden adieu

to their friends, set out,

the participle having bidden expresses the action of


bidding, and also modifies the noun men.
2. Participles are used in all the various constructions
of the adjective.

The burning building will soon fall.


The army is not beaten, but it is discouraged.
Appositive: The army, having fought well and couraAdherent

Predicate

geously,

was

satisfied.

3. The forms of the present participle are sometimes


used with past force.
The men, putting on their coats, left the house.
The men, being insulted, left the house.
Both the putting on of the coats and the insulting were

complete before the

men

left

the house.

156. As gerunds, participles, nouns, and adjectives all


end in -ing, and as the gerund shades into the noun, and
the participle into the adjective, the four must be carefully

distinguished.

Gerund

Noun

He

The

Participle

Adjective

accomplished

much by

talking.

talking of this man was quite effective.


Talking excitedly, he left the room.
The talking machine is very valuable.

EXERCISE 97
Select the gerunds

and

participles in the following sentences,

and explain the syntax of each.


i
Mr. Harvey was proud of having been
.

2.

Having gone to school

for a year,

elected president.

Jack was now

in the

second form.
3.

Having been appointed to

this office,

he decided to serve

his supporters.

is,

father was annoyed at having gone to this meeting.


see the horse trotting down the street.

4.

My

5.

"
term participle means sharing," and came to be used as it
because the participle shares the nature of the verb and that of

the adjective.

VERBS
6.

The

7.
8.

9.

PARTICIPLE

155

trotting horse

is standing in this stall.


of his crossing the river.
Hannibal's crossing of the Alps was said to
accomplished by the use of vinegar.

had heard

am

sure that business

is

have been

the invention of the old Teazer,

whose interference set Adam a-hoeing. LAMB, Letters.


10. There is no injustice in restoring these valuable mineral
Toronto Globe.
lands to their rightful owners.
11. Many barriers built by pride, prejudice, and misunderToronto Globe.
standing have fallen in the past few years.
Eccles. xii. 12.
12. Of making many books there is no end.
13. It is well you escaped being dashed in pieces by that
mountain. BUNYAN, The Pilgrim's Progress.
14. Sancho, being informed how ill his master was, and finding
his niece all in tears, began to make wry faces, and fall a-crying.
CERVANTES, Don Quixote.
"
Sir, I love the company of young people; because, in
15.
the first place, I don't like to think myself growing old."
BOSWELL, Life of Dr. Johnson.
"
1 6.
When years come upon you, you will find that poring
upon books will be but an irksome task." BOSWELL, Life of
Dr. Johnson.
17.

The dead bodies of these martyrs, having been cast into


by the Pagans, were carried up-stream almost forty
BEDE, Ecclesiastical History.
Then (he is) the whining school boy, with his satchel

the river
miles.
1

8.

And

shining morning face, creeping like snail


Unwillingly to school.

SHAKESPEARE, As You Like

It.

EXERCISE 98
Select the infinitives, gerunds and participles in the following sentences, and explain the syntax of each.

We

should pity the boy who has nothing to do.


Having arranged these matters, Caesar came to the
harbour with his legions. CESAR, Gallic War.
3. You do well to spend the night, not in sleeping, but in
watching and prayer. BEDE, Ecclesiastical History.
4. I remained with them until it was dark, having entered
into deep discourse with a celebrated rat-catcher, who communicated to me the secrets of his trade, saying, amongst
"
other things,
When you see the rats pouring out of their
and
holes,
running up my hands and arms, they are after the
oils I carry about me."
BORROW, Romany Rye.
5. Mounting my horse, I made my way to town at a
1.

2.

swinging
6.

BORROW, Romany Ry-.


Her worth, being mounted on the wind,
Through all the world bears Rosalind.
SHAKESPEARE, As You Like

trot.

It.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

156

Roman

Virgil, thou that singest


Ilion's lofty temples robed in fire,

7.

II ion

falling,

Rome

arising,
faith,

and Dido's pyre.


TENNYSON, To Virgil.
8. On the next morning, having found them partially sober,
"
but as they
he invited them to remove to La Presentation
wars,

and

filial

something left in their bottles, I could get no answer


till the following day."
PARKMAN, Montcalm and Wolfe.
9. My wife observed that rising too early would hurt her
daughters' eyes, and that working after dinner would redden
their noses.
GOLDSMITH, The Vicar of Wakefield.
10. We could have borne all this, had not a fortune-telling
gypsy come to raise us into perfect sublimity. GOLDSMITH,
The Vicar of Wakefield.
"
11.
It wasn't very civil of you to sit down without being
CARROLL, Alice in Wonderland.
invited," said the March Hare.
12. Altisidora, whom Don Quixote supposed to have been
raised from the dead, entered the room, supporting herself
with an ebony staff. CERVANTES, Don Quixote.
13. We were glad to hear of his having recovered.

had

still

EXERCISE 99
Write out

all

the non-modal forms of the following verbs

make, take, look, ask,

leave, paint, dress,


heave, steal, wear, draw, hold, throw, see, build, keep, sell, buy.
feed,

VII.

deal,

hit,

AGREEMENT OF THE VERB WITH

ITS

SUBJECT

157. The verb agrees with its subject in person and


number, but the meaning, rather than the form, of the

subject determines this agreement.


are examples of this general principle
i.

Where the

subject

meaning is usually plural.


John and James were

is

The

compound

together.

following cases

(section 13), the

Anarchy and hunger

threaten Russia.
(a)

But when singular substantives are joined by


the meaning of the subject

either... or, or neither .. .nor


is

singular.

Neither wealth nor fame is necessary for happiness.


Either your advice or your presence will be sufficient.

AGREEMENT

VERBS
(b)

157

Sometimes, when and joins two substantives,

the meaning

is still singular.

The sum and substance of the matter is this.


Flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto
Matthew xvi. 17.

thee.

When the subject is a collective noun in the singular,

2.

is singular, if we think of the individuals as


but it is in the plural, if we have in
forming one body
mind the individuals of which the collection is formed.
The crowd is advancing rapidly.
The demoralised crowd are fleeing in all directions.
The committee is (are] of the opinion that you are

the verb

right.

Occasionally the meaning is singular, even


ordinary noun is used in the plural.
3.

A thousand
On

years

is

a long period in the

the other hand, a

number

life

when an

of a nation.

nouns are plural


meaning.
of

form, but regularly singular in


Mathematics (economics, physics,

etc.) is

in

an important

study.

The

gallows

The word

is still

used in Ontario.

pains, in the sense of care or

effort, is

some-

times plural in meaning.


Great pains has (have) been taken by our friends to
please us.
4. Words like half, part, portion,
plural verbs according to the sense.
Half of the people were his friends.

take singular or

Half of a melon

is enough for me.


third of the citizens were unfriendly.
This part of the machinery costs ten dollars.

5.

When

substantives

neither .. .nor differ in

connected

number

by

either... or

or

or person, the verb usually

agrees with the nearer.


Either you or he is unfriendly.
Neither the leader nor his followers favor this plan.

But such sentences are avoided by careful writers.


These two sentences might better be worded thus
:

Either you are unfriendly, or he is.


This plan is favoured by neither the leader nor his
followers.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

158

EXERCISE 100
Account for the number of each of the italicised verbs in
the following sentences
1. Bread and butter does not suit this
young man.
2. The carriage and team was bought by the same dealer.
3. The jury are all old men.
:

4.

The jury has

5.

Neither the

brought in a verdict.
nor his wife is willing to come.
6. Not only Mary, but Dorothy, goes there often.
7. That committee has adjourned.
8. The committee were nearly all away, some in one place,
others in another.
9. Jim and I have had a long walk in the fields.
10. The long and short of the matter is that he was very

man

angry.
11.

Has

12.

Every door

either the doctor or the lawyer been invited?

and

every

window was crowded with

spectators.
13.

Pharaoh, with his whole army, was drowned in the Red

Sea.
14.
15.
1

6.

Neither the Mayor nor the Reeve was at the meeting.


Either John or you are to be sent.
A majority of the parents were willing to give the plan

trial.

17. The majority in favour of the Union Government was


very large.
1 8. A
garage as well as a storehouse has been built on the lot.
19. The crew is not large enough to manage the ship.
20. The crew were busy at different tasks.
21.
Why is dust and ashes proud ?

22.

God

Now
23.

"
Nor day nor night
said in Heaven,
brings the voice of
delight."

my

BROWNING, The Boy and the Angel.


The lowest boughs and the brushwood sheaf

Round
24.

the elm-tree bole are in tiny leaf.


BROWNING, Home Thoughts from Abroad.
the multitude below
Here's the top-peak
;

Live, for they can, there.

BROWNING, A Grammarian's Funeral.

EXERCISE 101
Fill each blank in the following sentences with the proper
form of the verb be.
1

2.
3.

4.

5.

Neither honour nor virtue


found in this wretch.
News
sent to Canada that this battalion had sailed.
either of these houses for sale ?
The audience
delighted with the singing of Mr. Francis.
The audience
large.

VERBSPARSING
6.

Eyre.

Neither Dickens nor Thackeray -

159

- the author

of

Jane

A large

in the storehouse.
quantity of butter and eggs
to be considered.
of opinion that the other members
9. The committee
should carry out its recommendations.
in the field.
10. The black and the white horse
1 1
looking its best.
Every shrub and every flower
1 2. The choir
nearly all in their places.
a dish for the gods.
13. Pancakes and maple syrup
in the room.
14. None of the boys
written by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
15. Twice-told Tales
A part of the cadets
1 6.
drilling on the campus.
due to bad water.
17. More than one outbreak of disease
Neither Fred nor I
1 8.
willing to take the office to-day.
ours already.
Three parts of him
19.
SHAKESPEARE, Julius Casar.
7.
8.

Prices as well as style

20.

158.

Neither of the reports

quite correct.

COMPOUND VERBS.

Each

of these consists of

an ordinary verb, together with one or more words loosely


attached to

What

it.

when

the ship set sail ?


did away with their victims.
He as much as said that he would help me.
This man was found out, when he went to town.
took place

These unscrupulous

men

Such compound verbs should not be analysed, even


it is easy to explain how they were formed.

when

PARSING OF VERBS.

159.

As a

simple.

This should be

made very

rule, it is quite sufficient to state

the

class,

principal parts, voice, mood, tense, and relation of the verb.


For instance, the italicised verbs in the following sentence

would be parsed thus (see page 268)


May you be as happy as your

friends have wished

you

to be.

May be: Verb, linking, be, was, been, subj., pres.,


subject you, the subjunctive of wish.
have wished Verb, trans., wish, wished, wished, indie.,
pres. perf., subject friends.
to be: Verb, linking, be, was, been, infin., pres., subject
you, the predicative use of the infin.
:

When

a verb

a passive voice,

NOTE
in

is

A summary

Appendix D.

and cannot, therefore, have


mention of voice should be omitted.

intransitive

all

of the verb, active

and passive,

will

be found

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

160

EXERCISE 102
Parse the italicised words and phrases in the following sentences
:

DENYS ON THE ROAD


The

pair were trudging manfully on, and Denys did his full
enliven the weary way. He chattered about battles and
and he
sieges, and interesting things which were new to Gerard
was one of those who can make little incidents wherever they go.
He passed nobody without addressing him. " They don't understand it, but it wakes them up," said he. He doffed his cap
to every woman, high or low, he caught sight of, and, discerning
with eagle eye her best feature, he complimented her on it
in his native tongue, well adapted to such matters
and, at
each crow or magpie, down came his cross-bow, and he would
go a furlong off the road to circumvent it ; and indeed he did
shoot one old crow with laudable neatness and despatch, and,
having carried "it to the nearest hen-roost, slipped in, and set
The good wife will say, Alack here is Beelzeit upon a nest.
"
C. READE, The Cloister and the Hearth.
bub hatching my eggs.'

share

to

'

KING JOHN DESIRES THE DEATH OF ARTHUR


King John (addressing Hubert)
Good friend, thou hast no cause to say so yet,
But thou shalt have and creep time ne'er so slow,
Yet it shall come for me to do thee good.
I had a thing to say, but let it go
The sun is in the heaven, and the proud day,
:

Attended with the pleasures of the world,


Is all too wanton and too full of gawds (trifling ornaments)
To give me audience: If the midnight bell
Did, with his iron tongue and brazen mouth,
Sound on into the drowsy ear of night
If this same were a churchyard where we stand,
And thou possessed with a thousand wrongs
Or if that surly spirit, melancholy,
Had baked thy blood and made it heavy-thick,
Which else runs tickling up and down the veins,
Making that idiot, laughter, keep men's eyes
And strain their cheeks to idle merriment,
A passion hateful to my purposes
Or if that thou couldst see me without eyes,
Hear me without thine ears, and make reply
Without a tongue, using conceit (thought) alone,
Then, in despite of brooded watchful day,
I would into thy bosom pour my thoughts ;
Yet I love thee well ;
But, ah, I will not
And, by my troth, I think thou lovest me well.
;

SHAKESPEARE, King John.

ADVERBS CLASSES

CHAPTER

161

VI

THE ADVERB

An

160.

ADVERB

is

word that modifies a verb, an

adjective, or another adverb.


161. Adverbs are classified

according to meaning, as
adverbs of place, time, manner, cause, and degree, and
modal adverbs. The adverbs of this last class are so
called, because they show the mode or manner in which
the speaker regards the thought. It should be remembered
that some adverbs are used in different senses, and so
may belong to more than one class.
The following words are examples of the six classes :
1.

Place

2.

Time

3.
4.

here, there, where, yonder, down, up.


then, when, now, soon, formerly.
Manner : how, so, as, eagerly, swiftly.
Cause : why, hence, therefore, accordingly.

much, little, greatly, scarcely.


surely, certainly, indeed, not,
scarcely, perhaps, possibly, probably.
5.
6.

Degree

Modal

as,

hardly,

162. Other adverbial ideas, like concession, condition,


purpose, and result, are usually expressed by phrases and
clauses.

(Condition.)
If you finish your work, he will pay you.
so, you are foolish to complain.
(Concession.)

Even

Your friends have come to cheer you up. (Purpose.)


Our friends fought so hard that they were successful. (Result.)

Many of the modal


163. SENTENCE ADVERBS.
adverbs seem to modify the whole sentence, rather than
any one word in the sentence, and so are called sentence
adverbs.
Possibly our friends will come.
You are certainly friendly.

We shall probably
M

see

him

in the city.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

162

Such adverbs

really modify the predication expressed


as
in
the first sentence, or by the verb and
the
verb,
by
a complement, as in the second sentence. This is readily
shown by altering the first sentence thus
:

Our

friends

may come to-morrow.

The possibility is now expressed by the verb.


Modal phrases are used in the same way.
all probability, they will be here at noon.
Without doubt, you are right.
He is, I fear, very unprincipled.

In

The
use.

last

example

One kind

meaning

is

a clause in form, but a phrase in


adverb really adds to the

of sentence

of the sentence, without in

any sense limiting

it.

Unfortunately the pipe has broken.


To our chagrin, he failed in his attempt.

EXERCISE 103
Classify the adverbs and adverbial phrases in the following
sentences, and explain the function of each.
1. We are writing now about the beginnings of our English
Literature.

Possibly there

2.

is

only one boy in the class

who

does not

like literature.

He is the lad who most needs that study, that his mind
be fully trained.
"
How
ask this question:
4. Perhaps very few pupils ever
do people living now learn about the times of the Anglo"
Saxons ?
with the bright eyes answers quickly: "We
5. The boy
can easily read about them in a History."
6. But how did the man who wrote the History learn these
3.

may

facts

Without doubt, a really good historian has read the


books written in those ancient times.
8. To be sure, there axe other ways of learning about the
must be used.
past, but this method
that our historian often reads
9. We know, therefore,
7.

those old books.


10. If the historian were here, he might tell you of Caedmon,
"
who has been called quite fittingly the" father of English song."
11. Do not forget that the word
song," as it is used here,

means poetry.
12.

We

never sing prose selections.

Csedmon was a servant at a monastery, where


vision a figure bade him sing.
13.

in

ADVERBS COMPARISON
"

"

163

I came to
cell from the
I cannot sing," he replied;
14.
feasting in the hall because I cannot sing."
"
It is to me you should
15. At once the figure answered:
sing. Sing the origin of created things."
1 6.
Immediately he began to sing of the creation of the

my

world, and other Bible stories.


17. Though the vision was present no longer, he was inspired
still to write on these great subjects.
1 8.
Perhaps your teacher will be kind enough to remind
you of a very great English poet who wrote on these themes.
19. What we know about Caedmon has been told us by

Bede, of
164.

whom we .may

speak

later.

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

adverbs are compared.


1. A few adverbs add -er and

Like adjectives,

many

parative and superlative


fast,

faster,

fastest

-est

to form the com-

nearer,

near,

nearest

soon,

sooner, soonest.
2.

Most adverbs are compared by means of more and


and least
gaily, more gaily, most gaily
sadly, more sadly, most

most, less

sadly.

quickly, less quickly, least quickly

slowly, less slowly,

least slowly.
3.

nigh,

few adverbs are irregular in comparison


most
much, more,
nigher, nighest
:

(badly), worse,
well,
better,
ill

late,

later,

next
worst

less,

little,

least

farthest
farther,
furthest
further,
(rath: obs. adj.), rather,
far,

best
latest
last

EXERCISE 104
Write sentences using either the comparative or the superlative of each of the following adverbs
:

softly, quickly, slowly, soberly, well, little, swiftly, rarely,


late, far, cheerfully, badly, nigh, clearly, fully, rapidly, early,

soon, gladly, suddenly.

165.
i.

DIFFICULT CASES:
The same word

is

sometimes used as more than

one part of speech.

He came down.
He came down the

Adverb.
stairs.

Preposition.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

164
When

will

I shall

do

you do this work ?


when he arrives.

it

This is a, fast train.


This train runs very fast.

Adverb.
Conjunction.
Adjective.

Adverb.

Words

ordinarily used as other parts of speech


are sometimes used as adverbs.
2.

My friend
The

is

somewhat annoyed with me.

politicians are fighting mad.


Tramp, tramp the soldiers went.
This house is a great deal better built

Pronoun.
Participle.

Verb.

than that.

Noun

in adv. ace.

each of the following sentences the adverb


modifies the succeeding phrase or clause.
3.

In

The aeroplane

flew right over the town.


This occurred long after the war was over.

Adverbs and adverbial phrases sometimes appear


modify nouns.

4.

to

Napoleon's defeat on the morrow seemed certain.


His stay here is likely to be long.
In reality the adverb or adverbial phrase modifies
the verbal idea contained in the preceding noun.

my friend, is now my enemy.


In this sentence then modifies friend, which is used
adjectivally in apposition with John.
5. Some adverbial phrases may be readily analysed.
In the afternoon, he reached his destination.
In the front trenches, many a struggle took place.
Every now and then, they made a new attempt.
Ever and anon, a loud report was heard.
John, then

Other adverbial phrases are not easily broken up,


because each consists of a preposition followed by a

word which is ordinarily an adjective.


On high sat the dignitary. In vain they struggled.
They have gone for good. We shall not do it at all.
Still

Day
6.

may

other phrases are the result of abbreviation.


by day they toiled together.

In certain cases, words like up, down, away, and off


be treated either as adverbs modifying verbs, or

as parts of

compound

verbs.

ADVERBIAL PARTICLES

165

His enemy carried off (away] the money.


The houses have been built up again.
The wharf was torn down.

The simpler and probably the better way is to say that


the verbs in those sentences are carry off (away], build up,
tear down.
EXERCISE 105
Classify the italicised words in the following sentences, and
explain the function of each.

The boy went up the ladder, and pulled down the flag.
Her visit there was very pleasant.
His arrival there was a great surprise.
The picture was taken down by my father.
The child went right across the street.
Bill, who does not fear work, took in the wood for

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

his

father.

The

7.
8.

car

is

standing in the garage.

We went home soon after they came.


The house took fire shortly after dark.
I pulled up the blind, and saw the man walking up the

9.

10.

street.
1 1

William

then Premier of England, carried on the

Pitt,

war against Napoleon.


12. The British were victorious on the sea.
13. The man was somewhat older than his wife.
14. She is an industrious woman, for she is making

over these

clothes.
15.

Soon she

will

be standing over the

fire,

cooking for her

sons.
1

6.

17.
1

8.

19.

20.
21.
22.

166.

Long before the game was over, we knew that you would win.
Although the battle was long, the right prevailed at last.
Few pennies came in,
And many mouths to eat the pennies up.
LANGLAND, Piers Plowman.
The voyage hither was uneventful.
The boat came close beneath the ship.
While we were away, the matter was looked into.
The bear walked right into the trap.

ADVERBIAL PARTICLES.

(For the nature of

the particle see section 33.)


i.

The Expletive 1

Particle.

The word

there is

sometimes

Expletive is derived from the Latin verb expleo, expletum, to


fill
up.
Compare with the use of il in such French sentences as
1

out, or

II

y a beaucoup de gar9ons dans

la classe.

fill

166
used to

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
fill

up what would otherwise be a gap because

of the transposition of the subject. In such cases


none of its original adverbial force.

it

has

There are forty people who work there.


There is much business to-day.

The second

there in the first sentence

is,

of course, an

ordinary adverb.
1
A few words like even resemble
2. Other Particles.
the adverb more than any other part of speech, and yet
are used not only with verbs, adjectives, and adverbs,
but with other parts of speech as well.

Even our enemies praise us. (Emphasises our.)


Our enemies, even, praise us. (Emphasises enemies.)
Our enemies even praise us. (Emphasises praise.)

Our enemies praise us, even. (Emphasises us.)


Other words sometimes used in the same way are
only, just, merely, nearly, almost.

Only a brave man would do


A brave man only would do
A brave man would only do
A brave man would do that

that.
that.
that.
only.

EXERCISE 106
Classify the italicised words and phrases in the following
sentences, and explain the syntax of each.
1. There is another early writer of whom we are going to
say just a little.
"
father of
2. Bede lived somewhat later than Caedmon, the
English Song."
3. Early in life he entered the monastery at Jarrow in
northern England, and there he spent many quiet years.
4. He was well versed in almost all the subjects then known,
Latin, Greek, astronomy, and even medicine.
is considered an
5. Although he wrote only in Latin, he

English author.
"
Ecclesias6. There are many excellent translations of his
tical History of the English People."
father is a clergyman does
7. Perhaps even the boy whose
"
ecclesiastical."
not know the meaning of
1

Some grammarians

treat even

A New

and

similar

words as sentence

English Grammar, sections 136-37).


Undoubtedly the constructions given in this section shade into others
in which such words are ordinary adjectives or adverbs.

adverbs (Sonnenschein,

ADVERBS FORMATION

167

always the dictionary.

Cheer up there
Even from where you sit you can see it on the teacher's
desk. Would it be advisable to go there ?
10. On this book (we do not refer to the dictionary) we
depend almost entirely for our knowledge of English life before
the times of Alfred the Great.
11. Even some great writers have not been good men, but
8.

is

9.

Bede won the respect and love


There
Venerable."
12.

is

of

all.

proof of this in the fact that he was called

"

The

Even in the weakness of his last illness, he still persevered


work.
"
Most dear Master, there is only one
14. His pupil said,
chapter wanting. Do" you think it troublesome to be asked
13.

in his

any more
questions ?
"
It is no trouble,"
15.
ready, and write fast."

said Bede.

"

Take your pen, make

16.
little later the pupil spoke once more,
there is yet one sentence not written."
17.

Then

1 8.

The master

truth
19.

"

said the pupil,

it is

replied,

Dear Master,

The sentence is now written."


"It is well
you have said the
;

ended."

There we have the

death of a good man.


ARNOLD-FORSTER'S History of England (adapted).
story of the

1.

FORMATION OF ADVERBS.
A few adverbs are primitive in our

so,

now, how.

167.

"

language:

2. Many words are used as both adjectives and adverbs


without change of form
all, early, hard, long, late, deep, much, most.
:

3. Many adverbs are formed from adjectives and


other parts of speech by means of suffixes, sometimes

with slight changes in spelling

swiftly, truly, gai/y, hastily, frantical/y.


likewise, lengthwise, sidewise.

headlong, sidelong, homeward, backwards.


4. The in such constructions as,
The more the merrier,
The more he works, the more he accomplishes,

not an article, but an adverb meaning by the amount


and by that amount.
The second sentence could be

is

paraphrased thus

By

the

amount that he works more, by that amount he

accomplishes more.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

168

The adverb the is a fossilised instrumental form of


the Old English article, expressing measure of difference.
(Compare the use of the ablative case in Latin.)
The adverb ago

is really an old past participle


which
modified
the
noun with which it was used.
agone,
Now it is an ordinary adverb. In the following sentence
it modifies arrived, and is modified by the adverbial
5.

accusative days.
They arrived ten days ago.
6. There are many compound adverbs formed from
independent words
:

sideways, headforemost, knee-deep, indeed, forever,


herein, thereof, whereby, wherewith, therewith.

Each
in

of the adverbs in the second line is equivalent

meaning to a preposition and a pronoun.


Herein (in this) lies our chance of success.
This is the means whereby (by which) I do

168.

it.

PARSING OF ADVERBS. The parsing of adverbs

should be
sufficient,

made a very

simple matter indeed. It is quite


and explain their
The adverb and the adverbial phrase in the
as a rule, to classify them,

syntax.
sentence (see page 268)
The man ran swiftly, in
:

the other direction,

should be parsed as follows


Adv. of manner, mod. verb ran.
swiftly
Adv. phrase of place, mod. verb
in the other direction
:

ran.

EXERCISE 107
Parse the adverbs and the adverbial phrases in the following
and explain, where you can, the formation of the
adverbs.
1. Long ago we read for the first time one of Mark Twain's
sentences,

books.
2. The title was Roughing
appearance of the volume.

we read

It.

Even yet we remember the

his books, the more we enjoy them.


agree with us that the boy who has not
heard of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn has a somewhat incomplete education.
3.

The

4.

Surely you

oftener

v/ill

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
.5.

6.

Even though you


Very
"

many

like his books, do you know his


know only his pen name.

readers

169
name

"

"

Mark Twain
Twain," of course, means two, and
7.
was a cry used in taking soundings on the Mississippi River.
"
Mark Twain " was a pilot
8. There Samuel Clemens or

many

years ago.
In his village there was but one permanent ambition
among the boys.
10. As they lived right on the bank of the great river, they
were all eager to be steamboatmen.
11. Every healthy boy, long before he even thinks of going
to High School, has some ambition.
12. Long, long ago, the now writer of exercises intended to be
a brakeman on a freight train.
13. Living close beside the railroad, he watched with admiration the brakeman strolling carelessly along the tops of the
9.

moving

cars.

Apparently, the fewer brakemen there are, the more


grammarians you "have to put up with.
We boys had transient ambitions of other
15. Mark says,
sorts, but they were only transient."
If there had been a circus in town, they all burned to
1 6.
14.

become clowns.
17. Long after the minstrel show was over, they felt that no
life was as grand as that of a comedian.
1 8.
At times they hoped that they might be pirates.
Even the greatest pleasures come to an end
19. Alas
!

too soon.
20. This exercise

is

quite too long.

169. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES. As examples of all the


nine classes of adverbial clauses were given in section 31,
it will be necessary now to mention only a few more
difficult constructions.
1.

Clauses of degree.

This

man

is

as rich as Crcesus (was rich}.

The faster you run,


In the

first

of degree, as,

the

more quickly you will reach the goa

1.

sentence rich is modified by the adverb


and the adverbial clause of degree, as

Croesus (was rich).


In the second sentence the adverb more quickly is
modified by the adverb the and the adverbial clause the
faster you run.
2.

Clauses of result.

This king was so foolish that he lost his throne.


The army was in such confusion that the commander

fled.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

170

In the first sentence foolish is modified by the adverb


of degree, so, and the adverbial clause of result, that he
lost his throne.
In the second sentence the adverbial
clause modifies the adjective such, which in turn modifies
confusion.
of Condition.
In addition to the more
of
conditional
forms
the
sentence discussed in
regular
sections 138-39, the following less usual forms should
be noted.
3.

Clauses

(a) Condition is sometimes expressed by an inverted order of words.


Hadst thou been there, my brother had not died.

John

xi. 21.

sometimes used to
(b) The imperative clause is
express condition.
But do your duty, the result will be happy.

A few imperatives and participles may even be


(c)
valued as conjunctions in conditional clauses.
Suppose your friend comes, what will you do ?
He may keep the suit, provided he pays for it.
EXERCISE 108
Classify the adverbial clauses in the following sentences, and
explain the relation of each.
1. If you do not object, we shall return to Mark Twain.
2. When the preceding exercise came to an end, we were
talking of piracy.

is an interesting subject, we are forced


3. Although this
to leave to your teacher the task of discussing it.
often longed to hoist the
4. The boys of Mark's village

the Spanish main, that they might return


Jolly Roger and sail
with a shipload of pieces-of-eight.
understand some of these expressions,
5. As Bill does not
the dark-haired girl who has read all the Elsie books will explain them.
6. Her answer clears up the difficulties so well that William
feels certain that he knows enough to be a buccaneer.
"
"
"
that last word is as hard
Alas
complains William,
7.
as the others."
8. Sometimes Mark and his friends longed for this wild
life, as many other boys have done.
the river -boats became so strong
9. But the desire to sail on
that it drove the other ideas from his mind.
!

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

171

10. This is not remarkable, because the arrival of the daily


boat was the great event in the life of the village.
"
The earlier part of each day was
11. As Mark describes it:
as glorious with expectancy as the later hours were dead and

empty."
"

"
12.
Though many years have gone," he says, I can picture
that old time just as it was then."
13. On a bright summer forenoon, business would be so quiet
that the clerks had nothing to do but sit in front of the store

sound
14.

know

asleep.

Were a

stranger to wonder at their exhaustion, he would


the reason when he had glanced at the whittlings which

surrounded them.
15. A few pigs might be seen loafing along the sidewalk,
where they did a good business in water-melon rinds and seeds.
famous for his mighty voice,
1 6. But when a drayman,
"
"
the scene changed.
S-t-e-a-m-boat a-comin'
raised the cry,
17. As bees issue fiercely from the hive when an enemy
approaches, or as ants rush wildly from their underground city,
if it is disturbed by the gardener's hoe, so rushed the villagers
from their houses, and a few minutes found them gathered on
!

the wharf.
1 8. As the boat drew nearer, the people's eyes were fastened
on it as if it were a wonder they were seeing for the first time.
19. As soon as the steamer touched the wharf, there was a
mad scramble to get aboard and to get ashore, to take in
freight and to discharge freight.
20. Twenty minutes later the town is as dead as it was before
the drayman's shout roused the sleepers.

MARK TWAIN,

Life on the Mississippi (adapted).

EXERCISE 109
Classify all the subordinate clauses in the following extract,
relation of each.

and explain the

MARK TWAIN'S BOYHOOD AMBITION


was a justice of the peace, and I supposed he
My
possessed the power of life and death over all men and could
Although this was dishang anybody that offended him.
tinction enough for me as a general thing, yet the desire to be
a steamboatman kept intruding. First I wanted to be a cabinboy, so that I could come out with a white apron on and shake
a table-cloth over the side, where all my old comrades could
see me
later I thought I should prefer to be the deck-hand
who stood on the end of the stage-plank with the coil of rope
in his hand, because he was particularly conspicuous. By and
by, one of our boys went away. After some time he turned up
as apprentice engineer on a steamboat.
There was nothing
generous about this fellow in his greatness. He would always
manage to have a rusty bolt to scrub while his boat tarried
father

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

172

town, and he would sit and scrub it where we could


him and envy him and loathe him. And whenever his
boat was laid up he would come home and swell around the
town in his blackest and greasiest clothes, so that nobody could
and he used
help remembering that he was a steamboatman
in our

all

see

steamboat technicalities in his talk, as if he were


so used to them that he forgot common people could not under"
"
stand him. He would speak of the
labboard
side of a horse
in an easy, natural way that would make one wish he was dead.
This fellow had money, too, and hair oil. Also an ignorant
silver watch and a showy brass watch-chain. If ever a youth
was cordially admired and hated by his comrades, this one was.
No girl could withstand his charms. He " cut out " every boy
in the village. When his boat blew up at last, the news diffused
a tranquil contentment among us such as we had not known
But when he came home the next week, alive,
for months.
renowned, and appeared in church all battered up and bandaged,
a shining hero, stared at and wondered over by everybody, it
seemed to us that the partiality of good luck for an undeserving
reptile had reached a point where it was open to criticism.
At last I ran away that I might be a pilot. MARK TWAIN,
Life on the Mississippi.
all

sorts of

PREPOSITIONS

CHAPTER

173

VII

THE PREPOSITION

PREPOSITION

170. A
phrase, and to
another word.

show

is

word

used

to

form

the relation between a substantive and

They came with us. They were now among their friends.
171. The substantive which follows a preposition is
its

and is in the accusative case. This suba


be
word, a phrase, or a clause.
may
Give these books to them and to your friends.
Some thoughts come from above.
Nothing remained but to make the best of a bad case.
You can judge by what he did yesterday.

direct object,

stantive

172.

which

The preposition with


is

its object
either adjectival or adverbial.

He came/yom

forms a phrase,

the west (adverbial).

This grain from the west (western grain)

is

good (ad-

jectival).

173. Prepositions are either simple or


1.

Simple

2.

Compound

about, above,
:

(a)

compound.

at, before, by,

with, from, etc.

underneath, within, notwithstanding,


etc.

to, along with, because of,


by means of, etc.
words are used both as prepositions and as
(b)

according

174. Some
other parts of speech.

The captain has gone below. (Adverb.)


The captain is already below. (Adjective.)
The captain has gone below the deck. (Preposition.)
Considering the price, we are well pleased. (Preposition.)
There were our

A number
touching,

friends, considering the

problem. (Participle.)

of prepositions like considering,

owing,

pending,

during, except,

derived from present or past participles.

and

concerning,
past, are

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

174

175. The preposition usually precedes


sometimes comes after.
He works with us.
We are the people (that) he works with.
(It

would be better to say

whom he

"
:

We

its

object,

but

are the people with

works/')

EXERCISE

no

Classify the prepositions in the following sentences as simple


or compound, and explain the function of each.
1. We hope that some of you have read Tom Brown's
School Days during the past year.
2. The hero of the story was among those fortunate lads who
attended Rugby School when Dr. Arnold was the head master.
3. Rugby football takes its name from this school.
4. These English schools were different from ours.
5. Only boys were in attendance.
6. All the pupils, except a few day-boys, lived within the
school buildings.

7. One result of this system was that what we call homework was done under the guidance of the teachers.
8. Although you do not say so in words, many of you would

be glad to see this plan adopted here.


9. Several classes gathered in a large room, and were supposed to prepare their work without talking.
10. The masters walked up and down the room during this
period.

You may scarcely credit it, but some of the young gentle1 1
men, when the masters had walked by their seats, actually
began to talk.
12. Those who have read the book can tell whether Tom
was among these chatterboxes or not.
.

WITH

WORDS. On

CERTAIN
176. USE
their meaning, or of usage, certain
particular prepositions.
1. In some cases there

between the word and


ada.pt

to,

assent

to,

its

account of

words are followed by

is a harmony of meaning
accompanying preposition:

confer with, involve in.

The pupil who does not study Latin, should look up


the meanings of the italicised prefixes in the dictionary.
2. In many cases there is no such harmony
:

associated with, confide in.


3.

Some words

are followed

by more than one

position.

They

are dying of (with, from) hunger.

pre-

PREPOSITIONS

175

Since the use of prepositions is so varied, the pupil


should be guided by the dictionary, and by the usage
of

good authors.
EXERCISE

in

sentences, using each of the following words with


proper preposition or prepositions

Compose
its

accord

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

176

France was

all

being conquered.)

Than

2.

whom

as

This

is

is

but conquered. (France was


(Gerund object.)

all

except

a conjunction, but is used with the pronoun


it were a preposition.

though

our friend, than

Near

whom

there

is

none more

loyal.

and

unlike, should be treated as


3.
(nigh), like,
in
of
fact
that they are compared.
the
prepositions,
spite
Your son is like you.
Your son is more like you than your daughter.
He acts like a madman.
He acts more like a madman than Henry does.

That pupil
That pupil

Who

sits

near the blackboard.


nearer the blackboard than you do.
nearest the teacher ?
sits

sits

These words were originally adjectives and adverbs

by the dative case of the substantive. They


compared like adjectives and adverbs, but the
chief function of each is to show the relation between
a substantive and another word. They are, therefore,

followed
are

still

called prepositions

treat
178.

them

by many grammarians. Others


and adverbs.

still

as adjectives

PREPOSITIONAL PARTICLES.

Have you a book

to write on ?
This man is worth speaking to.
This matter should be looked into.

These words, on, to, and into, would be ordinary preThe first sentence could be
if they had objects.
so altered as to make on a preposition with the object
positions,

which.

Have you a book on which

to write

Because they lack objects, words used in this way are


often called prepositional particles. (See section 33.)
In some cases the verb and the prepositional particle
might be treated together as a compound verb, especially
when a single word can be substituted, as in the second

and third sentences above, and when the verb


as in the third sentence.

man is worth addressing.


That matter should be investigated.

This

is

passive,

PREPOSITIONS

PARSING

177

PARSING OF PREPOSITIONS.

This should
the
function
of
the
merely stating
preposition.

179.
consist in

He came

with his friends

to

the concert.

Prep, showing the relation between came and


friends, and taking the direct object concert.
to
Prep, showing the relation between came and

with

concert.

EXERCISE 113
Parse the italicised words in the following sentences:
1. Here are a few words whose grammatical value must
be looked
2.

into.

Nothing but school

life at

Rugby

will

be described in

these sentences.
3.

The boys assembled

in a large

room to work

like

bees

at their lessons.

But this work was not carried on without some noise.


Notwithstanding the fact that many were industrious,
cannot but admit that there were some drones to be looked
4.

5.

we

after.
6.

It is plain that these


this school.

boys were not

like

the pupils of

Here Tom's reputation for steadiness was all but lost.


Besides the master's desk, there was another large unoccupied desk which stood near the front of the room,
9. It would hold four boys and those who secured it and
were able to hold it against all invaders did anything but work.
10. Consequently, as soon as the boys came in, a rush was
made to seize this desk.
11. The struggles to gain it were like the fierce battles
between the Greeks and the Trojans.
12. Finally orders were issued concerning it, that it was not
7.
8.

to be used by anyone.
13. As it was" so large that two boys could lie underneath
it without being seen, it seldom remained empty, notwithstanding
the veto.
14. Hidden within its deep cavern, the occupants watched,
through small holes cut in the front, the masters walking up

and down the room.


15. Tom and his chum had often spent the period there,
and, but for an unlucky accident, might have kept up the
practice.
16. One day a ball, with which they were playing, slipped
from Tom's hands and rolled down the steps into the middle
aisle, just as the masters turned in their walk.
of the "
This must be looked into,'' thought the masters.
17.
1 8. So the two lads were
pulled out, and cane treatment
applied to their hands without delay.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

178

CHAPTER

VIII

THE CONJUNCTION
180. A CONJUNCTION is a word used to join together
words, phrases, or clauses (but not to form phrases).

John and James. The ne'er-do-wells and the good-fornothings.

What he

did and what he wanted, were both important.

181. Conjunctions

are

first

classified

as co-ordinating

and subordinating.

CO-ORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

182.

to join co-ordinate words, phrases,

phrases,

and clauses

You have

1.

We shall

and clauses,

are used

i.e.,

words,

same grammatical rank.


the Greeks and the Romans.

of the

read of

Rome or Athens.
Neither the Duke of Cornwall nor the Marquis of
Bute, was present.
4. Charles I. was beheaded, and James II. was driven
from his throne.
5. Charles II. knew what he wanted, and how far he
dared to go.
2.

visit either

3.

In the

first

two sentences the conjunctions

that are objects.

The conjunction

join nouns
of the third sentence

two phrases, alternative subjects of was. And of the


fourth sentence joins two principal clauses, while and of
the fifth sentence joins two subordinate clauses, both of
which are objects of the verb knew.
The principal co-ordinating conjunctions are the foljoins

owing

x
:

and, as well as, but, however, whereas, either, or, else,


neither, nor, for.
1
In conformity with the recommendation of the English Joint
Committee on the Terminology of Grammar, no word that can be
treated as an adverb is included among co-ordinating conjunctions.

See Report,

p. 21.

CONJUNCTIONSCLASSES

179

When co-ordinating conjunctions occur in pairs, they


are called Correlative.
Rome and

Both

Greece finally declined.

The other co-ordinating


or

either

correlatives are

- nor

neither

not only -

but

also.

EXERCISE 114
Select the co-ordinating conjunctions in the following sen-

tences, and explain the function of each. When conjunctions


are correlative, state that fact.
1
But that is neither here nor there, the donkey was lost
and gone, that is certain and, what is more, it could not be
found either high or low. CERVANTES, Don Quixote.
.

Wisdom and goodness

2.

He

3.

seem vile.
SHAKESPEARE, King Lear.

to the vile

that keeps nor crust nor crumb,


of all, shall want some.

Weary

SHAKESPEARE, King Lear.


Now, truce, farewell and, ruth, begone
But think not that by thee alone,
Proud chief can courtesy be shown.
SCOTT, The Lady of the Lake.
When young and old in circle
Around the firebrands close
!

4.

5.

When

the girls are weaving baskets,


And the lads are shaping bows
With weeping and with laughter
Still is the story told.
;

MACAULAY,

Horatius.

daughters entertained the young man with topics


they thought most modern; whereas Moses, on the contrary,
gave him a question or two from the ancients. GOLDSMITH

My

6.

The Vicar of Wakefield.

To

7.

be, or not to

be

that

is

the question.

SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet.
8.

He gave

9.

We

the needy not only food but also money.


toiled all the night and have taken nothing:
nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net.
Luke v. 5.

have

Rouse up,

10.

sirs

Give your brains a racking,

Or, sure as fate, we'll send

you packing.
BROWNING, The Pied Piper

1 1

The new owners

house

of Hamelin.
are pleased with both the farm and the

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

i8o

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

183.
to

are used

words in the clauses

to join subordinate clauses to certain

which they are subordinate.


1. Most of the subordinating conjunctions are used to
introduce adverbial clauses, and are sometimes classified
in the same way as those clauses. (See section 31.)
The principal subordinating conjunctions of this kind

are

where, whence, whither, when, whenever, as, while,


whereas, seeing that, lest,
if, provided that, so that, although, though, while, how,
than.
until, before, since, because,

2.

clauses

few conjunctions are used to introduce noun


:

that, whether,
3.

Some

if,

why, how, when, where.

of the subordinating conjunctions are used

correlatively with other conjunctions, or adverbs.

Where he

goes, there I follow.


whether he is sick or lazy

Do you know,

Other pairs are the following

when

then

though

yet

while

yet.

In each of these pairs except the second (whether ...


only the first word is a subordinating conjunction.
4. Certain subordinating conjunctions are adverbial,
because they modify the clauses they introduce.

or),

I shall

do the work when he comes.

The word when has a double function. It joins the


two clauses, and also modifies the verb in the subIt is, therefore, an Adverbial Conordinate clause.
junction. (Some grammarians have called such words
conjunctive or relative adverbs.) The adverbial conjunctions are

when, whenever, where (and its compounds wherein,


whereon, whereof, etc.], whence, why, whither, and how.
184.

Conjunctions

are

also

classified

as

simple

compound.
Simple

and, as, but, when, where, how, etc., etc.

and

CLASSES

CONJUNCTIONS
Compound

(a)
(b)

181

however, whereas, whenever, wherein, etc.


as

well as, seeing that, so that,


vided that, etc.

pro-

EXERCISE 115
(a) Select the subordinating conjunctions in the following
sentences, and tell what kind of clause is introduced by each.
In the case of adverbial clauses, classify as in section 31.
(b) Select the compound and correlative conjunctions.
tell
(c) Select the adverbial subordinating conjunctions, and
what each one modifies.
1. The good lady was called the Duchess by her fellowtradesfolk in the square where she lived.
2. If history relates good things of good men, the attentive
hearer is excited to imitate that which is good.
BEDE, The

Ecclesiastical History.
3. The curate and the barber agreed not to speak a word
about knight-errantry, lest they should irritate his brain,
whence the trouble came. CERVANTES, Don Quixote.
4. When they visited him, they found the poor man so
withered and wasted that he looked like a mummy. CERVANTES, Don Quixote.
5. I spoke to the poor wretch by signs as well as I could,
that he might understand that we intended to make him well.
DEFOE, The Adventures of Captain Singleton.

6.

privacy of glorious light

is

thine,

Whence thou dost pour upon the world a

flood

Of harmony.

WORDSWORTH, To
7.

Surely, surely, slumber

is

a Skylark.

more sweet than toil.


TENNYSON, The Lotos-Eaters.

All experience is an arch wherethro'.


Gleams that untravelled world.
TENNYSON, Ulysses.
9. Then I asked the poor man if the plague had not reached
to Greenwich. He said that it had not till about a fortnight
before.
DEFOE, A Journal of the Plague Year.
10. I asked him then how it happened that those who had
shut themselves up in the ships had not sufficient stores of
food.
DEFOE, A Journal of the Plague Year.
11. Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it to you.
SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet.
12. For two months of the year, the sun shines so
fiercely
that some die thereof, and others die of the frozen mixed
drinks.
LANG, Letters to Dead Authors.
Honour the High North ever and ever,
13.
Whether she crown you, or whether she slay.
R. W. SERVICE, Men of the High North.
8.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

182

SPECIAL DIFFICULTIES.
Many of the words commonly used

185.

as conjunctions
are also used as other parts of speech.
That boy is reading Stevenson's "Treasure Island." (Ad1.

jective.)

That

is

We are

what we want. (Pronoun.)


glad that you have done it.

(Conjunction.)
did Napoleon conquer Italy ? (Adverb.)
Napoleon surprised the Austrians, when he crossed the
Alps into Italy. (Conjunction.)

When

Three conjunctions, but, for, whereas, usually coordinating, are sometimes used to introduce subordinate
clauses. (For for see next subsection.)
2.

never rains but it pours (unless it pours).


Whereas I was blind, now I see. John ix. 25.

It

3.

For, because.

(a) The
conjunction for usually introduces a coordinate clause, giving the evidence on which the preceding statement is based.

This

man

The

foolishness of his conduct furnishes the evidence

is

of his lack of

unwise

for his conduct

is foolish.

wisdom.

Because, on the other hand, introduces a subordinate clause giving the cause for the action, or state
of affairs, expressed in the principal clause.
(b)

This man's conduct

is

His lack of wisdom

foolish, because

he

is

unwise.

the cause of his foolish conduct.


The because clause answers the question, Why? while
the co-ordinate for clause answers the question, How do
is

you know?
(c) For is sometimes used

in place of because to intro-

duce subordinate clauses, especially in cases where it


is immaterial whether we regard the for clause as coordinate, or subordinate.

He came

with them, because

(or for)

he was anxious.

Sometimes the connection of the for co-ordinate


clause with its accompanying co-ordinate clause is very
loose and hard to define.
(d)

DIFFICULTIES

CONJUNCTIONS

183

He went to town, because he wanted supplies for he


was a generous provider.
My brother helped me yesterday for he happened to
;

be in town.
help was given because he was interested
His being in town furnished the opportunity for

My brother's
me.

in

helping.
(e)

for

is

The subordinate clause introduced by because or


separated by a comma from the clause to which

the co-ordinate clause introduced by


;
usually separated by a semicolon from the clause
with which it is co-ordinate.

it is

for

4.

subordinate

is

Clauses introduced by than and as are frequently

elliptical.

Toronto

We

is

not as large as Montreal (is large).


the generous boy better than (we

all like

like) the

selfish one.
5.

Each

of the

compound

conjunctions, as when, as

if,

as though, than when, than if, than where, etc., is the result
of the ellipsis of a whole clause.

Henry VIII. looks

as (he

would look)

if

he were well

fed.

Elizabeth was richer than (she would have been) if she


in many wars.

had engaged

EXERCISE 116
Classify the conjunctions in the following sentences and
explain fully the function of each.
1.

The

soil in

He

2.

my garden is rich for the weeds are high.


walks as if he were a soldier.
;

I were as great,
or lesser than

O, that

3.

As

is

my

grief,

my name

SHAKESPEARE, King Richard II.


4. Because I could not move, they stretched a canopy for
me to lie in. BEDE, The Ecclesiastical History.
5. The vast throng of courtiers resembled an animated bed
of tulips for men and women alike wore bright, varied colours.
PARKMAN, Montcalm and Wolfe.
6. Pitt's patriotism was as comprehensive as it was haughty.
PARKMAN, Montcalm and Wolfe.
ERCK7. All this I can see as though it were yesterday.
MANN-CHATRIAN, The Story of a Peasant.
;

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

184
8.

Moreover, the unfortunate peasants could not plant

what they liked in their holdings, for if a peasant converted


an arable field into a meadow, he deprived someone of a tithe.
ERCKMANN-CHATRIAN, The Story of a Peasant.
9. Law cannot give my child his kingdom here,
For he that holds his kingdom holds the law.
SHAKESPEARE, King John.
10. It frightened me very much
for I did not recover my
voice for a minute's space.
LAMB, Letters.
1 1
He learned French, because he was advised to do so.
12. He has learned French
for he understands this French;

man.
13.

for

He was

asleep as soon as his head touched the pillow,

he was very

tired.

EXERCISE 117
each blank in the following sentence with for or
because. Punctuate if necessary.
Fill in

1. The planets belong to our solar system


round the sun.
2. The weather has been dry
the grass
he has sown.
3. The farmer will reap

4.

He

5.

All

will die

some day

roads led to

all

Rome - -

men
it

they move
is

burned up.

are mortal.

was the

capital of the

world.
6.

The army

7.

It

will fight well


the soldiers are brave.
has been raining
the roads are muddy.
8. He was full of energy
he never took anything in
hand without finishing it.
was wretched
9. The condition of England
King
Richard was a prisoner.
10. No one can travel in that direction
the country
is a desert.
it is the middle of summer.
11. The days are long
he had had a fall.
12. Mr. Rogers was lame
it is now ten o'clock.
13. He has been up for several hours
14. The enemy did not reach Paris
they could not
break through our lines.

186.

CONJUNCTIVE PARTICLES.
The French were there

as well as the British (were

there).

The French

as well as the British were there.

In each of these sentences, as well as is a conjunction,


each sentence a subordinate clause is partly expressed, and can be filled out. But in the sentences,
The French were there as well,
The French as well were there,
for in

CONJUNCTIONSPARSING

185

no part of a subordinate clause is expressed, although a


subordinate idea is implied by the use of as well. These
two words have some conjunctive value, but are not a
full conjunction, and are, therefore, called a CONJUNCTIVE
PARTICLE. Other words used in the same way are though
and as.

He is a great success as leader


He will be sure to fail, though.

of the party.

187. PARSING OF CONJUNCTIONS. The parsing of


a conjunction should be confined, ordinarily, to two points:
(1)

co-ordinating or subordinating, and


function in the sentence.
(See page 268.)

its classification as

(2) its

Our friends and relatives

will

come home when the

circus

has closed.

and

Co-ordinating conjunction,

friends

and

when

joining

the nouns

relatives.

Subordinating
conjunction, joining the subord.
"
when the circus has closed," to the
verb of the prin. cl., and modifying the verb has closed.

adv.

cl.

of time,

EXERCISE 118
Parse the conjunctions
following sentences

and conjunctive

particles in the

He had money as well as land.


The barn was burned and the house caught fire as well.
3. War he detested, as the disgrace and calamity of human
nature.
GIBBON, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
4. Upwards of eight hundred years were past since the
1.

2.

Arabian invaders defeated Roderick, the last of Spain's Gothic


Kings. W. IRVING, The Conquest of Grenada.
5. The fire did so much damage that the house must come
down.
6. I was afraid to tell you, lest
you should be too much
afflicted; yet you may have this comfort, that the calamity will
not happen in your days. BEDE, The Ecclesiastical History.
7. Old Bill told me that he had hoped that I intended to
take his place as ostler when he was fit for no more work.
BORROW, The Romany Rye.
8. Suddenly I bethought me of Horncastle, which Francis
had mentioned as a place where the horse was likely to find a
BORROW, The Romany Rye.
purchaser.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

i86
9.

'Tis said, as

through the

They heard strange

aisles

noises

they passed,

on the

blast

And through the cloister-galleries small,


Which at mid-height thread the chancel
Loud sobs, and laughter louder ran,
And voices unlike the voice of man

wall,

As

if the fiends
kept holiday,
Because these spells were brought to-day.
I cannot tell how the truth may be
I say the tale, as 'twas said to me.
;

SCOTT, Lay of

the

Last Minstrel.

Here lies David Garrick, describe him who can,


An abridgment of all that was pleasant in man
As an actor, confessed without rival to shine,
As a wit, if not first, in the very first line.
GOLDSMITH, Retaliation.
11. And now I looked much better than I did when Bessie
saw me. C. BRONTE, Jane Eyre.
12. I have heard him prove that sloth has ruined more
nations than the sword.
STEELE, The Spectator.
Go, signify as much, while here we march
13.
10.

Upon

the grassy carpet of this plain.

SHAKESPEARE, King Richard

II.

HISTORY OF LANGUAGE

CHAPTER

187

IX

HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF THE ENGLISH

LANGUAGE
SECTION

I.

188. Introduction.

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

When we

or Ian MacLaren's stories,

read Burns' Scotch poems

or Scott's novels,

we meet

strange words and new forms for which we often


The same thing happens when we
need a dictionary.
"
Dorset Dear," a collection of short stories by
pick up
"
Poems in the Dorset
Mary E." Francis, William Barnes'
or many of Eden Phillpotts' novels of Devon
Dialect
life.
Indeed, we hear every day all sorts of curious and

many

"

"

pronunciations and words from the lips of


London, Devon, Irish, Yorkshire and Scotch people who
have settled amongst us.

wrong

"
189. All these striking,
queer," and strange pheno"
as old as the hills," in
for
such
mena,
they are, are
forms
of our English speech
from
the
earliest
origin dating

hundred years ago. At first these differences were not very great, because the area of English

of fully fourteen

speech was very limited, not covering half of England.


But as time went on and as the people grew in numbers

and increased their territories, new words were imported


and added to the native stock, new spellings were introduced, and many changes were made. These all correspond
to the new learning, new arts and sciences, new social and
political changes, new discoveries of lands and in science,
new colonisation and the ever increasing growth of the
British empire and of British influence. Hence it comes
that the number of our English words has increased from
a few thousands in the days of King Alfred, and the twentyfive thousand or thereabouts in Shakespeare, to the hundreds
"
of thousands in the immense " New English Dictionary
in process of publication

by the Clarendon

Press.

Even

i88

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

immense book does not contain all the words which


are to be found in an English newspaper or magazine of
to-day (1919), because we are continually forming new
that

words for new objects, new inventions or new discoveries.


For instance, camouflage is not in that work, and yet it
was very necessary during the Great War. And when we
talk amongst ourselves we do not always use " book
"
talk," but are much freer, more colloquial or
familiar,"
"
or even make use of
slang."
190. Life in Words.
shows, too, that many

The

history of our English language

words have passed right out of our


that
that many others have lost
have
died
is,
speech,
that some still live among the people in
caste or rank
Scotland or Devon, but not in our literary English
that
some are used very rarely, and only in poetry, as worth
"
in
Wo worth the chase " (" Lady of the Lake "), and that
some slang words have risen in rank and become current
The history of the birth, life and death of
in literature.
our words is for the most part the history of the Englishspeaking people, and therefore intensely interesting.
;

But our English speech


Relationship, Teutonic.
not totally different and distinct from every other
tongue. If we pick up a Danish or a German testament,
an easy way of making some interesting comparisons, we
find at once that many words in these languages are very
like English, among others those which correspond to
man, house, foot, good, drive. This means, not that we or
they have been borrowing, but that we all get them from
a common stock of inherited words which go away back
to a common Teutonic mother-tongue. Not only are the
words themselves very much alike, but the grammar of the
English has many things in common with that of the
Danish or German tongue. This is also true of the syntax,
and more so of the sounds in these languages. That is, these
191.

is

"

languages are very closely related, or are sister-tongues."


When we begin the
192. Relationship, Indo-German.
study of Latin and Greek, we find that duo, two, and zwei
tres, three, and drei, look quite a bit alike, and if we observe
"
"
carefully and at length, we find that our parent Teutonic

HISTORY OF LANGUAGE

189

had a lot of sisters, and that one of those sisters, Latin,


had a number of daughters among them, French, Italian
and Spanish.
In 1786 Sir William Jones, a fine
193. Some History.
Oriental scholar, first called attention to the relationship
of the family of languages, variously called Indo-European,
Indo-Germanic, or Aryan. It was thought at first that the

family had its origin in Asia, but R. G. Latham, an English


scholar, in 1851 suggested that the original home had been
somewhere in Europe, and this is now the prevailing
theory.

The

following diagrams will illustrate fairly the

present-day ideas of the relationship.

INDO - EUROPEAN LANGUAGES


I

(Welsh,

Italic

Greek

Balto- Slavic

(Latin, etc)

Gaelic,

Teutonic

Celtic

Armenian

Albanian

Indo-Aryan
I

Romance languages Lett

Erse)

(French,

Ital.,

etc.)

East Ind.

Span., Lithuanian
Old Prussian

(Sanskrit
etc.)

Russian
Czech
Serbian
etc.

B
TEUTONIC LANGUAGES
f

East Teutonic North Teutonic


(Gothic etc.)

|
3

r
I

West Teutonic

lcelandic

Norwegian
Swedish
Danish
1

Low German
1

Persian

190

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
THE ENGLISH DIALECTS
OLD ENGLISH

i.

(TO 1066)

Southern

Anglian

Northumbrian

2.
(a)

Lowland

West Saxon

Mercian

Kent

MIDDLE ENGLISH (1066-1485)

N. English

Southern

Scotch

W.

Mid., E. Mid. (London)

W. and Mid. Sth.,

E. Sth.

&Kent
3.

MODERN ENGLISH
(I485-PRESENT)

(b)

Scotch

S.W. Country,

N. Country
I

N. Mid.,

S. Mid., E.

South
Country

Country (London)

The relationship of these various languages may be


shown by the comparative method under four headings
:

vocabulary, phonology, or the history of pronunciation,


inflections (accidence or morphology), and syntax.

A Brief Outline of English History. In this sketch


are principally concerned with the English language
must keep in mind a very brief
and its evolution.
outline of the history of the English people so as to fit into
194.

we

We

their proper place the facts of the language spoken by them.


three chief tribes were originally at home on the

The

Continent, the Angles in Schleswig-Holstein, the Jutes


north of them, and the Saxons south. In the migrations
which they, in common with many other German tribes,
made during the break-up of the western Roman Empire,
they advanced westwards along the coast and from the
present Holland, Belgium and Normandy reached England
about A.D. 450, forty years after the departure of the
Romans, The Angles settled north of the Thames, the

HISTORY OF LANGUAGE

ENGLAND
THE
IN

9- CENTURY:
Danelaw.
Scand/ndi//<3n Influence^.

Kentish Dialect....

191

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Saxons along and to the south of the Thames, and the
Jutes in Kent, the Isle of Wight, and the Hampshire coast
From the south and east these tribes, known
opposite.
from the beginning as Anglisc or English, gradually
conquered England and forced the Celts, who had been
there from before the Roman time, back into Cornwall,
where the Celtic tongue died out only in the eighteenth
century, into Wales, where a Celtic tongue is spoken yet,
into Strathclyde, west of the Pennine hills, and into Scotland and its Highlands. First Northumbria, then Mercia,
and lastly Wessex held the overlordship.
But shortly
before Wessex became prominent, a new invasion took
place, part of the great Viking or Scandinavian movement of the ninth century, and the greatest king, Alfred
(871-901), had to agree in 878 to divide the land with the
new-comers. The part given to the Danes was called the
Danelaw, the influence of which remains to the present
day in place-names, vocabulary, and syntax. For a short
time there were Danish (Scandinavian) kings in England
(1013-42), of whom Canute was the greatest. During the

reign of the successor of these, Edward the Confessor


(1042-66), there was a beginning of Norman or French
influence.

The conquest

of

England by William

of

Normandy

For
(1066) brought the Old English period to a close.
fully two centuries it is possible to speak of a submergence
of English in favour of French, but the loss of Normandy
1204 marks a beginning of the emergence of English
which was complete in 1362, when English was made the
in

language of the courts of law. The influence of this AngloFrench, and later that of the French of Paris (Central
French), is very marked in the South, just as the Scandinavian influence is strong in the North. By the end of
the Wars of the Roses, England was well knit together;
and with James I. began the bringing of Scotland into
political union, completed in 1707. In the reign of Elizabeth
there began that planting of colonies overseas which led
to the great colonial expansion of the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries, which was increased also by conquest,

HISTORY OF LANGUAGE
MIDDLE ENGLISH
DIALECTS.

193

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

94

The nineteenth
expense of the French.
of
the
because
great commercial
noteworthy
century
of
the
to
all
the
world,
parts
great industrial
expansion
revolution, and the beginning of the evolution of democracy in Great Britain. Science, too, had made wonderful
development in every branch. During the last quarter of
the nineteenth century there was another great increase
chiefly at the
is

of colonial territory, by which nearly 90,000,000 people


were added to the great total of British subjects. The
opening of the twentieth century saw the mother-country
and the overseas dominions more closely knit together
because of the South African War (1899-1902), and these
ties have been strengthened in manifold ways by the
Because of these developments,
Great War (1914-18).
and also because of the great growth of the United States,
English now bids fair to become a great world-language

(and

is,

indeed, the principal one).

What

is in

the future

no one knows, but it would seem that the twentieth century


It is, therefore, inis to be an Anglo-Saxon century.
creasingly necessary that we know thoroughly our mothertongue, to which end a study of its history is imperative.
195. English
its

speech.

Dialects.

To

return to Old English arid

Corresponding to the four chief

Kent, Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria,

kingdoms

we have

of

the

four main varieties of speech known as Kentish, West


Saxon, Mercian and Northumbrian. Northumbria was the
T
est Saxon our first
home of the old English poetry, in
good prose was written, and the Mercian, later called
Midland, became in great part the basis of our modern
The Kentish was early absorbed by the West
speech.
later
called Southern. Right down to the present
Saxon,
of these tongues, or dialects, may be heard
varieties
day,
in the various parts of England. These differences are now
in process of disappearing, because of the increase of travel
between all parts of England, Scotland and Ireland, and
chiefly because of the influence of schools and the increase
of education among all classes.
It is very difficult for a boy or girl to realise to the full
extent the long persistence of these differences but a little

HISTORY OF LANGUAGE
MODERN ENGLISH
DIALECTS.
MAIN DIVISIONS.
(After Wright but

compare

Ellis.)

^?_NjOIJRITH

---

~-

ivri :D?I=

^C-^

195

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

196

attention to the varieties of speech and pronunciation


almost everywhere will prove that
may be heard
"
"
these
phenomena are real. The student of a language
does not ask which is " right," but tries to find the
"
reason for the differences. The conventional " standard

which

language which
these

"

we

all

phenomena."

aim to speak
It

also includes

has a great

many

many

of

technical,

scientific, literary, colloquial, dialectic and even slang


words and expressions, many new coinages, many fossilized
or dying words and phrases. The history of the language
tells a fascinating story of the growth and development

of the English people.


196. Divisions of the History of the English Language.
The history of our language may be divided into
:

(a)
(b)
(c)

The Old English period (from the beginning to 1066)


The Middle English from 1066 to 1485 and
Modern English, subdivided according to the
;

centuries.

Old English (O.E.) was a highly inflected speech; the


words were mostly native, a few only being borrowed
from Latin and Scandinavian (loan-words) and dialects were
;

prominent.

The language

representative,

King Alfred is the chief


and may be said to have shown signs of
of

becoming a standard.
In Middle English (M.E.), inflections were levelled, so
that nouns, adjectives and pronouns were used much as
they are to-day, dialects were still prominent, and there was
a large influx of French and Scandinavian words, some
Latin, Greek and Dutch. Chaucer (1340-1400) wrote very
nearly as we do, but his pronunciation was quite different,
and his words have often a very different meaning from the

modern
to

make

Wyclif, by his translation of the Bible, helped


a standard language possible. In both the Old and

the Middle English periods, writing was phonetic, and


there were no printed, but only written or manuscript books.
As such books were costly, fifty made a fairly large library.
In Modern English (Mn.E.), books began to increase
very rapidly, due to the introduction of printing by Caxton

VOCABULARY

197

(1476) spelling became more fixed and grew more and more
un -phonetic; although pronunciation changed at fairly
;

regular intervals, a standard speech gained the upper hand,


and dialects were gradually taboo. There was an enor-

mous

increase of vocabulary, especially in the nineteenth


century, and less inflection, indeed very little.
197. In Syntax there has been from the first a constant

tendency to simplicity.
198. Extent of the Language.

The English language is


more people outside of the British Isles
is the chief language of commerce, and

now spoken by

far

than in them;

it

latterly is being used in diplomacy.

SECTION

II.

VOCABULARY

Even before the English


the continent they had borrowed one

199. Old English Vocabulary.


'

left their

home on

least, nee (royal, mighty), from their Celtic neighbours, and some dozens from the Latins with whom they
had carried on trade and commerce. These words were

word, at

popular, not learned or book-words, and have to do with


trade, such as wine, gem, pound ; or with travel, as mile,
port, street. A great many names of receptacles were also

borrowed, such as kettle, ark, chest, bin, dish, which, taken


together with cook, kitchen, mill, plum, pea, cole (cabbage),
and many others, show that there must have been a great
change for the better in the art of cooking.
All these words are short, of one or two syllables, popular,

and

easily regarded as fully native and indispensable, all


being concrete in meaning.
Very few were borrowed between the landing in England,
*** A.D.
450, and the coming of the Roman missionaries under

Augustine, A.D. 597. Some such were ceaster, a camp


(modern, caster, in Don caster, or Chester, which shows a
change in pronunciation), pear, and segn, a standard, which
has survived only in its French form, sign.
The Latin words borrowed after the coming of the
1
Note The lists in this section are given for illustration, and are
not meant to be memorised.
:

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

198

missionaries, A.D. 597, a very important date, are mostly


of a learned type and look like Latin.
Examples are
:

abbod, abbot;

Latin; martyr.
When we count all these borrowed words to the number
of several hundreds, we see that they are, after all, few
as compared with the total number of words in our Old
apostol, apostle;

Iceden,

English speech. This does not mean that Latin influence


slight. The English borrowed very many ideas, but in
many cases substituted old English names for the Latin
ones. For archbishop they used heahbiscop, high-bishop

was

for

disciple,

for corona,
leornungcniht, learning youth
for
for evangel they used godspell, gospel ;
;

beag, ring ;
temptation, costnung ; for judgment,
love ; for scribe, bocere, booker ;

other cases.

dum

for charity, lufu,

and so

in

numerous

The native words were

quite capable of
Later it became the

expressing the idea and were used.


fashion to take over the foreign words, and

many good
Old English words were dropped entirely.
The other main source from which we get loan-words
in the Old English is the Scandinavian. This we should
expect because of the Danelaw settlement of 878. We find
between 150 and 200 words thus borrowed. A great many
of these were military or nautical terms, such as fylcian
to marshal, barda and cnear, certain kinds of boats; or else
they were legal, such as wapentake, law, by-law (originally
town-law), carlman, man, thrall, husband, and the like.
Many of these borrowings have since disappeared, or are
found only in northern dialects.
Place-names are very interesting, because they show
the nationality of the early inhabitants. Celtic names are
Aberdeen, Carlisle, Dundee, /ft/mam ock, LlangoTLen,
Strathclyde, where aber means mouth, car castle, dun a
camp, kil church, llan sacred place, strath a broad valley.

we have

very few Celtic words in Old English,


brock badger, brat cloak, dry wizard.
bannock,
principally
A great many place-names are found which go back to
the Latin castra, a camp, such as Winchester, Leicester, and

Otherwise

Lancaster.

Scandinavian place-names are quite

common:

Whitfry

VOCABULARY

199

white town, Grims&y Grim's town, Aldsthorpe old village,


Lowestoft Lowe's home, 'Braithwaite Braiplace.
But when all these words and forms are taken into
account, it still remains true that the Old English speech
was English, and that the foreign words were absorbed,
and in small numbers.
Perhaps it will be interesting to think what sort of speech
the people in England would have been using, had the
English not come to the country. Would it have been a
Celtic tongue akin to the Gaelic, or would the influence of
the Latin have produced another Romance tongue, a sister

and Italian? And if there had


Conquest, of what nature would the
speech have been? Probably very much more like the
German or the Scandinavian, or a combination of the two.
In this
200. Middle English Vocabulary (1066-1485).
period a great change comes over the English tongue. The
greatest influence is that of the Norman or Anglo-French.
As has already been noted, three centuries passed before
the English fully emerged and when it did, we find a great
number of French, and Latin forms through the French,
fully adopted. These refer particularly to the Church, its
doctrines and services, to law, to the military life, to
government, and to the refinements of life. This adoption
of French words was a gradual process, making really very
little progress before A.D. 1150, and becoming very strong
between 1250 and 1400.
Professor Jespersen (Growth
of the French, Spanish

Norman

been no

and Structure of the English Language) estimates that


up to 1500 nearly 66 per cent, of the French words in our
language were introduced
8-4 per cent, before 1250 (only
2 per cent, up to 1200), 42-7 per cent, between 1250 and
1400, and 14-5 per cent, in the fifteenth century. That it
took a long time to make these longer French words at home
in our speech, is shown by the fact that honour was accented
either as honour or h6nour by Chaucer, liquor was licour and
season could be sesoiin or sesoun.
There was no difficulty
with words of one syllable, which were much more easily
adopted as, for example, pass, catch, chase, case, damn, fine,
gay, large, mock, plead, rein, saint, vein, and many others.
;

200

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Closely related to the French words were the Latin,


the language of learning, science and the Church, such as
abbreviate, ablution, add, acquisition, aggregate, cadence.

The Scandinavian influence, which must have begun, as


we have seen, in King Alfred's time, continued very strong
until about 1250, with the result that a large number of
Norse words were found in the writings from Northern
England and Scotland, and slowly but surely made their
way into literary English. Chaucer, a southern writer, has
very few, but Caxton uses a much larger number. Most
of these words, like the English, were monosyllables.
Some examples are bark (of a tree), brink, beck (brook),
bulk (size), cleft, egg, leg, raft, skirt (and many others with
initial sk), bask, die (which, because of likeness to dead and
death displaced starve, which, except in dialect,

now means

one kind of death), take (which drove out the O.E. niman),
raise (a doublet of rear), sleek, sly,

till,

and many

others.

place-names might be added to the few given under


the Old English.
A few Dutch words were introduced by the weavers
brought in by Edward III., such as curl, nap (of cloth),

Many

ravel, spool, stoup.

As in the Old English, so in this period, few Celtic 'words


were introduced; some are clan, collie, crag, ingle, plaid,
reel (a

dance), whiskey.

few Greek words came in through the French, such as


blame (introduced later again as blaspheme), currants,
dropsy, fancy, slander.
201. Modern English Vocabulary (1485 to the present).
French words continued to come into the language in
large numbers down to 1850, when importation practically
ceased, From the figures given under Middle English, it
will be seen that about 32 per cent, of our borrowings are

from 1500 to 1850. Nearly all of these keep the French


accent, which shows that they have not been so fully
adopted as those of the previous period.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries we
adopted a great many Italian words having reference to art,
music, painting and poetry

duet, concert, sonata, falsetto,

VOCABULARY

201

stanza, miniature, profile are some examples. Some general


words are also found, as umbrella, fiasco, influenza, artisan,
cartoon (the latter two through the French).

Spanish furnishes quite a number, such as ambuscade,


Portuguese gives us albatross, cocoa,
renegade
Modern Scandinavian,
veranda
Russian, knout, steppe
negro,

Malay, gingham, gong, ketchup


tungsten and others
and hundreds come from America, squaw,
China, tea
;

wigwam,

potato, tobacco,

moccasin

among the

rest.

quarter of the globe we have added words


and are still adding them, as, for instance, camouflage.
This statement can be verified by a study of the addenda

From every

in the latest issue of the Concise

Oxford Dictionary.

But we have not only borrowed words,


we have coined them in great numbers. The great advances
202. Coinages.

in science in the

nineteenth century,

made

it

necessary

have new words. For instance, the discovery of oxygen


forced us to coin the word and introduce it in 1840, and
now there is a large oxygen family in every dictionary.
Marsh, lecturing at Columbia University, New York,
1858-59, calls attention to a number of new words he had
found in a daily paper, among them telegram (first used in
to

they are not on speaking


and is not sure
they will make good. Telephone has currency since 1876,
telepathy since 1882, and automobile is not in the "New
English Dictionary." (Vol. i was printed in 1895.) When
the English colonized Australia, they found hundreds of new
plants and animals, for which they invented names such as
1852)
terms

prospecting for gold

an emergent meeting

old fogy

(laughing) jackass, lyre-bird, sugar-grass, iron-heart, long-fin.


203. Substitutions. There is one outstanding feature
of the English language that is remarkable. We may use
almost any word as more than one part of speech. Especially may we use a verb as a noun, or the opposite. This
has wonderfully increased the power of expression of the
language. Bend, a verb, can be used as a noun ; eye, a
noun, as a verb; and similar examples can be found in great
numbers in any modern novel, or heard in everyday speech.
204. Words Used with Various Meanings.
Again, we

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

202

be said to add very largely to our vocabulary when


For instance, we may
say, "the man is strong" (powerful), "the child is not
"
"
"
the butter is strong
strong
(healthy),
(has not a good

may
we

use words in different senses.

"
butter
"

taste),

strong
party

is

"

"

the fortress is
strong
(high-priced),
"
a political
(well calculated to resist attack),
"
"
the perstrong
(numerous and influential),
is

strong" (very rich), "he is still going strong"


(running easily). Fine is another word with a great many
meanings a fine needle, a fine house, a fine fellow, a fine
road. Indeed, in many words the meanings often seem
contradictory, and yet we have no trouble in understanding
what is meant.
205. Result. The net result of our large and varied
borrowings, of our skill in making new compounds, but
above all our custom of interchanging nouns and verbs,
has increased our vocabulary from between twenty-five and
thirty thousand in the Old English period, to nearly five
hundred thousand to-day, and the end is not in sight. Words

fume

is

predominate in the dictionaries,


but yet the speech is English. Marsh (Lectures on the
English Language) estimates that even Samuel Johnson,
noted for the Latinity of his style, used 72 per cent,
of English words in his writings, Gibbon 70 per. cent.,
Macaulay 75 per cent., Pope 80 per cent., Tennyson,
one of the most English of writers, 88 per cent., and that
the Bible has 96 per cent, of English words. Two lists
of recent countings are on my desk. Rev. J. Knowles,
of London, England, counted 100,000 words in passages
from the Bible and various authors to find out how often
words were repeated. In the first 353 there are only 84
loan-words, among which are church, call, take, case, place,

of foreign origin largely

took, just, taken, doubt, mere, view, fact, age, sure, and
others which we do not feel to be borrowed because

some

they
R. C. Eldridge, of Niagara Falls, N.Y., counted
the words on eight pages of Buffalo Sunday papers issued
in July and August, 1909, arranged them in the order of
"
their
commonness," and added the number of times each
appeared. In the first hundred there are four loan-words,
are short.

,03
in the first 353, 102. Altogether he has 6000 words, of which
499 occur ten times or oftener, 86 nine times, 84 eight

times, 105 seven times, 151 six times, 212 jive times, 294
four times, 516 three times, 1079 twice and 2976 once.
As the lists increase in size, the native words decrease
rapidly. When we study the lists, we feel inclined to agree
with some experiments that have been made with regard
to the number of words children may use. A child seventeen
months old was found to use 232, and a boy of six, 2688.
Are we not constantly surprised at the words small children
use correctly? They are monosyllabic mostly, and largely

native.

Synonyms; Doublets; Homonyms. Another result


number of words is that we have
a great many synonyms, or words which mean the same or
nearly the same thing. Therefore, if we will, we may give
expression to the finest shades of thought on any subject.
We have also a great many doublets or pairs of words, such
as aggrieve and aggravate, kirk and church, assoil and absolve.
We write busy (south-west-country form) and pronounce
bizi, or victuals (Latin spelling) and pronounce vitlz, an Old
French form. Moreover, there are also homonyms or words
which sound alike, but have not the same meaning, as
mean (average), mean (low), and mien (looks). Such words
give rise to innumerable puns.
Altogether
207. Impressions made by English Speech.
206.

of possessing such a vast

an impression of masculine
which we should be proud. Its
history is the history of the English people, even when we
think of the pidgin or baboo English of the Far East.
Indeed, our words are our earliest historical records.
our English speech gives
strength

What

and

sobriety of

of the future?

It is

estimated that in 1500 some

four million people spoke our tongue, in 1600 six million,


in 1700 eight and one half million, in 1800 over twenty

166 million. No other language has made


such gains, no other language has such a prospect of
becoming the world-language. This last Great War has
million, in 1900,

opened up immense possibilities. Our mother-tongue


worthy of our best, most devoted study.

is

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

204
208. St.

Mark

vi.

41-43.

SECTION

An
O.E. TEXT, ABOUT A.D.
IOOO
41.

and

III.

COMPARATIVE STUDY

illustration of inflections,

EARLY

M.E.

ABOUT

TEXT,

A.D. 1175

And fif hlafum


41. And
twam fixum on- and twam

fif

WYCLIF-PURVEY VERSION, A.D. 1388

hlafen

fiscen

conjugation,

on-

And whanne he

41.

hadde

take

the

fyue

fangenum he on heofon fangenen he on heofon looues and twei fischis,


locode and hi bletsode lokede and hyo bletsode he biheelde in to heuene,
and Sa hlafas braec, and and 8a hlafes braec and and blesside, and brak
sealde his leorningcnih- sealde his leorningcnih- looues, and 3af to hise
tum Saet hi toforan him ten 8set hyo toforen disciplis, that thei schulasetton.
And twegen heom asetten.
And den sette bif or hem and
fixas him eallon daelde.
twegen fixsces heom he departide twei fischis
:

to alle:

eallen daelde.

42.
ealle

And

hi

seton

Sa

and gefyllede wur-

And hyo seten i5a


42. And
and gefylde wur- and weren

alle

eeten,

fulfilled.

Sen.

don;

43.

42.
ealle

And

hi

namon

43.

Sara hlafa and fixa lafe

Sare

twelf wilian fulle.

lafe

And hyo name(n)


hlafe

and

twelf wilien

fixsce
fulle.

43.
relifs

And thei token the


of

brokun metis,
ful, and

twelue cofyns
of the fischis.

VOCABULARY

OF ST.

MARK

vi.

205

41-43

syntax, spelling, stress and vocabulary.

THE TWENTIETH CEN-

KING JAMES VERSION, 1611 (FACSIMILE)

REVISED VERSION, 1881

41. And he took the


41. And when he had
taken the fiue loaues, five loaves and the two
and the two fishes, he fishes, and looking up to
looked vp to heauen, heaven he blessed and
and blessed, and brake brake the loaves, and
the loaues, and gaue he gave to his disciples

them to

his

to set before

disciples

them

to set before

them

and the two fishes


he among them

the two fishes diuided

he among them

42.
eate,

And they
and were

NEW TESTAMENT

41. Next, taking the


five loaves

and the two

Jesus looked up
to Heaven and blessed
God.
After this he
fishes,

broke the loaves into

and pieces and proceeded to


divided give them to his disciples
;

to set before the people,

all.

dividing the two fishes


as well among them all.

all.

did

TURY

all

filled.

42.

And they

eat and were

did

filled.

all

42 and 43. Everyone


had plenty to eat, and
were
enough
pieces

taken away to

And they took


vp twelue baskets full
of the fragments, and
of the fishes.
43.

baskets

And they took


the
up broken pieces, twelve
also
of
and
basketfuls,
43.

the

fishes.

and

fill

twelve

some

fish besides.

of

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

206

DEDUCTIONS FROM THE COMPARISON OF THESE


SIX VERSIONS
The versions 1-5 agree as
209. Translation.
could be expected in view of the changes that
taking place in the language during the long
but the revised version was not in the form of
teenth-century speech.

It

varies very little

closely as

had been
centuries,

the nine-

from the

James version. The twentieth-century version,


according to the best Greek text available, aims at
using the speech current among the people in 1900. It
therefore is quite different from the revised version and
all the preceding ones.
King

made

210. Vocabulary,

Onfangenum, past participle of on/on, has passed out of


the language and been replaced by the Scandinavian take.
Sealde, gave, now means gave for a price, sold] i.e.,
is limited in meaning,
Leorningcnihtum, the separate parts of which we have

and knight, was the O.E. translation for the


Latin discipulus, and has made way for the French form
of that word.
Toforan has been replaced by another compound of
in learning

forej before.
Asetton, a compound of settan,
of the simple word sette, set.

is

replaced by the forms

Twegen gives the modern form twain, but is replaced


by the neuter form twd, two.
Dald,e Mn.E. dealed, dealt, is replaced in Wyclif's
y

version by departed, now changed in meaning.


Latin word divided is used in the later versions.

The

Wurdon, past plural of weorftan (become, German


werden], is now represented by a fossilised form worth
(Scott),

but

is

not used in ordinary speech.


plural of niman, take, used as late as

Ndmon, past
Chaucer, has

where by

now become

take.

obsolete,

and

is

replaced every-

VOCABULARY

207

Ldfe, from Idf, remnant, is replaced by relif, fragment,


This was afterwards supplanted by fragin Wyclif.

ments or (broken) pieces.


Wilian (willow), basket,

is replaced by cofyns (basbox, chest) in Wyclif, and when that word was
limited in meaning in the sixteenth century, basket, a
It
thirteenth-century introduction, was substituted.

ket,

had not been

in

common

use,

and probably was technical

in sense.

211. Phonetic Signs. The following phonetic signs,


which are illustrated with key-words, will be used in
succeeding sections to explain changes in English sounds

and
f,

spelling.

The

following consonants present no difficulty

h, k,

1,

m,

n, p, r,

s, t, v,

w,

b,

d,

z.

CONSONANTS
g.
rj

...

get
strong

3.
tf

0.
8.

yell

...
.

...

pleasure
cAaff
thick
thine

d.3

/udge

shall

hat

o.

father

put

pet
meet, meat

u:

too

cup

p it

9:

VOWELS
ae

a:

e
i:
i

...
...
...

o.

bird
ducal

hot

o:

ei

ou

ai

police

flaw, flaunt

DIPHTHONGS

au

NOTE:

This

say, name
note, pole

ai

ia

by, buy, bind

69

how, boimd

ua

coy, botl

here
there
tour

of phonetic signs represents merely the pronunciation of S.E., but is in line with the development of English
sounds from the earliest times. The student of Jones (Bibliography
20; Dictionary, see Sect. 222) will see that even in Britain pronunciation varies with locality. The same thing is shown by Krapp
(Bibliography 22) for America, and to his own speech-sounds
list

Canadians approximate pretty closely. For instance, the r is not


dropped, and some of the long vowels are not noticeably diphthongal
The colon placed after any vowel sign indicates length.
.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

zo8

212. Phonology, or Spelling and Pronunciation.


In O.K.
there were four combinations beginning with h, namely
hi, hn in hnigan, to bend down (German neigen), hr in
hrcefn, raven,

was dropped
as

reversed,

and hw

As in hid/as, the h
hw the order was

in hwa, who.

in the first three, but in


in

'"who,"

"when,"

without

change

of

pronunciation.

The O.E. sign ce, short and long, was discarded at the
end of the O.E. period (brcec, atori), and a took its place.
But we still say hat hat, kcet cat, pat pat, etc.
The O.E. ea (from ce) was West Saxon. In the Anglian
dialects a took its place, and was lengthened to a before
Id, which then changed to o:, then o:, and lastly on:
(sealde) salde: sdlde, so:ld, so:ld, sould, sold.

Before //, the a has become o: in ealle, all.


O.E. a was changed to o: (very often spelled oa in
sixteenth-century English). Later this o: became o:, and
then ou
hldf, louf with its sixteenth-century spelling
:, and was
loaf; in twd the w changed the later o: to
:

then dropped in pronunciation.


The O.E. short diphthong, eo, reverted to the short
-sound, but is represented in Mn.E. by ea, one of the M.E.
ways of indicating the sound (heofon, learning)
O.E. mete (e short) was lengthened in M.E. to si,
changed later to e:, and then to i: but it retains its
sixteenth-century spelling. Short e has remained in set
.

(asetton)

O.E.
to

e,

e (pron.

e:}

and remains

was shortened before two consonants


in he it has become

(bletsode, blessed)

but retains the M.E. spelling.


Short i has remained in fixum, fishes, and him, but has
been lengthened in cnihtum, knight, and later made a

ii,

diphthong, ai.
O.E. 5, written

oo,

but pronounced

o: in

M.E., changed

to ui later, and is still heard, but usually was shortened


to u, as in locode, looked. It has gone on to A in blod, blood,

with

its

old M.E. spelling.

(short

heard

in

and long)

the

in

German

O.E. at
il

(short

first

and

represented the sound


Even in O.E.
long).

VOCABULARY

209

times the rounding of the lips was omitted, and so

was heard

(ii)

(gefyllede, filled).

All O.E. diphthongs were made long vowels in M.E.


because of the increased stress on the first element, and
the diphthongs we now have are M.E. developments which

became long vowels.

later

now

twe:n, twein,

So twegen

became

twe:-in,

spelled twain.

These vowel and diphthong changes, to which many


more would have to be added to make the list complete
for native words alone, would also be increased were we
to follow up the changes in the French and Scandinavian
words so numerous in our speech. A full list would show

how our pronunciation has changed entirely. Reading


a few lines of Chaucer with his pronunciation will illustrate
(See Sect. 225.)

this clearly.

The consonants have undergone comparatively

little

change, but the orthography has changed. For instance,


in hldfum the / was pronounced v in O.E.
In M.E. we
adopted the French sign v, sometimes written and printed

we have not changed


Fixum, from the O.E. fisc, shows what was
often done, viz., that the sc was written cs=x. We hear
that yet in axe for ask. Sometimes both x and sc were used
side by side. This sc became in M.E. sh in many words

u,

as in loams (King James), but

the sound.

ysc=ship, fish).
Cnihtum. The hi was regularly written gkt in M.E.,
and then the gh was dropped in pronunciation. The Scotch
still retain the sound before t.
So cniht became knight,
(scip,

and

now

is

nait,

although spelled in M.E. fashion.

The

k before n (also g in gn) was dropped late in the seventeenth


century. The German still has it.
In O.E. we have very few k's, but in M.E. we used c

and k before e, i, and in kn=cn.


very noticeable how the increasing stress on the
root-syllable of words caused a weakening of all unstressed
vowels to an indistinct sound, which is represented by
e in E.M.E.
Compare the first and second extracts for
examples. The next great and very general change was the
before

a, o, u,

It is

loss of this indistinct sound, so that loaves, a


disyllabic, is

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

2io

now pronounced louvz. In other cases (gefyllede) we have


many as three of these indistinct sounds, for we
now say fild. Because of this general loss, the English
language may now be said to be, as far as native words
lost as

are concerned, a monosyllabic tongue.


In O.E., as in modern German, a noun
213. Gender.
was either masculine, feminine, or neuter, but in only a
few words can we tell from the endings the gender of the

word.
laf

For instance,

and

hlaf, fix, heofon, cniht,

wilie are feminine.

are masculine,

The demonstrative pronoun

used as an article, often helps us to decide, but


not always, even in the singular (e.g., genitive and dative),
and never in the plural, where one form does for all genders.
Sometimes the ending of the nouns helps us, as in hid/as
and fixas, because as is the ending of the nominative and
But wilian
accusative plural of some masculine nouns.
if
to judge
or
we
were
be
neuter,
masculine,
feminine,
might
by the ending. Because of the development of stress, the
endings became more and more alike, and were of no use
se, seo, fiat,

to distinguish gender.

The

difficulty

became worse when

the demonstrative pronoun, because of its lack of stress,


changed to one form for all cases and genders. Thus it
came about that nouns lost their gender for the most part.
This great change was all the easier because in those
times, the eleventh and twelfth centuries, there was no
printing to set the forms as there has been from Caxton's
time on. The loss of gender was in reality a great blessing
for the language.
214. Inflection of

Nouns. As in Modern German, so


nouns were declined either strong or weak. Strong
masculines, for the most part, ended in -as in the plural,
nominative and accusative, strong feminines in -a or -e,
and strong neuters in -u, or were without ending, e.g.,
sceap, sheep. All weak nouns had the same plural ending,
-an. A few nouns of very frequent occurrence change the
vowel of the root because of mutation or umlaut fot, fet
M.E. foot, feet. (See App. A for fuller details.)
215. Inflection of Adjectives. There are no examples
in this selection, but, as in Modern German, adjectives
in O.E.,

VOCABULARY

211

were declined strong or weak. Even in M.E. this was


done away with, because of weakened endings.

largely

In comparison, the great majority added -or, -ost, modern


A very few showed mutation, in M.E. a bare halfdozen, and in Mn.E. only elder, eldest.
Verbs were strong or weak,
216. Conjugation of Verbs.
anomalous.
or
(See App. B.)
past-present
217. Word-Order. As in the German, word-order in
O.E. prose was modelled largely on the Latin, because so
many Latin works of literature, as well as the Bible, were
translated.
But, by comparing the various versions, the
student will see that the nearer we come to Mn.E. the more
direct and logical word-order becomes. Nowadays we may
say that word-order makes case, as in gold crown, a crown

-er, -est.

It is me for It is I
defended by some grammarians
because our regular word-order in sentences is subject,

of

gold.

(older

The famous statement,

still,

It

am

I),

is

verb, object.

218. Syntax. The dative absolute, hldfum and fixum


onfangenum, the O.E. way of expressing the ablative
absolute, is given up, and replaced by a time-clause or a
direct statement.

Case-relation gives way to prepositional phrases: leorningcnihtum, to his disciples.


Partitive genitives were common in O.E.: hldfa, Ifife (43),
but are replaced by o/-clauses, or the construction changed.

The purpose is simplicity and directness.


The dependent sentence, %<zt hi
has given place
.

to the infinitive of purpose.


The author hopes that the teacher

.,

and student, encour-

aged by this comparison of the various versions, will be


spurred on to independent work in this study of the growth
and structure of our great mother-tongue. Another set of
selections is given in parallel columns, which the student is
advised to compare. He will doubtless find other examples
of change in addition to those noted above, for instance.,
in verbs, pronouns and conjunctions.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

212
219. St.
O.E.

Matthew
ABOUT

VERSION,
A.D. 1000

3.

Herodes

Sa

Saet

gehyrde, Sa wearS he
gedrefed and eal hierosolim-waru mid him.

4.

And Sa gegaderode

Herodes

ealle

ealdras

Ssera sacerda and folces


axode
writeras
and

hwaer

Crist

acenned

wsere.

ii.

3-8.

EARLY M.E. TEXT,


ABOUT A.D. 1175
3.

Herodes

Sa

4.

^nd

Sa gegaderede

ealdres
Sare sacerdaes send folkes
axode
asnd
writeres,

hwaer

ealle

crist

akenned

wasre.

VER-

SION, A.D. 1388

Saet

Sa warS he
geherde,
gedrefeS aend eal ierosolime-waere mid him.

Herodes

WYCLIF-PURVEY

But King Eroude


and was trublid

3.

herde,

and

al

Jerusalem with

him.

he gaderide
4. And
togidre alle the prynces
of prestis, and scribis
of the puple, and enqueride of hem, where
Crist shulde be borun.

Sa saegden hyo him.

And

Sa ssedon hi him,
iudeiscere Beth-

on iudeissere bethleem.

hym,

lem; witodlice Sus ys


awriten Surh Sone wite-

Witodlice Sus ys awriten Surh Sanne witegan.

Juda;
writun bi a profete,

5.

"On

5.

5.

thei seiden to
Bethleem of
for
so
it
is

In

gan.
6. And Su, Bethlern,
iudea-land, witodlice ne
eart Su laest on iuda
ealdrum; of Se forSgaeS
se heretoga se Se recS

min

folc israhel."

6.

^End Su bethleein

witodlice
iudea - land,
ne eart Su laest on iudea
of Se forS
ealdran.
gaeS se heretoga seSe
recS min folc israel.

6. And
thou, Bethleem, the lond of Juda,
art not the leest among
the prynces of Juda;

for of thee
out,
go
gouerne

a duyk schal
that

my

schal
of

puple

Israel.

7.

Herodes Sa clypode

on

Sa
sunderspraece
tungel-witegan and befran hi georne hwaenne
se steorra him seteowde.

Sa cleoEroude
Thanne
7. Herodes
7.
pede on sunder-sprsece clepide pryueli the asSa tungel-witegan, aend tromyens, and lernyde
befran

hwanne

hyo

georne

se steorre

heom

ateowede.

And he asende hi
Bethlem and Sus
"
FaraS and axiaS
cwasS:
geornlice be Sam cilde
Sonne
and
ge
hyt
gemetaS cySaS eft me
Saet ic cume and me to
8.

on

him

gebidde."

8.

of hem the tyme


of the sterre that apbisili

peride to hem.

^End he asende hye

And he

8.

sente

hem

and
and axe 36
axiaS geornlice be Sam bisili of the child, and
childe aend Sanne ge whanne 3ee han founhit gemeteS, kySaS eft dun, telle 36 it to me,
me Saet ich cume aend that Y also come, and
me to him gebidde."
worschipe hym.
to bethleem 32nd Sus
"
FareS aend
cwasS.

in

to

seide,

Bethleem,

Go

36,

VOCABULARY
KING JAMES' BIBLE,
A.D. 1611 (FASCIMILE)

REVISED VERSION, 1881

213

THE TWENTIETH CEN-

NEW TESTAMENT

TURY

the
3. And when Herod
3. When King Herod
had heard these the king heard it, he heard the news, he was
things he was troubled was troubled, and all much troubled and his
and all Hierosalem with Jerusalem with him.
anxiety was shared by
the whole of Jerusalem.
him.
3.

When Herod

king

4.

And when he had

gathered

the chiefe

all

and Scribes

Priests

of

the
together,
people
hee demanded of them
where Christ should be

4.

And

gathering tothe chief

gether

all

priests

and

of

scribes

the people, he inquired


of
them where the
Christ should be born.

borne.
5. And they said vnto
him, In Bethlehem of
Judea; For thus it is
written by the Prophet;

5.

And they said unto

In Bethlehem of
Judaea, for thus it is
written by the prophet,
him,

6. And thou Bethle6. And


thou Bethlehem in the land of hem, land of Judah, art
art
not least in no wise least among
Juda,
among the Princes of the princes of Judah;
Juda: for out of thee for out of thee shall
shall come a Gouernour, come forth a governor,
that
shall
rule
my which shall be shepherd

of

Israel.

people

my

people Israel.

So

4.

he

tochief
Rabbis in

called

the

gether

all

Priests

and

the nation and began


of
making
enquiries
them as to where the
Christ was to be born.

"At Bethlehem

5.

in

was their anJudaea,"


"
for it is said in
swer,
the Prophet:
6.

And

hem

thou,

Bethle-

in Judah' s land

A rt in no way least among


the

chief

Judah :
For out of

towns

thee will

of

come

a Chieftain

One who

my

will shepherd
people Israel."

Then Herod, when


Herod
this,
7. Then Herod privily
7. On
had priuily called called the wise men, secretly sent for the
the Wise men, enquired and learned of them Magians, and found out
of them diligently what carefully what time the from them the exact
7.

he

time

the

peared

8.

Starre

ap-

length of time that the

star appeared.

star

And he

sent

to Bethlehem,

them

and

said,

Goe, and search diligently for the yong

when

8. And he sent them


to Bethlehem, and said,
Go and search out care-

fully

concerning

the

had been

in sight.

8. He then sent them


to
with
Bethlehem
directions to go and
make careful enquiry

ye young child; and when about the child, "and


haue found him, bring ye have found him, as soon as you have
me word againe, that bring me word, that I found him," he added,
"
I
may come and wor- also may come and
bring me word, that
him.
ship him also.
I, too, may go and do
worship
child,

and

homage

to him."

214

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
SECTION IV.

ENGLISH SPELLING

220. As we all, young and old, know by dear experience,


there seems to be no rime or reason in the way words are

spelled in our English tongue. The causes of this confusion


are mainly two.
First, we are dealing with sounds that

have been changing gradually and almost imperceptibly for


fifteen hundred years and more.
The changes are due to
the imperfect vocal organs, tongue, teeth, lips, mouth and
throat, and the more or less imperfect hearing of those
who learn the sounds from generation to generation. 'No
two sets of organs are just exactly alike, any more than
are the leaves of an oak, a maple, or a beech. Therefore
very slight changes take place in each generation,
and, as we may reckon about four generations to a century,
the changes at last, after a lapse of, say, five centuries,

slight,

become very marked.


Furthermore, we have changed
our tempo, or speed in speaking, and have developed the
habit of speaking with our mouths much more nearly
closed than did the people of King Alfred's day. So it has
come about that teachers interested in good pronunciation
are saying that there should be a training in the proper
production of speech-sounds or in phonetics,

i.e.,

in the

athletics of speech-sounds.

In the second place, we have always had to work with an


imperfect alphabet when we have tried to represent these
sounds in writing or in print. In the Old English times
we did not have so much difficulty, because each vowel of
the alphabet, with the use of marks of length, could be made

sound fairly well. The consonants,


on the whole, did the same. There was then no printing

to represent a certain
too,

to hinder necessary changes.


221. In the Middle English times confusion began.
adopted a number of French signs, we made a great many

We

changes in the sounds of our speech, and therefore we became possessed of several signs for one sound. Toward the
end of the period, in Caxton's time, printing was introduced, which gradually led to the desire of using one form

HISTORY OF SPELLING

215

a word under all circumstances. Generally speaking, it


the M.E. form of the word that has been retained, very
This
often with a decided change of accent or stress.
means that our spelling of very many words is that of four
for

is

hundred years ago, sometimes more.


modern times, from about 1500, we have,
however, made many changes in our sounds, and these
This is
changes are for the most part unrepresented.
or five

222. During

because of the tyranny of the printed word, or, in other


words, because of the natural conservatism of the people,
who hesitate for various reasons to make the necessary
In this respect we are less prochanges in the forms.
gressive than the French, whose Academy from time to
time makes changes in the forms which are accepted by

From 1887 to 1902 the various Germanthe people.


speaking states held conferences, at which they arrived
at a system of spelling German words which is very largely
phonetic.

The great confusion in English spelling has, from time


to time, led Englishmen the world over, but never with
"
governmental backing, to suggest
Spelling Reform/'
For instance, there was published in 1917 by J. M. Dent
"
An English Pronouncing Dictionary on
Strictly Phonetic Principles," by Daniel Jones, which is
very interesting and helpful. There is also a "Simplified
Spelling Society," and lists of words have been issued
by a Simplified Spelling Board, some of whose suggestions
have been adopted by various newspapers in the United

and Sons,

States.

The great difficulty is that we have at least fortysounds in our language, and only twenty-six letters
to represent these sounds. For instance, we say kcet, neim,
fa:$dr, or fa:fo, and oil, but we write or print them as
That is, a does duty for four
cat, name, father and all.
223.

five

different sounds.

We

pronounce faind, pin, mafi:n,

siv,

and write

Great
find, pin, machine, sieve, and busy.
as this confusion is in stressed syllables, it is infinitely
worse in unstressed syllables. There the sound of i may be
bizi,

represented by

i, ie,

y, as in

family families by
,

e in benefit,

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

216

roses, ei in forfeit, ey in

money, a in separate, ay in Sunday,


many more ways. These are only

ai in mountain,

and

some examples

of our difficulties in spelling, difficulties


it is centuries behind our pronunciation.

which

in

arise because

Is there

any remedy ?

224. As already noted, the French and German nations


have dealt with their difficulties in a very scientific way,

through the Academy or the government, but the English


people have never taken the matter up seriousty. Under
the present changed conditions, and with the present
outlook for the world-importance of our speech, some
reform might well be made. But even the French and
Germans have not attempted to impose a phonetic alphabet
upon the people, as has been proposed by scholars. There
is, however, a benefit to be derived from an intensive study
of phonetics that well repays any trouble.
The small
child can learn the phonetic alphabet readily; and by
writing it, all would become interested in the sounds repre-

sented by the different signs, and be made aware of the


slight shades of difference in pronunciation which prevail
in any class in any school. And once accustomed to the
signs and the words written with these signs, anyone can
read as fast by phonetic writing as by the forms now in
"
use.
Examine a stanza from Wordsworth's " Daffodils
in phonetic

type

Ai wondad lounli az a klaud


Qat flouts on hai 09 veils and hilz,
(h)wen oil at wAns ai so: a kraud
a houst av gouldan daefadilz
;

basaid 8a

leik, biniiG

5a

and damsir) in

triiz,
fta

briiz.

This looks strange, and because it is strange it may not


please the eye but it has the great advantage of one sign
For instance, ai stands for I, (h)igh, i in
for one sound.
beside, as all have the same sound. The a of wandered and
of all, the o of on, and the aw of saw have all the same
quality, indicated by o, the rounded form of a, and length
is shown by the colon. The a of dancing is a different sound
;

in

England (South) from that given by Canadians, who

HISTORY OF SPELLING
would probably write

dcensiy.

nunciation, properly indicated,

217

This difference of pro-

would cause no one difficulty

and would give interest, especially if the historical development of these differences were ever studied. The o of
lonely, host and golden, usually called long o, is really a
diphthong for which the sign is ou. But if we study
German, we remember that the o of golden in German
is not long, and that we are dealing with something
peculiarly English in pronunciation, though the words and
The inverted 9 represents the
their meanings are alike.
unstressed vowel in the weak words in the lines, as, at,
a, of, the, and, that, and also of the weak or unstressed
But the child learning to
syllables in golden, daffodils.
spell has to remember that sometimes we use a, sometimes o, and sometimes e, and also other signs almost
too numerous to mention. Instead of 9, Canadians would
probably write ce in and, at, as, that. As on is already
employed we use au for the diphthong we hear in cloud
and crowd. Pronounce these, and note that we do say au
that is, we begin with the a in father and finish with u in
But substitute the ce of man for a, and you will get
full.
the diphthong that is often heard both in England and
;

Ei represents the diphthong (long a-sound) of


(and also of name, strange, player, fail). In the
English transcription r is left out in wandered, o'er; wandered is correctly represented as having but two syllables.
in daffodils is a very useful sign which was used in King
Alfred's time, but unfortunately allowed to drop out of
the language. No double consonants are used, as we do not
pronounce them, as do the Italians in many of their words.
America.

vales, lake

(H)wen, the O.E., and still the correct, order instead of


wh, shows that a good many English speakers, especially
in the South of England, omit the h. In O.E. there were
four such combinations, hi, hn, hr, and hw. The Germans
have discarded the h in all, we in three cases, except in
Southern England, where all are generally dropped. C is
discarded in the phonetic alphabet, and the proper sign
used for each of the sounds represented by it now; so
also does duty for the sound properly
klaud, w*ns. Our
,9

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

218

The u of fluttering represents a different


u in full, and an inverted t fills the want
represents the sound of ng in singer, etc.

given by z

so hilz.

sound from that


rj

of

All this new alphabet emphasises the fact that the


sounds of the language make the language, and not the
written or printed forms, with all their imperfections.
Keeping this in mind, we can follow very easily the historical development of the sounds, or the changes in pronunciation from period to period.

brief

list

M.E.

O.E. wi:n

of very frequent evolutions:

Mn.E. wain

wi:n
bo:t

ba:t
fe:t

,,

fe:t

fi:t

fo:d

fo:d

hu:s

,,

drs:am

,,

wind

,,

(M.E. spelling, wine)

bout

(bo:t)

hu:s

,,

dre:m
wi:nd

,,
,,

[late],

feet)

fu:d

haus

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

(dre:m) dri:m

waind

225. Phonetic Transcriptions.

boat)

food)

house): [Fr.
OM U])

[late] .dream)

wind)

In order to give teachers

and students a clearer view of the changes in pronunciation


from O.E. times to the present, a few selections are given

in

that

The

transcription of the O.E. is my


I am largely indebted to Sweet,
from Shakespeare to Victor for the sixteenth-

in phonetic form.
own, in that from

Chaucer

century pronunciation, for the modern to Professor D.


Jones.

The
The

following points are to be noted


sign x represents the sound of the
:

German

ch, or

The a

represents a sound of the same quality


as a\, but short, i.e., not given so much time. The & has
the sound of e in the French tete. The sound of o in the
sixteenth century is rather like that of u in the presentday nut than that of o in the modern not. In O.E. double
ch in loch.

consonants are to be pronounced. The r is trilled strongly


somewhat less so in Chaucer, and still less in
the sixteenth-century transcription. In Canada it is not
dropped, as in S.E., therefore I have not omitted it as
Jones does. In the transcriptions no consonant is silent,
therefore the k of knoi and the / of fuild must be pronounced.
in O.E.,

HISTORY OF SPELLING

ST.

3-8 (Old English)

hierASAlim-waru mid him.

aeal

ond

4.

II.

heroides 0aet gehiirde 9ai waear0 hei gedreived

0ai

3.

ond

MATTHEW,

219

6ai

gogaderAde heroides

aealle

aealdras

Qaeira

saikerda ond fAlkes wriiteras ond aiksAde hwaeir kriist

aikenned

0ai saeidAn hii

5.

9us

waeire.

is

6.
laeist

him, on iudeiskere beGleim; witAdliike

aiwriten 6urx 0Ane witogan.

ond GUI be61eim iudea-lond witAdliike ne aeart 0ui


on iuda aealdrum; of 0ei fAr0gaei0 sei heretAga sei

0e rek0

mim

fAlk israhel.

7. heroides 0ai klipAde on sunderspraeike 0ai tungelwitegan ond befram hii JArne hwaenne sei steArra him

aeteiAwde.
8. ond hei aisende hii on be01eim ond 0us kwae0, fara0
ond aiksia0 JArnliike be 0aim kilde ond 0Anne jei hit
gemeita0 kii0a0 eft mei 0aet ik kume ond mei toi him

gebidde.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

220

^
oaj
CO <X

CANTERBUR

WH

OCD

o
r

"Tj

00

PROLO

U
D
<
a

t!

_-H

o- +

>

r+

S ^

-rH

>>->

HISTORY OF SPELLING
SHAKESPEARE:

"

JULIUS CESAR

221

"

(from Antony's Oration)

Pronunciation of the sixteenth century


JEntoni. frendz, roimsenz, kuntrimen, lend
ei kum tu beri seizaer, not tu praeiz him.

Se ii vil
8e gud
so

$aet

men

dui livz aefter t5em

mi

iur eirz

intered wiS Saeir boinz;


wi6 seizaer. 3e noibl briutus

iz oft

let it bii

hae9 tould iu seizaer waez aembisi-us;

weir soi, it waez 9 griivus failt,


aend griivusli haeG seizaer aenswerd it.
heir under leiv ov briutus aend $e rest,
if it

for briutus iz aen onoraebl

so ar $aei

kum

ei

ail, ail

maen

onoraebl men,

tu speik in seizaerz fiunersel.

hi waez mil frend, fseiGf ul aend d sust tu mil


but briutus saeiz hi waez aembisi-us

aend briutus iz aen onoraebl maen.


hi haeG brout maeni kaeptivz

hwuiz raensomz did

hoim tu roim,

dsenrael koferz
did Sis in seizaer siim aembisi-us ?
t5e

fil:

hwen

Saet Se puir haev kreid, seizaer haeG wept


aembisi-on Juild bii maeid ov sterner stuf

speik not tu dispruiv hwaet briutus spoik,


ei aem tu speik hwaet ei du knoi.
iu ail did luv him oins, not wi'Suiat kaiz:

ei

but heir

hwaet kaiz wiGhouldz iu 'Sen tu murn for him ?


01 dsudsment
Suio art fled tu briutij beists,
aend men hav lost Saeir reizn. beir wi5 mii;
!

mi

haert iz in

aend

ei

$e kofin Seir wi$

must paiz

til it

kum

seizaer,

bsek tu mil.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

222

SHAKESPEARE:

"

JULIUS

(from Antony's Oration)

As pronounced to-day
JEntoni. frendz, roumanz, kAntrimon, lend mil juar iarz;
ai kAm tu beri siizgr, not tu preiz him.

$9 iivol Saet men dui livz seftgr <5em;


Sg gud iz oift intgrgd wi$ Segr bounz;
sou let it bii wiS siizgr. Sg noubl bruitgs
hae6 tould jui siizgr woz aembijgs;
if it

W9r sou,

woz

it

9 griiv9s

foilt,

send griiv9sli hseG siiz9r sensgrd it.


hi9r And9r liiv ov bruitgs send $g rest,
for bruitgs iz sen onarabl

maen

sou ar Sei oil, oil on9rgbl men,


kAm ai tu spiik in siizarz fjungral.
hii woz mai frend, feiGful send dsAst tu mis
bAt bruitgs sez hii woz aembifgs ;
send bruitas iz sen onargbl maen.
hii hseG broit meni kseptivz houm tu Roum,
huiz rsensgmz did Se dsenrgl kofgrz fil:

did Sis in siizgr siim sembi/9S ?


Saet 89 pu9r hav kraid, siizgr ha9 wept

hwen

aembi/9n Jud

bii

meid ov stgrnar

ai spiik not tu dispruiv


ai aem tu spiik

bAt hi9r
jui oil

did LAV

stAf

hwot bruitas spouk,


hwot ai dui nou.

him wAns, not wiSaut

koiz

hwot koiz wiOhouldz jui Sen tu moiorn for him ?


ou dsAdsment Sau airt fled tu bruitij biists,
!

send

men

mai

hairt iz in $9 kgfin Ss9r wiS siizgr,

aend

ai

haev

loist

mASt poiz

Seor riizgn.

til it

kAm

bear wiS mil

baek tu mil.

STRESS IN ENGLISH
SECTION V.

223

STRESS IN ENGLISH

226. We are so accustomed to stressing or accenting


our words and our sentences upon the important syllable,
very generally the first, or upon the syllable which we wish
to make important, sometimes by way of contrast, that it
is very difficult for us to imagine that our system of stress

has become what it is by a long evolution. Very great


changes have taken place in our speech because of this
development through twenty or twenty-five centuries,
during most of which English has been a separate and
In the earliest parent-Teutonic, from
spoken language.
which our speech is descended, the accent was generally
a movable one, changing from syllable to syllable as in
the classical Greek, being one of pitch, of a musical nature,
and producing a singing effect. The speech was evidently
slow and deliberate, recitative in effect, so that all the
vowels and diphthongs in a word, no matter how long,
had their full sound and quality even to the end-syllable.
None of them were slurred over and made indistinct as
they are to-day. For instance, in the word habaidedum, a
Gothic verb-form, which must have had its parallel form
in prehistoric English,

i.e.,

have to give the u of the

in English before A.D. 675,


final syllable its rightful

we

sound,

it is so far away from the root or important


But by degrees the change that took place in all
the Germanic languages from the earlier or musical accent

although
syllable.

to one of stress or force, a dynamic stress, has through


the centuries caused, first the weakening, and finally the

dropping out, of the syllables that became more and more


unstressed as the root-syllable became more and more
stressed. So the equivalent of habaidedum in English had
by King Alfred's time become hcefdon, in Chaucer hadde(n),
in Shakespeare had, and now we may say We'd better be
going. This is only one of very many words which show the
effect of stress-change upon the length of the word and

upon the sounds

of

which

it is

composed. Let the student

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

224

pronounce in the ordinary way, at the usual rate of speed,


the words spirit, fathom, organ, able, and he will find that,
in spite of the different spellings, the vowel of the second
syllable has in each case very much the same sound. Again,
let the student or teacher read aloud a few lines of our
oldest poetry, Beowulf for example, follow it up by a few
"
lines from Chaucer's
Prologue to the Canterbury Tales,"
and then by some lines from Tennyson or Kipling, and
again it will be found that in the first there is a decided
recitative effect, that in Chaucer the tempo or speed is
quicker, but not nearly so hurried as in Tennyson. It will
also be noted that there are many silent vowels in the
speech of to-day, very few in Chaucer, and none in the O.E.
poetry. As compared with the language of Chaucer, our
speech

contains

Name and
but

now

very

many more

swete were then

one-syllable words.
pronounced as two syllables,

and
and melody

as one syllable neim,

syllables then, Aprille,

swi:t.

April had three

four, melodic.

Not only have we shortened a great many of our words,


all O.E. diphthongs became long vowels in M.E.

but

New

diphthongs were formed in the latter period, which


have since become long vowels; and short vowels, because
of stress, were made long, and later still became diphthongs
All through
as in O.E. name, M.E. na:me, Mn.E. neim.
this section

we

are speaking of the sounds, not of the signs


in the modern

which so imperfectly represent our sounds

The spoken language is our standard.


examples given, and many others, it is

printed language.

Because

of the

now very

difficult to learn to spell in English. In O.E.


the spelling was phonetic, according to sound, in M.E.
mainly so, but in Mn.E. the spelling has remained very
stationary, while stress and pronunciation have changed
a great deal. A very plain case is that of a number of words

(English) -or (American). For instance, in M.E.


honour was stressed generally on the second syllable, and
the ou represented the long //-sound, thus: honour (honuir).

in -our

To-day we stress the first syllable and say ondr, so that or


comes nearer to representing the sound of the second
syllable than does our. But that is only one of the many

STRESS IN ENGLISH

225

between spelling and pronunciation to be


in our speech.
"
"
The so-called slovenliness in speech is largely due to

differences

found

change in stress and speed that is going on,


go on in our language. The Old English
the vocal organs much more active, the
with
people spoke

this constant

and probably

will

mouth much more open, like the German people of to-day,


but the modern English-speaking person can and does
speak with the lips much more rigid, the mouth much
more closed. This change in the use of the vocal organs
has, like all other changes, been very gradual and very
slow.

It

cannot be said to be an aid to clear enunciation.

But not only vowels, diphthongs and consonants have


been affected by this change in stress, but the whole
sentence and the syntax of our language has felt the inIt is because our grammars have not hitherto
fluence.
paid enough attention to this very important question
that

it is

emphasised
in

227. Stress

in this book.

Old

was

In the O.E. period the


English.
to stress the first or important

general principle
syllable of the single word, or of the compound, or of combinations such as god man, good man, which has much

But compounds of prepositions


and nouns like ofdune, off the hill, stressed the first syllable
of the noun as they do yet in adown and others. If a preposition preceded the verb it was stressed, as inn gdn, to
go in, but if it followed the verb it was unstressed. But

the force of a compound.

when used with nouns, they precede always as prefixes,


and are therefore stressed, as ingang, entrance, blspell,
example, and many others. That is, we had in O.E., as in
modern German, many separable prefixes. We find also in
verbs inseparable prefixes, for- in forgiefan, forgive, be- in
besettan, beset, which, like ver-, be- in German, never have
the stress. But in nouns these prefixes carry the stress,
as

in forwyrd,

to destroy.

It

the words in

destruction,

would be well

in contrast

to forweorftan,

for the student to look over

be-, for-, fore-, over-

and under-

in

a good

dictionary, to see how we stress these compounds to-day.


228. Stress in Middle English.
In native English words

226

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

the same general principles hold in this period as in O.E,


But al-, mis-, un-, which have the stress in O.E., lose it in

M.E., and we must say almighty, misdeed, uncouth.


Scandinavian and Dutch words follow generally the same
Words introduced from the
rules as the native English.
French have the accent of that language during most of
the M.E. period. There is no difficulty with words of one
syllable as cas, case, or with face, face. But when we read
Chaucer, we find we must say nature, licour, liquor, essence,

honour, sesoun, season, although we sometimes may say


honour and sesoun. By the sixteenth century all these
words have been made fully at home with us, and have
adopted the English stress. But words compounded with
particles, such as degre, degree, rank, disese, discomfort,
still keep the same stress (degree and disease). We have also
changed the stress of condicioun (four syllables) to condition
(three syllables), and in numbers of similar words.
It is to be hoped that
229. Stress in Modern English.
the student has grasped some of the very old principles
of stress which were active in the Old and Middle English
periods. These are still very active in our speech, and will
continue. The addition of so many French words to our
During the present
vocabulary introduced difficulty.
modern period we have imported thousands of words, and
are adding them each year. We are still further increasing
our difficulties. With the spread of our speech, notably in
America, differences have arisen, such as in illustrate,
which we sometimes hear stressed on the first syllable,
sometimes on the second.
Nowadays subordinate words all have weak stress, as
1
in the sentence, He is a man of the world, where only man
and world are stressed. As has already been noted, we keep
the O.E. stress on the root-syllable in inflected or derived

words, as in fisher, fishery, fisherman.


after the old rule words which have a

So

also

weak

we

stress

first syllable,

1
For a more detailed treatment of stress in modern English the
teacher and student are referred to Sweet, A New English Grammar,
pp. 879-932, and Jespersen, A Modern English Grammar, Chapter V.
The latter has a wealth of illustrations.

STRESS IN ENGLISH
We

227

French words, as avow,


such words as balcony,
formerly balcony, conform to this rule. But we can tell
that some French words like machine are new introductions,
because of their stress, and also because of the sound of
as arise, become.

defend.

do

this, too, in

And we now have made

So also caprice, canoe, and many others. Sometimes


i.
has a double stress, one familiar and one less familiar.
word
a
So August month and Augustus, proper name. We also
have quite a number of pairs of words, one an adjective
or noun, and the other a verb, with two stresses, such as
There
absent, abstract, frequent, object, and many others.
the

is

also a stress for contrast

accent, as

"I

which causes us to change an

said oppose, not suppose," "not subjective

but dbjective."

feature of Mn.E.

means

is

the use of even or

level stress,

by

which the two words are made

of equal or nearly
equal importance, as in a fine house, a good man, where in
of

the older English only one word, fine or good, would have
the chief stress. But many phrases made up of separate
words in O.E. have now become compound nouns, and as

such

for example, black


do not develop even stress
which is now blackberries, and high street, thorn
which are now felt, if not written, as compounds.

berries,
tree,

APPENDIX A
A BRIEF HISTORICAL REVIEW OF ENGLISH
DECLENSION AND CONJUGATION
The following are the main types of declension
230. Nouns.
for O.E. nouns in the language of King Alfred
:

STRONG DECLENSION
Masculines
Sing.

Plu.

N.

WEAK DECLENSION

'

DECLENSION

&

CONJUGATION

229

NOTES
1. In King Alfred's English there were only five nouns that
were declined like sunu of the masculines, and three like fot
;

the rest had either the as-ending of the strong declension


in the nominative plural, or the an-ending of the weak.
The neuters followed sceap, if long in the stem, or scip, if
short or of more than one syllable. Only two were weak, and
very few were declined like did, whereas in German this
for neuters.
r-plural has become a great favorite
In the feminines few followed gos, all others being either
like lar and lufu, or weak.
2. The student will see at a glance that there are many cases
in the singular, even in O.E., which end in e. These would actuof lack of stress, a (o),
ally be added to, when, in M.E., because
u would weaken to the sound also represented by e -as and
-an would also become -es and -en, as in the 1175 text. There
would then naturally develop a sort of struggle between -es
and -en as a sign of the plural and we see the effects of this in
M.E., where we have ashen ashes, toon toes, foon foes, shoon
shoes, rosen roses, and quite a number of others. So even in
the Devon speech of to-day the people say primrosen for
primroses and housen for houses. But in the North Country
the final n of nouns and verbs was very early dropped off;
thus there was no sign left for the weak nominative plural,
and the influence of the Northern forms prevailed to make the
es -plural the surviving form.
The English s-plural was well established as early as 1200,
and the s-plural of the great number of French words borrowed
afterwards only made it more fixed, if possible.
to
3. Feminine nouns had to make a little more change
follow the fashion, viz., in the genitive singular which had no
tfs-ending. Such a phrase as Lady-day shows the older genitive
singular of lady. In Chaucer we find by my fader soule, where
fader is the old unchanged genitive singular found in O.E. in
all

names

of relationship.
It is not strange,

when so many forms ended in e in M.E.,


that the ending should be introduced also into_the nominative
singular of such words as ston(e), wif(e) (O.E. stan, wif). It has
nothing to do originally with the length of the preceding vowel.
4.

In O.E., as in Modern German, adjectives


231. Adjectives.
had a strong and weak declension but in M.E., as in the nouns,
so many endings had become alike that we may pay little
;

heed to the common e-ending.


In comparison, the O.E. adjective might have mutation in
the comparative and superlative. Again as in Modern German
the list was small, viz. brad broad, eald old, feorr far, geong
young, great great, heah high, lang long, sceort short, and strang
:

strong.

APPENDIX A

230

In Chaucer the list is smaller: old, long, strong", and now we


have only elder and eldest, and the noun-form elder.
Some adjectives, as good, evil, little, have always been irregular in comparison.
232. Personal Pronouns.
Discarding the O.E. dual forms,
which were lost by the thirteenth century, we may place side
by side the singular and plural forms (O.E., M.E., Mn.E.).

OLD ENGLISH
SINGULAR
First Person

Second Person

Third Person

M.

F.

N.

N.

ic

Su

he

heo

G.

min

Sin

his

hire
hire
hie

hit
his

D.

me

A.

mec,

N.

we

ge

G.

user, ure

eower

me

Se

him

Sec, Se

hine

him
hit

PLURAL
hie, hi
hiera, hira

eow

D.

us

A.

usic,

us

him,

eowic,

eow

heom

hie, hi

MIDDLE ENGLISH (CHAUCER)


SINGULAR
N.

I (ich, ik)

thou

G.

D.
A.

me
me

he

she

his

her(e)
her(e)
her(e)

him
him

thee
thee

(h)it

his

him
(h)it

PLURAL
N.

we

ye

they

G.
D.
A.

us
us

you
you

hem
hem

hir(e),

hr(e)

MODERN ENGLISH
SINGULAR
N.
D, A.

me

you
you

(thou)

he

(thee)

him

she
her

PLURAL
N.
D, A.

we
us

you
you

(ye)

they

them

it
it

DECLENSION & CONJUGATION

231

NOTE
From

a comparison of these various declensions the student


will observe the tendency to simplification, also the mixture
Chaucer used the Scandiof forms in the modern speech.
navian form they, but them was introduced only in Mn.E.
Its, as the possessive of it, came in about Shakespeare's time.
Can the student explain the italicised forms in " Take 'em
off

"

and "

I didn't see

un

"

(dialect)

For strong, weak, and past-present verbs see


The anomalous, or abnormal verbs do, go and

233. Verbs.

Appendix B.

be are given below:

Do
PRESENT
M.E.
do (do:)

O.K.
ist Pers.

do

2nd Pers. dest


3rd Pers. deS
Plural
doS

Mn.E.
do

dost

dost
does

doth
don

do

PAST
dyde

(a redupli-

did

did

cated form)

Go
PRESENT

O.E

M.E.

Mn.E.

ist Pers.

ga

go

2nd Pers.

gsest

gost

3rd Pers.
Plural

gaed

goth

goest
goes

gad

go(n)

go

(go:)

go

PAST
Sing.
Plural

code

Sodon

yede, wente
yede, wente

went

PARTICIPLE
gegan

goon

gone

Be
This verb was very irregular in O.K., having two full forms
in the present indicative and also in the
present subjunctive.

PRESENT
O.E.
earn, beom
2nd Pers. eart, bist
3rd Pers. is, biS
Plural
sind, beo5
ist Pers.

In the

M.E.

Mn.E.

am

am

art

art

is

is

be(n) (beth, arn)

are

modern subjunctive present we use only

be.

APPENDIX A

232

PAST
M.E.
was
were
was

O.E.
waes
2nd Pers. wsere
3rd Pers. waes
Plural
weeron
ist Pers.

Mn.E.
was
wast
was
were

were(n)

PAST PARTICIPLE
been

gewesen

Sometimes we hear you wuz

for

been

you were, which

is

not

strange when we remember that this form is the only one we


now use in the past tense plural of any verb, which is different
from the form of the singular.

THE CONJUGATION OF THE STRONG VERBS


In O.E. there were four principal parts in the strong verb;
for instance, drifan drive (infin.), draf drove (past sing.), drifon
(past plur.) and drifen driven (past participle). In M.E. there
was the tendency to use only one form for the past tense which
has become the rule in Mn.E. so drive, drove, driven. In Mn.E.
there has developed the fashion of using only two stems in
many verbs. So we say spin, spun (for both past tense and
past participle), where we used to say spin, span, spun. Some
people say drink, drunk, drunk too, but this is not yet allowable.
This tendency also accounts for do, done, done, and go, went,
went, and similar levellings which are not permissible.
;

THE PRESENT TENSE-FORMS


drifan, drive, drive (draiv).

M.E.

O.E.
ist Pers.

2nd

Pers.

drif-e
(e)st

3rd Pers.

(e)6

Plural

aO

In the King James Version the eth-ending was used, and


was retained in the Revised Version, although it no longer
corresponded to usage.
In the weak verbs the endings of the present tense were
slightly different in the two classes, but lack of stress soon made
them alike, and their later history is that of the strong verbforms.

PRESENT PARTICIPLES
The ending
it

gave

way

in O.E.

was

-end,

to -ing, binding.

bmdend;

in

M.E. and Mn.E.

THE VERB

HISTORICAL

APPENDIX

233

THE VERB
234. In Old English there were some 332 simple strong verbs,
which belonged to seven different classes, represented in

modern English by

drive, choose, bind, steal, give, take, fall.

great many of these have disappeared altogether during the


course of the centuries, and numbers of others have become
weak. A few have been added from French or Scandinavian,
and a very few weak verbs have become strong. There are
now only about 86 simple strong verbs, counting abide (bide
is weak), begin and forsake, of which no simple forms exist.
In some cases there is great uncertainty as to the correct
form, some good forms are archaic, and in many cases there
are double forms. In all cases constant appeal has been made
"
to the " New English Dictionary and, where it is incomplete, to
"
"
the Standard and others. Because it is not easy for the High
School student to understand why fly and freeze belong to the
same class, or bind and swim, it has been thought best to give
an alphabetical list of the strong verbs now in use, and then
a list of the verbs according to the old classes. Teachers and
students who become interested in the historical development
of the strong verbs will make good use of the second list. A
list is also given of isolated strong
past tenses or past participles
of verbs otherwise weak.
235.
(a)

Modern Strong Verbs.


In alphabetical order.

(Rare or older forms are in brackets


the simple forms occur.)
Infinitive

Past

also

compound verbs where


Past Participle

abide

abode (abided)

abode (abided)

arise

arose

arisen

(awake)
bear
beat

awoke (awaked)
bore (bare)
beat

(beget)

begot (begat)

awoke, awaked (awoken)


borne
beaten (beat)
begotten (begot)

begin

began (begun)

begun

(behold)
(bestride)

(beheld)
bestrode, bestrid

bid

bade, bad, bid

(beheld, beholden)
bestridden, bestrid,
strode
bidden, bid

bind

bound

bound (bounden)

bite

bit

bitten

blow

blew
broke (brake)

blown (blowed)
broken

break

(bit)

be-

234
Infinitive

APPENDIX

THE VERB HISTORICAL


o

spin
spit

spring

stand
(stave)
steal
stick

sting

stink
'-stride
strike

Past Participle

Past

Infinitive

spun, span
spat (spate, spit)
sprang, sprung
stood

spun

(staved, stove)
stole

(staved, stove)
stolen

stuck
stung

stuck
stung
stunk

stank, stunk
strode
struck

spit (spat)

sprung
stood

stridden (strid)
struck (stricken)

string
strive

strung
strove

strung

swear

swore (sware)

sworn

swim
swing
take

235

striven (strived)

swam, swum
swung

swum
swung

took

taken

tear
thrive

tore (tare)
throve (thrived)

torn
thriven (thrived)

thrown

throw

threw

tread

trod (trode)

trodden, trod

wake

woke, waked

wear
weave
win
wind

wore (ware)

waked
worn

wove (weaved)

woven, wove (weaved)

won
wound

won
wound

wring

wrung (wringed)

write

wrote

wrung (wringed)
written

(b)

CLASS

A
i

list

of strong verbs according to classes.

Abide, arise, bite, chide, drive, hide, (light), ride, rise,


(shrive), slide, smite, stride, strike, strive, thrive, write.

CLASS 2

Choose,

CLASS 3

shine,

fly, freeze,

shoot.

Begin, bind, cling, dig, drink, fight, find, fling, grind, ring,
run, shrink, sing, sink, sling, slink, spin, spring, stick, sting, stink,
string, swim, swing, win, wind, wring.

CLASS 4

Bear, break, cleave, come, heave, shear, speak, stave, steal,


swear, tear, tread, wear, weave.

CLASS 5

Bid, eat, get, give,

CLASS 6

lie,

see, sit, spit, (quoth), (was).

Forsake, shake, slay, stand, take, wake.

CLASS 7

Beat, blow, draw,

fall,

grow, hang, hold, know, throw.

APPENDIX

236

NOTES
1

weak

Of the modern strong verbs the following were

originally

Chide, hide, light, stave, stick, string, wear, spit. Light and
have weak forms, and string in stringed instruments.

stave
2.

The following were introduced from other languages

Fling, sling, take, thrive, from the Scandinavian; dig, strive from
the French
and shrive, very early from the Latin.
',

3.

Such pasts and past

participles as abided, awaked,

hanged

show that strong verbs still tend to become weak.


4. The forms bare, begat, brake, spake, and others, are older
pasts supplanted by newer forms made in analogy with the
past participle.
5. Drunk, rid, rung, sung, etc., are forms analogous to the
past participle which have or have not been able to exist
alongside of the older, or have not yet supplanted the older as
have spun, stung, etc.
6. Old strong past participles used as adjectives are
Born, bounden, drunken, forlorn, shorn, shrunken, stricken,
:

sunken.
7. Quoth is an old past, now used as a present also, and is
treated under the past-presents.
8. A long historical note would be
required to give the full
reason why was and were belong to Class 5 of the strong verbs.
There is now no infinitive or past participle for this past (see
the verb be}.
"
Woe worth the day " (Scott), is an obsolete
9. Worth in
form, belonging originally to Class 3 (German werden).

236.

weak

The

following verbs, originally strong, have

become

Ache, bake, bark, bequeath, bow, braid, brew, brook, burn,


burst, carve, chew, climb, creep, crow, crowd, delve, ding, dive,
dread, fare, flay, flee, flow, fold, fret, glide, gnaw, grave, greet,
gripe, hele (conceal), help, hew, knead, lade, laugh, leap, let, lie
(tell an untruth), low (of cattle), mete, melt, mourn, mow, quake,
read, rive, row, rue, salt, seethe, shape, shave, shed, shove, sigh,
sleep, slit, smart, span, spew, spurn, starve, step, suck, sup,
swallow, sweep, swell, thrash (or thresh), twit, wade, walk,
warp, wash, wax (grow), weep, weigh, whine, wreak, writhe,
yell, yelp, yield.

Of these verbs the following have forms which reveal the


old strong conjugation
Past Tenses
clomb (climb), crew (crow), dove (dive), rove
:

(rive).

Past Participles

baken

graven (grave), holpen

(bake), carven (carve), folden (fold),


hewn (hew), laden (lade), molten

(help),

THE VERB
(melt),

(shape)
(wash),

HISTORICAL

237

mown

(mow), riven (rive), sodden (seethe), shapen


shaven (shave), sown (sow), swollen (swell), un-washen
waxen (wax), wreathen (writhe).

Some of these forms are still current (in use) by various


classes of speakers. The student of the history of the language
"

"

"

"
"
does not ask whether they are
correct
good or bad,"
"
or
incorrect," he must seek an explanation or a reason for
their existence. A study of the dialects of England, Scotland
and Ireland, and of colloquial speech in North America, will
reveal a multitude of older and newer forms for both the
strong and the weak verbs.
Some weak verbs form a past participle in n. So show
shown, sew sewn, strew strewn.
237. It will be noted that if the total of the present strong
verbs be added to that of the strong verbs which have become
weak, only some 170 of the 332 strong verbs in Old English
are accounted for. That means that the rest, almost half, have
passed out of the language. So, for instance, niman, German
nehmen, gave way in the later Middle English to take, but has
left traces in numb (past participle), nim, a thief, one of Falstaff's friends, nimble and benumb. The dialects preserve many
that are not found in standard speech.
Even of those that remain, strong or weak, many are archaic
(shrive), or are practically obsolete, as delve, fare, grave, hele,
lade, mete, wax, and others.
Others are obsolescent, or dying out, as chide, slay (kill is

now used), strive (try), thrive (grow),


The nineteenth century saw many
is

rive (split), seethe (boil).


revivals, of which carven

an example.

The characteristic ending of the past


238. Weak Verbs.
tense and past participle of weak verbs is -d or -ed. But there
are many exceptions, even in printing, and far more in pronunciation, which after all is the test. For instance, we spell dealt,
felt, spilt, spoilt, dreamt, burnt, meant, crept, kept, slept, swept,
wept, although we may also write spilled, spoiled, dreamed.
say dipt, and many authors have written it ; so also accurst,

We

addresst, blest, claspt, dipt, confest, crept, crost, distrest,


exprest, fixt, leapt, past, and many others. Our
spelling might be reformed in this respect without doing

curst,

drest, dropt,

violence to pronunciation or etymology.


Some verbs in d or / have by assimilation done away with
the endings, so that all three forms, infinitive, past tense, and
past participle, are alike. Such are, for example, burst, cast,
cost, cut, hit, hurt, put, rid, set, shed, shut, split, spread, sweat,
thrust.
For a number of these, children, good exponents of
the working of the natural laws in language, make new past
tenses such as bursted, hurted, costed, shedded, sweated, etc.
It is curious that in dialect such
conjugations are heard as
hit, hat, hat (so sit), or spit, sput, sput. These newly-created

APPENDIX

forms show an instinctive feeling for the need of some difference


being made between present and past forms.
Other verbs, among them some still called strong, make a
difference between the vowel of the present and those of past
tense and past participle.

Such are bleed, breed, feed, speed,


meet, lead, light (lit), shoot, read, and in colloquial speech heat
and others. This difference is not always indicated by the
spelling.

Some verbs in common use ending in d change the d into t


in the past tense and past participle.
So bend, build, lend,
rend, send, spend, wend (past of go), but wended, bended, are
also used; gird has girded or girt] so gild. But wield is always
wielded.
Other weak verbs may be said to have exceptional forms
cleave (cleft), flee (fled), have (had), hear (heard), lay (laid),
leave (left), lose (lost), make (made), pay (paid), shoe (shod),
bereave (bereaved or bereft).
:

Irregular weak verbs numbered some twenty-three or more


Old English, of which the following remain: beseech (besought), buy (bought), seek (sought), sell (sold), teach (taught),
Work has
tell (told), think (thought), methinks (methought).
an old form wrought, but is now worked; distraught is an old
participle of stretch; boughten is often heard of purchased
articles in distinction to home-made, as boughten bread.
Catch, caught, has been added from the French.
There were twelve of these in
239. Past-present Verbs.
Old English, so called because the present tense is really an
old strong past (shown by the similarity of the first and third
persons singular) used with a present meaning. A newer, weak
wot (wist),
past takes its place. The following are still found
mote in "so mote it be." These are obsolete to-day. Dare
(durst), shall (should), may (might), are in everyday use, and
will (would) has been made to conform. Dare, used positively,
maun is the Scotch form of the old plural of may,
is weak
magon own is weak the weak parts of own and mote are
now used with a present meaning (ought and must) quoth,
past tense of a verb queath, say (cf. bequeath), may also be used
as a present.
Latin, Greek and German have similar verbs.

in

240.

Anomalous Verbs.

go, do, be.

See the paradigms (Sect. 223) for

DERIVATION

239

APPENDIX C
DERIVATION
241. In Section II. attention was called to the numerous
loanwords or borrowings from the Latin, French and other
languages, as well as to the native or English words. A great
many of these are monosyllables, but a very large proportion

are

compounds

of

more than one

syllable.

To

derive these,

to explain the formation and origin of the parts, it


would be necessary to know all the prefixes and suffixes as
well as the root words. It is not proposed in this sketch to
give long lists to be memorized, but to give a brief discussion

that

of

is,

some

of the

more important and a few

lists

through the

study of which the student may go on to use a dictionary


such as the Concise Oxford and find out more for himself.

Some prefixes are dead, that is, no longer felt as such or no


longer used to form new words. Such are the a- in achieve,
aboard, ante- in ancient, ob- in offer, per- in perish, for- in forbid.
Suffixes that are dead are -ock in bullock, -I in nail, -m in
blossom, -fold in manifold, -k in lurk, -ard in coward, -th in
truth,

broth.

On

the other hand a great many prefixes are living especially be- in some senses, bedewed, fore- in forearm, and many
others.
Living suffixes are, for example, -age in coinage,
;

breakage, -ative in talkative, -able in get-at-able.

Again some, both prefixes and suffixes, are not used in as


senses as they once were, such as be- and -age, and some

many

are tending to become very much used, as -ive.


Prefixes are verbal particles placed before a
alter its

word which

meaning: confer, difier, refer. Suffixes are letters or


syllables, sometimes words, which, appended to a word, alter
the meanings or functions
A
woodcraft, wooden, woody.
root, a term often used very loosely, is here defined to be a
syllable, or combination of syllables, expressing a general,
sometimes very vague, notion which may be common to a
number of words. Some of these roots can be traced in the
various Indogermanic languages and are therefore called
for example, sed, duk, ag. Some roots
Indogermanic (Aryan)
are found only in the various Teutonic languages and are
then called Teutonic, as, for example, bain- (bone, German
Bein], folk- (folk, German Volk), and others are English alone,
:

240

APPENDIX

as those of dog, bad, fuss, shrew, champ, chide, chat, dodge,


doily, dredge, dye.
To these roots in the various languages certain vowel or

consonant endings were added to form stems. It is therefore


possible to speak of a-, i-, u- stems of nouns, which are not
necessarily real words. To these stems must be added the
various terminations of declension and conjugation, or the
inflectional elements, before words can be arranged into sentences.
The comparison of the forms in the selections in
Section III. has already shown that in the English language
many of these have been lost. This loss began very early,
so that even the Old English words show it. For example,
acre, O.E. cecer, must at a much earlier period, even before

our present era, have been akroz, which corresponds to the


Latin ager and the Greek agros
the root is ag. So sit, O.E.
sittan, corresponds to German sitzen, Latin sedere and Greek
from the root duk, deuk, comes the
hezomai, the root being sed
Latin ducere, the O.E. teon and the German ziehen. It is necessary to make a study of comparative grammar in order to
thoroughly understand all these relations.
Especially it is
;

necessary to know what is called Grimm's Law and Verner's


Law to explain fully the relation of brother to the German
Bruder, or of thing and tide to the German Ding and Zeit.
They are the same words, having the forms resulting from
the evolution of each language. But all this very interesting
study is beyond the limits of this brief introduction to the
history of the English language.
In Section II. attention has been called to the loss of a
great number of English words and the introduction of Latin
or other words for them.
For example, there was a very
numerous family of words formed from the root of beran
So dberan endure, suffer, cetberan carry (off),
carry, bear.
beran carry, wear, beberan supply, forberan endure, tolerate,
foreberan prefer, forftberan bring forward, produce, geberan bear
(a child), onberan carry off, plunder, oftberan carry away,
toberan disperse, underberan support, ymbberan surround
also nouns such as bearn child, gebyrd birth, byrften burden ;
also adjectives as gebyrde innate.
Only beran and forberan
have lived down to the present, bearn is the Scotch bairn,
byrften has been changed to burden, and gebyrd has given way
to the Scandinavian birth. But the ideas expressed were not
lost, and to express them there were borrowed, because of
French influence or through the study of Latin, a number
of words having the same root in its Latin form fer
offer,
;

DERIVATION

241

borrowed even in Old English times, confer, defer and


originally the same word, infer, prefer, proffer, refer,

differ,

suffer,

transfer.

Another large family represented in Old English is the


verb teon draw, and its derivatives, found in the German
ziehen and its great connection. Very few of these are left,
such as tow, tow-line, tie, wanton, team
tug is Scandinavian,
tuck, touch and tocsin come through the French. To express
the same ideas recourse has been had mostly to the Latin
root expressing the same idea. This accounts for the use of
;

adduce, conduce, conduct, duke, deduce, educe, induce, introduce,


of others.
produce, reduce, seduce, traduce, and a large number
The Old English words were not always lost in the proSometimes they were given a place beside the loancess.
word, sometimes limited in meaning. What is the difference
between I was drawn to him and I was attracted to him?
Again the word mild meant generous, prodigal in the Old
English, but rich, large and generous have come in, and each
A very frequent dehas its place with limited meanings.
velopment is that the English word has a literal, home-y sense
and the foreign word is used figuratively or in an abstract

Consider the legal phrase, he drew up an abstract !


Too little has been done in the fascinating field of the development of meanings in English, and yet this knowledge is very
necessary to the fullest understanding and enjoyment of
Chaucer, Shakespeare, and indeed of all other writers.
sense.

PREFIXES

The

242.

prefix a-, has

some

fifteen sources

English

a-,

on-, of-, and-, at-, ge-, as in arise, abed, adown, along, ado,
alike ; French in Middle English times as a(d)dress, abridge,

Latin ab-, ad-, in avert,


amend, acumber now encumber
ascribe Greek a-, in atlas and an-, with a privative or negative
force as in adamant, apetalous, amorphic, a-sexual. This latter
is the only living form of a- in the
language of to-day.
Latin ab-, from, lives only in a few scientific words
abs-,
is a variant, abstract
adv- in advance is ultimately from ab-.
Latin ad-, to, at, for (a-, ab-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, as-,
at-), is found in achieve,
abbreviate, accord, admit, affect,
;

allow, announce, append, arrogate, assent, attract.


a curious " reformed spelling " of the sixteenth century

aggressive,

By

APPENDIX

242

many words were refashioned to resemble the Latin


and some mistakes were made. Thus the English a- of accursed, acknowledge, afford, affright and allay were made to
look as if the Latin ad- were the prefix.
The Latin ambi-, about, on both sides, and its Greek sister
amp hi-, are both dead ambidexterous, amphitheatre. Greek
apo- (aph-), from, off, is also dead
apology, aphceresis.
Greek ana-, back, again, anew, is found in anabaptist, anaa great

chronism, anagram, analysis, anatomy.


Two living prefixes are very interesting.

Latin ante-,
antecedent, antedate, ante-reformation, ante-room, also
appears as anti- in anticipate, anti-brachial, as and- in
ancient, ant-, in antagonist, and an-, in ancestor. Derivatives
with ante- came into the language after 1500 and were probefore,

bably coined after the example of antecedent and its family.


With this prefix is often confused Latin and Greek anti-,
anti-Christian, antidote, antiseptic, antiopposite, against
English. Only three of its derivatives came in before 1500,
Antichrist, antiphon and antiphoner, a book of anthems.
Although both of these prefixes are foreign in origin, yet
their use is now so very common that they might almost be
called English. There are many like them.
Arabic learning was very important in the Middle Ages,
Therefore
especially in science, mathematics and medicine.
it comes about that we have many words beginning with al-,
the Arabic definite article so alchemy, the chemistry, alcohol,
It appears as a- in apricot, as aralcove, alembic, algebra.
in artichoke, arsenic, as as- in assegai, as el- in elixir and
:

as

/-

in lute.

The Latin
showing that
appears as
tributive

doubly, twice, appears in bigamy, biennial,


used freely with English words, bi-weekly,
is considered almost as a native prefix.
It
balance, as bis-, biscuit, and also in the dis-

bi-,

It

bicarbonate.

is

it

ba-,

form

bin-,

binocular.

By-,

by-gone,

bypath,

by-

The important prefix is the


product, byway, explains itself.
English be-, found in more than 1500 words and unlimited
has a variety of meanings which the student can
some examples
bespatter, berhyme, behead,
bereave, bedeck, besiege, beseech, becalm, bemoan, bedim,

in use.

It

best study from


beset,

bewitch,

befriend,

becloud,

bestir,

beguile,

betoken,

bewilder,

benumb. One very frequent


use is making transitive verbs from nouns and adjectives.
The derivatives of Greek cata-, down, away, etc., with the
betroth, be-speak, behold, bequeath,

exception of catalogue, catarrh and catacomb, are

all of

modern

DERIVATION

243

formation
cataclasm, catalectic, catapult,
appears as cat- in catechism, as cath- in catholic.
Latin prefixes are circu(m)-, around, circumnavigate, circuit
contra-, against, contradiction, in only a few words. The English
form counter-, from the French contre-, is a living particle
or

introduction

It

catastrophe.

counter-irritant.

counteract,

country,

Cisalpine,

cis-Atlantic.

cor-, cour-), is

Cis-,

on

this side of

Lastly com- (co-, col-, com-, con-,


found in about one-third of the words under C

co-operate, collect, compare, confer, correct, council.


it appears as coi-, coil, cou-, cousin, cu-, cull,

More

rarely

cur-,

curry.

the living form


co-worker, co-heir, co-agent.
Two prefixes occur in the form de-. The first is from the Latin

Co-

is

de-,

down,

off,

away from

decline, delegate, despoil.

It also

reverses the action of the verb as in deform, decompose, deSome verbs


centralize, and in this sense is a living prefix.

with this prefix originally, especially those that came through


the French, have remodelled it into dis- as dis-arm, disThe student of French will find it interesting to
colour.
compare French verbs, adjectives and nouns in de-, des-, with
their English equivalents. The second is from the Latin di-,
In most words the di- has been
dis-: deface, defame, defray.
restored
distress
or dis- has been substituted as in dismiss,
dif-fer which exists alongside of defer, with now a difference
:

of meaning.
de- prefixes must be compared the living
found as des- in descant and as dif- before/-.
The dif- form is no longer living but dis- is very extensively
used, even with English words
disconnect, disjoin, disbench,

With these two

prefix dis-, apart,

Its meanings are now


disease, disfrock, disable, disaffection.
confused in large part with those of de-, and even the form,
as in deluge. It is disguised as 5 in spend.

Greek di-, double, is found in digraph, disyllable ; also in


technical terms in natural history and crystallography, but
dibasic, di-chromatic,
especially as a living prefix in chemistry
:

digamy.

Greek

seen in diameter, dialogue.


E is the Latin ex- extend,
Variants are e- in edit, educe, ef- in efface,
exert, exchange.
effuse, es- in escape, escheat
peculiar forms are the iss- in
dia-,

through,

The important

is

prefix under

in sample, a- in amend and as- in astonish.


The
Greek form is ek-, as ec- in eccentric, ecstasy, as el- in ellipse
and ex- in exodus.
issue,

s-

Greek en-

is

found in energy, as em- in empiric.

in- occurs in embrace.

The Latin

APPENDIX

244
The
for

e- in enough is for the O.K.


ge-; genoh in elope it stands
a French a- ultimately from ex-, and in esquire, eschew,
;

espy, especial, espousal, estate, establish, escribe it represents


e- prefixed to help pronounce words
beginning with sq,

an

sc, sp, st, which seemed difficult initial combinations to the


French from whom we borrowed the words.
Enter- from entre, the French form of Latin inter-, between,
is found in enterprise and entertain.
After about 1750 it gave
way in all other words to inter-. The student might compare
with advantage the words in a French dictionary with their
corresponding forms in English.
The Greek epi-, upon, eph-, ep-, is found in epigram, epilepsy,
ephemeral, epoch, epitome
eso-, within, in esoteric, and exo-,
without, in exogenous. All these are found in the many new
;

coinages of scientific terms.

Latin extra-

is

self-explanatory

extradite,

extraordinary.

It occurs in strange, estrange as (e)str-.


With the exception of for- in forfeit, forclose,

generally
written foreclose, French loans where for- represents the Latin
forts outside, most of the prefixes under F are English. For-,
intensive, away, abstention, bad, prohibition, was in early
times very common, but now remains in a very few words
:

forlorn, forget, forgive, forbear, forgo, forsake, forswear, fordo,


forbid. On the other hand fore-, forearm, foresight, and forth-,
forthcoming, forthwith, are living and in extended use. Fro- in

froward is the Scandinavian form oifrom.


The only prefix under G is the Scandinavian gain- in gainsay.
The Old English form of this prefix was quite common but
has now disappeared.
There are only two prefixes under H, both Greek
hyper-,
above, beyond, in hyperbole, hypercritical, and hypo-, under,
:

below, slightly, in hypochondria, hypocrite, hypotenuse, hypothesis.


In Old English the vocabulary under I was very small
and there was only one prefix, in-, which is still found in
In modern times the wordingoing, indeed, instead, instep.
list has been increased greatly because of the great number
of derivatives in Latin
inter-, among, between, a living
intervene, inter-collegiate, inter-wreathe ; intra-, withprefix
intramural
introin, on the inside
intro-, to the inside
duce
and especially of in-, in, into, and also with a negative
:

So innate, inquest and many others. It appears


in illude, im- in immune, as ir- in irrigate. Sometimes
found in the French form en-, em- t as enclose, embrace,

force, not.

as

il-

it is

which

is

written am- in ambush, a- in anoint.

The negative

DERIVATION

245

seen in innocent, ig-noble, illegal, immortal, infirm,


and enemy. No one now feels that this prefix is
foreign as it is joined to English words, as inset, inland, inlay,
inmate and dozens of others. In a few words one is often at
a loss whether to spell after the French or the Latin form
force

is

irregular

encase, enclose, encrust, endorse, endue, enfold, engraft, engrain,


engroove, enisle, enmesh, enquire, enquiry, ensure. To-day the

preference seems to be for the en- forms except in inquire,


inquiry ; ensure and insure are differentiated in meaning
a carpet is ingrained. Students must not be surprised, however, to find variation in the spelling by different authors
they will also find it interesting to listen to the pronunciations
;

of speakers.

only one prefix under J, juxta-, near: juxtaposition.


not an Old English letter and is now used only before
e i (y), and n
keen, king, ky cows, knee, know. Many words
which belong here are to be found under C. There are no

There

is

K was

prefixes.

There are no prefixes under L.


is very large, a goodly number being
The wordlist under
There
English, but many more from the French or Latin.
are few prefixes.
Interesting is mis- (i), wrongly, amiss,
English in origin and used not only with English words

mis- (2),
mislead, mislay, mistake (Scaiid.), misguide, misuse
from the French mes-, Latin minus, with the same sense but
used with a smaller list of words : mischance, misnomer.
;

The Greek meta- (meth-, met-}, among, with, after, is


in metabolism, metaphor, metaphysical, method, meteor.

found

number of words which


due to the carrying over of
a newt is really an ewt, a nickname, really av
the n of an
ekename, an additional name. Did you say an ice-house or
a nice house"? Contrariwise an auger is really a nauger, an
apron is a napron, an umpire is a numpire. Do you say an
orange or a norange ? Shakespeare has my nuncle for mine uncle.
The prefix non-, not, came late into use but is now unlimited in application and really an English prefix
nonUnder

have an

it is

initial

interesting to note a

n which

is

really

committal, non-jury, non-union.


English prefixes prevail under O. They are: Off-, stressed
form of the preposition of, as in of(f)fal, offspring ; on- in
onslaught and often as a- in asleep, abed ; or-, negative or
intensive, in ordeal and orts, remains, what is not eaten.
This last prefix is quite common in German as ur-, Urteil,

Urkunde, Urlaub, and was very

common

in

Old English.

APPENDIX

246

The wordlist under O has been enormously extended by


the words in out- (some 1,250) and in over- (some 2,100 odd).
In outrage we find French outre, beyond, and the suffix -age.
The Latin ob-, in the way of, and numerous other senses,
occurs also as o-, oc-, of-, op-, osobject, omit, occur, offend,
:

oppress, ostensible.
Even in Old English the wordlist under

P was borrowed

largely from the Latin. In the present-day vocabulary more


than one-fifth of the loans are Greek combinations and
derivatives.
beside,

The most common Greek prefixes are: para-,


"
"
wrong
paragraph, paradigm, paradox,

beyond,

paraphrase, as pa- in palsy

alongside of paralysis, par- in

peri-, around: perimeter, periparody and pal- in palfrey


pro-,
scope and in many medical and other scientific terms
;

before: prologue

and

pros- towards, in addition, as prosody,

prosthetic.

"
maximum," as in
prefixes are per-, through,
percentage, perform and in chemistry peroxide ; it appears as
par- in parson (same word as person), pardon, parboil, as

The Latin

pel- in pellucid, as pil- in pilgrim, as po- in position.

Post-,

a living prefix, appears in postpone, postgraduate, postdate, as puis- in puisne, as pu- in puny (after-born).
Pre-,
before, is found in prevent, pre-arrange, as pro- in provost;
it is also a living particle, unlimited in use to form verbs
and verbal nouns. Pro-, before, instead of, favouring, is also
a living English prefix to all intent, as in pro-Boer, proit occurs as prod- in prodigal, as profGerman, proficient
after,

in proffer, as pru- in prudent (provident), and in its French


forms pur- in pursue, por- in portray and pour- in pourtray.
Preter-, beyond, past, is found in preternatural, preterite.

The list of native English words under Q is very small,


representing the cw-words of Old English such as cwic,
cwacian, cwealm, cwen, cwellan, cwencan, now spelled with the
French qu- as quick, quake, qualm, queen, quell, quench. There
are no prefixes.
is re-, red-, back, again: recur,
The chief prefix under
recompense, redeem, reddition. It not only appears in many
compounds borrowed from the Latin or the Romance languages, but also is treated as a living prefix and prefixed not
only to modern borrowings from Latin or French words
but also to English and Scandinavian, as relay, rely, reIt may be used with
main, remind, renew or recall, recast.
any verb or verbal derivative as occasion requires. It is
often spelled with a hyphen to indicate its use, thus re-pair

DERIVATION
(not repair).

It is

pronounced

ri\

(re) in

247
such a sense, other-

wise as re in recollect and ri when the next syllable carries


the stress as in recover. The prefix retro-, backwards, back
again, appears in retrospect, retrograde, as rear- in rearguard.
The wordlist under S has always been the largest under
any letter of the alphabet. In Old English there were no
In modern English
prefixes but numbers of combinations.
are a number of prefixes. Latin are: se-, sed-, away, apart,
in seclude, sed-ition

sine-,

without, in sinecure

subter- in

super-, over, above, in superman (the French


form is sover- in sovereign, the Italian sopr- in soprano), as
sur- in survive.
By far the most important is sub-, under,
su-, sue-, suf-, sug-, sum-, sup-, sur-, sussubject, su-spect,

subterfuge

succumb, suffix, suggest, summon, suppose, surrogate, sustain.


Sub- is also used as a living prefix without change in medical
terms: substernal, below the breastbone, subnormal, below
further in subacid, slightly acid, subsoil, undernormal
;

lying

soil,

subway (often called

sub),

subheading,

subeditor

not quite conscious, sublet, to let to


a second party, submarine boat (also sub).
The Greek sun-, in its Latinized spelling syn-, occurs in
synonym, as sy- in system, as syl- in syllable and as sym- in
sympathy.
No one suspects that the t of twit stands for at (O.E. cetwltan,
to reproach), that / in tawdry is short ior saint (St. Audry) or the
t of tautology, saying the same thing, is the Greek to, the.
(also sub), subconscious,

Thorough-, through, explains itself in thoroughfare, and so


The Latin trans-, beyond, is a
does the to- of to-day.
very common form, as in transfer, transmit, and appears as
tran- in tran-scend, as tra- in tradition and in its French form
tres- in trespass.
It is used as a living prefix, across, in
transatlantic, transoceanic, transalpine.
Prefixes beginning with u are: Latin ultra-, beyond, in

ultramontane, ultra-fashionable
English under- in underbid,
underexpose, undergrowth, undertone, underdone, underman,
with various meanings, also understand and undertake ; Eng;

up- in upheave, upstairs, upstart, upbraid. The English


un-, unlimited in use, gives a variety of meanings, for example,
unloose (intensive), unnerve, unarm, unroof, unearth, unking,
lish

which differs from inartistic, un-English, unspeakunconcern. In unto, until the sense of un- is much like
the o$ of Old English, up, up to, up til.

imartistic,
able,

Withagainst

in withstand preserves the original meaning of with,


it means back in withhold, withdraw.

APPENDIX

248

SELECTED LIST OF LATIN WORDS

Here follows a

selected list of Latin words and roots which


are represented in English.
For a more complete list the
student may consult Skeat, Etymological Dictionary. So also
in the case of the Greek list on p. 25 1
.

ac,

sharp acid, eager.


cequus, equal
adequate,

equi-

vocal.

mical.

anima, breath animate, magnanimous.


annus, year anniversary, superannuate.
fit
adapt, inept.
aqua, water aquarium, aqueduct.
arma, arms alarm, armada.
audire, to hear
audience, obeisance.

aptus,

(popular Latin), to beat


abate, combat.
abbreviate, abridge.
brevis, short

batere

cadere, to
cide.

fall

accident,

coin-

cut

decide, homicide.

room

comrade, cham-

ceedeve, to

ber.

campus,

conclude,
pro-

declivity,

slope,

clivity.

enact, exigent.
agere, to drive
amdre, to love- amicable, ini-

camera,

clwus,

shut

to

claudere,

plain

campaign,

de-

camp.

colony, agriculture.
concoct, precoquere, to cook
cocious.
cordheart
concord,
(cor),

courage.
corpus,

incandescent,

incendiary.
to
accent,
sing
cantation.
capere, to seize
deception,
cantdre,

credre, to create

recreation.
to
believe
credible,
miscreant.
crescere, to grow
accretion, incredere,

crement.
cruc- (crux), cross
cruciate.

curtere, to run

condemn, indemcondone, render.


tooth
indent,

dandelion.
to
dlcdre,
dicate.

proclaim.
declare, clarify.

abdicate,

tell

in-

condition, bene-

to say

diction.

re

ducere, to
duit.

to separate
concern,
discriminate.
certain
ascertain, certify.
certus,
citdre, to incite
excite, solicit.
to
call
out
acclamation,
cldmdre,

discourse, recur.

loss

dominus,
minion.

recess.
cernere,

crucify, ex-

nify.
dare, to give
dent(dens),

damnum,

in-

ceptacle.
achieve, decapitate.
caput, head
earnflesh
carnival,
(caro),
incarnation.
cause
accuse.
causa,
because,
to come, yield excel,
cedere,

incorporate, cors-

body

let.

dicere,

candere, to shine

cldrus, clear

colere, to till

lord

lead

domain,

do-

conduce,

con-

emere, to take
exempt, redeem.
to be
absent, quintessence.

esse,

facere, to do^

deficient, counter-

feit.

affable, infant.
fdri, to speak
to bear circumference,
ferre,

prefer.

fidem

(ace.), faith

confide, per-

fidious.
affix, transfix.
figere, to fix
fmgere, to fashion figure, feign.

finis,

end

affinity, refine.

DERIVATION
to

fluere,

flow

affluence,

in-

fluence.

form

forma,
form.
fort-

(f ors)

frangere,

conform,

trans-

effort, fortify.

strong
to break

infraction,

refract.

fundere, to pour

permanent,

remnant.
manus, the hand
manufacture.
medius, the middle

maintain,

medieval.
ment- (mens)
traffic

genus, kin

congenial, indigence.

merx,
chandise.
to
transmit.

mittere,

gvadl, to
dient.

step

digress,

ingre-

great
aggrandise,
grandiloquent.
grdnum, grain engrain, pomegranate.
grdtus, pleasing
congratulate,
ingratiate.

habere, to

exhibit, avoir-

dupois.
stick

adhere,

in-

herent.

to go
iacere, to
ire,

monere,

accommodate,

advise

admonish,

summon.
amount,

hill

abject,

sub-

jacent.
lungere, to join

injunction, sub-

join.
iurdre, to

adjure, perjure.

swear

re-

mount.
to

move

commotion,

remove.
mutdre,
change
transmutation.

be

to
innate.
negdre, to
nasci,

deny

born

commute,

cognate,

abnegate, run-

agate.

circuit, exit.

throw

mer-

commissary,

to

have

to

to

mont- (mons),

aggregate,

egregious.

haerere,

send

modus,
modify.

movere,

gregem (grex), flock

comment,

commerce,

manner

grand-is,

immediate,

mind

monument.

confound, re-

fute.

249

manere, to remain

labi, to glide, slip


collapse.
lav are, to wash
laundress, lava.

to wash ablution, deluge.


legdre, to appoint
allege, col-

nomen, name
nown.

cognomen,

ndscere,
get to know
nisance, reconnaissance.

to

re-

cog-

numerus, number
enumerate,
supernumerary.
nuntius,
messenger announce,
enunciate.

luere,

league.
legere to collect

to

optdre,

wish

adopt,

opti-

mism.
diligent,

neg-

ordo,

order

extraordinary,

or-

dain.

lect.
levis, light
alleviate, elevate.
to leave delinquent,
linquere,

os

(or-),

mouth

adore, perora-

tion.

relic.
lltera,

letter

alliteration,

ob-

literate.

allocate, lieutenant.
to speak elocution, soliloquy.
ludere, to play
allude, prelude.
magnus, great magnate, maglocus, place

loqui,

nify.

manddre,

to

recommend.

enjoin

mandate,

par, equal
compeer, disparage.
to
pardre,
prepare compare,
separate.
partem (pars), part apart, proportion.
pater, father
expatriate, patri-

mony.
pedem (pes),

foot

biped, pedi-

gree.
pellere, to

drive

appeal, repel.

APPENDIX

250
pendere, to weigh

pound, pre-

pendere, to hang depend, propensity.


to fly appetite, competer e,

plenus,

complacent,

please

full

complete, replenish.
apply, explicit.
ponere, to place -deponent, postpone.
portare, to carry
deport, purplicdre, to fold

port.
prehendere, to seize

apprehend,

impregnable.
to

premere,

press

depress,

sound

sonus,

primeval,

prim-

good

approve,

repro-

re-

to look aspect, susspecere,


picion.
spirdre, to breathe
aspire, perspiration.
to promise
correspond, response.
to stand
stare,
constant, obspondcre,

stacle.
stringere, to draw tight
gent, district.

to build up
instrument.

struere,

astrin-

construct,

touch

to cover

tegere,

attain, integer.
detect, integu-

ment.

pungere, to prick

compunction,

tempus, time

contemporaneous,
extempore.
tendere to extend
attend, int

tense.

expunge.

to
tinuous.

tenere,

to seek

qucerere,

acquire, con-

earth
ranean.

rapere, to seize
rapacious, rapture.
erect, region.
regere, to rule
rogdre, to

ask

interrogate, pro-

rogue.
to
rumpere,
rupture.

sacred

break

corrupt,

consecrate, sacri-

fice.

to
scandere,
scansion.
to
scrlbsre,

climb

ascend,

write
describe,
superscription.
secdre, to cut
bisect, insect.
to sit preside, supersedere,
sede.
sentlre, to feel
assent, presenti-

ment.
to

follow

consecutive,

deserve, sergeant.

signum, sign

assign, signify.
reassimilate,

semble.

like

abstain,

parterre,

con-

subter-

to lift dilate, legislator.


contort, retort.
torquere, to twist
to draw attract, entrahere,
treat.
disclan
contribute,
tribus,
tollere,

tribute.
surunda, wave abundance,
round.
utl, to use
abuse, utensil.
avail, valid.
valere, to be strong
venire, to come
advent, sou-

venir.

verbum, word
vertere,

to

adverb, proverb.
turn divert, con-

troversy.
via, way
convey, invoice.
v idere, to see
evident, prudent.

vincere,
evict.

to

conquer

muere, to live

prosecute.
seruus, slave
similis,

hold

terra,

quest.

sequi,

consonant,

sound.

tangere, to

first

rose.

probus,
bate.

sacer,

absolute, dis-

re-

pression.

primus,

to loosen

solvere,

solve.

ponderate.

petitor.
placere, to
please.

convince,

convivial, revive.

evolve, revolt.
voluere, to roll
vociferation, vowel.
vox, voice
avocation, revocdre, to call

voke.

DERIVATION
A
to

age.in,

SELECTED LIST OF GREEK WORDS

drive

an-

strategy,

tagonist.
alias,

other

allopathy, parallel.

arc he, beginning, rule

anarchy,

monarch.
aster, star

astronomy, disaster.

to

ballein,

cast

diabolic,

em-

blem.
bios, life

biology, amphibious.

a saying

apology, eulogy.

a measure diameter,
barometer.
monos, single monarch, monometron,

poly.

monody, parody.
name
anonymous,
pseudonym.

ode,

song
onoma,

oxygen, paroxysm.

charter,

Magna C(h)arta.
chronos, time
chronology, anachronism.
ergon,

logos,

oxus, sharp

a leaf of paper

charte,

251

apathy, anti-

suffering

pathos,

pathy.

compose, supposi-

pausis, pause
tion.

work

energy, liturgy.

petros,

stone

petro-

petrified,

leum.

bigamy, poly-

phainein, to

geology, geophone.
tongue polyglot, glos-

to

gamos, marriage

gamy.
ge,

earth

glossa,

sary.

know

to
gnonai,
agnostic.

diagram,

epi-

gram.
graphein, to
telegraph.
hedra,

seat

write

biography,

cathedral,

poly-

hedron.
histemi,

diaphanous,

bear

metaphor,

pherein,

periphery.
phone, sound

sym-

telephone,

phony.
to

letter

gramma,

diagnosis,

show
phenomenon.

stand

physics,
produce
phuein,
neophyte.
penalty impunity, repoine,
pine.

rhythm.

apostasy, ec-

consider

skeptomai,

stasy.

rheumatism,

flow

to

rheein,

hudor, water

dropsy, hydraulic.

telescope.
stellein, to send

idein, to see

idea, idyll.

strcphein,

apostle, epistle.

turn

to

sceptic,

apostrophe,

catastrophe.
klinein, to lean,
enclitic.

kratus,

strong
theocracy.
krlnein, to judge

slope

climax,
tomos,

aristocracy,

tonos,
crisis,

hypo-

crypha.

to hide

crypt,

apo-

anatomy,

epi-

tone

baritone,

mono-

tonous.
tropos.turn

crisy.

kruptein,

section

tome.

tupos,

blow

panum.

trophy, troubadour.
stereotype,

tym-

APPENDIX

252

COMBINATIONS
243. If a student will examine the words in any ordinary
dictionary, he will find not only words with which the
prefixes mentioned in the preceding section are used, but
also combinations of words such as cacophonous, calcify,
centigrade, ceroplastic, chirography, chromolithograph, chronoThese are not very often
meter, cosmopolitan and crossbow.
used in the language of everyday life but are scientific and
Some of these he will know better than others,
technical.
but each one has its story to tell. They are nearly all of
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and are more or less
current in all the modern languages. The first part is the combining form of Greek or Latin words, Greek largely predominating. These words are examples of some four hundred

or more such forms found in English, which give rise to


thousands of words. Crossbow is English now, although cross,
which comes to us from the Scandinavian, derived from the
Irish and that again from the Latin, tells by its form the
influence of Latin Christianity in Ireland, then of Irish influence
upon the Scandinavian invaders of that land and then finally
of Scandinavian influence in England.
It is unnecessary to give a full list of these combining forms,
but a short list is as follows
meanings are not given as the
Greek are aero-,
student is expected to use the dictionary
anthropo-, arch-, astro-, auto^ bio-, chromo-, chrono-, cosmo-,
;

demo-, geo-, hetero-, homo-, hydro-, Indo-, litho-, martyro-,


mono-, neo-, nitro-, oxy-, palao-, phono-, physio-,
Latin are bene-,
pluto-, pseudo-, psycho-, steno-, stereo-, teleThe
calc-, carbo-, equi-, male-, medi-, radio-, spectro-, vice-.
combining forms of the numerals are uni-, primo-, proto-,
cyclo-,

micro-,

bi-,

du(o)-,
centri-

di-

hexa-\

sex(i)-,
;

tri-

quadri-,

sept(em}-, hepta-;

mille-, milli-, kilo-

tetra-

octo-;

to these

quinqu(e)-, penta- ;
deci, deca-;
centi-,

may

be added

semi-,

Doubtless the
student already knows words in which these forms occur.
Very few of these are living in popular language, but arch'
survives in such words as arch-thief, arch-villain, pan- in PanSlavic, Pan-German and pseudo- in pseudo-penitent.
But combinations were very well known in the Teutonic
be seen
languages. The English abounded in them as
hemi-,

demi-

omni,

pan-

pluri-,

poly-.

may

by turning up an Anglo-Saxon (Old English) dictionary.


They are very numerous now and by some are called phrase-

DERIVATION

253

Of course, as English nouns have lost almost


trace of stem-vowels, there can be no such forms ending
in -a-, -i-, -o-, as in the Greek and Latin forms above.
have such combinations as aforesaid, afterthought, almighty,
compounds.
all

We

all-sufficient, breakwater, bookworm, chaingang, cockpit and


hundreds of others. Nearly all have English components in
the first part and, where not, they are not felt as foreign, as
in airhole and crossbow. The question that comes up in this
is the use of the hyphen, and here usage varies
very considerably. It is after all a question of stress, which
shows how intimate the connection of the two words is in
the mind of the speaker or writer. Shall we write dead lock,

connection

The N.E.D. gives all three in this


dead-lock or deadlock?
The N.E.D. gives
order and the Standard only deadlock.
deadfall and dead-fall, the Standard deadfall only. The N.E.D.
gives dead-nettle but the scientist, Sir John Lubbock, uses
When we speak of Dick Deadeye, we write it as
deadnettle.
one word but the N.E.D. gives only dead-eye. Or take the
case of book
bookshop, bookworm, bookman are common
writings but book-learning and book-muslin seem to need the
;

No hyphen

needed in drawback, drawbridge, but


is probably better to
use the hyphen. In drawbar, drawknife, drawnet, drawfile and
drawgate I should use no hyphen, although the N.E.D. prints
draw- file and drawgate and the Standard the reverse. It would
seem to be a safe rule in all such words to use the hyphen
only when necessary, which is a matter of personal judgment
and can only be determined by usage which in itself often
hyphen.

is

in draw-cut, draw-glove, draw-plate it

In this matter, as in the case of pronunciation, or


vocabulary, or syntax, the workshop of the language lies all
about the speaker. In order to become masters of our tongue,
both student and teacher must use keen observation and
historical knowledge so that the ever-changing character of
our speech may be felt and appreciated.
varies.

SUFFIXES
244. English, being a descendent of the Indogerman,
should and does show a great number of suffixes which are
common to it and the Latin and Greek from which it has

But so many English words have, in


freely.
the course of the evolution of the language, been so shortened
that such suffixes as -a, -i, -o, -it, -ja, -jo, -an, -on have
borrowed so

APPENDIX

254

disappeared entirely, leaving but few traces, though they


existed in prehistoric times, as is shown by the study of

Comparative Grammar.
In a great many words some of these very numerous Indogerman suffixes still exist but are not easily recognised by us
as such. Some of them look alike although of various origins,
into which question we cannot enter.
Some such are -d
in mood, gold, blood, flood, thread, speed, cold ; -der in fodder ;
-die in needle ; -el (-le) in beetle, saddle ; -er (-re, -r) in beaver,
:

lair
-k in folk
-m (-om) in beam,
-1 in heel, fowl
-n (-on, -en] in son, brown,
arm, name, warm, bloom, blossom
-nd in friend, fiend ;
drown, horn, rain, beacon, token, haven

acre,

-s in eaves,

ax

-sel in ousel

-sk in tusk ; -st in fist, mist,


-ter in daughter, halter
-th
harvest, twist ; -ster in bolster
in birth, uncouth, health
-ther in lather, whether ; -aw (-ow)
in straw, claw, raw, meadow.
;

few common English suffixes, some of them old, are as


follows
-ed (-d, -t) in the past participles of weak verbs ;
-en in the past participles of strong verbs, in diminutives ;
as sign of the feminine noun, vixen
as the ending of the
:

weak

forming adjectives from nouns as


golden, beechen, hempen and as a verb-forming ending (see
-er, the ending of the comparative degree in adbelow)
the sign of the agent, worker, doer, but
jectives, stronger
in law as user
as
donor, and also in deader, out-and-outer
old

declension, oxen

a verb-forming suffix (see below)


-ing in verbal nouns,
exin the present participle, parting
speaking, writing
pressing "belonging to ": king, herring and in patronymics,
-ish in Danish (French], heathenish, boyish, foppish,
Atheling
-m-ost for -m-est, foremost, a double superbookish, whitish
lative ending which is even attached to a comparative, as
bettermost
-ness, used in over a thousand words and phrases,
;

goodness,
dateness ;

lovingness, tongue-tiedness and up-tooriginally denoting the female, so spinster,

bitterness,
-ster,

now masculine, and songstress with a double ending,


seamstress, sempstress, deemster, a judge in the Isle of Man,
the proper names Baxter (O.E. b&cstere), Brewster, Dempster,
Webster (female weaver)
also huckster, gamester, punster, and
songster,

with a derogatory sense


-y (-ie), which, represents
a Latin or French ending in fury, glory, army, but is also an
Old English ending, -ig, in body
it is a living suffix in a
trickster

great

many

words, as bony, slangy, pinky, lanky, skyey, fatty,

baby, lassie.

Diminutives are formed with -c

(-ock) in hillock, -el (-le) in

DERIVATION

255

maiden, -ling in starling, gosling,


-kin in lambkin, napkin, bumpkin, Perkin(s], -y in Johnny,
kernel, hovel, sickle, -en in

piggy-

Another class of English suffixes once existed, and some


do now, as independent words. Noun-forming are: -dom, the

same word

as doom, very extensively used, as thraldom,


-hood, a separate word in
dukedom, kingdom, officialdom
Old English, childhood, and -ship in friendship, lordship.
Others are
-lock, only in wedlock
-ledge in knowledge only
;

-ling in hireling, princeling', -red (i) in hatred and kindred;


-red (2) in hundred only, and -ric in bishopric ; -head has
dropped out of use except in Godhead, maidenhead.

"

shame-fast in steadfast,
Adjective-forming suffixes are
"
-fold in manifold
(wrongly interpreted as shamefaced)
fast
-like in homelike (the earlier
-fill, a living suffix, in handful
form home-ly has now a different sense); -some in wholesome
-ward in awkward, froward ; -wart in stalwart; -wise in cross:

but rightwise is now righteous.


Adverbial suffixes are -ly in brightly; -meal in piecemeal
-wards in backwards
-ward in northward
a hybrid word

wise,

-way(s) in alway, always, and -wise in likewise.


Verbal suffixes are -(e)n in waken or with a causal sense
-le (-/),
in deafen, stiffen
-k, frequentative, in hark, walk
-er in the same
iterative and frequentative in gabble, drawl
:

sense, chatter, waver,

and

-se in cleanse, rinse,

make

clean.

GREEK AND LATIN SUFFIXES


245. Many of these come
of the Latin, which are the

through the French, especially

more numerous. At the outset


it may be pointed out that a number of suffixes, given in the
Concise Oxford, are very directly from the Greek and join
with the combining forms given in Section 243 to make compounds. Such are: -eraey, rule of, democracy, also in English
words as cottonocracy;

-eyte, all, leucocyte;

-gen, of such a kind,

-gon, angled, hexagon; -gram, letter,


producing, oxygen;
writing, cryptogram, also cablegram, a hybrid; -graph, telegraph, also pictograph, a hybrid;
-gynous having pistils,
tetragynous; -lith, a stone, monolith, granolithic, a hybrid,
French form -lite, aerolite; -logy and its family -logue (French),
-loger, -logist, -logic(al) in theology, etc.; -mancy, divination,

APPENDIX

256

-mania, madness, eager pursuit of, love of,


necromancy-,
kleptomania, bibliomania, Anglomania] -meter, measurer,
barometer, also gasometer; -pathy, treatment, hydropathy, allopathy, -phil (-phile), Anglophil; -phobe, hater, Anglophobe;
-phone, voice, telephone, megaphone and a very new coinage,
geophone, an instrument now used by miners; -phore, bearer,
semaphore, phosphorus; -scope, watcher, horoscope, telescope;
-tomy, cutting, used most in surgical words, anatomy.
Although often given as suffixes these terminations hardly
come under the heading.
To give a full list of the remaining suffixes would be to
extend this section beyond limit. The student is again referred to that great mine of information on our speech, the
New English Dictionary, and to the Concise Oxford. A few of
the more common are: -ble (-able, ible), liable, bearable, eatable, get-at-able, terrible, negligible;

-acious, -acity, loquacious,


loquacity; -acy, fallacy, magistracy, episcopacy; -ad(e), tirade,
blockade, ballad; -age, homage, breakage, bondage;
-ance,
nuisance, forbearance; -ancy, tenancy; -ar, altar, scholar; -ant,

confidant;
isolate;

-ary, arbitrary;

-atic,

fanatic,

demonstrative,

-ative,

-ate, curate, aldermanate, desolate,

lunatic;
talkative;

-ation, agitation, starvation;


-eer (-ier), muleteer, bom-

bardier,

financier, auctioneer, electioneer; -enee, conscience;


-eney, dependency; -ent, confident; -eous, aqueous, duteous;
-ese,
-ess,
-ette,
Japanese, Carlylese;
poetess;
coquette,
leatherette; -faction, satisfaction; -ferous, carboniferous; -(i)fic,
pacific;

-(i)fication, purification;

-form, uniform;

-fy, satisfy,

speechify, argufy; -ic, poetic, Byronic; -ina, Czarina, concertina; -ine, marine, Florentine, equine, heroine, cocaine; -ious,

invidious, religious, various;


Shelleyite,

graphite, cordite;

-ise (-ice), exercise, justice; -ite,


-ize (-ise), sympathize, anglicize,

surprise; -latry, idolatry, babyolatry; -let, ringlet, armlet, hamlet;


-long, sidelong, headlong; -ment, atonement, merriment; -ose,
bellicose, jocose; -tude, altitude; -ty, equity, loyalty; -vorous,
carnivorous.

No

attempt has been made to give the various meanings


Here again the student will do something

of these suffixes.

for himself, that is, consult the dictionary.


Some of these
are extremely common, used also with English words, as the
examples will show. No apology is made for the introduction
"
of such an example as
argufy." Our language is a living

language.

VERB SUMMARY

257

APPENDIX D
VERB SUMMARY
246.

Summary ol the Verb. In the Indicative and SubMoods only first person singular forms are given.

junctive

Present
Pres. Perf.

Past
Past Perf.

Future
Fut. Perf.

Past Fut.
Past Fut. Perf.

APPENDIX D

258

PROGRESSIVE FORMS
Present
Pres. Perf

I
.

be giving
have been giving

I
l

may be giving
may have been
giving

Past
Past Perf.

I
I

were giving
had been giving

I
I

might be giving
might have been

should be giving
should have been

giving

giving

PASSIVE
Present

Pres. Perf. I

be given
have been given

I
1

may be given
may have been
given

Past

I
I

Past Perf.

were given
were being given
had been given

might be given

should be given

might have been

should have been

given

given

IMPERATIVE
ACTIVE

Emphatic

Ordinary
Give

Present

Do

give

Do

be given

PASSIVE

Be given

Present

NON-MODAL FORMS
INFINITIVES

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

Ordinary

Progressive

Pres.

(to)

give

(to)

Past

(to)

have given

(to)

Pres.

giving

Past

having given

Pres.

giving

Past

having given

be giving
have been giving

(to)
(to)

be given
have been given

GERUNDS
having been giving

being given
having been given

PARTICIPLES

Now

having been giving

being given
given
having been given

obsolete.

The only progressive tense

in the passive of the subjunctive.

EXTRACTS FOR ANALYSIS

259

APPENDIX E
EXTRACTS FOR ANALYSIS
chambers, and thinking on a subheard two or three irregular bounces
at my landlady's door, and upon the opening of it, a loud
cheerful voice inquiring whether the philosopher was at home.
The child who went to the door answered very innocently that
he did not lodge there. I immediately recollected that it was
my good friend Sir Roger's voice, and that I had promised to
go with him to Spring Garden, in case it proved a good evening.
The knight put me in mind of my promise from the bottom of
the staircase, but told me that if I was writing he would stay
below till I had done. Upon my coming down I found all the
children of the family gathered about my old friend, and my
landlady herself, who is a notable gossip, engaged in a conference with him, being mightily pleased with his stroking
her little boy upon the head and bidding him be a good child
and mind his book. ADDISON, The Spectator.
1.

As

ject for

2.

was

my

my

sitting in

next essay,

MR. FAGIN DRILLS HIS APPRENTICES

When breakfast was over, the merry old gentleman and the
two boys played at a very curious game, which was performed
in this way. The instructor, placing a snuff-box in one pocket
of his trousers, a note-case in the other, and a watch in his
waistcoat pocket, and sticking a mock diamond pin in his
shirt, buttoned his coat tight round him, and putting his
spectacle-case and handkerchief in his pockets, trotted up
and down the room with a stick as if he were an old gentleman
strolling on the street. Sometimes he would stop and pretend
that he was staring with all his might into shop-windows. All
the time the two boys followed him closely about
getting
out of his sight so nimbly whenever he turned round that it
was impossible to follow their motions. At last the Dodger
trod upon his toes at the very moment when Charley Bates
and in that one moment
stumbled up against him behind
they took from him all his treasures even his spectacle-case.
If the old gentleman felt a hand in any one of his pockets, he
cried out where it was
and then the game began all over
DICKENS, Oliver Twist.
again.
The drawbridge dropped with a surly clang,
3.
;

And through

the dark arch a charger sprang,


Bearing Sir Launfal, the maiden knight,
In his gilded mail, that flamed so bright

APPENDIX

26o

It seemed the dark castle had gathered all


Those shafts the fierce sun had shot over its wall
In his siege of three hundred summers long,
And, binding them all in one blazing sheaf,
Had cast them forth so, young and strong,
And lightsome as a locust leaf,
Sir Launfal flashed forth in his maiden mail,
;

To

seek in
J.

climes for the Holy Grail.


R. LOWELL, The Vision of Sir Launfal.

all

4. Though rather shy and distrustful of this new acquaintance, Rip complied with his usual alacrity ; and mutually
relieving each other, they clambered up a narrow gully, apparently the dry bed of a mountain torrent. As they ascended,
Rip every now and then heard long rolling peals, like distant
thunder, that seemed to issue out of a deep ravine, toward
which their rugged path conducted. He paused for an instant,
but supposing it to be the muttering of a transient thundershower, he proceeded. During the whole time, Rip and his
companion had laboured on in silence ; for though the former
marvelled greatly what could be the object of carrying a keg
of liquor up this wild mountain, yet there was something

strange and incomprehensible about the unknown, that inWASHINGTON IRVING,


spired awe, and checked familiarity.
Rip Van Winkle.

FARM TOPICS

5.

Contributed by a Rural Correspondent


Editor's Note

Although these two

articles are

taken from a text-book on

agriculture published years ago, we think that many of the


younger generation are not familiar with them, and therefore
venture to insert them for the benefit of our readers.

SOIL-TESTING

Now
each

I shall tell by what means you can learn the nature of


soil.
will need to know whether it be light or un-

You

usually heavy. For the one is adapted for grain, the other
all particularly light
for the vine (the heavier soil for Ceres
soils for Lyaeus a )
you must first with the eye fix upon a spot,
and bid that a pit be driven deep down in solid earth, and
put all the soil back into its place, and by treading it in with
the feet make level the surface of the ground. If it proves not
enough to fill the hollow, it will be a light soil, fittest for
but if it shows plainly that it
grazing and the kindly vine
cannot be put within its old space, and there is a superfluity
,

Ceres

the goddess of grain.

Lyseus the god of wine.


:

EXTRACTS FOR ANALYSIS

261

look
of earth when the trench is filled, that field is stiff soil
forward to reluctant clods and tough ridges of land, and with
strong teams of oxen cleave the ground.
;

TRAINING A COLT
your taste be war, or your passion be to drive swiftly the
speeding chariot, remember that what the horse must first be
taught with the greatest care is to face steadily the arms of
bold warriors, and to bear the trumpet's voice, and fearless to
pull the chariot, rattling as it is drawn, and to hear the noise of
the bit in the stable ; then more and more to rejoice in the
flattery and praise of his trainer, and to love the noise of the
patting of his neck. Let him hear these noises as soon as he is
weaned from his dam, and in time let him accustom his mouth
to soft bits, whilst still unsteady, still trembling, still untrained
and young. But when three summers are past and the fourth
is just come, he should be taught to run in the circle, and to
prance with regular steps, and to curvet with his legs moving
in time, as one that seems to have a work to do ; so let him
challenge the gales in race, and, skimming over the open plain,
as though free from reins, scarcely let him set the marks of
his feet on the surface of the sand. Such a horse as this will
sweat on the Olympic race-track, or will stoutly bear the yokes
of the Belgic chariot on his obedient neck. Only then, when
"
they are fully broken," allow their bodies to become plump
for till they are tamed, they will
on thickly mixed food
raise their spirits high, and when caught will disdain to endure
the tough lash, and to obey the hard bits. VIRGIL, Georgics.
Translated by Lonsdale and Lee.
If

HECTOR'S FAREWELL TO HIS SON

6.

So spake glorious Hector, 1 and stretched out his arm to his


But the child shrunk close to the bosom of his nurse,
because he was dismayed at his father's aspect, and feared
the bronze and horse-hair crest that he beheld nodding fiercely
from the helmet's top. Then his dear father laughed aloud
and his lady mother
forthwith glorious Hector took the
helmet from his head, and laid it, all gleaming, upon the
earth
then kissed he his dear son and dandled him in his
"
O
arms, and spake in prayer to Zeus 8 and all the gods,
Zeus and all ye gods, grant that this my son may likewise
prove even as I, pre-eminent amid the Trojans, and as valiant
in might, and be a great king of Troy. Then may men say of
boy.

When Troy was

besieged by the Greeks, Hector was the leader

of the Trojan forces.


1
Zeus the chief of the gods.
:

APPENDIX

262

'

Far greater is he than his father,' as he returneth home


from battle
and may he bring with him spoils from the
foeman he hath slain, and may his mother's heart be glad."
HOMER, Iliad (translated by Lang, Leaf and Myers).
7. Following with wonderful promptitude the directions of
Ivanhoe, and availing herself of the protection of the large
ancient shield, which she placed against the lower part of the
window, Rebecca, with tolerable security to herself, could
witness part of what was passing without the castle, and
report to Ivanhoe the preparations which the assailants were
making for the storm. Indeed, the situation which she thus
obtained was peculiarly favourable for this purpose, because,
being placed on an angle of the main building, Rebecca could
not only see what passed beyond the precincts of the castle,
but also commanded a view of the out-work likely to be the
first object of assault.
It was an exterior fortification of no
him,

great height or strength, intended to protect the postern-gate,


through which Cedric had recently been dismissed by Front The castle moat divided this barbican from the
de-Bosuf.
rest of the fortress, so that, in case of its being taken, it was
easy to cut off the communication with the main building, by
withdrawing the temporary bridge. SCOTT, Ivanhoe.

More things are wrought by prayer


Than this world dreams of. Wherefore, let thy voice
Rise like a fountain for me night and day.
For what are men better than sheep or goats
That nourish a blind life within the brain,
If, knowing God, they lift not hands of prayer
Both for themselves and those who call them friends

8.

For so the whole round earth is every way


Bound by gold chains about the feet of God.
TENNYSON, Movie d' Arthur.

AN AFTERNOON CALL

9.

scene in Alexandria, twenty-two centuries ago

CHARACTERS
the hostess.
Praxinoe
the caller.
Gorgo
:

Eunoe
Zoppy

daughter of Praxinoe.
three-year-old son of Prax-

inoe.

Praxinoe at home ?
It's
Praxinoe. Dear Gorgo, how late you are I am at home
a wonder you have come even now. Get a chair for her,
Eunoe and put a cushion on it.
Gorgo. Don't bother. We shall be going very soon.

Gorgo. Is

Praxinoe.
Gorgo.

Be

seated.

Dear me! I've had a time reaching your house.

You

EXTRACTS FOR ANALYSIS

263

can't imagine how the streets are jammed. I am sure


new shoes are ruined, for fifty careless fellows stepped on
feet. You certainly live a long way out
it seems to me
that I've been walking for hours.
Praxinoe. I really believe that that crazy husband of mine
came to this part of the city and took this wretched sixroom house that we might not be neighbours to one another.

my

my

He

always does the wrong thing.

Gorgo. Don't talk like that,

when the

little

one

is

at you
Praxinoe. Never mind,

my

in the

dear, about your husband


See, how he is looking

room.

mean papa

little

Zoppy, sweet child

don't

Gorgo. He understands what you say Pretty papa!


Praxinoe. Yes ; he is a pretty papa! Last night when he
was going out I asked him to buy me some complexion"
"
What
extravagant creatures you women are!
powder.
"
he growled,
Do you think that I am made of money ? "
But I noticed that he brought home a box of cigars, for all
!

his

economy.
Yes; and my husband is just the same, always
spending on himself. But come, put on your new suit and
let us hurry to see the festival at the palace.
I hear that
the queen is getting up a charming kind of aifair.
Praxinoe. It's easy for those to give who have lots.
Gorgo. That's so. But it is time to be off.
Praxinoe. Eunoe, bring me the towel.
Eunoe. I can't find it, mother.
Praxinoe. Where are your eyes, child? If you look in the
there it is
the cats are sleeping
corner, you will see it
on it. Come, stir, bring the water quickly. I want water
Gorgo.

See

how

she brings the towel! Well, give it to me;


much water! Why are you wetting my
blouse ? Where is the key of the wardrobe ? Bring it here.
Gorgo. Praxinoe, that blue suit becomes you so well tell me
what you paid for it.
Praxinoe. Don't mention it, Gorgo! Though it was a bargain,
I am ashamed to tell the price.
But as soon as I set my
first.

Don't pour in too

eyes on

it,

made up my mind

to have

it.

Gorgo. Well, it is a beauty.


Praxinoe. Yes, I think so.

Bring me my parasol, Eunoe. I


won't take you, child. Horse bites! Bad man get Zoppy!
Cry as much as you please! Eunoe, play with the little
man. Call the dog in. Shut the hall-door. THEOCRITUS,
Idyll
10.

XV.

(adapted).

So spake Lavaine, and when they reach' d the lists


By Camelot in the meadow, let his eyes
Run thro' the peopled gallery which half round
Lay like a rainbow fall'n upon the grass

APPENDIX

264

Until they found the clear-faced King, who sat


Robed in red samite, easily to be known,
Since to his crown the golden dragon clung,
And down his robe the dragon writhed in gold,
And from the carven-work behind him crept
Two dragons gilded, sloping down to make
Arms for his chair, while all the rest of them
Thro' knots and loops and folds innumerable
Fled ever thro' the woodwork, till they found
The new design wherein they lost themselves.
TENNYSON, Launcelot and Elaine.

THE ARCHERS AT CRESSY

ii.

You must know that the French troops did not advance in
any regular order, and that as soon as their King came in
his blood began to boil, and he cried out
sight of the English
"
to his Marshals,
Order the Genoese archers forward and begin
the battle in the name of God and St. Denis." There were
about 15,000 Genoese crossbow men; but they were quite
fatigued, as they had marched on foot, that day six leagues,
completely armed and carrying their crossbows, and accordingly they told the constable that they were not in a condition
to do any great thing in battle. On hearing this, one of the
French earls said, " This is what one gets by employing such
scoundrels, who fall off when there is any need of them."
Although the day was rainy at first, the sun came out bright
afterwards
but the French had it in their faces, and the
English on their backs. When the Genoese were somewhat in
order, they approached the English and set up a loud shout
that they might frighten them
but the English remained
quite quiet and did not seem to attend to it. Then setting up
a second shout they advanced a little forward
the English
did not move. Still they hooted a third time, advancing with
their crossbows presented, and began to shoot. The English
archers then advanced one step forward, and shot their arrows
with such force and quickness that it seemed as if it snowed.
When the Genoese felt these arrows, which pierced through
their armour, some of them cut the strings of their crossbows,
others flung them to the ground, and all turned about and
retreated quite discomfited.
FROISSART, Chronicles.
;

12.

A THRACIAN BANQUET

As the Greeks had agreed to

assist Seuthes, a Thracian


were invited by him to a grand banquet.
On entering the dining-room they were seated in a circle.
Before them were placed three-legged tables, on which were
great piles of sliced meat to which huge loaves of bread were
chief, their officers

EXTRACTS FOR ANALYSIS

265

attached by skewers. Seuthes began the meal by taking the


loaves which were set near him and breaking them in small
pieces ; these he tossed to the guests, and did likewise with
the meat. His example was followed by the others who had
tables near them. But one of the guests was a certain Arcadian,
Arystas by name, who was a great glutton, and who belonged
to a tribe notoriously ignorant of good manners. Although a
table stood in front of him, he did not do as the rest had done,
but grabbing a loaf which was as large as three ordinary ones,
he at the same time placed all the meat on his lap and so went
on with his supper. In the meantime horns full of wine were
carried round the room and given to each guest. When our
stout trencherman saw the wine coming to him, he noticed
that Xenophon, one of the generals, had finished eating, so he
"
Give him the wine, I am too busy
roared to the servant,
Their
host, hearing the shout, asked the cup-bearer
yet."
what he had said. As the servant happened to understand
Greek, he translated the speech, and a roar of laughter followed
as all looked at the "busy" man.
XENOPHON, Anabasis.

Not once
The path

13.

He

or twice in our rough island-story,


of duty was the way to glory ;

that walks it, only thirsting


For the right, and learns to deaden
Love of self, before his journey closes,
He shall find the stubborn thistle bursting
Into glossy purples, which outredden
All voluptuous garden-roses.
Not once or twice in our fair island-story
The path of duty was the way to glory ;

He, that ever following her commands,


On with toil of heart and knees and hands,
Thro' the long gorge to the far light has won
His path upward and prevailed,
Shall find the toppling crags of Duty scaled
Are close upon the shining table-lands
To which our God Himself is moon and sun.

TENNYSON, Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington.


14. If I had gone out into the town, I should not have been
surprised to encounter someone who I knew must be then in
London. So to speak, there was a curious inattention in my
mind. I was persuaded that I had an apprehension of Ham's
returning by sea and being lost. This grew so strong with me,
that I resolved to go back to the yard before I took my dinner,
and ask the boat-builder if he thought his attempting to
sea at all likely. The boat-builder quite laughed
asked him the question, and said there was no fear
no man in his senses, or out of them, would put off in such a
gale of wind, least of all Ham Peggoty, who had been born to
DICKENS, David Copperfield.
seafaring.

return

when

by

APPENDIX

266
15.

Wouldst thou be taught, when sleep has taken


By a sure voice that can most sweetly tell,
How far-off yet a glimpse of morning light,
And if to lure the truant back be well,

flight,

Forbear to covet a Repeater's stroke,


That, answering to thy touch, will sound the hour
Better provide thee with a Cuckoo-clock
For service hung behind the chamber-door
And in due time the soft spontaneous shock,
The double note, as if with living power,
Will to composure lead or make thee blithe as bird in
bower.
WORDSWORTH, The Cuckoo-Clock.
;

A FAULT-FINDER

SILENCED

1 6. Now all the rest sat down,


only Thersites still chattered
on, the uncontrolled of speech, whose mind was full of words
many and disorderly, with which he strove against the chiefs,
as he deemed that he should make the Greeks laugh. And he
was ill-favoured beyond all men that came to Troy. Bandylegged was he, and lame of one foot, and his two shoulders
rounded, arched down upon his chest ; and over them his

head was warped, and a scanty stubble sprouted on it.


1
17. So spake Thersites, reviling Agamemnon shepherd of
the host. But goodly Ulysses z came straight to his side, and
"
Therlooking sternly at him with hard words rebuked him
in
reckless
shrill
orator
thou
sites,
words,
art, refrain
though
For I deem that no
thyself, nor aim to strive against kings.
mortal is baser than thou of all that with the Greek leaders
came before Troy. Therefore were it well that thou shouldest
not have kings in thy mouth as thou talkest, and utter reWe know not yet clearly whether we
vilings against them.
Greeks shall return for good or for ill. But now dost thou
revile continually Agamemnon, shepherd of the host, because
the Greek warriors give him many gifts, and so thou talkest
tauntingly. But I will tell thee plain, and what I say shall
if I find thee again raving as now
even be brought to pass
thou art, then may Ulysses' head no longer abide upon his
shoulders, if I take thee not and strip from thee thy garments
and beat thee out of the assembly with shameful blows."
1 8. So spake he, and with his staff smote his back and
shoulders
and he bowed down and a big tear fell from him,
and a blood weal stood up from his back beneath the golden
sceptre. Then he sat down and was amazed, and in pain with
helpless look wiped away the tear. But the rest, though they
were sorry, laughed lightly at him, and thus would one speak,
:

Agamemnon: Commander
8

Ulysses

The

of the Greeks at the siege of Troy.


wisest of the Greek leaders.

EXTRACTS FOR ANALYSIS

267

looking at another standing by: "Of a truth Ulysses hath


wrought good deeds without number ere now, but this thing,
to wit, that he hath stayed this prating railer from his harangues, is by far the best that he hath wrought among the
Greeks." HOMER, Iliad (translated by Lang, Leaf and Myers).
19. Then Mr. Slope began to meditate, as others also had
and it
done, as to who might possibly be the new dean
occurred to him that it might be possible that he should be the
new dean himself. Whether the stipend might be two thousand
or fifteen hundred, it would in any case be a great thing for
him, should he be so lucky as to get the position. Mr. Slope,
moreover, was not without means whereby he might forward
his views. In the first place, he could count upon the assistance
He immediately changed his
the bishop would give him.
he said to himself that if
views with regard to his patron
he became dean, he would hand his lordship back again to his
wife's control, thinking it likely that his lordship might not be
A. TROLLOPE,
sorry to rid himself of one of his mentors.
Barchester Towers.
;

stood in Venice, on the Bridge of Sighs ;


palace and a prison on each hand
I saw from out the waves her structure rise,
As from the stroke of the enchanter's wand
A thousand years their cloudy wings expand
Around me, and a dying Glory smiles
O'er the far times, when many a subject land
Looked to the wingdd Lion's marble piles,
Where Venice sat in state, throned on her hundred isles.
BYRON, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.

20.

NOTE ON CLAUSAL ANALYSIS


There

a second method of Clausal Analysis, which is


by some teachers to the one explained on pages

is

preferred
26-28.

SENTENCE

The boys who helped him were rewarded, and those that
ran away, got what they deserved.
Sentence

The boys
1. The boys
.

(a)

2.
(a)
(b)

deserved.

Compound-complex

declarative.

rewarded,
Principal.
who helped him,
Subor., limiting adj., mod. boys.
deserved. Principal, co-ordinate with No.
(and) those
that ran away,
Subor., limiting adj., mod. those.
.

what they deserved. Subor.,

subst.,

dir.

of

got.

i.

APPENDIX

268

APPENDIX F
PARSING SCHEME
As many teachers prefer a fuller parsing than is suggested
in the text, the following is given as an example of complete
parsing.

My
him
1.

2.

to

brothers have invited their friend, the explorer,


come to-day.

my, adj., limiting, pronom. poss. used adherently to modify


the noun brothers.
brothers, noun,
have invited.

nom.
3.

common,
Rule:

concrete, masc., pi., nom., subj. of


the subject of a finite verb is in the

case.

have invited, verb, trans., weak, invite, invited, invited, active,


indie., pres. perf., third, pi., agreeing with its subject,
Rule: A finite verb agrees with its subject in
brothers.
number and person.

4. their, like
5.

my.

friend, noun, common, concrete, masc. or fern., sing., ace.,


Rule: The direct obj.
direct obj. of the verb have invited.
of a transitive verb is in the ace. case.

6. the, adj., limiting, definite article,

the noun explorer.


7.

8.

and wish

used adherently to modify

explorer, noun, common, concrete, masc. or fern., sing., ace.,


Rule:
in apposition with the noun friend.
substantive
in apposition is in the same case as the substantive with
which it is in apposition.

and, conj., co-ord., joins the

two

principal clauses.

9.

Wish, verb, trans., weak, wish, wished, wished, active indie.


pres., third, pi., agreeing with its subject brothers.

10.

him, pron. personal, third, masc., sing., ace., subj. of the verb
to come. Rule: The subject of an infinitive is in the ace. case.

11. to come, verb, complete, strong,


infin. pres., subject them.
12.

to-day, adv. of time,

come, came, come, active,

mod. the verb

to

come.

INDEX
(Numbers

ACCUSATIVE case

refer to Sections)

uses of, 58-63 ;


direct object, 58; retained object, 59; adjunct, ace., 60; ace.
with infin., 61; adverbial ace.,
62; ace. of exclamation, 63
:

Adjectival clauses, no
Adjectives: defined, 25, 88; kinds
of, 89; comparison, 91-96; de-

Case: in nouns and pronouns, 22,


23; case forms in nouns, 46-50;
case uses, 51-72; summary of
uses, 72

Clauses: denned, 10; kinds of,


10 ; subordinate, 31; adverbial,
31 (c), 32, 169; substantive,
31 (a), 75; adjective, 31 (b),
Coinages, 202
Combinations, see Derivation, 241

no

97104; articles, 97; pronominal,


98; possessive, 99; demonstra- Comparative study of St. Mark,
208-18
tive, 100;
interrogative, 101
relative, 102;
indefinite, 103; Comparative passages from St.
Matthew, 219
numeral, 104;
syntax, 105;
special uses, 108; parsing, 109; Comparison of adjectives, 91-96
declension in Old English, 231
Complement, 9 (2), 114
Adherent adjectives, 105 (2)
Complete verbs, 114 (2), 115
Adverbial clauses, 31 (c), 32, 169
Compounds: see Derivation, 241
Adverbial particles, 33, 166
Conjugation of verb, in Old EngAdverbs: denned, 26, 160; kinds
lish, 233; summarised, 242
of,
161-63; comparison, 164; Conjunctions: denned, 28, 180;
scriptive, 90-96;

limiting,

difficult cases,

165;
167; parsing, 168

ordinating,

(i),

i85

(2)

diffi-

185; conjunctive parparsing, 187


Co-ordinating conjunctions, 182
Correlative
182,
conjunctions,
i83 (3)

Dare, 130

(i), 239
Dative case: uses

of,

64-66;

in-

dative of
direct object, 64;
reference or concern, 65 ; special

108, 117, 119 (40), 122,


134 (2), 233, 235 (b,

Can, 119 (4d), 142, 144, 153


Cardinal numerals, 104 (i)

and

simple
special

culties,

uses,

124, 126,

Because, 185 (3)


But, 85 (5), 177

183;

ticles, 1 86;

def. and indef., 97; the


as an adverb, 167 (4)
As. 71 (i), 85 (5), 185 (4). 186
As well as, as well, 186
As when, as if, as though, 185 (5)
Auxiliary verbs, 124

note 8)

181, 184; co-ordinatcorrelative, 182; sub-

compound, 184;

Articles:

(2),

of,

ing, 182;

Ago, 167 (5)


Almost, 1 66 (2)
Apposition, in substantives, 70
Appositive adjectives, 105 (3)

Be, 71

kinds

formation,

66

Declension in Old English: nouns,


230; adjectives, 231; personal
pronouns, 232
Demonstrative adjectives, 100

Demonstrative pronouns, 83
Derivation, 241-45

269

INDEX

2/0

90-96;
adjectives,
comparison of, 91-96
Determinative adjectival clauses,

Descriptive

10

(2,

Do, 119

note)

(AC), 124,

233

Doublets, 206

Middle

196;
English:
period,
vocabulary, 200
phonology,
228
212; gender, 213; stress,
Modern English: period, 196;
vocabulary, 201; stress, 229
Modifiers of subject and predi;

cate, 7

Elder, eldest, 95 (a)


English dialects: tables of,

Mood,
193;

account of, 195


English history, brief outline of,
194
English language: divisions of
1 96
characteristics,
history,
207
Even, 1 66 (2)
Expletive particle, 166 (i)
;

For, 185

(2),

185

(3)

Future tenses, indicative, 127-29

Gender

in nouns,

40

in

Old and

Middle English, 213


uses of, 67,
of
possession,
genitive
genitive of connection, 68

Genitive case:

68;
67;

Gerund, 154
Go,

ng

(46),

233

Have, 122, 124


His own, 82, 99 (4)
Historic present tense, 125
Homonyms, 206
Hyphen, see Combinations, 243
Just,

66

123-45; indicative, 12331; subjunctive, 132-44; imperative, 145.

Mote, 239
Multiplicatives, 104

(3)

Must, 119 (40), 142, 144, 153, 239


My own, 82, 99 (4)
Myself, thyself,

etc.,

81

Near, 177 (3)


Nearly, 166 (2)
Need, 130 (2)
Nigh, 177 (3)

Nominative case: uses of, 51-57;


subject, 51; nom. absolute, 52;
nom. of address, 53; nom. in
exclamation, 54; nom. in appo55; predicate nom., 56;

sition,

special uses, 57
Nouns: defined, 17, 35; kinds of,
i/. 36-39; case in, 22, 23, 46-

50; gender in, 40; number in,


41-45; syntax of cases, 51-72;
parsing, 73; declension in Old

English, 230

Number

in nouns,

Numeral

41-45

adjectives, 104

Old English:
(2)

Later, latest, 95 (a)


Latter, last, 95 (a)
Lesser, 95 (a]

Let phrases, 145 (30)


Like, 177 (3)
Likes (it likes me], 66

Limiting adjectives, 97-104


Linking verbs, 114 (i), 115, 116

Maun, 239
May, 119 (4d),
239
Merely, 166

period, 196;
199;
gender,

bulary,

(2)

Meseemeth, 66
Methinks, 66

voca213;

phonology, 212; word order,


217; syntax, 218; stress, 227;
inflection of nouns, 214, 230;
of

inflection

adjectives,

215,

231 declension of personal pronouns,


232;
conjugation of
verb, 233
Only, 1 66 (2)
Ordinal numerals, 104 (2)
Ought, 119 (4*), H2, 144, 153. 239
;

Own,

82,

99

(4)

142, 144, 153, 233,

Participles, 155, 156


Particles: defined, 33;

33;

adverbial,

tional, 178

166;

kinds

of,

preposi-

INDEX
Parsing: nouns, 73; pronouns,
87; adjectives, 109; verbs, 159;
adverbs, 168; prepositions, 179
Parts of speech, 16
Passive voice, 146-8
Past tenses indicative, 126
Personal pronouns, 78-81; forms,
78; use of gender forms, 79;
80;
compound
special uses,
personal pronouns, 81; declension in Old English, 232
Phonetic signs, 211

271

Shall, 119 (4d), 127, 128, 142, 145


(3i>), 153, 293
Should, 128, 139, 142, 143

Simple, double,
Spelling,

etc.,

104

development

(3)

of,

212,

220-24
So, 83, 100 (3)
Stress:
in English, 226;
in Old
English, 227; in Middle English, 228 in Modern English, 229
;

Strong verbs, 119 (3), 235-7


Subject substantives: defined, 5;
kinds of, 13
Phonetic transcription, 225
1 3 2 - 44
mood,
Subj unctive
Phonology, 212
Phrases: denned, u; as parts of
defined,
tenses,
132;
133advice to
35; uses, 136-44;
speech, 30
Possessive pronouns, 82, 99 (4)
teacher, 132 (note); tendencies,
132
Possibly, 163
(note);
subjunctive of
;

Predicate adjectives, 105 (i)


Predicate verbs defined, 6 kinds
:

of,

14

Prefixes, see Derivation, 241, 242


defined, 27, 170;
Prepositions:
use, 171, 172, 174-76; kinds,
173; special cases, 177; pre-

178; pars-

positional particles,

179
Present tense indicative, 123-25
Probably, 163
Pronominal adjectives, 98-103
Pronouns: defined, 18, 76; case,
22, 23; kinds of, 77; personal,
ing,

78-81; possessive, 82; demonstrative, 83; interrogative, 84;


relative,
indefinite,
86;
85;

parsing, 87;
English, 232

declension in Old

Pronunciation, changes

in,

212

wish, 137; conditional sentence,


should and would as
138;
auxiliaries,
139;
subjunctive
of concession, 140; other uses,
141
Subordinating conjunctions, 183
Substantives used as adjectives,
107
Substitutions, 203
Such, 83, 86 (i), 100 (3)
Suffixes, see Derivation, 244-45

Synonyms, 206
nouns,

Syntax:

105;

jectives,

in

ad51-72;
Old English,

218
Tense, 120-31. 133-35, HS. *47.
150, 154, 155; sequence of, 128
Teutonic languages, 193

Teutonic relationship of English,


191

Quoth, 235

(b,

note

7),

239

Rather, 164 (3)


Relative adjectives, 102
183 (4) pronouns, 85

185

adverbs,

Same, 86 (4)
Sentence adverbs, 163
defined, i; kinds of,
parts of, 4; analysis by
diagram, 15; clausal analysis,
34; extracts for analysis, 34,
2,

3;

243

Than
The

Sentences:

Than, 95

if,

177 (2), 185 (4)


than when, than where,

(o),

(5)

as

an

article,

adverb, 167
There, 166(1}

97

(2)

Thou, special use of, 80


Though, 1 86
Thy own, 82, 99 (4)

(2)

To be (see Be)
Transitive verbs, 113, 115
Twofold, etc., 104 (3)
Unlike, 177

(4)

(3)

as

an

INDEX

272
Verbs:
of,

8,

defined, 24, in; kinds


112; inflection, 24,
9,

118-22;

weak,

ng

(i),

238;

strong, 119 (3), 235; irregular,


1 1 9 (4) ; tenses (see Tense) ; mood,

132-45;
subjunctive mood,
132-44; imperative mood, 145;
146-48; nonpassive voice,
inmodal forms,
149-56;
finitive, 150-53; gerund, 154;
agreement
participle, 155-56;
with subject, 157;

compound

verbs, 158; parsing, 159; conjugation in Old English, 233;


modern strong verbs, 235 ; weak
verbs, 238; past-present verbs,
anomalous verbs, 240;
239;
summary of conjugation, 246
Vocabulary, increase of, 205

We, special use

Weak

of,

verbs, 119

80

(i),

What as an adverb,

(i, 3)

238

101

(2)

Whatever, whichever, whoever, 85 (6)


Whereas, 185 (2)
Witt, 119 (4^), 127, 128, 142, 145
(36), 153,

Wit,

u9

Word

239

(4/)

order, 217

Words

as more than one part of


speech, 106, 165 (1-2), 174,
185 (i); life in, 190; used with
various meanings, 204
Worser, 95 (a)
Worth, 235 (b, note 9)
Wot, 239

Would, 128, 139, 142, 143


Yon, yonder, 100

(2)

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