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Faculty of Arts & Letters

University of Santo Tomas, Espana, Manila


Hand out: LAND-BASED KINGDOMS
Sections: 1HST1 & 1HST2
MARKS OF
CIVILIZATION

ANGKOR & CAMBODIA

LOCATION/SITE

SYSTEM OF
GOVERNMENT

FORM OF
TECHNOLOGY

FORM OF
RELIGION

SYSTEM OF
RECORDING
DIVISION OF
LABOR/FORM OF
SPECIALIZATION

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Lower Mekong River near


Tonle Sap or Great Lake
kingdoms with subdued
smaller principalities &
unified realm
Dewaraja/god-king
artificial irrigation of rice,
Angkor, Phnom Bakheng,
monasteries, waterworks,
observatory, concept of time
& calendar, Bayon temple,
hospitals & inns
Hinduism & Buddhism
all temples built for religious
purposes

Subject: HST 310 Southeast Asia


Course Facilitator/Prepared by: Ms. Henson
EARLY JAVANESE KINGDOMS
-

Modern Jakarta

rulers associated with gods like


Vishnu
ruling family called
Sailendra/lord of the mountain
canals, candi, Borobudur,
monument-building,
Prambanan

farmers, slaves, priests,


monks, craftsmen, artists &
labourers

EASTERN JAVA
-

Hinduism & Buddhism


Tantrism
worship of deities
all temples built for religious
purposes
inscription of 732 praises

nobles, labourers, artists,


sculptors, traders, farmers &
priests

Eastern Java
Brantas River Valley
rulers with control on trade
established kingdoms such
as Kediri, Singhasari &
Kertanegara
rice irrigation

Sivaism, Buddhism,
Tantrism & other beliefs

traders, farmers, priests,


labourers & ship-builders

MARKS OF
CIVILIZATION

MAJAPAHIT

LOCATION/SITE

SYSTEM OF
GOVERNMENT

Eastern Java, Bali, New


Ginea, spice islands of
Sumatra & Malayan
Peninsula
established territorial mandala
ruled by kings & queen
had chief minister for
expansion of dominions

PAGAN & BURMA

TAI KINGDOMS

Irrawaddy River

Ava
present-day Thailand

established kingdoms ruled by


kings

Shwezigon pagoda, Ananda


temple & other edifices

kingdoms led by kings


established controlled
territories
composed of mandala or
galactic polity of centre &
peripheries cemented by
pyramids or patrons &
clients
power was based on
prestige
rice irrigation

Hinduism, Mahayana
Buddhism & Theravada
Buddhism
all edifices built for religious
purposes

Theravada Buddhism

FORM OF
TECHNOLOGY

FORM OF
RELIGION

monetary system, tax system,


use of clay, production of
terracotta objects, irrigation
system & pottery
Hinduism, Buddhism & Islam
all temples built for religious
purposes

SYSTEM OF
RECORDING
DIVISION OF
LABOR/FORM OF
SPECIALIZATION

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poem Negarakertagama

traders, farmers, slaves,


priests, monks, craftsmen,
artists & labourers

nobles, labourers, artists,


monks, farmers & priests

traders, farmers, priests,


labourers & military men

MARKS OF
CIVILIZATION
LOCATION/SITE
SYSTEM OF
GOVERNMENT

AYUDHYA
-

FORM OF
TECHNOLOGY
FORM OF
RELIGION
SYSTEM OF
RECORDING
DIVISION OF
LABOR/FORM OF
SPECIALIZATION

Chaophraya River
adopted Khmer institutions
ruled by kings
realm was given more structured
authority
power is based on military strength

traders, farmers, craftsmen, artists &


labourers

SOURCE: Heidhues, Mary Somers. Southeast Asia: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 2000.

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