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Chapter 4

Competencies and Attributes of 21st CenturyFilipino Teachers


The quality of a school system rests on the quality
of its teachers. - McKinsey & Company
Introduction
Today, many students can become a teacher but the challenge is that only few
become effective teachers. To be an effective teacher involves mastering numerous
competencies, tasks, and roles. It starts from having a good communication skill, a deep
content knowledge and to a sound classroom management that allow organized
instructions and providing relevant and fair evaluations. Moreover, an effective teacher is
duty bound to create a healthy classroom atmosphere to encourage enthusiasm,
motivation and meaningful teacher-student relationship.
This chapter presents the three broad domains of teaching, the National
Competency Based Teacher Standard (NCBTS), the 21st century teaching competencies,
and the attributes of an effective K to 12 of teacher.
Intended Learning Outcomes
In this chapter, each student will be able to:
1. Demonstrate understanding of the three (3) broad domains of teaching by giving
examples of the focus of each domain;
2. Explain fully the seven (7) domains of the NCBTS and give specific strand and
indicator to realize each domain;
3. Determine the implications of the 21 st century skills in successfully living and
working in the 21st century environment.
4. Cite specific teaching approaches that help students develop their 21st century
skills.
5. Apply the seven (7) domains of NCBTS through a Role Play;
What are the three (3) broad domains of teaching?
Teaching is not a simple undertaking but it is an intricate activity that requires
substantial thinking skills and a solid knowledge base. To engage in classroom teaching
therefore demands teachers to master technical knowledge to become effective in
realizing their calling, task, and commitment. These areas of knowledge are basically
categorized into three (3) broad domains. They are:
1) Professional Knowledge This domain requires knowing ones students and how
they learn. It also includes mastering the subject content and knowing how to
teach it. This type of knowledge means a demonstration of the teachers
understanding of the subject content, curriculum, and the developmental needs of
the learners. Without the mastery of professional knowledge, the teachers cannot
provide relevant and meaningful learning experiences to their students.
According to Cochran, DeRuiter and King (1993), the professional knowledge
that is essential to be an effective teacher extends well beyond knowledge of
subject matter to encompass the factors identified in the following table:
Table I. Knowledge Area and Focus of Professional Knowledge
Knowledge Area
Subject
matter

Focus
Content to teach
1

knowledge
Pedagogical knowledge
Curricular knowledge
Learner knowledge
Cultural/community
knowledge

How to teach
What to teach
Whom to teach
Sensitivity to settings where one
teaches

2) Professional Practice This domain includes planning and implementing


effective teaching and learning; creating and maintaining supportive and safe
learning environments; and assessing and providing feedback and reporting on
student learning. In the practice of teaching, teachers should be able to make
learning more engaging and valued by the students. They are able to create and
maintain safe, inclusive, and challenging learning environments and implement
fair and equitable behavior management plans.
3) Professional Engagement This domain reflects the teachers ability to engage in
professional learning as well as engaging professionally with colleagues,
parents/careers, and the community. Engaging in the teaching profession calls that
teachers must model what it takes to have effective learning. They identify their
own learning needs as well asanalyze, evaluate, and expand their professional
learning, both collegially and individually. Teachers demonstrate respect and
professionalism in all their interactions with students, colleagues, parents,
guardians, and the community. They are sensitive to their needs and can
communicate effectively with them about their children's learning. They
understand the links between school, home, and community in the social and
intellectual development of their students.
Table II. Summary of Broad Domains of Teaching
Domains
Standards
of Teaching
Profession
1.
Know students and how they learn
al Knowledge
2.
Know the content and how to teach it
Profession
3.
Plan for and implement effective teaching
al practice
and learning
4.
Create and maintain supportive and safe
learning environments
5.
Assess, provide feedback and report on
student learning
Profession
6.
Engage in professional learning
al Engagement
7.
Engage professionally with colleagues,
parents/carers and the community
Teaching Competencies of Filipino Teachers
What is competency?
Competency is a pattern and combination of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that
is needed by teachers to perform their enormous roles. These competencies are usually
observable and measurable through defined behaviors.
What defines the teaching competencies needed by Filipino Teachers?
The National Competency Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS) defines the
professional competencies possessed by Filipino teachers. It characterizes the qualities of
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an effective Filipino teacher which is standardized or the same to all basic education
teachers in the country. This professional development guide was made in September,
2006 by the Department of Education through the Teacher Education Council.
What are the legal bases of NCBTS?
The crafting of NCBTS is anchored on Republic Act No. 9155 or the Basic
Education Act and the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) as well as R.A.
7784,the law creating the Teacher Education Council (TEC). However, the
implementation and adoption of NCBTS in all public elementary and secondary schools
in the country is legitimized by DepEd Order No 32. s. 2009.
What is the NCBTS?
The NCBTS is a student centered mode of teaching which is a complete departure
from the traditional teacher focused teaching and learning. It is an integrated theoretical
framework that defines the different dimensions (i.e., core competencies, principles, and
values) of effective teaching. This framework is balanced because it is anchored on the
different educational theories that govern what makes an effective teaching. Moreover,
NCBTS clearly articulates the strategic and indispensable role of the teacher in the
learning process of the students. The assumption is that the quality of students is just as
good as the quality of their teachers. This is short to saying, enhance the competencies of
the teachers and the learning of the students will also improve.
What does standard mean?
A standard may mean criterion, benchmark, model, measure, and paradigm. From
this meaning, the NCBTS as a standard means setting the criteria, benchmark, model,
measure, and paradigm for what it takes to be an effective Filipino Teacher. In short, it
identifies the key elements of quality teaching.
What Does Competency-Based Mean?
The DepEd NCBTS, A Professional Guide for Filipino Teachers (2006), defines
competency-based to mean the standards or criteria for characterizing good teaching
measured in terms of what the teacher is competent to do. Instead of measuring good
teaching practice in terms of teachers credentials, LET scores, grades in graduate school,
degrees, personality traits, and so on, what is measured is what the teachers can do
competently.
What is meant by effective teaching under NCBTS?
Effective teaching may connote manifold meaning. However, NCBTS defines
effective teaching as being able to employ practices that help all types of students learn
the different learning goals in the curriculum. It is making teachers become effective
facilitators of learning. As facilitators, stress is made on the ability of teachers to support
or scaffold the learning needs of diverse students instead of mere transmission of
knowledge.Put simply, effective teaching is helping students learn better and teachers are
measured on how competent they are in helping students learn. It puts primary emphasis
on the quality of assistance extended by teacher who brings optimal learning rather than
the quantity of topics taught.
Who crafted NCBTS?
The NCBTS is a concerted effort of four (4) agencies namely (a) Teacher
Education Council (TEC); (b) Department of Education (DepEd);(c) Commission on
Higher Education (CHED) and;(d) Professional Regulation Commission (PRC).
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Why do teachers need NCBTS?


Teachers need the NCBTS as a guide in carrying out their teaching practices and
professional development needs. These competencies are the shared definition of the
principals, supervisors, superintendents, teachers, students and other stakeholders of what
makes an effective teacher or what they expect from an effective teacher.
Moreover, Filipino teachers need the NCBTS because they often get confused
about what it means to be an effective teacher. For example, they may have been taught
the characteristics of good teaching by teacher-educators in their pre-service education
that seem to be different from what their principals and supervisors expect in their
schools.
What are the three-fold purposes of NCBTS?
As gleaned from the Experiential Learning Courses Handbook (2009), the
NCBTS provides a three-fold purpose as follows:
1. It sets a single framework that shall define effective teaching in all aspects of a
teachers professional life and in all phases of teacher development In the past,
there have been no single framework to determine the effectiveness of teachers in
all the tasks and roles they perform. Worst, there was no framework to which they
are able to improve from their weaknesses and sustain their strengths. With
NCBTS, all the different dimensions of teaching are spelled out as well as the
plans on how teachers are able to hone their knowledge and skills to make them
become better teachers in whatever stage of their career. It also identifies what
teachers know and can do at different stages of their career thereby making the
career path of teachers as a continuum. In short, it is NCBTS that defines the
measures that teachers can pursue to professionally develop from the time they
enter and exit in teaching. This is standardized or made common among all
teachers in the entire country.
2. It minimizes confusion about what effective teaching is In the academe, there
have been so many diverging and confusing indicators on the qualities or
attributes of effective teachers. Literature review is replete with so many attributes
that make a great teacher. But with NCBTS, the competencies required to become
ideal teachers are standardized, well defined in one integrated framework, and
only the essential competencies, roles and tasks are captured and measured. This
is well articulated in the NCBTS domains, strands, and indicators which must be
mastered and exhibited by the teachers.
3. It provides a better guide for all teacher development programs and projects from
the school-level up to the national level The NCBTS is a self-assessment tool
that leads teachers to their professional development either in short or long range
plan using effective professional development strategies to improve their
weaknesses and sustain their strengths. Upon determination of the strengths and
weaknesses of teachers as well as their short and long range plans, school
principals can use these data as basis for conceptualizing in-service trainings in
the school or district as levels well as regional and national seminars, conferences,
and workshops aimed at addressing these concerns, challenges, problems, and
issues of teachers.
How should teachers use the NCBTS?
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According to the NCBTS-TSNA Orientation Manual Guide for Trainers and


Implementers and Toolkit, teachers can use the NCBTS in many ways as follows:
1. As a guide to reflect on their current teaching practices NCBTS allows teachers
to be contemplative on their actions and flexible in what they do. This is
particularly true in the use of technical knowledge like strategies and activities so
as to guarantee best learning outcomes. The focus of teachers is what the students
have to learn successfully as well as what they can show from what they have
learned. In this framework, the focus of their teaching practices must shift from
what to teach and how to teach the subject to what the students are able to
demonstrate as knowledge, skills, and attitude.
2. As a framework for creating new teaching practices NCBTS provides the
structure to which teachers are able to generate new ways, approaches, and
strategies to facilitate or help students achieve optimal learning. It is NCBTS that
cues teachers to continuously think and further improve their teaching so as to
become better teachers for the students.
3. As a guidepost for planning professional development goals NCBTS is the
roadmap (through teacher development map) that leads teachers to think on how
they will continue to improve from their previous best as they are being charged
to become facilitators of students learning. It is this integrated framework that
sets the professional development goals of teachers from pre-service training, in
service training, and continuing professional development program. Significantly,
the professional development of teachers under the NCBTS is transformational,
contextual, and experiential. It is not informational or merely providing new and
updated technical knowledge for teachers. As this is the case, teachers are no
longer passive receivers of technical knowledge and professional development.
They are rather active and reflective processors and constructors of their own
development.
4. As a common language for discussing teaching practices with other teachers
NCBTS allows teachers to have a common vocabulary for discussing their
teaching practices. It is just like teachers singing the same song with the same
tune in the practice of teaching. In discussing teaching quality with colleagues and
supervisors, they can share their best practices as well as their most innovative
means and ways to improve their teaching. This is because of the concept that all
best practices along quality teaching are aligned with the domains, strands, and
indicators set in the NCBTS. Significantly, it is in performing these domains,
strands, and indicators that constitutes the ideal Filipino teacher.
5. As guide for thinking critically about whether the teachers current practices are
helping students attain the learning goals in the curriculum Considering that
NCBTS is the DepEds new paradigm for quality teaching and a new common
framework for understanding teaching quality, teachers are able to recognize that
their knowledge approaches and style are not applicable to varied learners and
context. Thus, they are empowered to make educational decisions in the education
process and to be held accountable whether or not students are able to attain the
learning goals as defined in the curriculum.
How are the competency standards organized in the NCBTS?
As stipulated in Experiential Learning Courses Handbook (2009), the
competency-based teacher standards are organized hierarchically, that is, from simple to
complex and in spiral progression. The basic level categories of the standards are the
seven domains which are already the competencies`
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What is meant by domain?


A domain is a distinctive sphere of the teaching-learning process and is also a
well-defined arena for demonstrating positive teacher practices. The domains are the
areas to which all teachers must develop professionally. There are seven (7) domains
under the NCBTS. Each domain is defined in terms of a principle of ideal teaching
associated with enhanced student learning (Teacher Induction Program Implementation
Manual,2009).
What are the two broad categories of the seven (7) domains?
The two broad categories of the seven (7) domains as specified in the Teacher
Induction Program Implementation Manual(2010)are:
a. Domains that relate to the role of teacher as a facilitator of learning (domains 2
to 6) The principal role of teacher under the NCBTS is to become facilitator of
learning. In performing their role, they have to become experts in two domains
namely: domains on the knowledge and skills for facilitating learning or good
teaching strategies(domains 3 to 5) and domains called teaching practices that
attempt to situate or at least link the teaching-learning process to appropriate
contexts(domains 2and 6). Such teaching practices include the immediate
physical, psychological and the social context of the classroom, and the larger
socio-cultural, economic, political, and historical context of the community.
b. Domains that relate to the role of teacher as a learner (domains 1 and 7).
Teachers are always considered students all the time. In realizing this concept,
they ought to become experts of two domains namely: Domain 1 represents the
ideal that the teacher serves as a model of all the positive values associated with
learning, and Domain 7 represents the behaviors that demonstrate the teachers
actual aspirations to continue learning as a professional teacher.
What is meant by strand?
Under each domain, there are strands. Strands refer to more specific dimensions
of positive teacher practices under the broad conceptual domain. There are twenty three
(23) strands under the NCBTS.
What is meant by indicators?
Under each strand, specific indicators are defined. Indicators are concrete,
observable, and measurable teacher behaviors, actions, habits, actions, routines, and
practices. They are known to create, facilitate, and support enhanced student learning.
They are also at the lowest level of the hierarchical organization. There are eighty (80)
indicators under the NCBTS.
Table III. Number of Strands and Indicators per Domain
Domains
Strands
rs
Social regard for learning
2
Learning environment
5
Diversity of learners
1
Curriculum
7
Planning, assessing and reporting
4
6

Indicato
5
17
8
22
12

Community linkages
Personal growth and development
Total

1
3
23

6
10
80

What are the characteristics of the domains, strands, and indicators?


The domains, strands, and indicators may be characterized in terms of the
following dimensions (Teacher Induction Program Implementation Manual(2009):
a. Nature/quality This dimension is concerned with the degree or how well the
essential qualities or critical features are demonstrated/observed in the positive
teacher practices.
b. Frequency, consistency and appropriateness This dimension is focused on the
demonstration of the ideals of teaching in terms of its occurrence, regularity and
suitability. It simply asks: Is the ideal teaching practice demonstrated?, Is the
demonstration appropriate to the particular teacher-learning process?, and Is the
teacher consistent in demonstrating this ideal?
c. Self-awareness This dimension looks into the ability of teachers to be conscious
and mindful of the premises, rationale, nature, and effects of the demonstrated
teacher-learning process.
What are the Seven Domains of the NCBTS?
The seven domains are as follows:
1) Social regard for learning This domain focuses on the ideal that teachers serve as
positive and powerful role models in promoting the value of pursuing learning and of
exerting effort to learn. This ideal is exemplified through the teachers actions,
statements, and different types of social interactions with students. To measure their
competence along this domain, teachers should ask: Can my students appreciate and
model the value of learning through my interactions with them?
Domain 1 - Social regard for learning
Strand
Act as a positive role model for student. Teachers should:
1
Indicato

Implement school policies and procedures

Indicato

Be punctual

Indicato

Maintain appropriate appearance

r1
r2
r3
Indicato
r4
Indicato

Be careful of the effects that their behaviors can have on their


students
Respect other people and their ideas

r5
Indicato
r6

Demonstrate that learning is of different kinds and can come


from different sources. They should make use of various learning
experiences and resources.

2) Learning environment This domain focuses on the importance of providing a social


and physical environment within which all students, regardless of individual
differences in learning, can engage in different learning activities and work toward
attaining high standards of learning. To measure their competence along this domain,

teachers should ask: Do I create physical and social class environments that allow my
students to attain maximum learning?

1
r1

Domain 2 Learning Environment


Strand
Create an environment that promotes fairness. Teachers
should:
Indicato
Maintain a learning environment that promotes courtesy and
respect for others in terms of ability, culture, and gender
Indicato
Provide gender-fair opportunities for learning

r2
Indicato

Recognize that every student has his/her own strengths

r3
Strand
2
Indicato
r4
Indicato
r5
Indicato
r6
Strand
3
Indicato

Make the classroom environment safe and conducive to


learning. Teachers should:
Maintain a safe, clean, and orderly classroom that is free of
distractions
Conduct challenging activities given their physical
environment
Use individual and cooperative learning activities to improve
their students capacity for higher learning.
Communicate higher learning expectations to each of their
students. Teachers should:
Encourage their students to ask questions

r7
Indicato

Provide their students with a variety of learning experiences

r8
Indicato
r9
Indicato
r 10
Strand
4
Indicato
r 11
Indicato
r 12
Indicato
r 13
Indicato
r 14
Strand
5
Indicato

Provide varied enrichment activities to nurture their students


desire to further learn
Communicate and maintain high standards for learning
performance.
Establish and maintain consistent standards for student
behavior. Teachers should:
Quickly handle students behavior problems, according due
respect to childrens rights
Provide timely feedback to reinforce appropriate student
behavior
Guide individual students that need to develop appropriate
social and learning behaviors
Communicate and enforce school policies and procedures with
regard to appropriate student behaviour.
Create a healthy psychological climate for learning.
Teachers should:
Encourage students to freely expand their ideas

r 15
Indicato

Create a stress-free environment

r 16
Indicato
r 17

Take appropriate measures to minimize students anxiety and


fear of teachers and/or subjects

3) Diversity of learnersThis domain emphasizes that teachers should facilitate the


learning process among diverse types of students. To do this, they have to recognize
and respect individual differences and then using their knowledge to design diverse
sets of learning activities to ensure that they can all attain the appropriate learning
goals. Such domain urges all teachers in the Philippines to determine, understand, and
accept students diverse background, knowledge, and experiences. To measure their
competence along this domain, teachers should ask:Can I help my students learn
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whatever their capabilities, learning styles, cultural heritage, socio-economic


background, and other differences?

1
r1
r2

Domain 3 Diversity of Learners


Strand
Determine, understand, and accept students diverse
background, knowledge, and experiences
Indicato
Obtain information on the learning styles, multiple
intelligences, and needs of their students
Indicato
Design or select learning experiences suited to different kinds
of students
Indicato
Establish goals that define their students expectations

r3
Indicato
r4
Indicato
r5
Indicato
r6
Indicato
r7
Indicato
r8

Pace lessons in accordance with their students needs and/or


difficulties
Initiate other learning approaches for students whose needs are
not met using the usual approaches
Recognize the multicultural backgrounds of their students when
providing learning opportunities
Adopt strategies to address needs of their less-competent
students
Make appropriate adjustments for students with different
socioeconomic backgrounds

4) Curriculum This domain refers to all elements of the teaching-learning process that
work in convergence to help students attain high standards of learning and
understanding of the curricular goals and objectives. These elements include their
knowledge of their respective subject matters, teaching-learning approaches and
activities, as well as instructional materials, learning resources and information and
communications technology (ICT). To measure their competence along this domain,
teachers should ask:Can my students understand and attain the goals of the
curriculum through the various learning resources and activities I prepared?

1
r1
r2
r3

Domain 4 Curriculum
Strand
Demonstrate mastery of the subjects they teach. They
should:
Indicato
Deliver accurate and updated content knowledge using
appropriate methodologies, approaches, and strategies
Indicato
Integrate language, literacy, and quantitative skills development
and values in their subject areas
Indicato
Clearly and accurately explain learning goals, instructional
procedures, and content to their students
Indicato
Link current content with past and future lessons

r4
Indicato
r5
Indicato
r6
Indicato
r7
Indicato
r8
Indicato
r9
Strand
2

Align their teaching methods, learning activities, and


instructional materials or resources with their lesson objectives and
students needs
Create situationsthat encourage theirstudentsto use higherorderthinking skills
Engage and sustain their students interest in the subject they
teach by making its content meaningful and relevant
Integrate relevant scholarly works and ideas to enrich lessons
when needed
Integrate the content of their subject areas with other
disciplines
Communicate clear learning goals for appropriate lessons.
They should:
9

Indicato

Set appropriate learning goals

Indicato

Make sure that their students understand the learning goals

Strand

Make good use of the allotted instructional time

r1
r2
3
Indicato
r1

Establish routines and procedures to maximize instructional


time

Indicato

Plan their lessons to fit the given instructional time.

r2
Strand
4
Indicato

Select teaching methods, learning activities, and instructional


materials or resources appropriate to and aligned with the objectives of
their lessons. They should:
Translate learning competencies to instructional objectives

r1
Indicato
r2
Indicato
r3
Indicato
r4
Indicato
r5
Indicato
r6
Strand
5
Strand
6

Select, prepare, and utilize appropriate instructional materials


to suit their students and learning objectives
Provide activities and use materials that fit their students
learning styles, goals, and culture
Use a variety of teaching approaches and techniques in
accordance with their subject matters and students needs
Utilize information derived from assessment to improve the
teachinglearning process
Provide activities and use materialsthatinvolve theirstudentsin
meaningful learning
Recognize general learning processes as well as the unique
processes of individual students. They should design and utilize
teaching methods that take into account their students learning
processes
Promote purposive study. They should cultivate in their
students good study habits through appropriate activities and projects

5) Planning, assessing, and reporting This domain refers to the aligned use of
assessment and planning activities to ensure that the teaching-learning activities are
maximally appropriate to the students current knowledge and learning levels. In
particular, the domain focuses on the use of assessment data to plan and revise
teaching-learning plans, as well as the integration of formative assessment procedures
in the plan and implementation of teaching-learning activities.To measure their
competence along this domain, teachers should ask:Do I assess my students learning
and knowledge using appropriate educational assessment procedures and do I use
the information from these assessment procedures in planning their teaching learning
activities?

Domain 5 Planning, Assessing and reporting


Strand
Develop and utilize creative and appropriate instructional
plans. They should:
Indicato
Show proof of instructional planning

r1
Indicato

Implement instruction as planned

Indicato

Cope with varied teaching milieu.

r2
r3
Strand
2
Indicato

Develop and use a variety of appropriate assessment


strategies to monitor and evaluate their students learning. They
should:
Prepare formative and summative tests in line with the
10

r4
Indicato
r5
Indicato
r6
Indicato
r7
Indicato

curriculum
Employ non-traditional assessment techniques such as using a
portfolio, journals, and rubrics
Interpret and use assessment results to improve the teachinglearning process
Identify teaching-learning difficulties and their possible causes
and take the appropriate action to address them
Use tools to assess authentic learning.

r8
Strand
3
Indicato
r9
Indicato
r10
Strand
4
Indicato
r 11
Indicato
r12

Regularly monitor and provide feedback on their students


understanding of content. They should:
Provide timely and accurate feedback to encourage their
students to reflect on and monitor their own learning growth
Keep accurate records of students grades and performance
levels
Promptly and clearly communicate to the students and
their parents and to their superiors their students progress. They
should:
Conduct regular meetings with their students and their parents
to report on their students progress
Involve their students parents in school activities that promote
learning

6) Community linkages This domain focuses on the school activities that are
meaningfully linked to the experiences and aspirations of the students in their homes
and communities. It also focuses on teachers efforts directed at strengthening the
links between school and community activities, particularly as these links help in the
attainment of the curricular objectives.To measure their competence along this
domain, teachers should ask:Are the goals and characteristics of the teachinglearning activities I implement relevant to the experiences, values, and aspirations of
their students?

1
r1
r2

Domain 6 Community Linkages


Strand
Establish learning environments that respond to
the aspirations of the community
Indicato
Involve the community in sharing the accountability for their
students achievements
Indicato
Use community resources (human and material) to support
learning
Indicato
Use the community as a laboratory for learning

r3
Indicato

Participate in community activities that promote learning

Indicato

Use community networks to publicize school events and


achievements
Encourage their students to apply their classroom learning in
the community

r4
r5
Indicato
r6

7) Personal growth and development This domain emphasizes the ideal that teachers
should have a high personal regard, concern for professional development, and
continuous improvement as teachers.To measure their competence along this domain,
teachers should ask:Do my actions and statements indicate a high regard for the
teaching profession and for my continuous development as a professional?
Domain 7 Personal Growth and Development
Strand
Takes pride in the nobility of teaching as a profession
11

1
Indicato
r1
Indicato
r2
Indicato
r3
Indicato
r4
Strand
2
Indicato

Maintain a stature and exhibit behaviors that uphold the


dignity of teaching
Allocate time for personal and professional development by
participating in educational seminars and workshops, regularly
reading educational materials, and engaging in educational research
Manifest personal qualities such as enthusiasm, flexibility, and
concern for others
Articulate and demonstrate their own personal teaching
philosophies.
Build professional links with their colleagues to enrich their
practice
Stay abreast of recent developments in education

r5
Indicato
r6
Strand
3
Indicato

Establish links with other institutions and organizations to


share best practices.
Reflect on the extent of their attainment of professional
development goals.
Reflect on the quality of their own teaching

r7
Indicato
r8
Indicato
r9
Indicato
r10

Improve their teaching performance based on feedback from


their students, peers, superiors, and cooperating teachers
Accept personal accountability for their students achievements
and performance
Use self-evaluation to recognize and enhance their strengths
and to correct their weaknesses

Can the strengths and weaknesses of teachers be determined using the NCBTS?
According to the NCBTS-TSNA Orientation Manual Guide for Trainers and
Implementers and Toolkit (2013), the strengths and needs of teachers shall be determined
through accomplishments of Teacher Strengths and Needs Assessment (TSNA) was
designed in the context of NCBTS. The TSNA is a self-assessment tool. It is anchored on
the overarching concept of teacher professional development to promote student learning.
Results obtained from the TSNA shall be used as input for making the teacher Individual
Plan for Professional Development (IPPD) and ultimately, the IPPD becomes input to the
crafting of School Improvement Plan (IPPD).
What are the general purposes of TSNA?
NCBTS-TSNA Orientation Manual Guide for Trainers and Implementers and
Toolkit lays the general purposes of TSNA as follows:
1. To gather data for the continuous training and professional development of
teachers;
2. To identify teachers professional attributes, knowledge, understanding, skills, and
attitudes; and
3. To identify teacher strengths that would complement the learning needs and
requirements of the learners.
What are the specific purposes of TSNA?
The specific purposes of TSNA, according to the NCBTS-TSNA Orientation
Manual Guide for Trainers and Implementers and Toolkit,are as follows:

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1. Determine the competency status profile, strengths, and weaknesses of individual


teacher vis-a-vis the standards set by NCBTS in the seven (7) seven domains;
2. Determine the Individual Professional Teacher Index from the TSNA results and
use the data to develop teachers Individual Plan for Professional Development;
and
3. Consolidate the TSNA results at the school and division levels as reference to the
School Improvement Plan (SIP) and the Annual Improvement Plan (AIP).
What are the features of the TSNA?
The essential features of the TSNA according to NCBTS-TSNA Guide and Tools
(2010) are follows:
a. It is self-administering tool;
b. It is composed of 270 items in Knowledge, Skills and Attitude;
c. The 270 items are clustered in 80 Indicators, 24 strands and 7 domains;
d. It requires a teacher to reflect on his/her practices before answering the items;
e. It is not a time test, so a teacher can have longer time to reflect in his/her practice.
What determines the professional development plan of all teachers?
All teachers are required to make their Individual Plan for Professional
Development (IPPD). The IPPD is accomplished to enable them to chart their
professional goals and plan learning activities to enhance their professional competencies
in order for them to work better for the improvement of their school and learners
performance. The professional development plan may be formulated as short or long term
range plans. Developing a structured IPPD allows teachers to practice individual
accountability for their professional growth and shared responsibility for the entire
organizations development. The fundamental reason for mandating teachers to craft their
own development plan is based on the fact that not all teachers can competently do all the
seven (7) domains. Some of them may be strong in one or two domains but weak in the
other. Thus, the need to have IPPD is imperative to guarantee that they can competently
demonstrate all the domains. (NCBTS-TSNA Orientation Manual Guide,).
What is the expected output of the TSNA at various levels?
The NCBTS-TSNA Orientation Manual Guide for Trainers and Implementers and
Toolkit defines the expected outputs of the TSNA at various levels:
1. At the individual level, an Individual Teacher Scoring Template that contains
TSNA results indicating the strengths and training needs in each of the 7 domains,
23 strands, 80 indicators and 270 KSAs.
2. At the school level, School data-based results that reflect the general strengths and
learning needs of the teachers in the particular school.
3. At the cluster/division level, Division data-based that shows the results of
participating schools teachers in a given cluster/division.
The Individual Plan for Professional Development (IPPD)
The NCBTS-TSNA Orientation Manual Guide for Trainers and Implementers and
Toolkit defines the Individual Plan for Development (IPPD) as follows:

13

1. The TSNA results to a teacher individual profile along the seven domains, the
strands, and the indicators.
2. From analysis and interpretation based on the TPD Index, the teacher can
determine the trainings which are urgently needed.
Moreover, the individual profile of the teachers may now be considered by the
school head in the School Improvement Plan (SIP) and the Annual Improvement Plan
(AIP). Significantly, the collective profile of the teachers may also be utilized in the
Division Educational Development Plan.
How is the competency of teachers measured under the NCBTS?
The Competency-Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers (CB-PAST)
shall be used to appraise the quality of teachers accomplishments over a period of time.
In the CB-PAST, teachers are measured based on the level by which they demonstrate
these competencies or domains, strands, and indicators. This system adheres to standards
of competency-based performance as indicated in the NCBTS domains and enriched by
the job-embedded requirements. The teachers and raters (e.g., school head) use
designated tools for assessment, the results of which will be applied for incentives,
awards, and promotions. These performance ratings shallthen be reviewed by the next
higher school official in line, for approval by the superintendent.
What is the interpretation for the TPD Index?
The NCBTS-TSNA Orientation Manual Guide for Trainers and Implementers and
Toolkit presents the interpretation for the TPD Index as follows:
Com
Lab
Description
petency level el of the
Index
3.51
Expe
Teacher has almost all the competencies for
4.00
rt
effective teaching at high level. These are the identified
strengths, which have to be sustained and enhanced
2.51
Expe
Teacher has majority of the competencies at high
3.50
rienced
level for effective teaching. Enhance strengths, training
and professional needs to be addressed
1.51
Dev
Teacher has average of all the competencies at
2.50
eloping
high level for effective teaching. Enhance strengths,
training and professional needs to be addressed with
priority.
1.00
Begi
Teacher has very few of the competencies at high
1.50
nning
level for effective teaching. Priority and urgency be given
to training needs
Competencies to be developed by 21st Century Teachers
Living successfully in the21st century requires knowing the how tos of learning.
To become a lifelong learner, students have to master 21 st century skills which are sets of
competencies essential to prepare them for the challenges they face in life and work
environment. In responding to this call, it demands teachers to possess qualities that must
develop these needed skills. They, too, must possess 21 st century competencies inasmuch
as they teach 21st century students who are living in the 21 st century environment.
However, a word of caution has to be made relative to the discussion of this concept. 21 st
century skills are not always concerned with the use of information literacy as well as
14

information and communications technology. They are rather concerned with the holistic
skills needed by students to become self-managing and become lifelong learners.
What are the 21st century skills?
One of the most common ways to present 21 st century skills is through the four (4)
Cs as follows:
1. Communication it means sharing of thoughts, questions, ideas, and solutions.
Students who have developed good communication skills in the classroom are
more able to express their thoughts and feelings effectively as well as give
solutions to the problems they soon encounter when they grow as adults and
workers in society.
2. Collaboration it means working together to reach a goal. It also means putting
talent, expertise, and smarts to work. Students who have been used to collaborate
tend to become effective team players in their future social and professional
activities. They show cooperation in all undertakings and offer collective
decisions and solutions instead of a very individualistic and uncooperative
behavior.
3. Critical thinking it means looking at problems in a new way and linking
learning across subjects and disciplines. Students who show critical thinking are
able to identify the root of a problem and apply multiple solutions learned from
different perspectives. In effect, they will soon become successful because they
are capable of planning and making right choices in life.
4. Creativity it means trying new approaches to get things done. It is a term that is
synonymous with innovation and invention. Students whose creativity is
developed in school tend to be more innovative in performing their work and
their personal activities in the future. Creative students are able to introduce new
ways of doing things in their personal and organizational lives leading to greater
performance, productivity, and success.
What are the 21st century skills to be possessed by Filipino graduates according to
DepEd?
According to the DepEd, there are four (4) 21st Century Skills that are to be
possessed by graduates in order to live meaningfully in this world namely; (a) Effective
Communication Skill ways of thinking; (b) Learning and Innovation Skill ways of
working; (c) Information, media and technology skill tools for working; and (d) Life
and career skill ways of living in the world. These are the expected graduate attributes
after schooling which becomes essential tools to live healthily and meaningfully in this
world. Congruently, these are the competencies to be first developed and demonstrated by
the teachers if they so desire to imbue their students with such 21st century skills.
21stCentury
Skills
to
be
developed by graduates
Effective Communication Skill In
life and in the workplace, individuals need
to be good communicators to articulate
their thoughts clearly and effectively in
written, oral, and in non-verbal means.
This skill is becoming more important in
public life of individuals because the21 st
century environment is more culturally
15

Ways in which teachers


can develop the Skill
(Ways of working)

Teaming
Collaboration
Interpersonal skills
Local, national and global
orientedness

diverse; there is multiple media and


technologies
to
be
used
for
communication; and there is a wider range
of purpose of communication like business
communication, research presentation and
publication, advertisement communication
and like.
Learning and Innovation Skill It is a
required skill in the 21st century that
individuals develop and nurture their
ability to think outside of the proverbial
box without fear of failing when going
against established rules and ideas.It is
indispensable that they have to cultivate
their
originality,
inventiveness,
and
analytical thinking as there are differing
perspectives and endless competition in
improving the quality of work as well as
products and services in the 21st century.
Information, media, and technology
skill Students nowadays are considered
digital natives inasmuch as they are
born in the age of technology and media
filled environment. By using relevant
information and incorporating numerous
communication and social vehicles in
teaching, students are able to access,
analyze,
and
evaluate
voluminous
information and to become updated with
the use of rapidly changing technology.
When they have this skill, they can
effectively use them to become effective
21st century workers and citizens.
Life and career skill The ability to
have lifelong learning (i.e., learning how to
learn and commitment to learning as an
endless process)throughout ones life is
imperative to live in the 21st century. When
students are able to develop adequate life
and career skills, they grow and flourish in
whatever endeavor they take after school,
in the workplace or during retirement. This
happens because they are able to apply or
create something new and sublime from
what they know and they are able to
hurdle the challenges of complex life and
work environment.

Interactive communication

(Ways of thinking)

Creativity
Curiosity
Critical thinking
solving skills
Risk taking

problem

(Tools for working)

Visual and information


literacies
Media literacies
Basic scientific, economic and
technological literacies
Multicultural literacy

(Ways of living in the world)

Flexibility and adaptability


Leadership and responsibility
Social and cross-cultural skills
Initiative and self-direction
Productivity and
accountability
Ethical, moral and spiritual
values

How will teachers develop effective communication skill?


The following are the ways of working that ensures the development of
effective communication skill:

Teaming up it is an approach in teaching wherein students form a group in order


to perform a task. When students are teamed up, there are higher chances for them
16

to express themselves, share their ideas, and learn from one another. Strong team
communications can also help students achieve the desired goals and outputs of
their team because there is open and positive learning environment. They are also
able to work with teams because they become team players.

Collaboration it is not just simply working with others rather it is generating


ideas and building knowledge because of the discussion and interaction with
others. When students are taught how to collaborate, they make personal
compromises to accomplish a common goal and to assume shared accountability
over their outputs.Moreover, when students are involved, they develop a sense of
ownership in what they have done. They also learn to agree even if they disagree.

Interpersonal skills It is the way people express their feelings and thoughts in a
face to face encounter. Developing interpersonal skills in the students means
teaching them how to verbally and non-verbally communicate their thoughts and
feeling through acceptable gestures, touch, voice, and facial expressions.

Local, national, and global orientedness it is the ability to think that everything
and everyone is interrelated and interdependent. Students must be taught to
develop a balance of local, national, and global perspectives because everyone
lives in one roof called earth. They should not only investigate the details of local
and national issues but they must see the big picture of life in all its different
dimensions because all of these affect everyone. These include, but not limited to
global economy, politics, health, and environment.

Interactive communication it is the ability of a person to effectively exchange


information, ideas, and thoughts under face to face conversation or through the
use of media such as conversation in cell phone, telephone, internet chat, video
conferencing, and the like in a real time basis.

How will teachers develop learning and innovation skill?


To effectively develop learning and innovation skill, the following ways of thinking
must be performed:

Creativity Students must be taught to demonstrate originality and inventiveness


in their outputs. They have to use their imagination (usually out of the box
thinking) in order to create novel and worthwhile ideas. Thinking creatively is
taught when they are capable of refining and evaluating their ideas to further
improve and optimize creative efforts.

Curiosity Curiosity is the entry point towards learning and it is the intrinsic
motivator towards innovating. It is when the inquisitiveness of the students is
cultivated that they connect what they do not know to what they know. In life and
in the work environment, there is a need that individuals need to be curious in
almost everything as this sparks discovery, inventiveness, and out of the box
thinking.

Critical thinking problem solving skills This skill entails reasoning effectively
and making rational judgments and decisions in solving significant problems in
life. Amidst complex life and work environment, individuals must be able to
render rational choices and decisions that lead to better solutions of their personal,
collective, and professional issues and problems.

Risk taking It is the ability to accept challenge beyond ones comfort zone
usually for the purpose of achieving progress and gaining new opportunities and
17

experiences. When students are taught how to take risks, they are able to develop
and make changes for themselves. Positive risk takers are those who obtain
positive gains and those who do not take risks remain the same for a lifetime.
How will teachers develop information, media, and technology skill?
To develop information, media, and technology skill, the following are the tools
for working called digital-age literacies that must be cultivated by the teachers:

Visual and information literacies This is the ability to interpret, appreciate,


evaluate, and use visual materials (video, graphs, maps, movie, dance,
powerpoint, and photos) to express ones ideas, promote noble advocacies or
present solution building ideas to various problems and issues of personal and
national concerns. This kind of literacy is very important because almost all things
are communicated through images and that individuals are easily stimulated
through visuals nowadays.

Media literacies It is the ability of students to access and read as well as analyze
and evaluate media messages either in print, broadcast, music, video, and internet.
The purpose of developing media literacy is to allow students to express
themselves and to apply critical thinking skills in various issues in local and
global context.

Basic scientific, economic and technological literacies Scientific literacy is the


ability to think in an orderly and systematic way. It is also the ability to apply
scientific principles, concepts, and processes in rendering personal decisions and
in making social, economic, and civic engagement. Economic literacy is the
ability to make right choices in the use, distribution, and production of scarce
resources in order to improve ones self and others. Technological literacy is more
than just using technology but it is knowing how it works and how it can be used
effectively to realize personal and professional goals in life.

Multicultural literacy It is the ability to respect differences brought about by


differing culture, beliefs, religion, appearances, lifestyle, language, and the like.
Students who have developed multicultural literacy are able to work effectively
and meaningfully with people despite their differences. They are tolerant to social
diversity by not being discriminating and prejudicial to others who think and
behave differently from them.

How will teachers develop life and career skill?


To develop life and career skills, the following ways of living in this world can be
cultivated by the teacher:

Flexibility and adaptability Flexibility means incorporating feedback of others in


ones life and balancing divergent views and beliefs in life and work environment.
On the other hand, adaptability means adjusting to varied circumstances, roles,
people, cultures, job, environment, and schedules to make meaningful and healthy
personal and mutual co-existence with others.

Leadership and responsibility Leadership is the ability to guide and lead others
towards the accomplishment of a common goal. It is influencing people to act
without coercion because one has the ability to use interpersonal and problemsolving skills to make subordinates realize the goals. Responsibility is taking part
in the accomplishment of the common goal and rendering actions that are not only
for ones benefit but for the common interest and common good.
18

Social and cross-cultural skills Social skill is the ability to interact and make
meaningful relationship with people by conducting ones self in a respectable and
professional manner. Cross cultural skill is the ability to work effectively with a
wide range of people coming from various social, linguistic, and cultural
backgrounds. This is possible by understanding and respecting how different
nationalities and cultures act, communicate, and perceive the world.

Initiative and self-direction Initiative is the ability of people to work without


being told to do.This emanates from their inner desire to attain their goals, to
utilize their time and manage their workload efficiently. Self-direction is having
the inner compass to effectively direct ones life by expanding his own learning
and opportunities. It may also mean planning for ones personal and professional
goals, happiness, and success.

Productivity and accountability Productivity is the ability to produce high


quality outputs as a result of teamwork, time management, planning as well as
efficient and effective use of resources. Accountability is making ones self
answerable to the consequences of his decisions. It is recognizing that while
everyone is free to make choices, no one can escape from the consequences of
ones decision.

Ethical, moral and spiritual values Being ethical means having the ability to
conduct oneself in a respectable and professional manner and making right
decisions in all endeavors. Being moral is the ability to uncompromisingly stand
up for what one believes to be right even if it means persecution and pressure
from family members, friends, workers, and the like. Spiritual value is making
God or the Supreme Being as the paramount and ultimate concern in life. It is
putting God as the center of ones life because He is the source of all goodness in
this world.
Attributes of a K to 12 Teacher

Preparing teachers for the K to 12 educational reform requires a change of


professional attributes. There is a need to shift the teachers perspective from the
traditional way of looking at teaching and learning process to a more dynamic and
student-centered perspective. The reason for this is clear and simple. The students they
teach and the environment to which these students live are far different from the context
to which they have been taught and lived. To make education responsive and relevant to
the 21st century landscape, teachers need to re-invent themselves. They have to determine
the attributes they need to possess in order to become effective teachers responding to the
21st century students, 21st century environment, and 21st century challenges.
The following discussions present the attributes required from the K to 12
teachers inasmuch as this educational reform was crafted by the Philippine government to
prepare the Filipino youngsters to live healthily and meaningfully in the 21st century.
What are the attributes of a K to 12 Teacher?
The goal of the K to 12 education reform is to upgrade the countrys education
system and align it to the requirements of the 21st century. To realize this goal, it is
required that K to 12 teachers have to develop essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes
that will enable students to cope with these changes. It is imperative that they know the
characteristics critical to 21st century education so that they may be able to integrate
them in their teaching.

19

According to the K TO 12 Toolkit Resource Guide for Teacher Educators, School


Administrators and Teachers (2012), the following are the attributes of the K to 12
Teachers:

Multi-literate K to 12 education recognizes that information and


communications technologies (ICTs) have penetrated the classrooms at a very
rapid pace. Teachers are now faced with the growing challenge to teach the 21 st
century learners who are wired and who are becoming more and more
wireless in the use of technology. Teaching and living in the 21st century
therefore requires the development of new types of literacies. Teachers have to be
knowledgeable with the use of various technologies and this demands them to
have media literacy, digital literacy, information literacy, and technological
literacy, among others. Examples of these literacies are creating and editing audio;
using social networking sites to connect with colleagues and grow professionally;
and compiling a digital e-portfolio for professional development. Others include
detecting plagiarized works in students assignment, using digital assessment tools
to create quizzes, using blogs and wikis to create online platforms for students,
exploiting digital images for classroom use, using video content to engage
students, and using infographics to visually stimulate students,

Multi-specialist With the central goal of K to 12 education to develop holistic


learners, it is a basic attribute of teachers to be multispecialist. They must not only
be expert in a single subject area but they have to expand their knowledge in other
disciplines so as to make a good integration of all students learning and
experiences. Holistic development is ensured once students are taught to see the
connection of their learning and experiences in science, math, social studies, etc.
The K to 12 curriculum requires that after separately teaching students with Math,
Science, ESP, Social Studies, and the like, they are capable of synthesizing all
what they have learned in one unified and integrated concept. This is to show that
life is not composed of bits and pieces of things and neither is it a fragmented
learning and experiences. Life is all about putting and weaving together all human
experiences and learning into meaningful insight and wisdom through application
and synthesis.

Multi-skilled Teachers must not just be skilful in teaching. They have to possess
more than one skill particularly those which ensure integrating teaching and
learning process. Examples of skills that K to 12 teachers have to be competent
with are along video conferencing, computer security knowledge, electronic
presentation skills, web navigation skills as well as facilitating and organizing
groups and activities as well as data base skills and email management skills. All
of these skills are needed to teach 21 st century learners who are called digital
natives or born with the technology.

Self-directed Teachers must be able to direct their own learning by continuing


their personal and professional learning needs throughout their lives. They must
bring into fulfilment the intended outcomes of education for their students and to
the country as a whole.

Lifelong learner Teaching is twice learning. This necessitates K to 12 teachers


to pursue an endless quest for knowledge so as to continuously improve their
teaching as well as the students learning. They must be updated on the latest
trends and developments including current issues and problems in their field. In
short, they become lifelong learners when they learn to adapt to the changes
required of their profession.

20

Flexible The K to 12 education, being a learner centered educational reform,


compels teachers to adapt to diverse learning styles and needs of the students. A
classroom made up of 40 students requires 40 different methods and strategies of
addressing their unique learning needs and styles. There is no best strategy or
single approach that fits all students. Being a flexible teacher is also important
because the classroom is never a static environment. It is rather a dynamic
environment that changes depending on the lesson, type of learning activity,
interest, and motivation of the students.

Creative problem solver Achieving quality education requires that K to 12


teachers have to show competence in creative problem solving. It starts from
being able to accurately identify the problem to generating ideas and offering
solutions to the problems using innovative ideas. A good teacher is one who
provides creative solutions to the problems and challenges of his life, profession
and society.

Critical thinker - Critical thinking is a fundamental requirement of K to 12


education. It is the ability of teachers to improve the quality of their thinking
through reasoned judgement, reflective thoughts, self-corrective, and selfdisciplined manner. This attribute is very important considering that one of the
goals of K to 12 education is to develop Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
among students. They must scaffold their students to reach the highest levels of
cognition which are evaluating and creating.

Has passion for excellent teaching K to 12 teachers must have the desire and
appetite to teach with excellence and quality. They have to show that there is thrill
and pleasure in acquiring knowledge and skills. This passion must contaminate
the students to learn and succeed in life. The passion to teach for excellence
allows teachers to journey from being merely good to great in their teaching. This
passion for excellent teaching cannot be faked because it is something that is seen
over a sustained period of time. i.e from entrance to retirement in the profession.

High Emotional Quotient (EQ) Being a K to 12 teacher does not solely depend
on intelligence quotient but it also relies heavily on ones emotional quotient.
There are numerous teachers who are intelligent but they become ineffective
because they are incapable of controlling their own feelings and emotions which
is imperative to guide them in their thinking and actions inside the classroom. K
to 12 teachers who have high emotional quotient have the heart for teaching
characterized by empathy, respect, honesty, and tolerance to human differences.

Chapter Highlights
1. To engage in classroom teaching demands teachers to master some areas of
knowledge to become effective in realizing their calling, task, and commitment.
These areas of knowledge are basically categorized in three (3) domains namely;
professional knowledge; professional practice; and professional engagement.
2. The National Competency Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS) defines the
professional competencies that must be possessed by Filipino teachers. It
characterizes the qualities of an effective Filipino teacher which is standardized or
the same to all basic education teachers in the country.

21

3. Effective teaching under NCBTS is helping students learn better and teachers are
measured on how competent they are in helping students learn.
4. The three-fold purposes of NCBTS are: (a) It sets a single framework that shall
define effective teaching in all aspects of a teachers professional life and in all
phases of teacher development; (2) It minimizes confusion about what effective
teaching is; and (3) It provides a better guide for all teacher development
programs and projects from the school-level up to the national level.
5. There are seven (7) domains in the NCBTS namely, (1) Social regard for learning;
(2) Learning environment; (3) Diversity of learners; (4) Curriculum; (5)
Planning, assessing, and reporting; (6) Community linkages; and (7) Personal
growth and development. These domains have twenty three (23) strands and
eighty (80) indicators.
6. The seven (7) domains can be divided into two broad categories. The first broad
category is made up of domains that relate to the role of teacher as a facilitator of
learning (domains 2 to 6) This broad category is classified further into two:
domains on the knowledge and skills for facilitating learning or good teaching
strategies (domains 3 to 5) and domains called teaching practices that attempt to
situate or at least link the teaching-learning process to appropriate contexts
(domains 2 and 6). Teaching practices along domains 2 and 6 include improving
the immediate physical, psychological and the social context of the classroom,
and the larger socio-cultural, economic, political, and historical context of the
community.
7. The domains, strands, and indicators of NCBTS have the dimensions of (a)
nature/quality; (b) frequency, consistency and appropriateness; and (c) selfawareness.
8. The NCBTS uses the Teacher Strengths and Needs Assessment (TSNA) which is
a self-assessment tool that allows teachers to identify their professional strengths
and development needs. It was designed within the domains of the NCBTS.
Results obtained from the TSNA become inputs for making the teacher Individual
Plan for Professional Development (IPPD) and ultimately, the IPPD becomes
input to the School Improvement Plan (IPPD).
9. The competency level of teachers under the NCBTS is described as (a) expert; (b)
experienced; (c) developing; and (d) beginning.
10. There are four (4) 21st Century Skills that are to be possessed by graduates in
order to live meaningfully in this world namely; (a) Effective Communication
Skill ways of thinking; (b) Learning and Innovation Skill ways of working; (c)
Information, media and technology skill tools for working; and (d) Life and
career skill ways of living in the world. Congruently, these are the competencies
to be first developed and demonstrated by the teachers if they so desire to imbue
their students with such 21st century skills.
11. To become an effective K to 12 teacher, one must be (a) multi-literate; (b) multispecialist; (c) multi-skilled; (d) self-directed; (e) life-long learner; (f) flexible; (g)
creative problem solver; (h) critical thinker; (i) has passion for excellent teaching;
and (j) high emotional quotient.

22

Activity 4.1. MY IDEAL TEACHING COMPETENCIES


Name: _________________________
Year & Section: __________________

Date: ____________
Score: ___________

What are the competencies of a great and effective teacher? Remember that competencies
are not values. They are rather a pattern or a combination of knowledge, skills and
attitudes. List down five (5) competencies and tell your reasons, enumerate the means to
develop them, and identify the subjects that allow a teacher education graduate to
cultivate such competencies.
N
o.

Competenc
ies

Reasons why
Means to
Identify
the
such competency is develop
such basic, major and
desired
competency
professional subjects
that develop this
competency

From these competencies, what do you think are you good at? Why?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

23

Which competency are you not able to do yet? Why?


________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Activity 4.2. WHAT IS MY DOMAIN AND STRAND?
Name: _________________________
Year & Section: __________________

Date: ____________
Score: ___________

Determine what is the domain and strand of each of the two (2) sentences inside the
column. Just write the letter of the domain as indicated below and put the number of the
strand.
A - Social Regard for Learning
B - Learning Environment
C - Diversity of Learners
D Curriculum

E - Planning, Assessing, and Reporting


F - Community Linkages
G - Personal Growth and Professional

Demonstrable Behavior of a Teacher

o.

Understand school operations


Abide by school policies and procedures

2 Identify my strengths and weaknesses as a person and as a teacher


Manifest determination to become a better
person and teacher
3

Understand the objectives, principles and


strategies for Gender and Development

Uphold gender sensitivity in my daily dealings


with my learners
4

Understand the concept of critical, higher order


thinking and the facets of understanding

Engage learners in activities that develop higher


order thinking skills
5

Keep track of students-at-risk in my class

Provide appropriate intervention activities for


learners-at-risk in my class
6

Know the various community resources available


to enhance learning

Use available community resources to support


learning
7

Use appropriate non-traditional assessment


techniques

Value the use of non-traditional assessment


8

Use assessment results in setting learning


objectives for specific learning activities

Appreciate the value of assessment in improving


teaching and learning

24

W
W
hats
hats
my
my
domain strand
?

1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

Know the educational psychology of learners with


special strengths and need

Use appropriate teaching-learning strategies for


learners with special needs

Know different strategies that enhance learners


moral and social development

Use varied teaching-learning strategies that


encourage development in social interaction

Construct valid and reliable formative and


summative tests

Appreciate the value of testing as a tool to


improve instruction and learning performance

Engage in self-assessment to develop my personal


qualities

Exhibit personal qualities such as enthusiasm,


flexibility and a caring attitude among others

Involve the community in the programs, projects


and thrusts of the school

Promote shared accountability for the learners


achievement
Demonstrable Behavior of a Teacher

1 Possess awareness on the implementation of time on task in all


4
responsibilities
Demonstrate punctuality in accomplishing expected tasks and
functions

Utilize varied designs of activities for the different


types of learners

Show respect and concern for individuals


differences in the designated selection of learning experiences
1

Know the art of questioning and different


6
techniques of asking and responding to higher order questions

Ask questions that stimulate critical, creative and


higher level thinking among learners
1

1
7

1
8

1
9
2
0
2
1

Maintain appropriate appearance and decorum on


all occasions

Value appropriate appearance and decorum


expected of teachers

Understand the principles and procedure of


maximizing instructional time

Observe strict observance in the use of my time in


teaching

Make use of the community as a laboratory for


learning

Appreciate the whole community as a learning


environment

Know the techniques and benefits derived from


theory-guided introspection

Desire to improve the quality of my teaching

25

W
W
hats
hats
my
my
domain strand
?

2
2
2
3
2
4

2
5

2
6

2
7

2
8
2
9

3
0

Know the current guidelines about grading system

Maintain accurate and updated learners records

Understand the dynamics of teaching learners


from diverse backgrounds

Show courtesy and respect to everyone at all times

Show appropriate behavior as example to my


Students

Consider the influence my behavior has on


Students

Understands the effects of socio-economic status


of learners on their learning performance

Use techniques to motivate learners of the lower


socio-economic status

Possess in-depth understanding of the subject


areas learning goals, instructional procedures and content based
on the current curriculum

Explain clearly and accurately the learning goals,


concept and process to my learners

Know the social realities in the community to


make learning relevant

Show concern about needs of communities by


encouraging application of learning

Translate my philosophy of teaching into action

Share my personal philosophy of teaching with my


peers

Know the importance of communicating learners


progress to students, parents, and other stakeholders

Manifest accountability and responsibility in


communicating the learners progress to intended stakeholders

Move from one part of the lesson to the next


according to learners needs and difficulties

Show flexibilities in moving from one part of the


lesson to the next in order support the needs of the learners

Activity 4.3. LIGHTS, CAMERA, ACTION!


Name: _________________________
Year & Section: __________________

Date: ____________
Score: ___________

Divide the class into seven groups. Each group is assigned a domain of teaching. Create a
10 minute script and present a role play showing the different strands and at least five (5)
indicators of the domain assigned. The script must highlight at least five (5) indicators
which shall be reflected at the first page.
Criteria for scoring:
Criteria

Points

Script
Story is clear and organized
Story shows the different strands
and indicators of the assigned
domain
Realistic
Story shows actual realities in the

5
26

teaching and learning process


Characters portrayed their roles
effectively
Stage Performance
Performance ended on time
Props were used
Teamwork
Cooperation was evident among
the members
There was a healthy working
relationship among members
Total

20

Activity 4.4. DETERMINING 21st CENTURY SKILLS


TEACHING AND LEARNING
Name: _________________________
Year & Section: __________________

Date: ____________
Score: ___________

Read the following case. Discuss and decide as a group if the teaching-learning process
shows examples of 21st century learning.
TOPIC: MY SUPER HERO
Teacher shows students a table containing a list of Filipino heroes together with their life,
works, and significant contributions in the making of Philippine history. Teacher asks
students to select from the table one hero that they admire most.
Teacher asks students to copy in their notebooks the essential information about their
Super Hero from the given table.
Teacher instructs students to draw on a piece of bond paper a picture of their Super Hero
and the teacher shows students the reference or basis for their drawings.
Below the sketched picture, students are asked to write the information they copied about
their Super Hero then tells students to frame them.
When done, teacher instructed students to post their sketches on a wall in the classroom.
In effect, the wall becomes a gallery of heroes. Teacher directed students to share their
sketches and read the information about their Super Hero.
27

Make Three Types of Decisions:


Yes, if all the procedures done in the class are good examples of 21st century
skills group stands up and shouts Hooray!
If some of the procedures done in the class are examples of 21st century skills and
some are not group stands up and says Hmmm!

No, if all the procedures done in the class are not examples of 21st century skills
group stands up and says Huh!

Why do you think the group decided on this? Give three (3) reasons.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Chapter Test 4
Name: _________________________
Year & Section: __________________

Date: ____________
Score: ___________

Choose the Best answer for each of the following questions. Encircle the letter of your
choice.
1. A teacher is very knowledgeable regarding the use of K to 12 strategies. Which broad
domain of teaching is he demonstrating?
a. Professional practice
c. Professional knowledge
b. Professional engagement
d. Professional teaching
2. The learning environment as well as planning, assessing and reporting in the
NCBTS are reflective of which broad domain of teaching?
a. Professional engagement
c. Professional knowledge
b. Professional practice
d. Professional attitude
3. Which of the following statements does not show the usefulness of NCBTS to all
stakeholders in education?
a. It defines the competencies required of every Filipino teacher in the basic education
b. It standardizes the competencies to be possessed by every Filipino teacher in the
basic education
c. It is used as a criteria for promotion to a higher teaching position
d. It is used as an input for making Individual Plan for Professional Development
(IPPD)
28

4. The most competent teacher based on the NCBTS is:


a. One who facilitates the students learning in order to achieve their optimal learning
b. One who determines his strengths and weaknesses
c. One who uses varied and effective teaching strategies
d. One who has a well-planned Individual Plan for Professional Development
5. All of the following statements are true about NCBTS except one. Which is not?
a. The NCBTS is a guide for teachers to reflect on their current teaching practices
b. The NCBTS minimizes the confusion about what effective teaching is all about
c. The NCBTS captures all phases of teacher development
d. The NCBTS proceeds from the most complex to simple standards
6. Domains 1 (Social regard for learning) and domain 7 (personal growth and
development) relate to the:
a. Role of the student
c. Role of the community
b. Role of the teacher
d. Role of the higher authorities
7. Which of the following domains captures the competency of the teacher to link
teaching and learning process to appropriate context?
a. Domain 3 to 5
c. Domain 1 and 7
b. Domain 2 and 6
d. Domain 4 and 5
8. Which of the following concepts is more concrete and observable teacher behavior
under the NCBTS?
a. Domain
c. Indicator
b. Strand
d. Criteria
9. Which characteristic of domain, strand and indicator shows its occurrence and
regularity?
a. nature
c. self-awareness
b. quality
d. frequency and consistency

29

10. Which of the following indicators does not belong to domain 1 social regard for
learning?
a. Provide gender-fair opportunities for learning
b. Be punctual
c. Implement school policies
d. Respect other people and their ideas
11. The indicator, use individual and cooperative learning activities to improve their
students capacity for higher learning belongs to which of the following domain?
a. Social regard for learning
c. diversity of learners
b. Learning environment
d. planning, assessing and reporting
12. Identifying teaching-learning difficulties and their possible causes and take the
appropriate action to address them is an indicator of which domain?
a. Social regard for learning
c. planning, assessing and reporting
b. Curriculum
d. diversity of learners
13. A teacher who encourages his students to apply their classroom learning in the
community fulfills which domain?
a. Social regard for learning
c. planning, assessing and reporting
b. Curriculum
d. community linkages
14. When a teacher stays abreast of recent developments in education, he is fulfilling
what domain?
a. Curriculum
c. personal growth and development
b. Planning, assessing and reporting
d. community linkages
15. A teacher fulfills which of the following domain if he clearly and accurately explains
learning goals, instructional procedures and content to his students?
a. Curriculum
c. diversity of learners
b. Social regard for learning
d. planning, assessing and reporting
16. When a teacher reflects on the quality of his own teaching, he is fulfilling what
domain?
a. community linkages
c. social regard for learning
b. personal growth and development
d. diversity of learners
17. Which of the following does not spell out the use of the Teacher Strengths and Needs
Assessment (TSNA) in DepEd?
a. It determines the weaknesses of the teachers
b. It is used for developing the teachers Individual Plan for Professional
Development
c. It is used as input for the crafting of School Improvement Plan (SIP)
d. It is used for promotional purpose.
18. What is the level of the TPD of a teacher if he has obtained average rating of all
the competencies and that he has to address with priority his training and
professional needs?
a. Developing
c. expert
b. beginning
d. experienced
19. The lowest competency level of the TPD is:
a. expert
b. beginning

c. developing
d. experienced

20. Which of the following 21st century skill is primarily developed by a teacher if he
groups the students to answer their field study?
a. Creativity
c. leadership and responsibility
b. Teaming
d. multicultural literacy
21. When a teacher uses the facebook and blog to enhance his teaching and learning, he
is developing which of the following 21st century skill?
a. Critical thinking and problem solving
c. risk taking
b. Visual and information literacies
d. interpersonal skills
22. What 21st century competency is developed by a teacher when he poses a problem
and asks students to solve it or research for its answers?
a. Critical thinking and problem solving
c. communication
b. Collaboration
d. creativity
23. Which of the following 21st century competency is developed by a teacher when he
raises an issue or topic and students express their ideas with varied media?
a. Critical thinking and problem solving
c. communication
b. Collaboration
d. creativity
24. The ____________ 21st century skill is developed by a teacher if he presents a
challenge and students design a solution or an innovation for it:
a. Critical thinking and problem solving
c. communication
b. Collaboration
d. creativity
25. Which of the following attributes of a K to 12 teacher is reflected when he is able to
monitor his own feelings and guided by the clich anger is one letter away from
danger?
a. Has passion for excellent teaching
c. high emotional quotient
b. Lifelong learners
d. multi-specialist
26. A teacher does not show expertise in a single subject area rather he teaches
connections, integration and puts all human experiences into a meaningful insight
and wisdom through application and synthesis. This teacher is thus equipped with
what attribute of a K to 12 teacher?
a. Multi-literate
c. multi-skilled
b. Multi-specialist
d. flexible
27. A teacher pursues an endless quest for knowledge so as to continuously improve his
teaching. This statement shows that he has an attribute of being a:
a. Lifelong learner
c. critical thinker
b. Self-directed
d. has passion for excellent teaching
28. Which of the following statements is false?
a. The 21st century skills are tools for students to live meaningfully in this world
b. The 21st century skills are ways of living in the world
c. The 21st century skills are ways of thinking in this world
d. The 21st century skills are ways of living and thinking using technology in
everyday life
29. A teacher who is able to competently use video conferencing, web navigation skills,
email management skills, facilitating skills, community organizing skills, leadership
skills and the like shows what type of a K to 12 attribute?
a. Multi-literate
c. multi-specialist
b. Multi-skilled
d. self-directed

Experiential Learning Courses Handbook, a Project of Teacher Education Council (TEC),


Department of Education (DepED), and Commission On Education (CHED)
Philippine Congressional Commission on Education (1993). EDCOM Report of1992.
Quezon City: Philippine Congressional Commission on Education.
Philippine Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (2000). PhilippineAgenda
for Educational Reform: The PCER Report. Pasig City: PresidentialCommission on
Educational Reform (PCER).
NCBTS-TSNA Orientation Manual Guide for Trainers and Implementers and Toolkit.
Teacher Induction Program Implementation Manual
(Experiential Learning Courses Handbook, 2009).

Match the specific function of a teacher from the seven (7) domains of NCBTS
Column A
Teacher planner

Column B
Social regard for
learning
Learning
environment
Diversity of learners
Curriculum
Planning, assessing
and reporting
Community linkages
Personal growth and
development

Reason/s

Social Regard for Learning


Caring
Exhibits
listening

Example/s
active