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Secondary Graphic Organizer

Subject: Chemistry
Level: Second Form

3.

Duration: 8-10 weeks

Changing States

2.

1. Evaporation/boil
ing
2. Melting
3. Freezing
4. Sublimation
5. Condensation
6. Heating/Cooling
Curve

States of Matter
1.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Scientific Method
1. Experiment
2. Scientific
Format
3. Stages of
Scientific
Method

What is matter?
Solids
Liquids
Gases/vapor

5.
4.

Pure Substances

Topic: Matter

Kinetic Theory

1. Physical and
chemical
changes
2. Elements
3. Compounds
4. Molecules

1. Diffusion
2. Osmosis
3. Brownian
motion

6.

7.

8.

Impure substances

Separating Mixtures

Solubility

1.
2.
3.
4.

Mixtures
Solutions
Suspensions
Colloids

Attitudes:

Skills:
o
o
o

1. Solubility
Terms
2. Solubility
Calculation
3. Solubility
Curve

1. Simple filtration
2. Simple and
fractional distillation
3. Paper
chromatography
4. Use of separating
funnel

o
o
o

Interpreting
Experimenting
Hypothesizing

Section 1 Unit Plan

Caring
participation
Appreciation

Subject:

Chemistry

Topic:

Matter

Level:

Second Form

Duration:

8-10 weeks

Goals:

1. To explain and illustrate the differences between solids, liquids and gases.
2. To outline the processes and changes that takes place n matter.
3. To value the importance of matter around us.

Rationale:

Knowledge and the application of concepts pertaining to matter allow students the
opportunity to relate and identify natural processes that occur in nature. This unit
also serves to assist students to develop an understanding that small motile
particles make up all matter and are responsible for its transformations.

Culminating
Activity:

At the end of this unit students will go on a field trip to Orange Walk Sugar
Industry Plant so as to develop a deeper understanding of the processes or
tecniques such as melting, boiling, condensation, freezing, filtering, decanting,
simple distillation and the use of a separating funnel.

Unit Plan: Section 2


Topic/ Subtopic/
Concepts/Skills/
Materials
Attitudes
Week 1
Hypothesizing:
A hypothesis is a
Topic:
tentative explanation
Matter
for a scientific
phenomenon.
Subtopic:
Scientific Method:
Scientific variables are
independent, dependent
1.1 Hypothesizing
and controlled.
and identifying
variables
Dependent variable is
1.2 Experimenting
the variable that is
1.3 Scientific
measured in the
Report Format
experiment.
1.4 Stages of the
Independent variable is
Scientific
changed in the
Method
experiment.
Materials
1.
2.
3.
4.

Concept charts
Colour paper
Crayons
Markers

Controlled variable is a
condition that is kept
constant in the
experiment.
Experimenting:
An experiment is
simply the test of a
hypothesis.
Format of a Scientific

Objectives

Activities

1. Define the term


hypothesis,
independent
variable, dependent
variable and control
variable.

5 E model
Engagement:
Story about Susan
and the pepper
plants. Pose
questions on story
and problem to be
completed.

2. Formulate
questions and
hypothesis
3. Identify the
independent and
dependent variables
from a hypothesis.
4. Appreciate the
skills scientist must
develop in order to
carry out their
work(scientific
investigations).
5. identify the proper
sequence of a
scientific report ;
appreciate the
importance of
writing scientific
reports;

Exploration:
Students will
observe and chart
on hypothesis and
variables. A topic
will be presented.
In pairs students
will be asked to
formulate a
question and
hypothesis, and
identify variables.
Explanation:
Students will
discuss their
answers as a whole
class. Teacher will
Demonstrate how
variables are
identified and how

Assessments
Activities
Traditional:
Quiz on
Scientific
method

References

Completing
worksheets for
class work and
assignment.

New Integrated
Science for the
Caribbean, bk 2,
pages 8-9

Authentic
Reflection on
scientific
reporting
Checklist for
planning and
designing an
experiment

Science for the


Caribbean, bk 1, page
21

Report:

Title:
a brief, concise, yet
descriptive title
Statement of the

Problem:
What question(s) are
you trying to answer?
(used for PD labs only)

Hypothesis:( use for


PD labs only)
Write a possible
solution for the
problem.

Aim:
The general description

6. write a reflection
the significance of
scientific reporting

questions and
hypothesis are
formulated.
Misconceptions
will be clarified.
Elaboration:
Based on scenarios
students in pairs
will formulate a
question and
hypothesis, and
identify variables.
Summary of
activity.
Evaluation:
Occurs at each
stage.
In pairs students
will create a chart
that displays their
formulated topic,
problem,
hypothesis and
variables.
Guided Discovery:
Discussion on
CXC requirements
for SBA.
Problem posed:
What is the correct

of what you set out to


do or show, eg. To test
the effect of saliva on
starch.

Materials:
Make a list of ALL
items used in the lab.

Procedure:
Step by step (complete
sentences) explaining
what was done in the
lab.

Results (Data):
This section should
include any data tables,
observations, or
additional notes you
make during the lab.
All tables, graphs and
charts should be

format for
reporting the
experiment on
filtration?
After viewing a
chart that depicts
the definition of
each segment of a
scientific report
students will visit
7 stations that
represent different
segment of a
scientific report
format on
filtration.
In groups students
will determine the
correct sequence
for the scientific
report on filtration.
Groups will
present their
findings.
Class discussion
on scientific
reporting.
Students reflect on
scientific
reporting.

labeled appropriately.
Discussion: (not used
in PD labs)
Explain why these
results could be
significant (what the
reasons might be for
the patterns found or
not found)

Conclusions:
EXPLAIN why you
accepted or rejected
your hypothesis using
data from the lab.
Scientific Method - It
is the steps someone
takes to ask a question,
develop a hypothesis,
and carry out
steps or procedures of
an experiment to test
the hypothesis, and
document data from
observations and
findings to share with

someone else.
Six Stages of a
Scientific Method
1) Make an observation
and then ask a question
about it:
An observation is the
act of getting
information from
surroundings with your
senses. Information
about the topic is also
gathered.
2) Form a hypothesis:
A hypothesis is what
you think might
happen. Some people
call a hypothesis an
educated guess.
4) Design experiment
to test the hypothesis:
Experiments should be
carefully and properly
designed and executed
so that results may be
determined valid
4. Analyze Data:
Carefully and

accurately collect,
record and analyze
data(looking for
similarities and
differences)
6. Communicate the
conclusion:
Communicating
conclusions is
important so that new
questions can be asked
and explored.
Skills:
Hypothesizing]
Experimenting
Inferring
Attitudes:
Caring
Participation
Appreciation

Week 2

Chemistry is the study


of matter.

Students should be
able to:
Topic:
1. Define the terms
Matter has three forms:
Matter
chemistry,
Solid, liquid or gas.
matter, mass,
Subtopic:
volume and the
Matter is everything
2.1 Matter
three states of
that
takes
up
space
and
2.2 Solids
matter.
has mass.
2.3 Liquids
2. Identify the
2.4 Gases
properties of
Four basic principles of
matter
the particle model of
Materials
3. conducts an
matter:
1. Checklist
experiment
1. Matter is made of
handouts for
about the
tiny
particles.
activities
properties of
2. There is empty space
2. Rubric for
matter
between
the
particles.
poster
4. perceives the
3. The particles are in
3. Pictures
importance of
constant
motion.
4. Solids, liquids
the properties of
4. There are forces that
and
matter to
act between the
gases(balloon)
everyday life
particles
5. Bristol board for
Solid has a definite
poster
5. Classify the
shape and volume.
three kinds
of matter.
A liquid has a definite
volume but not a
6. Describe the
definite shape.
properties of the
three states of
A gas has no definite
matter
shape or volume.
7. Give examples
Skills:
of each state of

5E Model
Engagement:
Agree/Disagree
activity using the
definition of
chemistry.
Reflection on what
is matter?
Exploration:
In pairs students
will create a table
to categorize their
items (pictures):
Matter, not matter
or unsure. Then
they will try to
determine what
properties all items
in each category
have in common.
Explanation:
Student will report
their findings to
the class.
Constructing an
argument and
defending a
position as
students share
their conclusions
with the class.

Traditional:
Quiz and class
work on matter
class activity
properties of
matter

1. Concepts and
Challenges in
Physical Science,
Bernstein and
Leonard(et.al.),
1988, pages 154157
Authentic
2. New Integrated
Checklist for
Science for the
reflection on the
Caribbean bk 2,
definition of
Steward, West,
what is matter.
Eugene, 2000,
Checklist for
pages 17-18
group
3. Chemistry for
investigation
CXC, Lambert,
and matrix.
1993, pages 1-3
Rubric for
poster.

Experimenting
matter.
Communicating
8. Create molecular
Classifying
modules of
Attitudes:
matter in the
Valuing
solid, liquid and
Responsibility
gaseous states.
Participation
9. Value matter
found in the
environment.

A whole class
discussion about
"tricky" items
follows during
which students
ultimately agree
on a definition of
matter.
Expansion:
Using the
properties they
outlined students
will define what
matter is.
Evaluation:
An evaluation will
be done at every
stage.
Group
Investigation:
Students will
investigate what
matter is made of
by studying the
behaviour of cane
sugar in water.
Integrative model
In groups students
will be observing

the properties
solids, liquids and
gases.
They will also
complete a matrix
stating their
observation.
Students will then
identify
similarities and
differences among
solid liquid and
gas.
Students will then
hypothesize the
reason for those
similarities and
differences.
Students will
create a poster
depicting the three
states of matter
using pictures
from magazines.

Week 3
Topic:
Matter

Terms:

Subtopic:
Changing States

Melting- The process


by which a substance
changes from its solid
state to its liquid state.

3.1 Evaporation
3.2 Boiling
3.3 Melting
3.4 Freezing
3.5 Sublimation
3.6 Condensation
3.7 Heating/Cooling
Curve
Materials
1. Video on
sublimation
2. LCD
projector
3. Water
4. Ice
5. Candle
6. Graph paper
7. Meter ruler
8. Bunsen
burner

Freezing- The process


by which a substance
changes from its liquid
state into its solid state.

Evaporation- A process
by which a substance
changes from its liquid
state to its gas state by
random particle
movement.

Sublimation- The
process by which a
substance changes
directly from its solid
state to its gas state
without becoming a
liquid first.

Students should be
able to:
1. Name
changes of
state;
2. Describe
changes of
state;
3. Explain the
terms
melting
point and
boiling
point;
4. Describe and
explain the
changes
associated
with change
of state;
5. Sketch and
explain the
shape of a
typical
heating curve
for a change
of matter;
6. Perform
experiments
to
demonstrate
changes in
state matter;

5 E Model
Students will
explain changes in
matter in terms of
kinetic energy and
bond forming and
breaking after
viewing a video
that shows
changes states at
the molecular
level.
Guided
discovery:
After a guided
practice with
experiments on
students will be
able to explain
changes associated
with change of
state.
Demonstration:
Students will
sketch and explain
the shape of a
typical heating and
cooling curve after
a demonstration by
the teacher.

Traditional
Quiz on
vocabulary
Assignment and
Class work on
heating and
cooling curves
Test on
Changing state
Authentic
Checklist on
sketching and
explaining
heating and
cooling curve
Rubric for
reflection on
what it will feel
like to be a
molecule of
water.
Rubric for
creating a story
booklet
depicting the
changing states.

1. Concepts and
Challenges in
Physical
Science,
Bernstein and
Leonard(et.al.
), 1988, pages
158-9
2. Chemistry: a
concise
revision
course for
CXC, page 2
3. Chemistry for
CXC, pages 24

Boiling- A process by
which a substance
changes from its liquid
state to its gas state.

Condensation- The
process by which a gas
becomes a liquid.
Melting point is the
temperature at which a
solid melts to form a
liquid or a liquid
freezes to form a solid.
Boiling point is the
temperature at which a
liquid boils to form a
gas or a gas condenses
to form a liquid.
Heating curve a
graphical
representation of
changing state from
solid to liquid and to
gas.

7. Explain that
bond-making
liberates
energy,
bondbreaking
absorbs
energy;
8. Describe a
method for
finding the
melting point
of a
substance.

Cooling curve a
graphical
representation of
changing state from
gas to liquid to solid.
Skills
Experimenting
Communicating
hypothesizing
Attitudes:
Sharing
Responsibility
Participation
Week 4
Topic:
Matter
Subtopic:
Particulate
Nature:
4.1 Diffusion
4.2 Osmosis
4.3 Brownian
motion
Materials:
1. concept charts
2. chemicals:
perfume, food

Terms:
Kinetic theory states
that matter is made up
of separate, moving
particles.

Diffusion is the
movement of particles
from an area of high
concentration to an
area of low
concentration unit they

Students should be
able to:
1. Describe what is
meant by the
kinetic theory;
2. Describe and
explain evidence
for the kinetic
theory: diffusion,
osmosis and
Brownian
motion.
3. Perform
experiments on
diffusion,
osmosis and
Brownian

5E Model
Students will carry
out experiments
and answering
questions on
osmosis. They will
then be able to
define, describe
and explain
osmosis.

Traditional:
Quiz on
diffusion,
osmosis and
Brownian
motion

Test on
diffusion,
osmosis and
Brownian
Guided Discovery motion
Students will
perform
Authentic:
experiments that
Rubric for
will guide them
presentations
into discovery

Chemistry for
CXC, pages 3-7

Biology for CSEC


4th Edition, pg.
30-35, L.
Chinnery, J.
Glasgow, M.
Jones, G. Jones

http://leavingbio.n
et/osmosis
%20and
%20diffusion.htm

colouring, potato,
salt, water and
chalk
3. flash light, petri
dishes, beakers
4. video on
Brownian motion

are evenly distributed.

Osmosis is the
movement of a solvent
from a more dilute to
more concentrated
solution through a
semi-permeable
membrane.

Brownian motion is the


erratic random
movement of
microscopic particles
suspended in a liquid
or gas, caused by
collisions with
molecules of the
surrounding medium.
Skills
Experimenting
Communicating
hypothesizing
Attitudes:
Caring

motion to
illustrate the
kinetic theory.

information on
diffusion. They
will then be able to
define, describe
and explain
diffusion.
Demonstration
Students will
video and perform
experiment that
demonstrate
Brownian motion.
They will then be
able to define,
describe and
explain Brownian
motion.

Checklists for
lab reports,
graphic
organizers and
foldables

Responsibility
Participation

Week 5
Topic:
Matter
Subtopic:
Pure Substances
5.1 Physical and
chemical
properties
5.2 Elements
5.3 Compounds
5.4 Molecules
Materials:
1. Models of
elements,

Terms:
Pure substances consist
of only one type of
material.

Pure substances have


definite and constant
composition, definite
and constant
properties, and can be
identified by their
physical and chemical

1. Define the terms


atoms, elements,
compounds,
molecules,
physical
properties and
chemical
properties.
2. Explain what is
meant by an
element and a
compound;
3. Explain what is
meant by an
atom and a
molecule.
4. Distinguish

Integrative model
Students will be
presented with
examples of
physical and
chemical
properties. Using a
matrix the will be
distinguishing
between the two.
Concept
attainment
Student will be
presented with
examples and non
examples of

Traditional:
Quiz, class
work and
assignment on
pure substances
Test on pure
substances
Authentic:
Rubric for
presentations,
role play
Checklists for
lab reports,
graphic
organizers and

1. Concepts and
Challenges in
Physical Science,
Bernstein and
Leonard(et.al.),
1988, pages 170193;concise
revision course
for CXC, page 2
2. Chemistry for
CXC, pages 11-12
3. Chemistry: a
concise revision
course for CXC,
page 3-7

compounds
and
molecules
2. Ice, water
and Bunsen
burner,
sugar, and
3. Concept
charts
4. Video and
LCD
projector

properties.
5.
Physical properties of a
substance can be
observed without
changing the
composition of a
substance. Eg colour,
odour, taste etc.

6.

7.

Chemical properties of 8.
a substance can only be
observed when the
substance undergoes a
change in its
composition.

Atoms are the smallest


particles into which an
element can be divided.

Element are made up


of one kind of atom.
They cannot be broken

between atoms
and molecules;
Distinguish
between element
and compounds
and molecules;
Distinguish
between physical
and chemical
properties;
Classify
substances as
elements,
compounds or
molecules.
Determine
whether
substances
undergo physical
or chemical
changes.

compounds and
elements. They
will hypothesize
and make general
statements based
on the examples
and non examples
presented.
5E model
Using models of
atoms and
molecules students
will distinguish
between the two.
Carryout different
experiments
students will be
able to distinguish
between physical
and chemical
changes.

foldables

down into other


substances.

Compounds are made


of two or more
elements chemically
combined.

Molecules are made of


two or more atoms
bonded together.
Skills
Experimenting
Communicating
Comparing and
contrasting
Attitudes:
Caring
Responsibility
Participation

Week 6
Topic:
Matter

1. Define the terms


mixtures
Terms:
(homogeneous
and
An impure substance is
Subtopic:
heterogeneous),
one which is a mixture
Impure Substances of two or more kinds of
solutions,
suspensions and
molecules and has no
6.1 Mixtures
colloids.
definite composition
6.2 Solutions
2. Explain
and properties; for
6.3 Suspensions
solutions,
example air, soil,
6.4 Colloids
suspensions and
atones and pebbles in
colloids with
food grains, sugar in
Materials:
example;
water, sand in water,
1. Concept
3. Differentiate
fruit juice etc.
charts
among solutions,
2. Power point
suspensions and
presentation
colloids.
on solutions Mixtures contain more 4. Classify
and LCD
substances as
than one substance or
projector
solutions,
component. Mixtures
3. Matrix
suspension or
can easily be separated
charts and
colloid.
into their compounds
information by physical means.
slips
4. Examples of
suspensions
and colloids A solution is a
5. Paper and
homogeneous mixture
markers
of solute and solvent.

A suspension is a

Discussion model
In groups students
will discuss what
mixtures are.
Concept
Attainment
Student will be
presented with
examples and non
examples of
solutions. They
will hypothesize
and make general
statements based
on the examples
and non examples
presented.
Integrative model
Students will be
presented with
examples of
suspensions and
colloids. Using a
matrix the will be
distinguishing
between the two.

Traditional:
Quiz, class
work and
assignment on
impure
substances
Test on impure
substances
Authentic:
Rubric for
presentations
and posters
Checklists for
lab reports,
graphic
organizers and
foldables

1. Concepts and
Challenges in
Physical Science,
Bernstein and
Leonard(et.al.), 1988,
pages 170193;concise revision
course for CXC,
pages 238-264
2. Chemistry for
CXC, pages 12-18
3. Chemistry: a
concise revision
course for CXC,
page 34-36

heterogeneous mixture
of two or more
substances that settles
out on standing.

A colloid is a
heterogeneous mixture
of two or more
substances that do not
settle out on standing.
Skills
Experimenting
Communicating
classifying
Attitudes:
Caring
Responsibility
Participation

Week 7
Topic:
Matter
Subtopic:
Separating
Mixtures
7.1 Simple filtration
7.2 Simple and
fractional
distillation
7.3 Paper
chromatography
7.4 Use of
separating
funnel
7.5 Decanting
7.6 Evaporation
7.7 Crystallization
7.8 Sublimation
Materials:
1. Concepts charts
2. Power point
presentation,
videos and LCD
projector
3. Apparatus for
evaporation,
crystallization,
filtration, paper
chromatography

Students should be
able to:
Separation techniques
1. Describe the
terms:
all the
separating
techniques.
2. Distinguish
Filtration is used to
among the
separate a liquid from a
separating
suspended or settled
techniques.
solid.
3. Investigate
how different
types of
mixtures can
Evaporation is used to
be separated
separate and retain the
using the
solid solute from
various
solution.
separating
techniques.
4. Determine
which
Crystallization is used
separating
to separate and retain
technique
the solid contains water
can be used
of crystallization.
to separate
common
A separating funnel is
mixtures.
used to separate two
immiscible liquids.

Paper chromatography
is used to separate

5E Model
Students will carry
out experiments in
order to describe
the various
separating
techniques.
Guided Discovery
Students will carry
out experiments
using to various
separating
techniques to
separate common
mixtures.

Traditional:
Quiz, class
work and
assignment on
separating
mixtures
Test on
separating
mixtures

Authentic:
Rubric for
presentations,
role play
Checklists for
lab reports,
Demonstration
graphic
Students will
organizers and
demonstration how foldables
the separate
common mixtures
using the various
separating
techniques.
Problem based
Model
Students will be
given a problem
based on
separating a
certain mixture

1. Chemistry for
CXC, pages 21-30
2.

Chemistry: a
concise revision
course for CXC,
page 7-11

and simple
distillation
4. Handouts and
worksheets

several solutes, usually


colored, present in a
solution.

Sublimation is used to
separate and retain a
solid which sublimes
from a mixture of
solids.

Simple distillation is
used to separate and
retain the solvent from
a solution.

Fractional Distillation
is used to separate two
miscible liquids which
have different boiling
points.

Use of a magnet to
separate metals from

using the any of


the various
separating
techniques.

non metals

Decanting is used to
separate liquid from a
settled solid.
Skills
Experimenting
Communicating
Problem
solving
Attitudes:
Caring
Responsibility
Participation

Week 8
Topic:
Matter

Solubility terms:

Subtopic:
Solubility

Solubility is the mass


of solute which will
8.1 Solubility Terms saturate 100g of
8.2 Solubility
solvent at a given
Calculation
temperature.
8.3 Solubility Curve
Materials:
1. Concept
chart
2. Power point
presentation
and LCD
projector
3. Graph paper
4. Calculator
5. Sugar and
water

Saturated solution
contains as much
solute as can be
dissolved at a given
temperature, in the
presence of
undissolved solute.

When solubility is
plotted against
temperature, a
solubility curve is
obtained.

Supersaturated solution
may contain more

Students will be able


to
1. Define terms
associated to
solubility
2. Distinguish
between
saturated
solution and
supersaturate
d solution;
3. Perform
calculations
on solubility
4. Plot
solubility
curve;
5. Interpret
solubility
curve

Guided discovery
Students will carry
out activities to
distinguish
between saturated
and supersaturated
solution.
Demonstration
After a
demonstration
students will be
able to perform
calculation on
solubility, and plot
and interpret
solubility curves.
Practice and Drill
Students will
practice
calculating
solubility, plotting
and interpreting
solubility curve.

Traditional:
Quiz, class
work and
assignment on
solubility
Test on
solubility
Authentic:
Rubric for
presentations
and posters
Checklists for
lab reports,
graphic
organizers and
foldables

1. Chemistry for
CXC, pages 13-15
2. Chemistry: a
concise revision
course for CXC,
page 34-36
3. Chemistry
calculations p,
Hunt and Sykes,
pages 47-53

solute than can


normally be dissolved
in a given amount of
solvent at a given
temperature.

Solubility = mass of
solute in solution /
mass of water in
solution X 100g of
water

Skills:
Problem solving
Plotting solubility
curves
Interpreting
solubility curves

Attitudes:
Participating

Attentiveness
Caring