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Topics to be Covered

Transformation

Geometrical

Coordinate

Matrix Representations and Homogenous Coordinates

Basic Transformations

Translation

Rotation

Scaling

Reflection

Shearing

Composite Transformations

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Transformation

Simulated spatial manipulation is referred as

Transformation

Two types

Geometric Coordinate

Translation

Displacement of an object in a given distance and direction from its original position.

Rigid body transformation that moves object without deformation

Initial Position point P (x, y)

The new point P’ (x’, y’)

where

x’ = x + tx

y’ = y + ty

tx and ty is the displacement in x and y respectively.

The translation pair (tx, ty) is called a translation vector or shift vector

P’ (x’,y’)
P’
(x’,y’)
P(x,y)
P(x,y)
and y respectively. The translation pair (tx, ty) is called a translation vector or shift vector

TRANSLATION

Matrix representation

P

x

 

 

y

P

'

x

y

'

'

T

tx

ty

Rotation

Rotation is applied to an object by repositioning it

along a circular path in the xy plane.

To generate a rotation, we specify

Rotation angle θ Pivot point ( xr , yr)

Positive values of θ for counterclockwise rotation Negative values of θ for clockwise rotation.

2-D Rotation

(x’, y’) (x, y)  Ф
(x’, y’)
(x, y)
Ф

2-D Rotation

x = r cos (f)

2-D Rotation x = r cos ( f ) y = r sin ( f )

y = r sin (f)

x’ = r cos (f + )

x = r cos ( f ) y = r sin ( f ) x’ =

y’ = r sin (f + )

Trig Identity…

x’ = r cos(f) cos() r sin(f) sin()

y’ = r sin(f) sin() + r cos(f) cos()

Substitute…

x’ = x cos() - y sin ()

y’ = x sin () + y cos ()

2-D Rotation

x’ = x cos () - y sin() y’ = x sin() + y cos ()

Matrix representation

P 'R P

R

cos

sin

sin

cos

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Scaling

Scaling alters the size of an object . Operation can be carried out by multiplying each of its components by a scalar Uniform scaling means this scalar is the same for all components:

each of its components by a scalar  Uniform scaling means this scalar is the same
each of its components by a scalar  Uniform scaling means this scalar is the same
each of its components by a scalar  Uniform scaling means this scalar is the same

2

Scaling

Non-uniform scaling: different scalars per component:

Scaling  Non-uniform scaling : different scalars per component: X  2, Y  0.5
Scaling  Non-uniform scaling : different scalars per component: X  2, Y  0.5

X 2,

Y 0.5

Scaling  Non-uniform scaling : different scalars per component: X  2, Y  0.5

Scaling

x’ = x* sx y’ = y * sy

In matrix form:

'   sx

x

y '

0

0   

  

x

 

sy

y

Homogenous Coordinate System

Allows us to express all transformation equations as matrix multiplications , providing that we also expand the matrix representations for coordinate

positions.

Reflection

A reflection is a transformation that produces a

mirror image of an object

Generated relative to an axis of reflection

1. Reflection along x axis

2. Reflection along y axis

3. Reflection relative to an axis perpendicular to the xy plane and

passing through the coordinate origin

4. Reflection of an object relative to an axis perpendicular to the xy

plane and passing through point P

5. Reflection of an object with respect to the line y=x

Reflection About x-Axis

y

P1 Image P2 P3 P2’ P3’ P1’
P1
Image
P2
P3
P2’
P3’
P1’

Original

x

Reflected Image

Reflection About x-Axis

Reflection about x-axis

M

0


1

0

1

  0

0

0

0

1

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Reflection About y-axis

Reflected

Image

Original

Image x
Image
x

y

Reflection About y-axis

Reflection about y-axis

M

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

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Reflection relative to an axis perpendicular to the xy plane and passing through the

coordinate origin Reflected Image Original Image
coordinate origin
Reflected
Image
Original
Image

y

x

Reflection relative to an axis perpendicular to the xy plane and passing through the

coordinate origin

Reflection about the origin point

M

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

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Reflection of an object with respect to the line y=x

y Original Image
y
Original
Image

Reflected

Image

x

Reflection of an object with respect to the line y=x

Reflection about with respect to line y=x

M

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

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Shearing

A transformation that distorts the shape of an object such that the transformed object appears as

if the object were composed of internal layers that

had been caused to slide over each other.

Shearing

Shear relative to the x-axis

shx

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

Shear relative to the y-axis

shy

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

Composite Transformations

For

transformations , composite

transformation matrix could be setup by the matrix

of

a

sequence

product of the individual transformations

Also referred as Concatenation or Composition of Matrices