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Dairy Processing

Plant and Equipment


Considerations

Eric Goan
Dairy Processing Specialist
Department of Food Science Technology
University of Tennessee

Processing Considerations
Considerations
Are you sure this is something you want to do?
Talk to other producers
Visit their facility
Would they change anything?
Keep in mind you may not be approved for the exact same set up.

Commitment to the dairy


Advantages and disadvantages
How hard and competitive is marketing the product?
If they had to do over would they begin processing?
What does it cost to process a gallon/pound of product?

Processing Construction Requiremnets


First Talk with Inspection Service (Tennessee
Department of Agriculture) or UT Extension
(Department of Food Science & Technology)
Eric C. Goan
Bill Thompson
Director Center for Food Processing
Food Manufacturing Administrator
Extension Specialist Dairy Processing
Tennessee Department of Agriculture
The University of Tennessee
440 Hogan Road
Department of Food Science & Technology
Nashville, TN 37220
2510 River Drive
Phone: (615) 837-5534
Knoxville, TN 37996
Fax: (615) 837-5335
Phone: 865-974-7287
Email: bill.e.Thompson@TN.gov
Fax: 865-974-7332
Email: egoan1@utk.edu

Processing Construction Requiremnets

First Talk with Inspection Service (Tennessee Department of Agriculture) or UT


Extension (Department of Food Science & Technology)
Order of Approval Process
Site Approval (TDA)
Facility Approval (TDA)

Waste Water (TDEC)


Potable Water (TDEC)
Septic Tank (Health Department)
Direction of all facility Drains (TDA)

Equipment Approval (TDA)

Prior to Purchase and Installation


After Installation

Plant Layout and Design Approved (TDA)


Approved Lab (TDA)
Special License (TDA)

Plant Permit
Hauler/Sampler License

Chemical Approval (TDA)

Processing Construction Requiremnets

First Talk with Inspection Service Tennessee Department of Agriculture (TDA) or UT


Extension, Department of Food Science & Technology (UTFST)
Order of Approval Process
Site Approval (TDA)
Facility Approval (TDA)

Waste Water (TDEC)


Potable Water (TDEC)
Septic Tank (Health Department)
Direction of all facility Drains (TDA)

Equipment Approval (TDA)

Prior to Purchase and Installation


After Installation

Plant Layout and Design Approved (TDA)


Approved Lab (TDA)
Special License (TDA)

Plant Permit
Hauler/Sampler License

Chemical Approval (TDA)

Processing Construction Requiremnets

First Talk with Inspection Service (Tennessee Department of Agriculture) or UT


Extension (Department of Food Science & Technology)
Order of Approval Process
Site Approval (TDA)
Facility Approval (TDA)

Waste Water (TDEC)


Potable Water (TDEC)
Septic Tank (Health Department)
Direction of all facility Drains (TDA)

Equipment Approval (TDA)

Prior to Purchase and Installation


After Installation

Plant Layout and Design Approved (TDA)


Approved Lab (TDA)
Special License (TDA)

Plant Permit
Hauler/Sampler License

Chemical Approval (TDA)

Processing Construction Requiremnets

First Talk with Inspection Service (Tennessee Department of Agriculture) or UT


Extension (Department of Food Science & Technology)
Order of Approval Process
Site Approval (TDA)
Facility Approval (TDA)

Waste Water (TDEC)


Potable Water (TDEC)
Septic Tank (Health Department)
Direction of all facility Drains (TDA)

Equipment Approval (TDA)

Prior to Purchase and Installation


After Installation

Plant Layout and Design Approved (TDA)


Approved Lab (TDA)
Special License (TDA)

Plant Permit
Hauler/Sampler License

Chemical Approval (TDA)

Processing Regulations
Grade A Pasteurize Milk Ordinance (PMO)

All Federal and State of Tennessee Rules for producing and processing grade A
milk
State rules vary state to state

Interstate Milk Shippers List (IMS)

Allows products to be sold across state lines


Three tiered inspection program on dairy plant and dairy farm for IMS
1) Area inspector inspects plant every 3 months
2) State rating officer conducts state survey every 2 years
3) Federal rating officer conducts federal survey every 3 years

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)


Cornell online course

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)


Standard Sanitation Operating Procedures (SSOPs)
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)
Certification course offered through UTFST

Processing Considerations
Considerations
Processing Classes
Learn processing and lab techniques
Sensory properties

Co-Packers
Starting Point

Sources of Milk
Table 1. Gross Composition (%) of Milk from Domesticated mammals
Species

Fat

Protein

Lactose

Ash

Total Solids

Ayshire

4.1

3.6

4.7

0.7

13.1

Brown Swiss

4.0

3.6

5.0

0.7

13.3

Guernsey

5.0

3.8

4.9

0.7

14.4

Holstein

3.5

3.1

4.9

0.7

12.2

Jersey

5.5

3.9

4.9

0.7

15.0

Goat

3.5

3.1

4.6

0.8

12.1

Sheep

5.3

5.5

4.6

0.9

16.3

Cow

Park, YW and Haenlein, GFW. Handbook of Milk of Non-bovine Mammals. Blackwell Publishing.

Different Dairy Products

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Milkproducts.svg

Processing Plant

Test Milk
Separate Fat
Mix Ingredients
Pasteurize Milk
Bottled or Further
Processed (i.e.
Cultured Products)

Processing Plant
Milk Tests

Smell & Taste


Receiving Temperature
Titratable Acidity
Direct Microscopic Count (DMC)
Standard Plate Count
Somatic Cell Count
Drug Residue (Inhibitor Testing)
Lab Pasteurize Test
Freezing Point of Milk
Butterfat
DCQI Services http://www.dqci.com/milk-microbiology-analyses.html

Processing Equipment
Milk Storage
Refrigerated Farm Bulk Tanks
Pasteurize Milk
Raw Milk
Cream Storage

Separator
Blend/Mix Tanks
CIP and COP Systems

Processing Equipment
Pasteurization
High Temperature Short Time (HTST)
161.5F (72C) for 15s

Vat or Batch Pasteurization


145F (63C) for 30m

www.shiercompany.com

www.dairyagendatoday.com

Processing Equipment
HSTS Pasteurizer Heat Exchangers
Plate Heat Exchanger
Tube in Tube Heat Exchanger

Processing Equipment
Homogenizer
Breaks down fat globules

Jug Filler
Product must be mechanically
filled and sealed

Fermentation Vat
Allows Yogurt to
ferment

Processing Equipment
Excess Cream
Butter
Utilizes more cream
Churn

Ice Cream
Limitations
Seasonal
Varieties

Uses less cream


Ice Cream Maker
Storage freezer

Processing Equipment
Cheese Making
Make Sheet
Vat
Drain Table
Waste Material (Whey)

Press

http://www.wsu.edu/creamery/phototours/phototourschz.htm

Plant Considerations
Dairy Plant with Batch Pasteurization
Dairy Processing Plant
Fluid Milk & Butter Floor Plan
Prepared by Eric Goan and
Tommy Burch (University of
Tennessee) and Hugh Wilson
and Terry Kinser (Tennessee
Department of Agriculture)
1" = 17.14'

120'

Sales Cooler 3

20'

Sales Cooler 1

19'

25

12'

Secretarys
Office

Sales Room

4
12

Up

19'

Sales Counter

20'

Drain

4
12

70'

Sales Shelving

10

Drain

10

Womens
Public
Restroom

Mens Public
Restroom

Sales Cooler 2

17'

Managers
Office

70'
Hand Wash Sink
3'x10'
C.O.P.
Vat

Drain

34

500 Gallon
Pasteurized
Farm Bulk
Tank
Refrigerated

Finish Product
Storage Cooler

11

Break Room

19'

10

12

3'

46'
4
Hand Wash Sink

Drain

Hand/Eye Wash Sink

600 Gallon
Pasteurization
Vat

Empty 25
Jug Storage

Drain

17'

500 Gallon
Pasteurization
Vat

Butter Making

8 Overhead
Roll Up Door

Labratory

600 Gallon
Pasteurization
Vat

20'
12' Overhead
Roll Up Door

Drain

20

Hand/Eye Wash Sink

120'

8 Overhead
Roll Up Door
With Dock Seal

60'

Pasteurization C.I.P.

Homogenizer
Platecooler

300 Gallon
50 Gallon
300 Gallon
Pasteurization Pasteurization Pasteurization
Vat
Vat
Vat

10

500 Gallon
Pasteurized
Farm Bulk
Tank
Refrigerated

Drain

120'

25

Drain

Hand Wash Sink

8 Overhead
Insulated
Roll Up Door

8 Overhead
Roll Up Door
With Dock Seal

19'

Drain

Dock anteroom
with three 8 ft.
wide unloading
doors with dock
seals.

10

800 Gallon
Pasteurized
Farm Bulk Tank
Refrigerated

Drain

Drain

19'

Jug Filler

Casing Area

Drain

10

12

800 Gallon
Pasteurized
Farm Bulk Tank
Refrigerated

46'

12

19'
19'

70'

10

3'x10' C.O.P Vat

70'

1500 Gallon Raw Milk


Tank

19'

10

Drain

19'

Mechanical

Womens
Locker Room Drain

10

30'

Drain

12
Hand/Eye Wash Sink

Drain

Mens Locker
Room Drain

19'

6
Up

10
20
Dock

Drain to Safety
Box

120'

Up

19'

20
Dock

10

Chiller

10 Overhead
Roll Up Door

85'

Chemical
Storage

12

12

Boiler 2

Air Compressors

10

Up

17

Hand/Eye Wash Sink

Boiler 1

40'
10'

Raw C.I.P.

Work Bench

Hand Wash Sink

Up

200 Gallon
Raw Cream Vat
Refrigerated

Hand Wash Sink

24'
800 Raw Skim
Blend

Milk Receiving

Hand Wash Sink

800 Raw Skim


Blend

500 Mix
Tank

10 Sliding Door

Commercial Hot
Water Heater

24
20

300 Mix
Tank

25

12

Drain

Drain

Drain

12

3'

24'

8 Overhead
Roll Up Door

8 Overhead
Roll Up Door
With Dock Seal

Dry Storage

1500 Gallon Raw Milk


Tank

Raw Milk Storage

24
12

Drain

390
Seperator

72'

Hand Wash Sink

25

Drain

3'x8'
C.O.P
Vat

Drain

12' Overhead
Roll Up Door

20'

Plant Considerations
Dairy Plant with HTST Pasteurization
Dairy Processing Plant
Fluid Milk & Butter Floor Plan
Prepared by Eric Goan and
Tommy Burch (University of
Tennessee) and Hugh Wilson
and Terry Kinser (Tennessee
Department of Agriculture)
1" = 17.14'

120'
4

Sales Shelving

Secretarys
Office

Sales Cooler 3

20'

Sales Cooler 1

19'

25

12'

12

Up

19'

Sales Room

4
12

70'

Sales Counter

20'

Drain

Drain

10

10

Womens
Public
Restroom

Mens Public
Restroom

Sales Cooler 2

17'

Managers
Office

70'
Hand Wash Sink
3'x10'
C.O.P.
Vat

Drain

34

500 Gallon
Pasteurized
Farm Bulk
Tank
Refrigerated

Finish Product
Storage Cooler

Break Room

Drain

Hand/Eye Wash Sink

HTST Pasteurizing Unit


With Homogenizer

19'

10

12

3'

4
Hand Wash Sink

Pasteurization C.I.P.

Drain

300
Gallon
Past Vat

Butter Making
Drain

Empty 25
Jug Storage

600 Gallon
Pasteurization
Vat

17'

8 Overhead
Roll Up Door

Labratory

20'
12' Overhead
Roll Up Door

Drain

20

Hand/Eye Wash Sink

120'

8 Overhead
Roll Up Door
With Dock Seal

60'

25

10

500 Gallon
Pasteurized
Farm Bulk
Tank
Refrigerated

Drain

120'

46'

19'

Drain

Dock anteroom
with three 8 ft.
wide unloading
doors with dock
seals.

Hand Wash Sink

8 Overhead
Insulated
Roll Up Door

8 Overhead
Roll Up Door
With Dock Seal

Drain

10

800 Gallon
Pasteurized
Farm Bulk Tank
Refrigerated

Casing Area

Drain

19'

Jug Filler

11

Drain

10

12

800 Gallon
Pasteurized
Farm Bulk Tank
Refrigerated

46'

12

70'

10

19'
19'

3'x10' C.O.P Vat

800 Raw Skim


Blend
200 Gallon
Raw Cream Vat
Refrigerated

70'
Hand Wash Sink

Drain

19'

Mechanical

Womens
Locker Room Drain

10

30'

Drain

12
Hand/Eye Wash Sink

Drain

Mens Locker
Room Drain

19'

6
Up

10
20
Dock

Drain to Safety
Box

120'

Up

19'

20
Dock

10

Chiller

10 Overhead
Roll Up Door

85'

Chemical
Storage

12

12

Boiler 2

Air Compressors

10

Up

17

Hand/Eye Wash Sink

Boiler 1

10'

Hand Wash Sink

40'
6

Raw C.I.P.

4
12

19'

Work Bench

10

1500 Gallon Raw Milk


Tank

Up

4
10 Sliding Door

Commercial Hot
Water Heater

3'

Milk Receiving

Hand Wash Sink

800 Raw Skim


Blend

24'

500 Mix
Tank

20

300 Mix
Tank

25

24

Drain

Drain

12

Drain

24'

8 Overhead
Roll Up Door

8 Overhead
Roll Up Door
With Dock Seal

Dry Storage

1500 Gallon Raw Milk


Tank

Raw Milk Storage

24
12

Drain

390
Seperator

72'

Hand Wash Sink

25

Drain

3'x8'
C.O.P
Vat

Drain

12' Overhead
Roll Up Door

20'

Plant Considerations
Milking Parlor with Plant Attached
Drain

Drain

Store

Bathrooms

Office

Drain

Cheese Vat

Drain Table

Cheese Press

Refrigerator

Drain

Managers Office

Vacuum
Sealer

Up

Milking Parlor
Viewing Hallway
Drain

Drain
100 or 50 Gallon
Vat Pasteurizer

Milk Processing

Plate Cooler and


Homogenizer

Chemical Room

COP Vat
Drain

Crate
Washer

Jug Filler

Anteroom

Casing Area

Drain

COP Vat

Bulk Milk Tank


100 or 200 Gallon
Drain

Tank Room

Drain

Laboratory

Drain

Locker Room

Ice
Builder

Air Compressor

Drain

Drain

Dry Storage

Drain

Crate Storage
Drain

Water Heater
Drain

Mechanical Room

Plant Considerations
Goat/Sheep Processing Facility
D
r
a
i
n

Bathrooms

Drain
Bulk Tank
Milk Parlor
Tank Room

200 gallon
Vat Past.

Drain

200 Gallon Cheese Vat


3'x8' COP Vat

Lab/Locker Room
Processing

Drain

Jug Filler
Boiler

Hot Water Heater

D
r
a
i
n

Air Compressor

Cooler/ Dry Storage

Loading Dock
Mechanical

Cooler

Chill Water Tank

Crate Washer

Drain

Office

Shipping/Receiving
Dry Storage
Chemical Storage

Up

Questions