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Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it

possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic
animals and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide,
which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids.

Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average
temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects. Scientific understanding of global
warming is increasing. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)reported in 2014 that
scientists were more than 95% certain that global warming is being caused mostly by increasing
concentrations of greenhouse gases and other human (anthropogenic) activities.[6][7][8] Climate
model projections summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century the global surface
temperature is likely to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 C (0.5 to 3.1 F) for their lowest emissions
scenario using stringent mitigation and 2.6 to 4.8 C (4.7 to 8.6 F) for their highest.[9]

he effects of global warming in the Arctic include rising temperatures, loss of sea ice, and melting
of the Greenland ice sheet.[1][2][3]Potential methane release from the region, especially through the
thawing of permafrost and methane clathrates, is also a concern. Because of the amplified response
of the Arctic to global warming, it is often seen as a leading indicator of global warming.

Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials
into Earth's atmosphere, causing disease, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such
as food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or
natural sources.

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies

(e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). This form ofenvironmental degradation occurs
when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequatetreatment to
remove harmful compounds.
Water pollution affects the entire biosphere plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In
almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the
natural biological communities.

Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. The
harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests;

extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of protected species; or the
extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits (see Box 1).
Illegalities may also occur during transport, such as illegal processing and export; fraudulent
declaration to customs; the avoidance of taxes and other charges, and fraudulent certification. [1]