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Guide to Pronunciation Symbols




/ m/
/h /

/w /

fox, leaf
zebra, is
cheap, catch

/ 'ga:dan/
/foks/, /li:f/
/se m /
/ zebra/, /iz/
/ faejan/
/ .te li'v ija n /
/!fi:p/, /kaetf/
/ ' /


l ei




/ ' veri/
/ 'evri/
/fa:m /
/ : /
/ leta/

Diphthong (two vowels together)

/ I/


/ n3iz/

Sound is not the same as spelling, for example, the word '/s'finishes with the letter 's' but the sound is /z/.
/ /


When writing the sound of a word (its phonemic transcription), always put lines like these //on either
side of the word:
/vaen/ van
Stress is shown with marks like these ' ,
' shows the primary stress in a word. For example, / ' ga:dan/
, shows the secondary stress. For example, / , teli ' vijan/ tele viA io n


Learning vocabulary in collocations and phrases will develop your fluency. And doing a little revision regularly is the
best way to learn vocabulary.That's what the Outcomes Vocabulary Builder (OVB) will help you with.
It has been written to provide you with the important vocabulary in the Student's Book and to show you how these
words are commonly used. It does not include easier words which you should know from lower levels such as boring,
or unusual words, which you probably don't need to remember at this level.

What each entry contains___________________________________________________

Each entry has a short explanation of the word's meaning and often gives information on other forms or
There is then a list of up to six typical collocations and phrases that the word is used with.
Regular language boxes provide extra information on word families, phrasal verbs etc.

How the OVB is organised

It is organised to make it quick and easy to use in class and to revise at home.
Each unit in the OVB contains the most important new words from exercises, texts and listenings in the unit
of the Student's Book.
The units are then divided according to each double page of the Students Book and the words within those
pages are written in alphabetical order.
At the end of each unit there are exercises to do.
There is an answer key at the back of the book.

Ways you can use the OVB

Read the word list before you study the unit in the book.
Translate all the words you dont know based on the explanation. Check the collocations for each word. Do
they make sense? Are any different to your language?
In class, if you have forgotten a word, look it up again. Write out the collocation list and add one of your own.
Cover words in the list and say or write phrases with the word.Then compare with the collocation list.
Choose five to ten words from the list to learn each day.
Put eight new words in a story using the collocations listed.
Do the exercises at the end of each unit some time after you've done it in class. Then check the answers in
the key.
Write a list of the words you find difficult to remember and write sentences using the words.

Pa c e s 8 -9
banned to ban something means to not allow it: my
parents - mefrom playing the game / smoking is
- in the building / hes been - from driving / the
government has - hunting
cant be bothered if you cant be bothered to do
something,you don't want to make the effort to
do it. The past form is couldnt be bothered. If you
bother to do something, you make the effort to
do it: I can't be bothered to watch it now / 4
coming out?No, I cant be bothered./1 couldnt
be bothered to cook / he didnt bother to phone us
I a lot of people dont bother voting I dont bother
coming to collect me - Ill get the bus
come out when a film or book comes out, it becomes
available: I waitfor films to - on cable / -o n DVD /
her new book is due to ~ next week
commercial if something is commercial, it is
produced just to make money. The adverb is
commercially: a typical -filmfrom Hollywood I
I dont like their music - its too - / a -T V channel
(run as a business, not paidfor by a government) I
thefilm was aflop commercially I the restaurant
isnt commercially viable (able to make money)
disturbing if something is disturbing, it is upsetting,
or makes you feel anxious or worried.The verb
is disturb. Disturbed is also an adjective: Ifound
it a bit-1 a - increase in crime / some deeply photographs / a profoundly - experience / It disturbs
me that governments arent doing more to help /
I was very disturbed to hear about the murder
dull if something is dull, it is boring.The noun is
dullness: its quite - l a rather - movie / 1found
it incredibly - I it was deadly dull (extremely dull)
/ theres never a - moment here (theres always
something interesting happening) / 1hated the
dullness of the landscape

gripping if something is gripping, it is extremely

exciting.The verb is grip. Gripped is also an
adjective: a - novel / a - story / thefilms
absolutely - l a really - ending / the story really
grips you I we were all gripped by the TV reports
heavy you can say that something is heavy if it is very
serious or upsetting: its a good book, but quite / dont want to read anything too - on holiday / 1
found the book - going at times (difficult to read)
hilarious something that is hilarious is extremely
funny.The adverb is hilariously: it was absolutely / some - jokes / hes - when hes in the right mood
/ it was hilariouslyfunny
over-the-top if something is over-the-top, it is so
extreme that it seems silly. We can shorten the
word to OTT (oh-tee-tee): it was completely - / 1
think thats a bit - / 1find her a bit OTT sometimes
turn over in British English, if you turn over when
you are watching TV, you change to a different
channel. In American English,you say change /
switch channels: I started watching it, but then I
turned over / can we - to BBC1? / we turned over
to watch thefootball
uplifting if something is uplifting, it makes you feel
happy and full of hope.There is a formal verb,
uplift: a really - story I a n - experience 11felt
uplifted by his talk
Pa g e s 1 0 -1 1
ambiguous if something is ambiguous, its meaning is
not clear.The noun is ambiguity, and the adverb is
ambiguously: his later paintings are quite - / some
of the language is a bit - 11 think she was being
deliberately - / theres a lot of ambiguity in what
he said 11 worded it carefully to avoid ambiguity I
it was worded ambiguously
atmospheric if something is atmospheric, it creates
a mood of mystery or excitement. The noun is
atmosphere: a really - painting / - music I the
decors quite - / keep the lights low to create a
spooky atmosphere
bankruptcy bankruptcy is a situation when someone
does not have enough money to pay all their
debts. The adjective is bankrupt: he laterfell into
- / the couple nowface - 1she was close to -1 the
number of bankruptcies has risen / the company
went bankrupt lastyear / they have been declared
bankrupt / hes virtually bankrupt
conventional if something is conventional, it is
done in the usual way, and is not new or different
in any way. The adverb is conventionally.The
opposite is unconventional: a - portrait I a novel / his ideas are all quite - l a - education I
a highly - upbringing / she was brought up quite
conventionally / an unconventional approach
to art

-A l

Some adjectives are formed by adding -al

to a noun. For example, follow convention /
conventional ideas. Have an accident / accidental
damage; good behaviour / behavioural problems;
help commerce / have a commercial advantage;
cause a major controversy / a controversial
decision; a rare exception / in exceptional
circumstances; round the globe / a global
effort; its not the norm / normal relations; a big
organisation / undergo organisational changes.

corrupted if a person becomes corrupted, a place or

person has a bad influence on them and makes
them do dishonest or immoral things.The verb is
corrupt: he was - by the criminals he was mixing
with /young prisoners can become ~ by older
inmates / he was ~ by wealth / they say that power
corrupts / he was trying to corrupt her
despair despair is a feeling that you have no hope.
Despair is also a verb: afeeling of total - 1 he killed
himselfin ~ / she was in the depths o f- / losing
the business drove him to ~ / it was a very difficult
time, but we never despaired / 1never despaired of
finding him again
dominant if a person or thing is dominant, they have
more power or influence than others.The noun
is dominance: the ~ partner in the relationship
/ a - personality / the company has a ~ position
in the world market / the political and economic
dominance of the USA
friction if there is friction between people, there is
unfriendliness or disagreement between them:
there was ~ between the two sisters / the usual
frictions between parents and teenagers / money
was a source of - between them
fulfil if you fulfil your desires, you achieve what you
wanted to achieve: his struggle to ~ his desires / at
last he had ~led his childhood dream / 1hope one
day I will ~ my ambitions
heated a heated discussion or argument is one in
which people are angry or upset: a ~ discussion
between the two sisters / having a - argument /
a ~ debate on the punishment of criminals / the
discussion was quite ~ at times
impression if you get an impression about
something, you get a feeling about it, or form an
opinion about it: I get the - someone's died / 1got
the distinct - (the very strong impression) that
we weren't welcome / 1dont wantyou to get the
wrong ~ / it left me with the ~ that she's not very
happy / what wasyourfirst ~ of her?
intimate something that is intimate is about a
person's private life. The noun is intimacy and the
adverb is Intimately: an ~ painting / an ~friend

of the artist / did they have an ~ relationship

(a sexual relationship)? / the newspaper published
~ details of his private life / things he only talked
about in the intimacy of the home / they know
each other intimately (they know personal details
about each other)
lap your lap is the top part of your legs when you are
sitting down: the cat on Mr Clarkes ~ / Can I sit on
your ~? I he climbed on to his dads loosely if you copy or explain something loosely,
you don't do it in a careful or exact way. The
adjective is loose: its ~ based on afifteenth
century work / it can be ~ interpreted as an
autobiography / a loose translation / a loose
interpretation of the work
obstacle an obstacle is a problem or difficulty that
stops you from going somewhere or doing
something: lack of money is a serious ~ / an ~ to
communication / what were the major -syou
encountered? / shes had to overcome a lot of-s
along the way / they are calling on the government
to remove ~s tofree trade
open to interpretation if something is open to
interpretation,you can understand it in several
different ways. Your own interpretation of
something is the way you understand it. The
verb is interpret: I think the books ~ / whatsyour
interpretation of the novel? / thats one possible
interpretation / its difficult to interpret dreams
accurately / how doyou interpret his behaviour?
ordeal an ordeal is a very difficult or painful
experience: a terrifying ~ / giving evidence in court
was a terrible ~ / she had to face the ~ of another
operation / they went through a terrible *-/ the
children are still recovering from their ~
parallel a parallel between two things is a
similarity between them. Parallel lines are next
to each other and stay the same distance apart
as they continue. Parallel is also an adjective:
parallels between the two works / there are some
parallels here with his earlier works /you can
draw parallels between the two novels / a shape
with two parallel lines / the road runs parallel to
the river
perspective your perspective is the way you see or
understand a situation: the story is seenfrom the
monsters - 1 my illness has given me a new ~ on
life / try to see thingsfrom a broader ~ / lets put
things into - (understand their context) I ybu need
to keep a sense of - (understand that something is
perhaps not as serious as it seems)
pointedly if you do something pointedly, you do it
deliberately to show people that you are angry,
upset or worried.The adjective is pointed: hes looking awayfrom us / she looked at her watch
~ 14 dont want to go,he said ~ / he made some
pointed remarks about me owing him money


represent to represent something means to be a

symbol of it. The noun is representation: the lilies
- female purity / the different colours - different
feelings / rain is represented by blue patches on the
map / a symbolic representation of death
resolve if you resolve a problem, you find a solution
to it. The noun is resolution: in the end, everything
was ~d / the matter hasn't beenfully ~d / they
want to - things quickly / let's hope things can
be ~d peacefully / everyone is hopingfor a quick
resolution of the conflict I we believe we have
achieved a satisfactory resolution to the problem
been reversed if things have been reversed, they have
been changed around so they are opposite to how
they were before. Reverse can also be used as an
active verb: the positions o f the characters have - /
their roles have ~ I to reverse the order o f the songs
/ they want the court to reverse its decision
sombre if something is sombre, it is serious and
sad. You can also say that a person is sombre,
or in a sombre mood.The American spelling
is somber. The adverb is sombrely: rather a painting / the - mood o f his early work / he
seemed a bit - / she was in a - mood / there was
a - silence / the funeral was a - occasion / he
nodded sombrely
strike the way something strikes you is the feeling
you get about it, or the opinion you form about
it. Strike is often used in the passive: it strikesyou
as a conventional portrait / doesn't his behaviour
- you as odd? I thefirst thing that struck me was
howfew people were there / 1was struck by how
cheerful she seemed (I noticed it)
symbolic if something is symbolic, it uses pictures
or shapes to represent ideas or feelings. A
symbol is something that represents an idea
or feeling. Symbolise is the verb. Symbolism
is the use of symbols: it's fu ll o f - meaning /
the flowers are - o f life (they represent it)
/ a highly ~ act (with an important meaning) /
the dove is traditionally the symbol o f peace / a
dove is often used to symbolise peace / the event
symbolises the country's struggle for democracy /
trying to analyse the symbolism in the painting
tension tension is a feeling of excitement or fear,
or a feeling of distrust between people. The
adjective is tense: a lot o f - in the piece I the builds throughout thefilm / there is mounting
between the two communities / growing ~
along the border between the two countries / the
atmosphere in the city is still tense / a tense day
waitingfor the results
textile textiles are fabrics made from cotton, wool,
etc.: a - designer / a - mill (afactory that makes
textiles) the - industry


Pa c e s 1 2 -1 3 ______________________________
accused if you are accused of a crime, the police say
officially that they think you did it.The accused is the
person who is accused of a crime. The verb is accuse:
he was - of a crime / both men are - of murder I he
was wrongly - of the theft / he stands - (is accused)
of kidnapping / the police want more time to question
the accused / he accused me of lying / the police have
accused him of hiding evidence
breakthrough a breakthrough is an important discovery:
the police made an initial - / scientists have made a
major - in cancer treatment / a significant ~ infuel
technology / an important scientific disguise if you wear a disguise,you wear different
clothes and change the way you look so that
people won't recognise you. Disguise is also a verb:
he wears a - 1 she put on a different ~ / he travelled
in - (wearing a disguise) / no one saw through his / she disguised herself as a police officer
element the elements of something are the parts
that form it: all the stories contain the same
elements / one o f the key elements (most important
parts) of the government's policy / her looks are a
vital - of her success
fatal if something is fatal, it causes someone to die. A
fatal mistake is one that causes something to fail
completely.The adverb is fatally: the monster's ~
flaw / a - accident la - illness l a - dose of the drug
I his injuries proved - (werefataI) / going back to the
scene of the crime was his - error I a~ mistake / two
people werefatally wounded I fatally injured
feature to feature something means to include it.
A feature is something that is included: the plot
~s the same character types / thefilm ~s several
top actors / the new model ~s an improved engine
design / what are the ~s of a classic crime movie? /
a car with a lot of special ~s
get away with if you get away with a crime,you are
not caught and punished for it: it's difficult t o - a
crime I t o - murder / he'll never - it!
initial an initial idea or action is one at the beginning
of a situation, which later changes. The adverb is
initially: the police made an - breakthrough / the
stages of the illness / his - reaction was positive
/ initially, I didn't enjoy thejob / the company was
quite successful initially
resist if you resist something, you stop yourself
from doing something even though you want to.
To resist something also means to stop it from
happening: he has to - the temptation tojoin
theforces of darkness / 1can never - chocolate 11
couldn't - having a look inside / its difficult to an offer like that / the bank has -ed increasing its
charges / some people try to - change

P repo sitio n s
A Complete the sentences with the correct

1 There are parallels....the two paintings.

2 Does it strike you.... odd?
3 There's a lot of tension....the two
4 This is one of the key elements...... the
5 It's important to keep a sense... perspective
about things.
6 She is accused....stealing.
7 This is an important breakthrough......
treatments for AIDS.
8 They can be corrupted....other prisoners.
Choose the correct preposition.

1 He's been banned/ram /o f driving.

2 The flowers are symbolicfor / of death.
3 She was sitting on /over her father's lap.
4 I could sense the friction with / between them.
5 My cat loves sitting on / by my lap.
6 He disguised himself os / in a medical student.
7 Try to see things in /from my perspective.
8 There is one major obstacle to / with progress.
W o r d fam ilies
A Complete the expressions with the correct form
of the word in bold.

I a n uplifting experience a

2 a mysterious
.................... music
3 a loose translation
on an earlier novel
4 they represent love
a symbolic
.................... of love
5 to resolve the matter
find a satisfactory

Tick the words which are both a noun and a verb.

1 feature....
2 disturb....
3 accuse....
4 ordeal....
5 disguise....
6 despair....

C o l l o c a t io n s
A Match the adjectives to the nouns. Look up the
adjectives if you need help.


a very heated
his fatal
an intimate
a dominant
her initial
a major

a) personality
b) reaction
c) discussion
d) breakthrough
f) relationship

Complete the missing adjectives from the unit.

1 a really g _ _ p ___ g novel

2 I found the film deeply d _ _ t __ b __ g
3 a h ___ r ____s joke
4 it was a s _ _ b _ e occasion
5 he made some p ___ t_ d remarks
6 a highly __v __ t _____ I approach to art
7 the second film was deadly d __ I!
Complete the sentences with the correct nouns.
Look up the nouns if you need help.

bankruptcy impression (x2) obstacles

1 They have been through a terrible........
2 After her death, he was in the depths of

His family now faces.....................

She's had to overcome a lot of........ ...........
I don't want you to get the wrong...............
I tried to resist read the
7 I got the distinct.........
we weren't
8 Her intentions are open to ....................

P h r a s a l verbs
A Choose the correct word to complete the
phrasal verb.


It comes off / out on DVD next week.

We turned over / across to watch the football.
You'll never get awayfor / with this!
The bad weather set us back / down by two
5 We were brought on / up to respect our elders.
6 The business failed and he fell into / over


Pa g e s 1 4 -1 5
affluent an affluent place is one where rich people
live. You can also describe a person as affluent.
The noun is affluence: an - part of the city I an society I - businessmen / an area that is knownfor
its affluence
date back if something dates back to a time in the
past, that is the time it started or was built: the
buildings - to the tenth century / the church dates
back 500years / it dates back a long way I these
problems ~ to the 1960s
deprived a place that is deprived is one where very
poor people live. You can also say that a person is
deprived. The noun is deprivation: one of the most
- areas in the country l a - inner city school I children I the city has high levels of deprivation
dominate if something dominates, it is bigger or
more important than other things. This verb
is often used in the passive. The adjective is
dominant: the church -s the town square / the
town is ~d by a huge power station / the economy
~d the election campaign I the company has a
dominant position in the market
erect to erect something means to build it: high-rise
blocks were ~ed after the Second World War / they
have -ed a securityfence / trying t o - a tent
glimpse if you get a glimpse of something, you see
it for a very short time. Glimpse is also a verb: I
caught a - of the church / we got a - of the sea /
people queued upfor a - of the star / 1~d a man
walking past the house
grand if something is grand, it is big and impressive.
The noun is grandeur: the houses looked very
- / a ~ public building / hes got - plans / the
18thcentury grandeur of the palace
hideous something that is hideous is extremely ugly
or horrible. The adverb is hideously: a - modern

building / she looks - in that dress / hisface was

hideously deformed / theyre hideously expensive
(extremely expensive)
high-rise a high-rise building is very tall, with a lot of
different levels: - blocks of flats I - office buildings
knock down to knock a building down means to
destroy it. A more formal word is demolish: the
old school is going to be knocked down / theyre
knocking down some of the old high-rise blocks /
I think its time they knocked it down
landmark a landmark is a famous building or
monument that a lot of people recognise. A
landmark is also an event that stands out as being
very important: one of the citys mostfamous -s
/ the Statue of Liberty and other well-known -s /
the revolution was a - in French history / this is a decision by the court
renovate to renovate something old means to repair
it and make it look new again. Renovated is the
adjective.The noun is renovation: plans to the old theatre / the church has been completely
~d / the newly -d town hall / the building
has undergone extensive renovation I a major
renovation project
run-down a building that is run-down is not in good
condition because it is old and hasn't been looked
after well. You can also say that an area is
run-down: some - buildings / the schoql is rather - I
a - inner city area / some parts of the city are very soar if prices soar, they increase quickly by a large
amount.The adjective is soaring: prices are -ing in
the area / unemployment has -ed to 15% I profits
have ~ed dramatically / inflation looks set to - in
the coming months / a period of-ing house prices

In c r e a s e s

a n d d ecrea ses

There are lot of Words used to describe increases

and decreases. For example, prices soared
(increased a lot) or prices plunged (decreased a lot).
Increase: soar, shoot up, rocket, climb, surge,jump,
rise, creep up (slowly).
Decrease: plunge,plummet, crash, drop,fall, slide.

steer clear if you steer clear of something, you avoid

it: I'd - of that area after dark / he tried to - of the
reporters / 1try to - of processedfood (not eat it)
stunning something that is stunning is very
beautiful. You can also describe a very attractive
person as stunning.The adverb is stunningly:
a - building l a - painting l a - dress l a - view
from the hotel window / shes absolutely - l a -ly
beautiful woman

tomb a tomb is a place where a dead person is

buried, especially when this is covered by a stone
structure: the - of the last emperor I the queens / there arefive people buried in the up-and-coming something that is up-and-coming
is likely to become more popular or successful
soon: an - area of the city I a n - politician I an young singer
Pages 1 6 -1 7

fast when you fast,you do not eat anything for a

period of time, often for religious reasons. Fasting
is the act of not eating, and a fast is a period of
time when you don't eat: during this time people
-ed / Muslims - during Ramadan I a period of-ing
I after two weeks he broke his - (ate again)
foam foam is a mass of small white bubbles. The
adjective is foamy: shaving - l a layer o f- on top
of the coffee I the waves broke in a mass of white I -y water (covered infoam)
join in if you join in with something,you take part in
it, along with other people: wejoined in thefun /
Come and - I / everyonejoined in the celebrations
leading up to the period leading up to something
is the period just before it. The verb is lead up to:
the period - Lent / the events - the murder I in the
weeks that led up to the attack / during the months
that led up to his death
ornate something that is ornate has a lot of complicated
decoration.The adverb is ornately: a very - costume I
an - building I a very - gate / -ly decorated
pastry pastry is a type of food you make by mixing
flour, butter and water together. You roll the
mixture flat, then fill it with fruit, meat, etc.: a full of cream or custard I fish wrapped i n - 1 a meat
pie made with puff- (very light pastry) 11 dont
know how to make plague the plague was a very serious disease in
the past, that spread quickly to a lot of people. A
plague of a modern disease is a serious outbreak
that affects a lot of people. A plague of things is
also a large number of bad things that happen
at the same time: dressed in a - doctor costume I
thousands died in the Great Plague l a - of cholera
I the town is sufferingfrom a - of rats I a - o f
violence in the city
shoot up if prices shoot up, they increase quickly by a
large amount.The past tense and past participle is
shot up: prices really - during the carnival / interest
rates have shot up in recent months / inflation shot
up to 6% lastyear
shower with if someone is showered with something,
other people throw it over them. You can also say
that you shower someone with gifts, if you give
them a lot of gifts: the couple are showered with
confetti I they showered her with presents

spectacular if something is spectacular, it is

extremely impressive to look at or watch: a - show
/ the dancing was absolutely - l a - view of the
mountains / ~ scenery
spray if you spray water or something else into the
air,you throw it into the air so that it falls over a
wide area: ~ confetti everywhere / afountain -ing
water into the air I they - water on to the crops I
-ing chemicals to kill the insects / they -ed us with
stick to if you stick to something, you continue to do
it or use it, rather than changing to something
different.The past tense and past participle is
stuck to: the locals - traditional costumes / let's the original plan / 1alwaysfind it hard t o - a diet /
he stuck to his principles
upload if you upload photos or documents, you put
them on to the Internet: I've -ed loads of photos on
to my website I I'll - afew more pictures / students
can - their old essays on to the site
Pages 1 8 -1 9

armour armour is a metal suit of clothes that soldiers

wore in the past to protect themselves: they wear
- and try to knock each other off their horses /
a suit o f- / a knight in - I he was her knight in
shining - (a man who came to her rescue)
burst a burst of something is a sudden large amount
of it: they're subjected to -s of heat I a short - of
activity / a sudden - of enthusiasm
dread if you are dreading something, you are not
looking forward to it at all: I'm -ing my exams /
I'm absolutely -ing my interview tomorrow I Ive
started to - meeting him
drought a drought is a long period of time without any
rain, when the ground becomes very dry: theres a
terrible - 1 the worst - the country has ever seen /
a severe - / the - is affecting the whole country
float if something floats, it sits on the top of water
and doesn't sink. You can also say that something
floats in air: theyrejust -ing along I some leaves
-ing on the water / she was -ing on her back in the
pool / the balloons -ed across the sky
forthcoming a forthcoming event is due to happen
soon: discussing their - trip / the - general election
/ their - wedding
hang if something hangs, it is fixed to something at
the top, but the bottom part can move freely.The
past tense and past participle is hung: they hung
from the tower before dropping again / there were
flags -ing from the windows I their coats hung on
hooks behind the door
launch if you launch something such as a campaign
or an investigation, you start it. Launch is also a
noun: were -ing a campaign to stop the park /
theyre -ing a major new campaign against

racism / the police have - ed an investigation / that

song ~ed her career as a singer / the newspaper ~ed
an attack on the prime minister (criticised him/her)
/ after the launch of the new safety campaign
plunge if something plunges, it falls a long way down
from a high position: they ~d 20 metres down into
total darkness / the car ~d off a cliff / they ran to
the pool and ~d (dived) into the water
promote if you promote something,you support or
encourage it: which speaker is ~ing something? / a
new campaign to - recycling / an effort to ~ trade
between the two countries
pulse your pulse is the regular movement of blood
around your body, which you can feel in your wrist
or neck: itll really setyour ~ racing / the nurse took
my - (felt it) / 1could stillfeel afaint ~ in her neck
/ the average ~ rate is about 70 beats per minute /
my started to race
race if something races, it goes very fast: itll setyour
pulse racing / my heart was racing / the engine was
racing / different thoughts were racing through my
head / my heart began to relate if you relate something, you tell it to someone:
which speaker is relating an experience? / he ~d the
story to us /try t o - thefacts accurately
restriction a restriction is a rule which limits or
controls something.The verb is restrict: there are
no height ~s on the boats / speed ~s on the roads
/ there are strict ~s on the sale of alcohol / the
government is planning to impose tough new -s on
immigration / the -s have now been lifted (ended) /
a new law to restrict the sale of guns
slide a slide is a tall piece of equipment that you sit
or lie on and move down. Slide is also a verb, with
the past tense and past participle slid: a park with
ten ~s andfour pools / children were playing on the
/ Mum, can I go on the ~? /you climb to the top
and then - down / we slid across the ice
spin around if something spins around, it moves
round and round in circles: all that ~ning around
made me dizzy / the helicopter blades started to - /
my head was ~ning (I couldnt think clearly)
splashed if you get splashed, water comes on to your
body. The verb is splash: Look-you got ~ there / 1
got - when the bus went past / the children were
splashing each other in the pool
spoil things if you spoil things, you make an event
not enjoyable. Spoil is also a verb: stop moaning youll ~ / 1hope the rain doesnt ~ / dont spoil the
fun / he spoiled the party by getting drunk


steeply if something falls steeply, it drops down

quickly by a large amount. You can also say that
something rises steeply.The adjective is steep: it
falls really ~ / the roadfalls ~ down into the village
/ wages havefallen - (decreased by a large amount)
/ the plane rose ~ / prices have risen - (increased by
a large amount) / a steepfall in inflation
strain if there is a strain on something, there is a
problem because there is too much demand for it.
Strain is also a verb: water parks put a - o n water
resources / the holiday put a real ~ on ourfinances
/ aflu epidemic would place a considerable ~ on
the health service / the whole education system
is under considerable ~ / the extra costs are likely
to strain ourfinances / the incident has strained
relations between the two countries
strapped if someone or something is strapped into
place, they are held there securely.The verb is
strap, and strap is also a noun: the riders are ~
into seats / they had weapons ~ to their belts /
is everyone ~ in? (wearing their seat belt) / we +
everything in place / a watch with a leather strap
subjected to if you are subjected to something,
someone does it to you. The verb is subject
someone to: theyre ~ bursts of heat / she was ~ six
hours of questioning / her husband subjected her to
years of abuse
sustainable if something is sustainable, it can
continue for a long time without causing
problems, or without harming the environment.
The noun is sustainability: we want local
government to investigate ~ alternatives / the
country needs - economic growth / ~ agriculture
/ the - use of natural resources / is thisform of
development environmentally ~? / he doubts the
sustainability of the scheme
tame if something is tame, it is not very exciting: it
looked quite - / 1found some of the rides a bit ~ /
its too - for most kids
trial a trial is a test in which people try a new product
to see how good it is.Trial is also a verb: Ive taken
part in the ~s / the drug is undergoing clinical ~s
(it is being tested on people) / the company is
carrying out ~s on the new car / the new system is
being ~led in a hospital in London
upside down if something is upside down, the top
is facing downwards and the bottom is facing
upwards: you go - and everything / the bus landed
- on the other side of the road / turn thejar - and
give it a shake

Complete the sentences with the correct

1 This tomb dates back....the 4th century.

2 and John are a bit strained.
3 I've uploaded the photos....the website.
4 Hang your coat....the hook behind the door.
5 Egypt is known....its pyramids.
6 I spoiled the holiday....forgetting the tickets.
7 The car plunged....the cliff into the water.
8 We arrived at the resort and dived....the pool.
W ord families
A Complete the expressions with the correct form
of the word in bold.

1 economic
2 closed for
3 building restrictions
4 strapped into
the seat
5 the system is
6 prices have fallen
7 shaving foam
8 an affluent

a ....................
it needs to be
Access is..... .............. to
club members.
I can't fasten the
an old ankle
............. .
a .................... learning
an area of fast-growing

A Match the adjectives to the nouns. Look up the
adjectives if you need help.

1 a dominant
2 a famous
3 a run-down
4 high-rise
5 natural
6 an up-and-coming
7 economic
8 an inner

a; young singer
b) blocks
c) landmark
d) position
e) area
f) resources
g) city school
i) growth

Complete the sentences with the correct form

of the verbs from the list. Look up the verbs if
you need help.





1 The statue is................... renovation.

2 We.............. .....our fast yesterday.

3 The mayor is................... a second election

4 The rain came down and................... the fun.
5 Good leaders.............. their principles.
a glimpse of the Pope in Rome.
6 I .......... .
7 An African safari will....................your pulse
Complete the sentences with the correct nouns.
Look up the nouns if you need help.





1 I live in a block of.......................

2 More tourists will visit in the coming...................
3 I try to avoid processed....................
4 There was a burst of.................. . on the stock
market today.
5 It's important to control our water....................
6 The new drugs are undergoing clinical
7 Strange thoughts were racing through my
8 A helpful policeman was my................... in
shining armour.
Phrasal verbs_________________________
A Choose the correct word to complete the
phrasal verb.

1 We had to queue around / up for the show.

2 The university is carrying down / out some
3 A child ran into the street and knocked me
down / off my bicycle.
4 The price of air tickets has shot up / away recently.
5 I knocked my glass down / away by mistake.
6 I was very excited in the months leading up /
over to our trip.
7 Forget about your work and join up / in the party!
Patterns _______________________________
A Complete the sentences with the correct form
of the verbs in the list.




1 Try......... .........situations that makeyou unhappy.

means not eating.
3 I'm planning...................spaghetti for dinner.
4 The weather report predicts.... ........... .......
temperatures tomorrow.
5 Would you like ......... ..........?
6 I'm against farmers..................... chemicals on
fruit and vegetables.

Pa g e s 2 0 -2 1
bleed if a part of your body bleeds, blood comes out
of it: my leg was - ing / she was -ing quite badly /
he could - to death
clip a clip is a small piece of metal or plastic that
holds something in position. Clip is also a verb:
haveyou got a - t o keep these papers together? / a
paper - la bulldog - (a large clipfor holding a lot
of papers together) I - the papers together
drill a drill is a tool that you use for making holes in
wood, metal etc. Drill is also a verb: an electric - 1 a
hand - (not electric) I its easier if you use a - 1 - a
hole in the wall
file a file is a folded piece of card that you keep papers
in. Some files have clips for keeping the papers
securely in place. File is also a verb: clip the papers
into the - / I've got the original letter in my-1 a
box - (in the shape of a small box) / a lever-arch (a largefile for holding a lot of papers) I he -d the
documents away
hook a hook is a curved piece of wood or metal that
you hang a coat or other piece of clothing on: he
hung his coat on the - behind the door / a coat knock over if you knock something over, you bump it
accidentally and it falls:you knocked over a vase /
mindyou don't knock that drink over / some of the
plant pots had got knocked over
loose if something is loose, it is not fixed securely. The
verb is loosen: a screw on your glasses has come
- I the door handle was - I the tap had worked (gradually become loose) /you'll need to -n that
needle a needle is a thin pointed piece of metal that
you put a thread through and use for sewing
things: a - and thread / a sewing - l a knitting - 1
I couldn't see well enough to thread a - (put thread
through it)

pad a pad is a piece of thick material that you use to

protect something.The adjective is padded: knee
-s / elbow -s I you can't playfootball without shin
- s i a - of cotton wool I a -ded head protector
peg a peg is a piece of wood or plastic that you use
for attaching wet clothes to a line to dry. Peg is
also a verb: a clothes - 1she was -ging washing
to the line
pin a pin is a piece of sharp metal that you use
for holding things together. Pin is also a verb: a
drawing - (forfixing pieces of paper to a wall) / a
safety - (for holding a bandage in place) / we stuck
a - in the map to decide where to go / she -ned the
notice to the wall
rub if you rub something, you press it and move
something across its surface: ~ some salt into the
meat / she sat up and -bed her eyes / he was -bing
his hair with a towel I my shoes were -bing (they
were pressing against myfeet in a painful way)
screw a screw is a small pointed piece of metal that
you push and turn round to fix pieces of wood
together. Screw is also a verb: some of the -s were
loose I you need to tighten that - a bit more I the
shelves are -ed to the wall
smash if something smashes, it breaks into a lot of
very small pieces: the bottle -ed I I'm sorry, I've -ed
a glass / they threatened to - his windows
sore if a part of your body is sore, it is hurting: myfeet
are - / it's really - 1 I've got a - leg
sticky if something is sticky, it stays on other surfaces
easily, rather than falling off.The verb is stick, and
the past tense and past participle are stuck: it's
blue and - 1 there's some - stuff on thefloor I his
fingers were - withjam / stick the posters on the
wall with tape
spring a spring is a piece of metal curved round and
round, which will go back to its original shape: a
bed with broken -s / the -s have gone (broken) in
that chair
stain a stain is a mark that is difficult to remove.
Stain is also a verb, and the adjective is stained: a
coffee - on his shirt / blood -s I grass -s I some -s
are difficult to remove I wash that out quickly or
it'll - I his clothes were -ed with blood
vase a vase is a container for putting flowers in: a
flower - l a beautiful china - / she arranged the
flowers in a -1 a - of fresh roses
wire a wire is a piece of metal thread: doyou sell -?
/ electrical - 1copper - 1 there were -s (electrical
wires) all over thefloor
Pa g e s 2 2 -2 3
acquire to acquire something means to get it, for
example by buying it.The noun is acquisition: He
-d a number of valuable paintings I she -d the
property lastyear 11 -d the necessary ingredients

from the local supermarket / the way in which

children - language / t o - knowledge / the
acquisition of language / my recent acquisition
(something I got recently)
bin a bin is a container for putting rubbish in. To bin
something means to put it in a bin: recovering
thingsfrom -s / a rubbish - / a litter - / a
wastepaper - / she threw the wrapper into the - /
don't chuck it in the - / 1dont want it, soyou might
as well - it
cautious if someone is cautious, they are careful to
avoid danger or problems.The adverb is cautiously.
The noun is caution: hes very - / a - driver / shes about investing such a large sum / the police decided
to adopt a - approach / she held out her hand -!y /
the animals should be approached with caution
commander a commander is an officer in charge of a
group of people, for example in the army. The verb
is command: a tank - in the British army / an air
force - / a police - / the group was commanded by
Captain Wells
evict to evict someone means to force them to leave
their home, usually because they have not paid
their rent. The noun is eviction: the council came
to - the old man / she was -edfrom herflat /
hundreds of families nowface eviction
get rid of to get rid of something means to throw it
away, sell it or destroy it because you don't need
it: old comics which I dont read but cant - / 1think
we should - that old sofa / using chemicals to weeds
guarantee a guarantee is a formal promise to repair
or replace a product that breaks or does not work
properly. Guarantee is also a verb: its a good idea
to keep the - / a three-year - / all our products
come with a one-year - / its still under - (the
guarantee still applies to it) / all our cars arefully
-dfor 12 months / the wood is all -d against rot
(guaranteed that it wont rot)
hazard a hazard is something that might be dangerous.
The adjective is hazardous: it had become a health
- / afire - (something that could cause afire) / an
occupational - (one thatyouface as part of ajob) /
the chemicals pose a - t o human health/firefighters
face a lot of-s / -ous chemicals / a -ousjob
impulse an impulse is a sudden strong feeling that you
want to do something: an - purchase (something
you bought as an impulse) / 1bought it on - (as an
impulse) / have a sudden - to laugh / myfirst - was
to hit him / 1resisted the - to walk out
infestation an infestation of rats, insects, etc. is a
large number of them in a place. The verb is infest:
the neighbours complained about rat -s / a n - o f
cockroaches / the house was infested with rats
mere a word you use to emphasize how unimportant
something is: things that others had seen as rubbish / they sold a - 2 0 tickets / its - speculation
/ its a - coincidence

navy a navy is an armed force that fights at sea.

The adjective is naval: a - commander / hejoined
the - when he was 16 / he spent 25years in the / she served in the American - / a - helicopter / a
naval battle / a naval officer
leaflet a leaflet is a printed sheet of paper that gives
you information about something. To leaflet
a large number of people means to give them
leaflets: a - about a local gym / a - advertising a
new restaurant / an information - / delivering -s /
theyve -ed everyone in the town
odd odd things are different kinds of things that
don't belong together and dont have a particular
purpose. You can also describe these things as
odds and ends: various - screws, nails and pins / a
few - pieces of paper / there werejust afew odds
and ends in the drawer
obsession if you have an obsession with something,
you think about it or do it ail the time and cannot
change your behaviour. You can also say that you
are obsessed with something.The adjective is
obsessive: Perhaps it was the trauma that caused
his - / she seemed to have an - with cleaning /
revisingfor exams can become a n - / behaviour
that was bordering o n - / shes obsessed with losing
weight / an obsessive desire to keepfit
optimistic if you are optimistic, you believe that
good things will happen in the future. The noun
is optimism. A person who is optimistic is an
optimist: Im very - / areyou - about thefuture?
/ Im - that scientists will come up with an answer
/ 1dont share her optimism / a mood of cautious
optimism in the country / hes a real optimist
pessimistic If you are pessimistic, you believe that
bad things will happen in the future.The noun
is pessimism. A person who is pessimistic is a
pessimist: hes - / Im - about my chances of
passing / a - outlook on life / a mood of general
pessimism / Im a bit of a pessimist
pile a pile is an arrangement of things on top of
each other. You can also say that things are piled:
he sorted the rubbish into - s / a - of books / she
arranged the letters in neat -s / there were some
old clothes -d in the corner
practically practically means almost: he managed to
acquire - every record by Elvis Presley / they go out
- every night / its - impossible / weve -finished
preceding something that is preceding another
thing comes before it.The verb is precede: a
number of coins - the introduction of the Euro / in
the weeks - the attack / the meal was preceded by
afew short speeches
purchase a purchase is something that you have
bought; when you make a purchase,you buy
something. Purchase is also a verb: an impulse - /
I went home with my -s / they put pressure on us
to make a - / the receipt shows the date o f- / its
cheaper to - goods online

recover to recover something means to get it back

after it was taken away, thrown away or almost
destroyed: he would - thingsfrom bins / police
have - ed the stolenjewellery /families trying to their possessionsfrom the debris of their homes
settle if you settle somewhere, you go to live there
permanently: he -d in Britain after the war / they
-d just north of London
trauma a trauma is a very horrible and upsetting
experience that affects you for a long time.
Someone who is traumatised is upset for a long
time as a result of a trauma: the - of what he lost
when he left Poland / the - of her mother's death
/ leaving their home was a major ~ / a lot of the
children have suffered -s / the accident left him
deeply -tised
veteran a veteran is someone who fought in a war:
a Polish war - / a - of the Second World War / a
Vietnam - l a - of several election campaigns
(someone who has taken part in them)
wax wax is a solid substance that is used to make
candles. Hair wax is a soft substance that you put
on your hair to hold it in shape: some old candle on the table / ajar of hair well-intentioned if someone is well-intentioned, they
plan to do something good or helpful, but don't
manage to do it. You can also say that someone has
good intentions: he's very - / it's hard to be cross
with her because she's so-/1 have good intentions,
but never seem tofind the time to do things
Pa g e s 2 4 -2 5
crack a crack is a line you can see on something
made of china or glass that shows it is damaged.
Something that has a crack on it is cracked. Crack
is also a verb: she held up a -ed vase / thejug was
badly -ed / an old mug with a - in it / some veryfine
(thin) - in the wall / a hairline - (very thin) / the dish
cracked when I took it out of the oven
fall apart if something falls apart, it breaks because
it is old or not well made: my shoes werefalling
apart / an old book that wasfalling apart / their
relationshipfell apart (failed)
freeze when something freezes, it becomes hard
because it is so cold.The past tense is froze and
the past participle is frozen. You can say that it's
freezing when the weather or temperature is very
cold: it'sfreezing in here / it'sfreezing outside / the
water in the lake had started to - / afrozen river /
frozen vegetables
funny you can say that something is funny if it seems
strange. You can also say funnily enough about
something that seems strange: it makes a - noise
when I change gears / what's that - smell? / it's that he hasn't phoned /funnily enough, she had
met my brother the week before

leak if something leaks, water comes out of it. Leak is

also a noun: wrap some tape around the pipe so it
doesn't - / the roof's -ing again / water was -ing
into the shed / there's a - in the kettle
missing if something is missing, it is not in a place when
it should be there. You can also say that a person is
missing if you cannot find them: some stuffis broken
and - / my keys have gone - / there's a button -from
my shirt / police are still lookingfor the - child
obliged if you are obliged to do something, you have
to do it. The noun is obligation: we're not - to
accept returns of this kind / 1felt - to payfor the
meal / we have an obligation to help the children /
customers are under no obligation to buy anything
resigned if you are resigned to something, you accept
it because you know that you cannot change it.The
noun is resignation: she seems - to the situation /
he was - to thefact that he would probably lose his
job / she greeted the news with resignation
-A t io n

Some nouns are formed by adding -ation to a

verb. For example:
resign from his job / offer his resignation.
Combine several ideas / a combination
of tastes; confront his accusers / avoid
confrontation; consider all the option / give it
careful consideration; declare an interest / a
declaration of intent; expect a lot / be beyond
expectations; found a charity / the anniversary
of the foundation of the republic; occupy a
country / be under foreign occupation; sense a
change / have a strange sensation.
ripped if something made of cloth is ripped, it has a
long hole in it. Rip is a verb, and also a noun: lookits - / wearing - jeans / his clothes were - to shreds
(badly ripped) / I've - myjeans / she - the letter
open / there's a rip in the sheet
sarcastic if you are sarcastic, you say the opposite of
what you mean, in order to be funny.The noun
is sarcasm. The adverb is sarcastically: I think
he's being - / he said something - / he made a comment / there was a touch of sarcasm in his
voice / 'Brilliant, 'she said sarcastically.
sample a sample is a product in a shop that people
can look at and try before they buy something: it
wasn't the same as the - I'd seen in the shop / some
s of new perfumes
scratched if something is scratched, there is a small
cut or mark on the surface. Scratch is a verb and
also a noun: the CD's - / how did the table get -? /
mindyou dont scratch the car / there was a scratch
on the windscreen

Match the nouns to the verbs. Look up the

nouns (a-e) if you need help.

P repositions
A Complete the sentences with the correct

1 I need to fix that hole....the wall.

2 The secretary filed the documents....
3 Her clothes were all....the floor.
4 I don't like cats rubbing...... me.
5 Use tape to remove hair your dress.
6 Handle that drill....great caution.
7 We need something to wrap....that leak.
8 I heard the sarcasm....her voice.
9 What was the date....purchase?
W ord families
A Complete the expressions with the correct form
of the word in bold.

1 a sarcastic tone
2 acquire a property
3 resigned to the
4 a fire hazard
5 obliged to check
6 the trauma of his

said with....................
anew .......
a feeling o f....................
a ................... . line of work
an important....................
.................... by the

Which TWO words in the list below are NOT

both a noun and a verb?

screw scratch
purchase drill

clip settle
leak crack

A Complete the collocations with the verbs in the
lists. Look up the verbs if you need help.



... to shreds
... missing
... your job
.. ... a purchase
... gear
... in place
... obliged



1 to approach with
2 to have an
3 to acquire
4 to face
5 to make a

a) eviction
b) purchase
c) caution
d) obsession
e) knowledge

Complete the sentences with the correct

adjective from the list.




1 I keep all my class notes in a ................... file.

2 Be careful! There are................... wires all over
the floor.
3 I fixed the torn curtain with a ............. . pin.
4 The cleaner empties the.... .............. bins
at 6 pm.
5 I don't have the............... . ingredients for
minestrone soup.
6 This vase is beautiful but it has a ...................
crack in it.
7 Mixing chemicals is an................... hazard for
Phrasal verbs________________________
A Choose the correct word to complete the
phrasal verb.

1 I haven't got my tools back / away yet.

2 How do you come up in/ with these ideas?
3 We're going to get rid by / of our old furniture.
4 He never takes part in / of social activities.
5 Their marriage is falling down / apart.
6 The traffic police have taken off I away her
driver's licence.
A Complete the sentences with the correct form
of the verbs in the list.




1 The police are obliged... ................ the public.

2 We use pegs for........... ......washing to the line.
3 I'm starting................. .... 1need my coat.
4 What do you plan....... .......... for Xmas?
5 1need............. ......the screws in my glasses.
6 I'm thinking about...... the stock


Pa g e s 2 6 -2 7
bankrupt if a company is bankrupt it does not have
enough money to pay all its debts and so cannot
continue to exist. Bankrupt is also a verb: a lot of
companies have gone - recently / the company was
declared - lastyear I the business is almost - / the
losses nearly bankrupted the business
booming if the economy is booming, it is growing
quickly and is very successful. A boom is a period
when the economy is very successful: the economys
- / business is - at the moment / the country is
experiencing an economic boomI a boom in house
prices / the post-war boom / the boomyears
boost to boost something means to improve it or
increase it. Boost is also a noun: Their policies have
- ed our standing in the world I this could help to profits / an attempt to - tourism in the area / this
win has - ed the teams confidence / this should
provide a boostfor the economy / a boostfor her
cut back on to cut back on something means to
reduce it.The noun is cutback: theyve done a lot to
- bureaucracy / the bank is cutting back on staff I a
cutback infundingfor schools / the company may
have to make cutbacks
combat to combat a problem means to do things to
try and stop it. Combat is fighting in a war: theyve
done little to - rising crime / new measures to inflation / a determination to - terrorism / he was
killed in combat / troops engaged in hand-to-hand
controversial if something is controversial, people
disagree about it.The noun is controversy: the
government has done afew - things I a highly policy l a - politician / the proposals have caused
a lot of controversy / some recent controversies in
the media

desperate if someone is desperate, they are in a very

difficult situation and want or need something
very badly.The adverb is desperately.The noun
is desperation: the hungrier people are, the more
- they are / companies are - for staff I we were
getting - / hes - to get ajob / theyre in - need of
help I the people desperately needfood I people are
headingfor the cities in desperation
difference if something makes a difference, it changes
a situation to make it better: the governments
made a huge - since they came to power I its made
a big - to my life / an opportunity to make a real - in
the world / what - will it make? /just half an hour
of exercise a day could make all the - / it makes
no - to me
fees fees are an amount of money that you have to
pay for something: theyve put up tuition - / school
- / the entrance - are quite high / she couldnt pay
her medical make ends meet if you make ends meet,you just
manage to buy everything that you need to live,
even though you have very little money: people are
struggling to - 1 we earn barely enough to -1 some
months its difficult to non-existent if something is non-existent, it doesn't
exist at all: crime is almost - here I the traffic was
virtually - / security seemed to be -

No n -

non- is often added to words to show a person or

thing does not have that quality or characteristic.
For example: Crime is non-existent there.
use a non-stick pan; read a lot of non-fiction; work
for a non-governmental organisation (NCO); it's
a non-profit-making company; the offer is nonnegotiable; it's a non-issue; take a non-stop flight;
lead a non-violent protest; a non-slip surface.

pace the pace of something is how fast it moves or

seems to move: the - of life is sofast here / the
- of change is speeding up / the project is now
gathering - (speeding up) / walking at a brisk permit a permit is an official document that gives
you permission to do something: tofill informs to
get a work - / applyfor a residency - 1you need a
travel ~ I my - has expired (is out of date)
recession if there is a recession, there is less business
activity in a country, so people make less money
and some people lose their jobs: theres a - a t the
moment I an economic - / this could turn into a
deep - 1 the country is in - / the economy could
sink into - / get the country out o f- again

soft you can say that someone is soft if they are not
strict enough: they're - on drugs I he's too - with
his kids / community service is seen as a - option
shortage if there is a shortage of something, there
is not enough of it: there are a lot of water ~s /
a desperate - of medical supplies / a serious - of
teachers / the drought led to a - of food / many
companies arefacing staff-s
shoot up if something shoots up, it increases very
quickly.The past tense and past participle is shot
up: inflation has shot up over the lastyear / prices
have continued t o - up / unemployment has really
shot up / the price of petrol has shot up to over
1.50 a litre
stable if something is stable, it is not likely to change
suddenly.The noun is stability: its made society
less - l a - economic situation l a - environment
for bringing up children / the ladderfelt quite (not likely tofall) / a period of economic stability
standing your standing is your reputation, based on
what other people think of you: the policies have
boosted the government's - / winning the contract
helped to improve her - with her colleagues / the
scandal will damage his - in the party
tuition tuition is the work of teaching something:
they've put up -fees I he paysfor private - / maths
- 1 he gave us some extra undermine to undermine something means to
weaken it or make it less effective: their policies
are undermining national unity / a scandal that
threatens to - the government's authority /
criticising her will - her confidence I his position in
the government has been seriously -d
Pa c e s 2 8 -2 9 ____________________________
abuse abuse is a bad or wrong use of something, or
cruel treatment of a person. Abuse is also a verb:
the problem of drug and alcohol - 1 the- of power
/ a horrific case of child - 1 he suffered racial (cruel treatment because of his race) I a lot of these
kids abuse alcohol I she was abused by herfather
as a child
assault to assault someone means to attack them
violently. Assault is also a noun: we saw someone
being -ed / he was accused of-ing a student / she
was savagely -ed / charged with sexual assault
(attacking someone in a sexual way)
backing backing is support that you give to
something. The verb is back: the scheme has
European - 1 he has the unanimous - of his
party I they have won -from a major company
/ the project has received nofinancial - / the
government has refused to back the scheme
breakdown if there is a breakdown, something stops
working properly.The verb is break down: the
problem of family - 1 a - in communication / we
had a - o n the motorway (the car stopped working)

/ the car's broken down I his marriage broke down

capture to capture something on film means to film
it: The attack was -d on CCTV / It was all -d onfilm
/ a passer-by -d the moment on his mobile
case a legal case is a matter that is decided by a
court: she won her - against her employers / he
lost his - in court / the - will be heard in court
tomorrow / a divorce - l a rape - / she brought a
against her employer I there was no evidence, so
they had to drop the carry out to carry out work means to do it: the work
will be carried out by a Britishfirm / we need to more research / the police will - an investigation /
they carried out a survey
claim if you claim that something is true,you say
that it is true, although other people might
disagree. Claim is also a noun: she is -ing victory
after the court ruled in herfavour I he still -s that
he is innocent / he tried to - that he was acting in
self-defence / the company made somefalse claims
about its products
conduct to conduct an investigation means to do it:
the police are now -ing investigations / who will the enquiry? I t o - a survey of attitudes to climate
damages if you get damages, the court orders
someone to give you money because you have
suffered in some way: he won - of 30,000 / the
court awarded her substantial - 1 she's claiming for the injuries she suffered I he got half a million
dollars in be denied if you are denied something,you are not
allowed to have it. You can also use deny as an
active verb: she claimed she was denied promotion
I they were denied access to the building / they
denied him his right to a lawyer / should doctors
deny treatment to patients who are obese?
excessive if something is excessive, it is more than is
necessary.The adverb is excessively: the amount
seems a bit - / some people see the charges as-1
excessively high taxes
gender someone's gender is whether they are
male or female: the company was accused o fdiscrimination / discrimination on the grounds of/ are there - differences in attitudes to work? / its
important to combat - stereotypes
go against to go against something means to do
something that is the opposite of that thing: the
recent increase in population goes against the
general trend / accepting the money would - my
principles / it goes against everything I believe in
growing something that is growing is increasing. The
verb is grow.The noun is growth: there is - concern
about the number of teenagers sleeping rough
/ the - popularity of small cars / the number of
people working part-time has grown / a growth in
sales of personal computers

initiative an initiative is an important new plan: the

government will launch a new - aimed at getting
young people off the streets / a new - for peace /
the government has announced a new education / most people welcome the governments injustice injustice is a situation in which someone
is treated unfairly, the adjective is unjust:
campaigning against social - / it was a terrible / a victim of - / he suffered the - of being sent to
prisonfor a crime he didnt commit / the system is
clearly unjust
strain if there is a strain on something, there are
difficulties because there is too much demand
for something. Strain is also a verb: an ageing
population puts ~s on the pension system I there is
considerable - on the health service / this will - the
water resources
tribunal a tribunal is a type of court that can make
decisions about one type of case: the - ruled in
herfavour / an employment - 1 an independent
complaints - I planning to set up a war crimes - /
he will appear before the disciplinary - next week
uphold to uphold a decision means to decide
officially that an earlier decision was right.The
opposite is overturn: her claim was upheld in court
. I his conviction was upheld by the court of appeal /
the decision was later overturned
vulnerable if someone is vulnerable, they can be hurt
or upset easily.The noun is vulnerability: more help
for - teenagers I many teenagers are - to drugs /
old people are - to crime / children who are - to
abuse / Imfee Iing a bit - at the moment I1 could
sense her vulnerability
Paces 3 0 -3 1 _____________________________

aid aid is money or other things that are given to

people who are suffering: a lot of - has been
given to Africa / the country relies onforeign
/ send emergencyfood - /fresh appealsfor
humanitarian awareness if there is awareness about a problem,
people know about it. The adjective is aware: its
a great way of raising - about poverty (making
sure people know about it) / to increase public - of
the problem / there is growing - of environmental
problems / most people are not aware of the issue
bleak if a situation is bleak, it seems very bad, with
no hope of improving: Sachs paints a - picture of
the state of the planet / thefuture looks -fo r the
company / rather a - outlook
contribute to contribute something means to give
it, when other people are also giving things.The
thing that you give is your contribution: ask local
businesses to - gifts / they offered to - to the
rebuildingfund / he -d over 3,000 / he made
a generous contribution to the campaign I a
contribution of 250


crop a crop is a plant such as wheat or corn that is

grown by farmers: betterfarming techniques will
increase -yields / they grow a variety of ~s / a
staple - (that provides most of someonesfood) / a
cash - (that someone grows to sell)
donor a donor is someone who gives money to help
an organisation or charity.The verb is donate.
The money someone gives is a donation: 50
comesfrom -s / -s have given over 30,000 /
an anonymous - I the - countries (the countries
who give money) / they donated 2,000 / made a
generous donation to thefund
lethal something that is lethal can kill someone: a disease l a - dose o f morphine la - weapon I a combination of drugs and alcohol
measure a measure is something that a government
or organisation does to help solve a problem:
we need to implement a combination o f - s l the
government has promised to take -s to tackle crime
/ the company is introducing new safety -s / tough
new -s to combat speeding
pressure group a pressure group is a group that tries
to influence people's opinions or achieve political
change: an environmental - 1 an anti-smoking - /
they set up a - t o campaignfor change
raise to raise something means to tell people about
it or make them think about it more: he also -s
an alarm that this could be our last chance / a
campaign to - awareness of AIDS (tell people more
about it) I he didnt - the subject of money (he
didnt talk about it)
reverse to reverse something means to change
it to the opposite: these measures could - the
downward spiral / an attempt to - the decline in
tourism / the High Court ~d the decision
root the root of a problem is its main or original
cause: the - cause o f the problems are all
interconnected / bad diet lies at the - of a lot of
health problems / the war has religion at its scarce if something is scarce, there is not very much
of it. The adverb is scarcely: a booming population
puts more strain on already - resources I food was
always - in the winter / money was - / there were
scarcely anyjobs (almost none)
soil soil is the earth in which plants grow,fertilisers to
improve the - l a goodfertile - / struggling to grow
crops in poor - s i a sandy - l a clay summarise to summarise something means to
briefly give the main facts about it. The noun is
summary: the book -s the state of the planet / can
you briefly - what he said? / a brief summary of his
argument / 1think thats afair summary
supply a supply of something is an amount that is
available for people to use. Supplies are also things
that you need: these countries need clean water
supplies / the electricity - was cutoff I a plentiful of medicine I in urgent need of medical supplies /
essential supplies were sent in by air


Choose the correct verbs to complete the

collocations. Look up the nouns to help you if

P r e p o sitio n s
A Complete the sentences with the correct

1 Stress affects a lot....people.

2 I sent the documents...... mail.
3 We need to get to the root...... the problem.
4 The only person you can rely...... is yourself.
5 Pollution puts strain...... the environment.
6 What is his standing....the company?
7 This could turn....a deep recession.
8 There's a shortage....qualified nurses.

W o r d fam ilies
A Complete the sentences with the correct nouns
from these verbs.



cut back

1 Do you have a ................... . of the report?

2 I am a blood......................I help save people's
3 There will be spending.................... because of
bad sales.
4 I'm really worried about the................... of
global warming.
5 The plan has the.................... of the president.
6 She made a the class

1 raise / make the alarm against corruption

2 deny / stop access to the building
3 contest / combat inflation in the economy
4 plan / conduct an investigation into the crime
5 raise / boost awareness of social issues
6 drop I knock the case against her
7 sleep / lie rough in a park
Which of the following words do not collocate
with the nouns?

1 drug / food / alcohol / sexual abuse

2 colourful / ageing / younger / world population
3 public / financial / government / fashion
4 food / humanitarian / travel / military aid
5 community / military / inflation / public service
D Complete the missing adjectives.

1 We need to preserve s_____ e resources.

2 He was convicted of s _ _ _ _ l assault.
3 People lose their jobs during an
e _______ recession.
4 I have a business plan but I need
f ________ I backing.
5 Don't read the whole article. Just give me a
b ___ f summary.
6. I did not assault him. I was acting in

P h r a s a l verbs
A Choose the correct phrasal verb.

Tick the words which are both a noun and

a verb.
1 abuse....
2 claim....
3 desperate....
4 assault ......
5 conduct....
6 boost....

Co llo c atio n s

1 Their marriage broke down / broke out last year.

2 We are going to carry out / cut off some
laboratory tests.
3 That idea cuts off / goes against our original
4 The doctor told me to wipe out / cut back on
fast food.
5 The company is setting up / carrying out a
London office.
6 The power was cut off / cut back on for four

A Complete the collocations with nouns from

the unit.

1 work on a research p ___ __ t

2 paint a bleak p _ _ _ ^ _ e
3 pay your tuition f _ _ s
4 plant a cash _ _ p
5 find the r__t of the problem
6 fight social i _________e
7 monitor climate


Pages 3 6 -3 7
breath your breath is how quickly you are breathing
in and out: it took me ten minutes to get my ~ back
(start breathing normally again) / she gets out of ~
just walking up the stairs (has difficulty breathing) /
he sometimes gets short o f- (unable to breathe
easily) / 1was gaspingfor ~ by the time I reached
the top (breathing veryfast)
bump into if you bump into something, you knock
it accidentally: I'm always bumping into things /
I bumped my knee on the table / mindyou don't
bumpyour head
chill out if you chill out, you relax: Ijust - at home /
chilling out infront of the TV / - by the pool
comic a comic is a magazine for children that tells
stories through cartoon pictures: I went to a -fair /
reading some of my old ~s / bought a ~for the kids /
he collects old ~s
coordination your coordination is how well you
can move different parts of your body together.
Someone who has good coordination is
coordinated. Someone who has poor coordination
is uncoordinated: improveyour hand-eye - /you
need good ~/he lacks - / how coordinated areyou? /
Im totally uncoordinated
fair a fair is an event where people sell a particular
type of thing: a comic - 1 we went to an antiques / bought itfrom a craft - / were holding a book fiddle with if you fiddle with something,you move
it or touch it. Fiddle is also a noun: it givesyou
something to - / 1fiddled with the controls / he
fiddled with his pen while he spoke / 1had a ~ the
switches and got it working
figure a woman's figure is the shape of her body: shes
got a lovely - / she lost her ~ after she had children /
struggling to keep her - / 1need to watch my ~
(be careful not to put on weight)

fitness your fitness is how strong you are, and how able
you are to run around and do sport.The adjective
is fit: how canyou improveyour ~? / a high level of
physical - / exercise helps to maintainyour - / trying
to build up my ~ / hes incrediblyfit / trying to getfit
flexibility your flexibility is your ability to bend
and move your body. The adjective is flexible:
doingyoga really helpsyour ~ / improveyour - /
maintain your ~ / we need more ~ in the workplace
(the ability to make changes easily) / Im notflexible
enough to touch my toes / employees need to be
flexible these days (able to make changes easily)
get into if you get into something,you start doing it
or having it: when didyoufirst - tennis? / he wants
to - politics / 1dont want to ~ debt / he started
getting into trouble at school
keep up if you keep up, you go as fast as other people
or do as much as them: I couldnt ~ with the others
in the class / she was walking quicklyKand I was
struggling to - / come on - try to ~!
knitting knitting is making things from wool, using
two long needles. The verb is knit: I like sewing
and - / she was doing her - while she spoke / shes
knitted loads of jumpers / a hand-knitted sweater
master class a master class is a lesson in music or a
sport, given by someone very famous: a - with a
top Russianfencer / a violin - / invited to attend a -1
a ~ given by afamous pianist
self-conscious if you are self-conscious, you feel
embarrassed about what you look like, or what
other people think of you.The adverb is self
consciously: Im always ~ when I dance / 1felt a
bit - / it makes me - when everyone looks at me /
hes starting to get - about his weight / she smiled
rather self-consciously
S e lf-

You can add self- to lots of adjectives and nouns

to mean '(in/to) yourself. For example: i'd be a bit
lack self-confidence; have low self-esteem;
show self-discipline; a self-employed plumber;
take self-defence classes; hes not very self-aware;
a self-inflicted wound; paint a self-portrait; he's a
self-taught artist; be motivated by self-interest;
a self-catering holiday
sewing sewing is making things by joining bits of
cloth together with thread.The verb is sew: I like and knitting / doing some - / a - needle / Ill have
to sew the pocket back on
shape your shape is how fit and healthy you are: Im
really out of~ (not veryfit) / 1wanted to get in ~
(becomefitter) / an exercise machine to helpyou
keep in ~ / hes in much better - now

stamina stamina is strength that allows you to

continue doing something for a long time:you
need a lot o f- to do marathon running / 1haven't
got the - to walk thatfar / help to build upyour - /
he's got a lot of mental take up if you take something up, you start it: I took
up swimming lastyear / I've decided to - gardening /
when didyoufirst take it up?
thread a thread is a long, thin piece of cotton, silk or
wool that is used to make cloth or sew pieces of
cloth together. Thread is also a verb: make patterns
with the - on the cloth /you'll need a needle and - /
a loose - in my skirt / some strong cotton - / t o - a
needle (put thread in it)
volunteer a volunteer is someone who does a job
willingly or without being paid. Volunteer is also
a verb: I did some - work last summer / the shop
is run - s / a team o f-s / 1need some -s to help
with the clearing up / they're lookingfor -s / he -ed
to drive us
wander if you wander round a place,you walk around
slowly, without going in any particular direction.
Wander is also a noun: I like -ing roundflea
markets / we -ed through the old town / the kids
had -ed off / we werejust -ing aimlessly / we went
for a - round the shops
whatsoever you use this word to emphasise that you
mean none at all: he does no exercise - / 1have no
doubt - / she said nothing - / there were none Pa c es 3 8 -3 9
bar the bar is the piece of metal along the top of a
goalpost: his shot hit the - / it wasjust over the - /
he was denied a goal by the close if a game or match is close, the two players or
teams are very equal: it was a really - game / a match that could have gone either way / he came a
- second / 1think the election will be pretty dive if someone dives in a game such as football, they
fall over and pretend someone has pushed them
or hurt them. Dive is also a noun: the defender
didn't touch him - he-d / he was given ayellow
cardfor diving I the temptation to - in the penalty
box / it was a clear disallow to disallow something mean to refuse to
allow it because someone has broken a rule: the
referee -ed the goal / they had a goal -ed in the
second half
dubious if something is dubious, it is probably not
right: the referee gave some - decisions / that
seems a bit - to me / some of the information was
highly exclude to exclude someone or something means to
not include them.The noun is exclusion: no one
should be -dfrom sport / that information was -d
from the report / an attempt to - the pressfrom

the event / 1felt a bit -d / he's been -dfrom school

(told to leave) / the exclusion of some vital data /
her exclusionfrom school
double fault a double fault in tennis is when you
serve two balls wrongly, one after the other: I
regularly serve -s / that's his third - of the match
fix to fix a game or match means to arrange the
result in a dishonest way: the game was -ed / they
are accused of match -ing / they claim that the
election was -ed
forehand a forehand in tennis is a shot in which the
palm of your hand is facing the ball. The opposite
is backhand: I hit a great - / he's got a very
strong - / a brilliant - volley / she's playing to her
opponent's backhand
foul to foul someone in a game such as football
means to do something to them that is against
the rules. Foul is also a noun: he -ed the striker /
he was sent offfor committing a secondfoul / that
was a blatant (very obvious) -I
free kick a free kick in a game such as football is a
chance to kick the ball freely from a particular
position: the referee gave a - / they've been
awarded a - just outside the box / Messi's going to
take the - / they scoredfrom a greedy if someone is greedy, they don't want to share
things with anyone else. A greedy player is one
who doesn't pass the ball to other players: he's a
really - player / the temptation to be - with the
ball / he should've passed it - that was a bit - /
she's quite - when it comes to chocolate
moral a moral issue or choice is one that is based on
ideas of what is right and wrong: it shows children
the importance o f- choices / abortion is a - issue /
you have a - obligation to do something / a - duty /
he has very high - standards / a set o f- values
penalty a penalty in a game such as football is a free
shot towards the goal because the other team has
broken a rule: the goalkeeper saved a - /the referee
awarded a - / he scoredfrom a - / he missed the - /
the defender gave away a - / Ronaldo wasfouled
and got a post the post in a game such as football is one of the
sides of the goal: they hit the - twice / it wasjust
wide of the - / he beat the goalkeeper at thefar
- (the onefurthestfrom the ball) / a shot to the
nearsack to sack someone means to send them away
from their job because they have done something
wrong. Sack is also a noun: they -ed the manager /
he was -edfor stealing / he got the -from his last
job / they're threatening to give her the save to save a shot in a game such as football means
to stop it from going into the goal. Save is also
a noun: the goalkeeper -d the shot / he -d the
penalty / shejust managed to - it / the shot was
-d on the line by one of the defenders / that was a
great save/

send off to send someone off in a game such as

football means to order them to leave the field
because they have broken a rule: he got sent off for
hitting another player / the referee sent him off I
that's a sending-off offence
serve to serve in a game such as tennis means
to start the game by hitting the ball to your
opponent. Serve is also a noun: I - d a doublefault /
it's Federer to - next / shes ~d brilliantly in this
match / afantastic -/ hisfirst - was out / shes
finding it difficult to return Serena Williams'shoot if you shoot in a game such as football,you try to
score.The noun is shot: he tackled the striker before
he could - / h e shotjust wide / she shotfrom the
halfway line / that was a great shot / the keeper saved
the shot
substitute to substitute a player in a game such as
football means to replace them with a different
player.The noun is substitution.The new player
who comes into the game is called a substitute:
he was ~d when he got injured / the decision to Rooney / Manchester United are going to make a
substitution / he came on as a - just after half time /
he was brought on as a tackle to tackle someone in a game such as football
means to try to take the ball off them. Tackle is
also a noun: he ~d the strikerjust outside the box
/ improveyour tackling skills / that was a great ~ /
penalisedfor a late - / afair - / a crunching ~ (with
a lot of force) / he skipped past the ~s
thrash to thrash someone in a game means to defeat
them by a large amount. The noun is thrashing: we
got ~ed 6-0 / they absolutely - ed us / they suffered
a 9-0 ~ing
well-meaning if someone is well-meaning, they try
to be helpful or do the right thing, but they don't
succeed: some ~ schools insist on non-competitive
sports / things can sometimes be made worse by ~
parents / she's very -

Pages 4 0 -4 1

drown if someone drowns, they die from being under

water.The noun is drowning: she - ed in the sea /
I'm terrified of-ing / a tragic ~ing in the local
swimming pool
fanatic a fanatic is someone who likes something
very much. The adjective is fanatical: he's a sport
- / she's a real health - / afitness - / a ~al cyclist /
he's -a! about health andfitness


fool a fool is a stupid person. If you make a fool of

yourself,you make yourself look stupid: I'm scared
of making a ~ o f myself / she was trying to make a
o f me / don't be a - / what a - I've been
hairline a hairline fracture or crack is a very thin crack
in something: he had a - fracture in his shoulder /
afew - cracks in the wall
knock out to knock someone out means to make
them unconscious. To knock yourself out means
to have an accident and become unconscious: she
fell and knocked herself out / a blow to the head
which knocked him out / he was knocked out in
the second round of thefight / some tablets which
really knocked me out (made mefeel very tired)
ligament a ligament is a part of your body that joins
a muscle to a bone: I tore the ~s in my knee / a torn
~ in my elbow / a ~ injury /
paralysed if someone is paralysed, they can no longer
move their body: she was - from the waist down /
the accident left him - / she was partially - / 1was
~ withfear
pass out if you pass out, you become unconscious: I
passed out with the heat / 1almost passed out with
the pain / it nearly made me ~
put off if you put something off,you delay doing it
because you do not really want to do it: I've been
putting off going to the dentistfor ages / don't put
it off until tomorrow / he's been putting off making
a decision
reluctant if you are reluctant to do something,you do
not really want to do it.The adverb is reluctantly.
The noun is reluctance: he's a bit - to drive me
round there / 1felt rather - to askfor more money
/ he agreed, rather reluctantly / a reluctance tojoin
in with the others
sprain if you sprain your knee, ankle, wrist etc.,
you hurt it and damage the joint by twisting it
suddenly. Sprain is also a noun: I - ed my knee / 1
think I've - ed my ankle / sufferingfrom a - ed wrist /
you haven't broken it - it's only a twist if you twist your ankle,you hurt it by turning it
suddenly. We use the word twist when the injury
is less serious than a sprain: I - ed my ankle / 1fell
and -ed my knee
waist your waist is the part of your body around
your middle, where the top of your trousers is:
she was paralysedfrom the ~ down / the men
were all stripped to the - / what's your - size?
/ a young woman with a slim ~ / a leather belt
around her -

3 He suffered a blow to the head which left him


4 I don't play sports. I'm very....................

P repo sitio n s
A Complete the sentences with the correct


He's self-conscious....his appearance.

Don't make a fool....yourself.
His shot was just wide....the post.
The accident left him paralysed....the waist
5 Where did you buy those jeans....?
6 She's fanatical....exercising.
7 My dog is always bumping....the furniture.
8 I need to buy an anniversary
9 I need to forehand.

W o r d fam ilies
A Complete the expressions with the correct form
of the word in bold.
1 a reluctant decision
agree.................. .
2 a half-time substitution
a lazy

3 feel self-conscious
4 get fit

improve your

5 a flexible body

work on your

6 thrash your opponent

7 knit a sweater

a 6-0 ...... .
a ... ................ needle

Tick the words which are both a noun and a



penalty ......
tackle ......

A Match the two halves of the collocations

1 a late
2 a blatant
3 award a
4 a great



Complete the collocations with nouns from

the unit.

1 a ___ tfair
2 paralysed with f _ _ r
3 make a f __I of yourself
4 a moral ____ ______ n
5 a loose t ____ d
6 hand-eye __________ ___ n
7 be short of b ____ h
8 m ___ h fixing
Choose the correct verbs to complete the
collocations. Look up the nouns to help you if

1 get/find the sack

2 make / do a fool of me
3 place / put on weight
4 twist / turn your ankle
5 make / have a decision
6 be I come a close second

P h r a s a l verbs
Choose the correct word to complete the
phrasal verb.


W o r d - b u il d in g
A Complete the sentence with a negative form of
the correct adjective.


Co llo c atio n s



1 Dont put your work off / out Do it today.

2 You should take a holiday and chill in / out for
a while.
3 He was knocked out /by in a football collision.
4 I've tried, but I can't really get on / into rap
5 He was sent out / off for committing a foul.
6 I need to exercise and get by / in shape.
7 I was so hot I almost passed out / down.
8 This class is too difficult. I can't keep in / up.


1 I'm.................... to sleep because I'm so

2 We didn't win the game because the referee
w as.....................


Pages 4 2 -4 3

bay a bay is an area on the coast where the sea

curves inwards: a little -you could scramble down
to / go swimming in the - l a sheltered - / looking
out across the chilly if the weather is chilly, it is quite cold. The noun
is chilliness: It was a bit - in the evenings / a - day /
the evenings were quite - / it's starting to get - l a
reply (unfriendly) / a slight chilliness in the air
cliff a cliff is a high, steep area of rock at the edge
of the sea: a hotel on top o f the -s / high -s /
limestone -s / they tried to climb the - / walking
along the cliff top
cut off if a place is cut off, it is difficult to reach, for
example because it is not near good roads or
railways, or because of bad weather: the place was
a bit - (far awayfrom towns and cities) / the village
gets - by snow in winter / some houses were - by
deserted if a place is deserted, there is no one in it:
the beaches were - / the town looked completely / walking through the - streets l a - village
dump if a place is a dump, it is very dirty, untidy or
in a bad condition: the place was a bit of a - 1 his
flat was a real - 1 what a - I I a rubbish - (where
rubbish is taken and left)
facilities the facilities in a place are the buildings and
equipment the place has, and the services it offers:
the - on the camp site were incredible / a hotel
with excellent - 1 its gotfantastic sports - / there
were no leisure - / the toilet - were very poor
filthy if something is filthy, it is extremely dirty. The
noun is filth: everything got - l a - T-shirt / his
clothes looked - / the house was absolutely - /
everything was covered infilth
full blast if you play a radio or music player at full
blast, you play it as loud as you can: they played


music at - all night / had the TV on a t - 1 the radio

was playing at greasy if something is greasy, it is covered in oil.The
noun is grease: thefood was a bit - 1 - chips / ~
hair / thefood was swimming in grease (covered in
grease) / his hands were covered in grease
muddy if something is muddy, it is covered in mud:
the camp site was really - I - boots / my clothes
had got - / thefloor was all overlooking if something is overlooking a place, it is
above the place and has a view over it.The verb
is overlook: on top o f the cliffs, - the ocean / a
balcony - the beach / the room overlooks a car park
overwhelming if something is overwhelming, it
has a very strong effect on your feelings, so you
are unable to express exactly how you feel. The
verb is overwhelm: it was all a bit - / 1found the
experience absolutely - 11 was overwhelmed by a
feeling of sadness / we were totally overwhelmed
by peoples support
restless if you are restless, you feel slightly bored and
want to do something different or go somewhere
new. The noun is restlessness: I got a bit - after a
couple o f days / beginning tofeel - / the kids are
starting to get slightly - / afeeling of restlessness
scramble if you scramble somewhere,you climb
there, using your hands to help you. Scramble
is also a noun .you can - down to the bay /
scrambling over the rocks / we -d up the cliff I
a bit of a scramble down to the beach
self-catering if accommodation is self-catering, it has
a kitchen so that you can prepare your own food: a
apartment/ - accommodation l a - holiday
site a site is a place where something happens. Site
is also a verb: a camp - l a building - l a landfill (for burying rubbish in the ground) / the - of the
accident / the place where the new theatre will be
spoil to spoil something means to make it less good
or less enjoyable: bad weather can really - a
holiday / he always -s thefun / the new buildings the view / 1-ed the meat by cooking itfor too long
spotless if something is spotless, it is completely
clean.The adverb is spotlessly: the whole place was
- l a - white shirt / the house looked absolutely - /
spotlessly clean
stunning if something is stunning, it is extremely
beautiful.The adverb is stunningly: we had viewsfrom our window / some - new designs / she
looked absolutely - 1 shes stunningly beautiful
superficial if something is superficial, it only concerns
the surface of something and not the part in the
middle or the most important part. The adverb
is superficially: a rather - discussion / sometimes
felt it was a bit - / his knowledge is quite - 1 a
burn (only on the surface of your skin) l a - society
(concerned only about things you can see, not
serious ideas) I the wood was only damaged -ly

tent a tent is a small shelter that you stay in when

you are camping: we stayed in a - / a three-person
- l a niceflat place where we could pitch our - / it
took ages to put up the - 1 we took down the - and
left / the - blew down in the night
unbearably unbearably means in a way that is
extremely unpleasant.The adjective is unbearable:
the weather was ~ hot / he was ~ arrogant / the
pain was unbearable / the heat made it unbearable
welcoming if someone is welcoming, they are very
friendly to you when you arrive somewhere: the
people were incredibly - / she gave a - smile / a
hotel with a - atmosphere
winding if a road is winding, it has a lot of turns
and bends in it.The verb is wind: you had to walk
along a ~ track to the village l a - river / a narrow
- footpath I the road winds up to the village / we
wound our way through the narrow streets

couldve -d whileyou were sleeping I he nearly ~d I

he tried to - his victims (kill them by stopping them
breathing) I the new restrictions are suffocating
trade (preventing itfrom developing) / she died of

Pa g e s 4 6 -4 7
bland if food is bland, it is not nice because it doesn't
have enough flavour: I dont know howyou eat
that - rubbish / thefood was incredibly - / 1found
it too dash if you dash, you leave or go somewhere quickly
because you are in a hurry. Dash is also a noun:
gotta - now / 1-ed down to the shops / /7/just home quickly / we could make a dashfor the car
L o o k in g

Pa g e s 4 4 -4 5
bear if something doesn't bear thinking about, it is so
horrible or shocking that you don't want to think
about it: he couldve d ied -it doesnt - thinking
confirmation a confirmation is a letter or email which
states officially that something you reserved by
phone will be kept for you. The verb is confirm: did
you receive a - by email? l a - of the booking I a letter I we will confirm the reservation in writing
deposit a deposit is an amount of money that you
pay in advance for something. Sometimes the
deposit is part of the total amount you will pay,
and sometimes it is extra money that you get
back when you finish using something: theyre not
going to give us our - back I you pay an initial - of
100, then pay the rest when the goods arrive I
Ive put down the -o n a new car / theres a 30
returnable - / the - is refundable
framed if something is framed, it has a frame around
it. The verb and noun are frame: a - photo / some
- certificates / areyou going to get it -? I its been
very nicely - l a mirror with a thick woodenframe
procedure a procedure is a set of actions that you
follow in order to do something correctly: thats
our normal - / the usual -fo r making reservations /
you didnt follow the correct - / the companys
standard -sfo r taking on new staff
reservation if you make a reservation, you ask a hotel
to keep a room for you, a restaurant to keep a table
for you, etc. The verb is reserve: we have no record
o f any - / Id like to make a - 1 doyou have a -? I a
- in the name o f Smith / 1cancelled the - / Id like
to reserve a tablefor tomorrow evening I Im sorry,
these seats are reserved
suffocate if you suffocate, you die because you
cannot breathe. The noun is suffocation

a n d g o in g

English has lots of verbs to describe the way

people look / see and move. For example, gaze at
the stars; dash up the stairs
look / see: stare at me (hard / long);frown at
me smoking (disapproving); glare at each other
(angrily); glance at the headlines (quickly); peer
over my shoulder / peer through the mist (with
difficulty); spot him in the crowd (see after
looking); glimpse something in the bushes (see
go: crawl into bed / crawl along (slowly, tiredly);
creep out / sneak up behind someone (slowly,
quietly, unseen);jog down the street (run slowly);
limp home (injured); rush to work (fast, late,
urgent); stroll through the park (relaxed); march
up to me and demanded... (with purpose);
pace up and down (nervous); scramble down
the hill (with difficulty); stagger out of the pub
(uncontrolled almost falling).

gaze if you gaze at something, you look at it for a

long time. Gaze is also a noun: I was gazing out of
the window / lying on his bed gazing at the ceiling
I she was gazing into space / my gaze wasfixed on
the letter I he lowered his gaze (looked down)
get over if you get over something, you start to feel
better after it: it took me a couple of days to - the
jetlag / Im just getting over theflu / hes upset now,
but hell soon - it I Ive got over it completely now
hook up with if you hook up with someone, you meet
them and become friends with them or start to
have a relationship with them: Ive hooked up with
a guyfrom London / we'll - with them again in
New York / ourfirm has hooked up with another
small company (agreed to work with)

heritage your heritage is your culture and family

background:you appreciateyour own - / its
important to protect our national - / buildings that
are part of our - / the countrys rich cultural - /
trying to preserve their Scottish humid if the weather is humid, it is very hot, with
a wet heat rather than a dry heat. The noun is
humidity: its unbelievably hot and - /a very - day /
high -ity levels / an increase in -/ty
integration integration is the process in which people
gradually become involved in a new society or
group. The verb is integrate: ~ into a new culture /
the countrys - into the EU / policies that encourage
social - / infavour of greater - / they soon became
integrated into the local community / theyve
integrated very well
miles miles means by a very large amount: Hong
Kong is - better / its -funnier than thefirstfilm /
thats - too big / it was - too expensive
moan a moan is a complaint about something. Moan
is also a verb: we have a - about things together /
/dont want to listen toyour - si / stop -ingl /
everyone - ed about thefood
orientate if you orientate yourself, you begin to
feel familiar with the place where you are or the
situation you are in. You can also say that you
orient yourself: Im starting to - myselfnow / 1
tried to - myselfby looking at the map / it took him
afew months to orient himself in the newjob
phase a phase is one stage in the development of
something:you go throughfour distinct -s / the
first - of the project / the second - of the building
work / a difficult - in the countrys history
pride pride is a feeling of pleasure and satisfaction
you get when you have done something well. Pride
yourself on something is a verb.The adjective is proud:
people seem to take - in what they do / she showed us
her award with great - / see the - in herparentsfaces /
he prides himselfon the quality of his work / were very
proud of you / Im particularlyproud of this painting
put someone down if you put someone down, you
criticise them when other people are there.The
noun is put-down:yow might put people down
when they speak their own language / her parents
are always putting her down / Imfed up with his
constant put-downs


resistance resistance to something is a refusal to

accept it. The verb is resist: -to a new culture /
theres considerable - to the proposals / the plans
met with a lot of-from local people / they put up
quite a bit o f- / trying to resist change / he resisted
the pressure to resign
roots a person's roots are the place, culture and
family that they come from. The roots of a plant
are the part that hold the plant in the
can get cut offfrom your - /feeling the need to go
back to her - / returning to his Irish - / digging the
plants up by the settle down if a situation settles down, it becomes
calmer: things have settled down a bit now / the
situation seems to have settled down
slave away if you slave away, you work very hard for
a long time: Ive been slaving away at my desk /
slaving away over a hot cooker / slaving away at
a report
swing if you swing, your feelings or opinions
change. Swing is also a noun: some people from one extreme to the other / her mood could from joy to despair within a matter of minutes /
public opinion has swung to the left (become more
left-wing) / mood swings / a big swing in public
symptom a symptom is something that shows
that an illness or problem exists.The adjective
is symptomatic: its a - of the resistance phase /
what are the -s of food poisoning? / physical and
psychological -s / people displayingflu-like -s /
not everyone with the disease will develop ~s /
recognise the -s of overwork / the demonstrations
are a - of an underlying problem / the rise in
unemployment is -atic of the general decline in the
transformation a transformation is a complete
change. The verb is transform: the - phase / an
amazing - / the buildings - from a school to a
community centre / the party has undergone
a complete - / the whole house has been
undergo if you undergo something, you experience
it: were -ing a big change / the building has -ne
some renovations /you may need to - surgery / she
underwent an emergency operation

P repositions
Complete the sentences with the correct


Everyone complained....the food.

I'm looking for a hotel....conference facilities.
What can you see out....the window?
Room 405 is ....the top floor.
I have a confirmation....writing.
I'm not familiar....this place.

Choose the correct preposition.

1 We stayed at / in a tent.
2 You can see the sea by /from our window.
3 It was quite cold in I on the evenings.
4 I have to look in / at the map again.
5 It's a restaurant of/ with a lovely atmosphere.
6 My room is a bit in /o f a mess.
W ord families
A Complete the expressions with the correct form
of the word in bold.

1 transform the living room

a remarkable

2 meet with resistance

................... the
living in

3 a spot of grease
4 a slight chilliness
5 overwhelmed by sadness
6 a filthy floor

W ord - build ing '

1 The....................of the two companies was

successful, (integrate)
2 We need................... of your signature before
we can proceed, (confirm)
3 I like the................... on that picture, (frame)
4 We'd like to make a ................... please, (reserve)
A Complete the collocations with the verbs in the
list. Look up the verbs if you need help.


Complete the missing adjectives.

1 The hotel was right next t o a b _______ g site.

2 Reservations depend on an i______I deposit.
3 There's a s _ ______g view from my window.
4 We need to gauge p____ opinion on this
5 The restaurant has undergone a _______ e
6 The profits from tourism benefit the I ___ I
Match the two halves of the collocations.

1 completely
2 national
3 self-catering
4 the correct
5 mood
6 a booking

a) accommodation
b) swings
c) heritage
d) deserted
e) procedure
f) reservation

D Complete the expressions with the words in

the list.



1 a bit................. ...
2 (it) doesn't bear..............
3 from one................... to the other
4 wound our................... through
5 flu-like........ .......... .
Phrasal verbs

A Complete the sentences with the correct noun

from the verbs.


1 the fun
2 a tent
3 in advance
4 ...... in grease
5 a dash
6 to your roots

A Choose the correct word to complete the

phrasal verb.

1 We're really busy but things should settle down /

in next week.
2 I've been slaving up / away in the kitchen for
3 It took her a long time to get over / by her
4 That manager is always putting employees
down / away.
5 I'll hook up on / with you next time I'm in town.
6 The village is cut away / off by bad weather in
the winter.


thousands o f homes have been affected by the - /

the worst -fo r 50years / a devastating - 1 the rain
has caused -s in many parts of the country / the isfinally beginning to subside / the - waters are still
rising I fears that the river could - / thousands of
homes are now -ed
M etaph o r

a n d w eath er

Many words are often used in different contexts

but with a connection to their original meaning.
This is true of many weather words. For example,
peopleflooded into the streets (lots o f people
moved like aflood), she was infloods of tears, we
had aflood of letters.

Pa g e s 4 8 -4 9
breeze a breeze is a gentle wind.The adjective is
breezy: there was only a slight - /a gentle - /
a cool - / there was a warm - blowing across
the beach / the leaves rustled in the - /a breezy
drought a drought is a situation in which there
has been very little rain and the ground is very
dry: there's a terrible - l a severe - l a period of
prolonged - 1 we had a - last summer / the has mainly affected the south of the country /
restrictions on water use during the earthquake when there is an earthquake, the ground
shakes: peoplefelt the - miles away I a big-1 the
town was destroyed by a massive - 1 the - has left
thousands o f people homeless I hundreds were
injured in the - / living in an - zone
ease off if something eases off, it becomes less
severe: the rains eased off a bit now / the pain was
beginning t o - 1 the snows eased off slightly
exaggerate if you exaggerate, you describe
something in a way that makes it seem bigger,
worse, more important etc. than it really is.The
noun is exaggeration: maybe Im exaggerating
a bit I dont -! / he tends t o - a bit I she was
exaggerating wildly / its important not to the importance o f this meeting / it was a wild
exaggeration / hes prone to exaggeration (he often
famine a famine is a situation in which there is a
serious lack of food and a lot of people die: crop
failures led to a - 1 a terrible - / the drought caused
a devastating - / millions of people are nowfacing
- l a series of measures to relieve the flood a flood is a situation in which there is a large
amount of water from rivers or the sea over the
land. Flood is also a verb.The adjective is flooded:

come under a hail of bullets / missiles / criticism

(attacked by lots of hard things); my minds afog
/ my memory's a bitfoggy (not clear or confused);
the exam was a breeze (light, easy); the origins
have been lost in the mists of time (difficult to
see / know) I her eyes were misty (almost crying);
lightning quick I lightning reactions (fast and
sudden); a thunder o f drums I the kids thundered
down the stairs (sound / move very loudly).

fog fog is a thick cloud that forms close to the

ground.The adjective is foggy: thick - / hopefully
the - will lift soon / a dense - had descended on the
area / we couldn't see anything through the - l a
foggy morning
hall hail is small pieces of ice that fall from the air like
rain. Hail is also a verb. Each piece of ice is called a
hailstone: we had some rain and - later in the day /
ft was starting t o - 1 the -stones were as big as
golf balls
lightning lightning is a bright flash of light you see in
the sky during a storm. Lightning is also a verb: we
saw this incredibleforked - l a suddenflash o f - 1 forked across the sky I the plane was struck b y - 1 it
was beginning to thunder and melt if something melts, it becomes soft or turns to
liquid after being frozen and hard: the snow had
all -ed by the morning I my ice cream's -ing! / the butter in a small saucepan
mist mist is a light cloud close to the ground.The
adjective is misty: we couldn't see much because
of the - 1 afine - l a heavy - / the village was
shrouded in - (covered by mist) / the - should clear
later I a -y morning
pull over if you pull over,you drive to the side of the
road and stop your car.- we pulled over to the side of
the road / she signalled to us t o - 1 we pulled over
and got out o f the car
shade shade is slight darkness in a place that is
sheltered from the sun. Shade is also a verb.The
adjective is shaded: we sat in the - l a small patch

o f - / in the - o f a large tree / plants that grow well

in the - / the temperature was 42 degrees in the
~ / a big tree would - the garden too much / she
shaded her eyes / a ~d garden
spit if it spits, it rains very gently: it's only - ting now /
it's starting to ~
thunder thunder is the loud noise that you hear in
the sky during a storm. Thunder is also a verb: a
faint rumble of - 1 the - was getting louder / a loud
crash o f- I a sudden clap o f- / the - rolled and
roared all around us I didyou hear it - earlier?

Pa g e s 5 0 -5 1
ageing someone who is ageing is quite old and
becoming older. The verb is age: looking after her
- parents I Britain's - population I an -film star I
when I saw her again, she'd aged a lot
aim if something is aimed at achieving something,
it is intended to try and achieve that thing. Aim
is also a noun: experiments which are -ed at
combating illnesses / new policies -ed at reducing
the number of road accidents I what's the - of
this research? / they came to power with the - of
reducing poverty and unemployment
amidst amidst something means with that thing
happening all around. Amidst people means with
people around you: herfamily made an emotional
appeal - growingfearsfor her safety / he resigned
- allegations of corruption / living - hisfamily
associated if one thing is associated with another,
the two things are connected in some way. The
verb is associate: some of the problems that are with this new treatment /jobs that are - with the
car industry / people don't usually associate science
with art
board the board of a company is the group of people
who control it and make important decisions. A
board member is a member of a company's board:
the idea was rejected by - members I it will be
discussed by the - members / he's on the - of the
bank I two people have resignedfrom the breeder a breeder is someone who keeps animals
and produces and sells young animals.The verb is
breed. A breed is one particular type of an animal: a
successful animal - l a dog - / horse -s I they breed
cattle on thefarm / a very popular breed of dog
civilised if something is civilised, it belongs to an
advanced and well-organised society and so
shows culture and good standards of behaviour: a
- society / it all seemed very - l a - drink outside in
the garden / let's talk about this in a - way
contest to contest something means to say officially
that you do not agree with it or think it is wrong:
the will is being -ed I they plan to - the decision
dare a dare is something difficult or dangerous that
you do because someone has challenged you to do

it. Dare is also a verb: / tried eating themfor a -1

he challenged me to a - / go on, I -you! (I challenge
you) / 1-you to call him now / 1-n't ask him
(I don't have the courage)
deem if something is deemed to have a particular
quality, people consider that it has that quality:
it wasnt -ed suitablefor ayoung woman I
precautions that were -ed necessary / his actions
were -ed to be illegal
estate your estate is the money and property that is
left after you die: he left his entire - to charity I
his son will inherit his - / she left an - valued at
15 million
fund to fund something means to pay for it. A fund
is an amount of money that has been collected
for a particular purpose: the scheme is -ed by the
government / it'sjointly - by three schools / should
the government - more scientific research? / the
rebuilding - 1 an appeal -fo r earthquake victims /
they're setting up a campaign halt to halt something means to stop it. Halt is also a
noun: they want to - the experiments / work on the
new bridge has been -ed by protestors I the search
for survivors has now -ed / the train came to a
sudden - / the economy seems to be grinding to a harassment harassment is unpleasant or threatening
behaviour towards someone. The verb is harass:
he accused the police o f - 1 she was subjected to
sexual - / they have complained of being harassed
by the police I stop harassing me!
inheritance an inheritance is money that you get
from someone after they die. The verb is inherit: he
received a small -from hisfather I she is struggling
to win back her rightful - / she accused him of
trying to steal her - 1 he left them an - of over 30
million / she'll come into her - when shes 21 (she
will receive it) I who will inherit thefarm when
you die?
insight an insight is a clear way of understanding
something: thefilm provides invaluable -s into
their lives I his writing lacks - 1shegot a lot o finto this problem / the book gives a real - into the
causes of the war
intimidation intimidation is behaviour in which you
try to frighten someone to make them do what
you want. The verb is intimidate: - of laboratory
staff I they enduredyears o f - I using various tactics / they tried to intimidate him into confessing I
an attempt to intimidate voters
invaluable if something is invaluable, it is extremely
useful: the book provides - insights I a n - tool I
some - experience I the Internet is -fo r students
laboratory a laboratory is a place where scientific
experiments are carried out: a science - l a
research - I - staff I - equipment / - tests / the
work is all carried out in a pull out to pull out of something means to stop
being involved in it: they are threatening to - of

the project / trying to r of the agreement / he has

beenforced to ~ of the tournament due to injury
resume to resume means to start again. The noun is
resumption: the talks will ~ next week / work on
the bridge is due to - soon / she hopes to ~ work
next month / the resumption of peace talks
rightful rightful means according to what is right
legally or morally. The adverb is rightfully:
struggling to win back her ~ inheritance / the heir to the throne / the ~ owner of the house / the
money is righlfully mine
subsidy a subsidy is an amount of money that a
government pays in order to keep the price of
goods lower. The verb is subsidise: an agricultural
~ / subsidiesfrom the European Union / small
producers are given massive subsidies / the
government pays huge subsidies tofarmers / the
industry is still heavily subsidised
taboo a taboo is a strong custom that tells people it is
wrong to do something or talk about something:
a cultural - has been broken / there's a - about
discussing religion in Britain / the ~s surrounding
sexuality / a desire to break down old ~s
violate to violate a rule, law or tradition means to
break it. The noun is violation: hefelt that his
privacy was being -d / countries that ~ human
rights / the company has ~d international laws /
a blatant violation of the peace agreement /
wholesale violation of human rights
vivisection vivisection is scientific experiments that
are carried out on live animals: - is morally wrong
/ people who are opposed t o - / anticampaigners
w ill a will is a document that says what you want to
happen to your money and property when you die:
the ~ is being contested / we don't know what's in
her ~yet / the ~ wasn't signed, so it wasn't valid /
it's a good idea to draw upa~ / he changed his just before he died

Pages 5 2 -5 3

bush a bush is a plant that looks like a small tree: I

heard something moving in the ~es / afruit - /
rose -es
curl if something curls, it forms a curved or twisted
shape.The adjective is curled or curly: the leaves
are -ing up / areyou going to - your hair? / the cat
was lying - ed up by thefire / an old photograph
thats ~ed at the edges / she's got lovely thick ~y
fiddly if something is fiddly, it is difficult because
there are very small objects you have to handle: a
~ job / theyre too small and ~ / it's really ~ getting
the top back on


flower to flower means to produce flowers: the

almond trees dont usually - this early / it -s in
the autumn / they hope that democracy will ~
(be successful)
gather to gather things means to collect them: ~ing
mushrooms in thefields / we've ~ed quite a lot of
information / the police are still - ing evidence / he
hastily ~ed his things together and left
invasive if something is invasive, it spreads quickly
and is difficult to stop. The verb is invade: some
weeds are incredibly - 1 an - cancer / ~ diseases /
the cancer cells can invade other parts o f the body
nod to nod means to move your head up and down
to show that you agree. Nod is also a noun: she
gave a smile and - ded / 1-ded politely / he said
nothing, butjust ~ded / she gave a brief- of
rot to rot means to decay through natural processes.
Rot is also a noun: the old wood had ~ted / when
the soils too wet, it ~s the roots / eating too much
sugar will ~ your teeth / a lot of rot in the wood /
the house wasfull o f damp and ~
seed a seed is a part of a plant that you put in the
ground to grow a new plant: sunflower ~s / a
packet of grass ~ / the ~s havent germinatedyet
(started to grow) / some of the vegetables have
gone to - (produced seeds)
sterna stem is a long thin part of a plant on which
leaves and flowers grow:you'll need to cut the ~s
a bit / roses with long ~s / beautifulflowers with
slender -s
settle to settle your stomach means to stop it feeling
uncomfortable and likely to make you sick: a drink
to -yo ur stomach / my stomach has ~d now
significance the significance of something is
its meaning or importance.The adjective is
significant. The verb is signify: do these plants
have cultural ~? /the ceremony has great - / the
enormous - of these election results / it's suddenly
taken on a new - / 1wouldn't attach any ~ to it
/ don't underestimate the - of this event / a very
significant development / his most significant
achievement / symbols which signify peace
water to water plants means to put water on them:
I've been - ing them every day / don'tforget to ~
the tomatoes / they need -ing twice a day
weed a weed is a wild plant that grows in a field or
garden where it is not wanted. Weed is also a verb,
meaning to clear weeds: the gardensfull of~s /
perennial ~s (which remain in a place and dont die
in the winter) / trying to keep the ~s under control /
need to ~ the vegetable patch / theflower garden
needs - ing


C o l l o c a t io n s
A Complete the sentences with the correct form
of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you
need help.

P repo sitio n s
Complete the sentences with the correct

1 The road was earthquake.

2 Thousands of homes have been affected...... the
3 We've had a long period....drought.
4 Hail is ice that falls....the air like rain.
5 Can you hear something moving....the
6 What's the aim ....your research?
7 Fry the onions....a saucepan.

W o r d fam ilies
A Complete the expression with the correct form
of the word in bold.

1 a warm breeze

a ....................
a thick....................
sitting in the

2 a misty morning
3 shade your eyes

4 the resumption of talks Talks are due to

............... ..... soon.
5 My ageing grandmother He never...................
6 a flooded house
a devastating
7 a significant event

an event of great

W o r d - b u il d in g

1 There are.................... fears for the safety

of the hostages.
2 Too much chocolate w ill.................. your
3 A computer virus caused my work to
............ a grinding halt.
4 The police are.................... information from
5 I .................... you to ask him to go out on
a date.
Complete the missing adjectives.

1 a w _ _ d exaggeration.
2 make an e _________I appeal
3 conducts__________ research
4 a victim of s_____I harassment
5 a violation of h ___ n rights
6 set up a _______ n fund
Match the two halves of the collocation.


a flash of
heir to


significance to (something)
the throne

Patter ns

A Complete the sentences with a negative form

of the correct adjective.






A Complete the sentences with the correct form

of the verbs in the list. Use to + infinitive
or -ing.


1 I get excited easily but you're always so

2 You can't drive without a licence. It's
3 Putting on headphones is ....................
behaviour in a staff meeting.
4 I felt my new shoes.
5 You are worrying about something that's
6 Getting caught in a thunderstorm is an
. experience.





Feel the wind.................. .. through your hair.

We are planning............. .......the decision.
Becoming wiser is part of ....................older.
....................floodwaters have been reported
in the news.
5 I'm planning.................... lasagne for dinner.
6 Please ask her.................. ... me back.
7 You are forcing me.......... ......... a difficult



Pa g e s 5 4 -5 5
break into to break into a place means to enter it
using force.The noun is break-in: the house had
been broken into / someone broke into my car and
stole my radio / a series of break-ins in the area
bribery bribery is the crime of offering a person in
authority money so that they will do something
for you. The verb is bribe, and a bribe is the money
that you offer: charged with - and corruption /
~ is widespread / everyone bribes the officials /
attempting to bribe a police officer / paying bribes
to police officers / he's accused of accepting bribes
blackmail blackmail is the crime of threatening to tell
someone's secrets unless they pay you money or
do something for you. Blackmail is also a verb: he's
accused of - 1 she tried t o - a politician / she was
- ed into accepting the offer
bombing a bombing is the crime in which someone
leaves a bomb in a place and allows it to explode: a
in the city centre / two men have been charged with
the-1 a - campaign / a wave of-s in recent weeks
burglary a burglary is a crime in which someone
enters a building and steals something. Someone
who does this is a burglar.The verb is burgle:
there have been a lot of burglaries in the area /
an attempted - / when did the - take place? / the
police have arrested two burglars / we got back and
found the house had been burgled
captive if someone is held captive, they are kept
as a prisoner. Captive is also a noun: he held his
girlfriend - / he's been held - for a year / they were
taken - by rebels / - animals / theyfinally released
their -s
come up to come up to someone means to come
towards them: three lads came up to me I a girl
came up and started talking to me I a man came
up to me and asked mefor money

come forward to come forward means to offer to

help someone: people are too scared to - / the
police want people to - with information / we
askedfor volunteers but no one cameforward
device a device is a bomb: the - went off in a
shopping centre / an explosive -/ a nuclear - / the
had been left in a bus station
disappear if someone disappears, they become
lost and people cannot find them.The noun is
disappearance: shejust -ed / the girls -ed while
they were walking homefrom school / report the
disappearance to the police
drag to drag someone means to pull them roughly:
he -ged her to his car / she was ~ged into some
bushes / she -ged me round the shops all afternoon
(forced me to go with her) / 1finally managed to myselfout of bed (get up with difficulty)
broad daylight if it is broad daylight, it is during the
day and light: it was - when the robbery took place /
it happened in fraud fraud is the crime of telling lies or deceiving
people in order to gain money for yourself.The
adjective is fraudulent. Someone who commits
fraud is a fraudster: a victim o f- / he was sent to
prisonfor tax - / credit card - / identity - (using
someone else's identity to get money) / she made a
-ulent insurance claim / -ulent business activities /
a convicted -ster
get hold of to get hold of something means to
manage to get it: someone must have got hold
of my bank details / it's relatively easy to - this
go off to go off means to explode: the device went
off near the station / the bomb could - off at
any minute / 1was worried the gun might accidentally / 1could hearfireworks going off
grab to grab something means to take hold of it
roughly. Grab is also a noun.- this guy -bed my bag /
she -bed hold of my arm / he -bed me by the
throat / he made a -fo r my purse (tried to grab it)
insured if you are insured, you have paid money to an
insurance company, and they will give you money
if something you own is stolen, damaged, etc. The
noun is insurance and the verb is insure: wereyou -?
/ I'm not - against accidental damage / the car's against theft / the house wasnt properly - /
its a good idea to take out travel insurance / an
insurance policy / an insurance company / haveyou
kidnapping a kidnapping is a crime in which
someone is taken and held as a prisoner.The verb
is kidnap. Someone who commits this crime is a
kidnapper: theres been a - in Somalia / two men
have been charged in connection with the - / two
British tourists have been kidnapped / she never
spoke to her kidnappers
theft theft is the crime of stealing something.
Someone who does this is a thief: hes accused of

/ sent to prisonfor the - of two paintings / he's

been charged with car - / she's got a history of
petty - (stealing small items) / the police are still
lookingfor the thieves
riot a riot is a violent protest by a large number of
people. Someone who takes part in a riot is a
rioter-, a - in the capital / high prices led tofood -s
in the cities / rising unemployment has sparked ~s
/ the army were called in to put down the - / police
used tear gas on the -ers
robbery a robbery is a crime in which someone uses
force to steal money or property.The verb is rob and
someone who does this is a robber: a street - l a
bank - / he's been charged with armed - 1 he denied
taking part in the - / she was robbed in the street at
knifepoint / masked robbers held up the bank
seize to seize someone or something means to get
hold of them roughly: he -d her in a pub / he -d
me by the arm / she ~d my hand / she -d the bag
snatch to snatch something means to steal it from
someone: I had my bag ~ed / someone - ed my
purse / a child was - edfrom a shopping centre
suspiciously if someone is behaving suspiciously,
they are behaving in a strange way that makes
you think they are doing something illegal.The
adjective is suspicious. The noun is suspicion and
the verb is suspect: see a man acting - / a - large
suitcase / if you see anything suspicious, call the
police / a suspicious-looking man / behaving in a
suspicious manner / 1have the suspicion that he
knows something / our suspicions turned out to be
unfounded (not true) / the police suspect him of fraud
overdrawn if you go overdrawn at the bank, you spend
more money than you have in your account: I'd
gone 1000 - / the account was already - by 200
stab to stab someone means to attack them by
pushing a knife into them. The noun is stabbing:
she was - bed outside her school / he was - bed to
death / there have been three -bings sofar this
vanish to vanish means to disappear: when I looked
round, she'd ~ed / the boat had -ed without trace /
he seemed to - into thin air
Pa c e s 5 6 -5 7
appalling if something is appalling, it is extremely
bad and shocking.The verb is appal and there is
also an adjective appalled: re-offending rates are - /
they live in - conditions / the decision to release
him will appal a lot of people / 1was absolutely
appalled at how badly they behaved
community service community service is a
punishment in which someone has to do work
that helps other people: offenders should d o - /
sentenced to three months'- / - shouldn't be seen
as a soft option

fine a fine is an amount of money that you pay

as a punishment. Fine is also a verb: get a -fo r
speeding / a parking - / 1had to pay a - of 300 /
he was -d 250
inmate an inmate is someone who is in prison: -s
should work while they are in prison / a prison with
700 - s i a n - ofParkhurst Prison
life you can describe a particular way of living as
a life: they lead a - of luxury / help people to
lead independent lives / after the operation,you
should be able to lead a normal - / they moved to
Australia to start a new offender an offender is someone who has committed
a cnme:young -s going to prisonfor thefirst time /
longer sentencesfor persistent -s (people who
continue to commit crimes) I a sex- (who has
committed a sex crime)
-E r / -OR (o f f e n d e r /

d ic t a t o r )

We usually form the noun for the people or

things that do an action by adding -er or -or to
the verb. For example, offender, dictator
a high achiever; a political adviser; the announcer
at an airport; a financial backer, a suicide
bomber; a dog breeder; a wedding caterer, the
champion's challenger, a plastic container, an
army commander; turn off the cooker, a central
defender; a dreamer; a children's entertainer; a
farm labourer; a university lecturer, an infamous
murderer; take painkillers; use the spell-checker;
contain sweeteners.
press the accelerator; the school administrator;
use a calculator; a sports commentator, a
newspaper editor; have your own electricity
generator; a rubbish incinerator; a government
inspector; a swimming instructor; the film
projector's broken; the state prosecutor (lawyer).

rehabilitation rehabilitation is the process by which

someone is helped to live a normal life again after
they have been in prison or been ill.The verb is
rehabilitate: we should pay more attention to - /
a - centre / the - of offenders / a new scheme to
rehabilitateyoung offenders
system a system is a set of ideas or methods that you
use: the current - isnt working / a modernfiling - /
the person who designed the - / time to reform the
judicial - l a new -fo r dealing withyoung offenders
vicious circle a vicious circle is a situation in which
one problem causes another problem, which
then makes the first problem worse: we need to
break the - of crime, prison and more crime / a - o f
poverty and ill health

worldwide if something is worldwide, it happens

all over the world: it's attracted - attention / a problem / they export goods -

Pa g e s 5 8 -5 9
confiscation confiscation is taking something away
from someone officially.The verb is confiscate:
theyre angry about the - of personal property / he
nowfaces - of his house / the police confiscated his
curfew a curfew is a rule or law which says that
people must stay indoors after a particular time
at night: theyve imposed a - 1 the government
declared a - / the whole town has been placed
under- / a -foryoung people / the - was lifted
detention detention is keeping someone locked
up. The verb is detain: the indefinite - of terror
suspects / seven days- / he was kept in - 1 he
has been detained by the police / detainedfor
dictator a dictator is a ruler who has complete power
in a country: an evil - / afascist - / an attempt to
overthrow the get away with murder if someone gets away
with murder, they are not punished for doing
something wrong. If someone gets away with a
crime, they are not caught and punished for it:
that child gets away with murder! / Id steal the
money if I thought I could get away with it /you'll
never get away with this!
hysterical if someone is hysterical, they are very upset
and cannot control what they say or do. Hysterical
language or behaviour is very extreme and
unreasonable: a - use of language la - reaction to
the crisis / some - media coverage / she became and started screaming
indefinite if something is indefinite, it has no fixed
end. The adverb is indefinitely: the - detention of
terror suspects I a n - strike / the paintings are on loan to the gallery / most prisoners can't be locked
interrogate to interrogate someone means to ask
them questions for a long time in order to get
information.The noun is interrogation: he was -d
several times / ~d by the police / he was taken to
the police stationfor interrogation / a senior police
officer conducted the interrogation / he refused to
say anything under interrogation
impose to impose something means to introduce it
officially and force people to accept it.The noun
is imposition: they've ~d a curfew I - a ban on the
sale o f alcohol / - new restrictions on trade / the
court can - afine / the imposition of a curfew
lay down the law to lay down the law means to tell
someone very firmly what they must do.from now


on, Ill be laying down the law / he cant come in

here andjust plot to plot means to make secret plans against
a person or government. Plot is also a noun:
hes accused of-ting against the state / ~ting to
overthrow the government / ~ting a murder / an
assassination - / a - t o kidnap the President
put up with to put up with something means to
accept it in a patient way: I dont know why they it / 1wont - this behaviour any longer
monitor to monitor something means to watch it
regularly over a long period of time: his phone calls
were ~ed / a machine to - your heart rate / well
- his progress / the government has said it will
continue to - the situation
opposed to if you are opposed to something, you do
not think it should happen: theyre - the detention
of terror suspects / people who are - abortion /
theyre - the war
oppressed if someone is oppressed, they are treated
in a cruel or unfair way.The noun is oppression: a
poor - victim / - ethnic minorities / the - people
of the world / they suffered political oppression /
victims o f oppression
smuggle to smuggle something into or out of a
place means to take it there secretly because it
is against the law or against rules. The noun is
smuggling: he -s girlfriends into the house / gangs
that ~ illegal immigrants into the country / its
quite easy to - guns across the border /found guilty
of drug smuggling
spark to spark something means to cause it: the event
that ~ed this explosion of anger / the announcement
has -ed widespread demonstrations / an electrical
fault which ~ed afire at thefactory
storm out to storm out means to leave a room angrily:
he stormed out of the room / she stormed out and
slammed the door / he stormed out of the meeting
subversive if something is subversive, it is intended to
damage the power or influence of a government:
he was arrested on suspicion o f- activities / literature
surveillance surveillance is watching a person or
place carefully to see if they are involved in crime:
hes under constant - / the building is kept under
24 hour - 1 he was put under close - l a police operation
torture to torture someone means to hurt them,
especially in order to get information from them.
Torture is also a noun: he claims he was -d / they
were brutally -d / prisoners who were subjected to
- / - victims
vow to vow that you will do something means to
promise that you will do it. Vow is also a noun: -ed
never to subject him to strict discipline / she -ed
to continue herfight for justice / he made a - that
he wouldfind the truth / she broke her - / a - o f
silence / marriage -s


1 The robbery took place in __ _______ daylight.

2 He was sentenced to ten years fo r......... ...........


P repo sitio n s

3 The thieves just vanished into.....................air.

A Complete the sentences with the correct



He's been accused.... accepting bribes.

The burglar entered the building....force.
The gang has been charged....armed robbery.
She's going to prison__the second time.
I couldn't get any information....him.
The drugs were brought....the city by tourists.
Alcohol is often accidents.
She was arrested....suspicion of drink driving.

Complete the collocations with nouns from the


W o r d fam ilies
A Complete the expression with the correct form
of the word in bold.

1 a rise in burglaries

a teenage

2 the suspect disappeared

a mysterious

3 a fraudulent act

a convicted

4 an insurance policy
5 accused of kidnapping
6 a clever thief

are you............
a ....................
guilty of

7 a suspicious act

she was acting

W o r d - b u ild in g

1 an insurance p ____
2 accused of d ru gs_________g
3 lay down the__w
4 monitor the s _________n
5 check your heart r__e
6 get away with m _____r
Match the two halves of the collocation. Look
up the nouns (a-f) if you need help.

1 a shopping
2 community
3 a soft
4 media
5 an assassination
6 marriage



P h r a s a l verbs

A Complete the sentences with nouns formed

from the verbs.

accelerate sweeten instruct back

incinerate lecture announce
1 She works as a ................ at the university.
2 The.................... said the flight was delayed.
3 I find that the brake interferes with the
4 Put the rubbish in the......................
5 Do you know where I can find a good
swi mmin g ..... .
6 My business plan needs a financial.....-_______
7 The pot on the.................... is boiling over.
8 Would you like some............. ...... in your coffee?
Co llo c atio n s
A Complete the sentences with the correct
adjective from the list.


4 I think___ ______ offenders deserve a second

5 Many criminals are from unhappy families; it's a
....... circle.
6 People often blame crime o n _________
7 Police are getting tough on___ _______
8 The power cut was due to an .................... fault.
______ unemployment is straining
household budgets.



A Complete the sentences with the correct form

of the phrasal verbs in the list.

break into
get hold of

come forward

come up
get back

1 house last night.

2 We............... ....home and found the window
3 A stranger..... ............. and started talking to me.
4 The police are asking for witnesses to
5 A bomb........ a bus shelter.
6 You are a very difficult person to .....................
Choose the correct word to complete the
phrasal verb.

1 The military were called in to put out / down

the riot.
2 Robbers held out / up the teller at gunpoint.
3 You don't have to put up by / with bad behaviour.
4 She stormed out / down in anger.
5 My suspicions turned out / up to be unfounded.
6 Striking workers are taking part of/ in a


Pa g e s 6 4 -6 5
carry on to carry on means to continue.youll end up
running the company if things - like this / ~ the
good work / we carried on workingfor another hour
draining if something is draining, it is very tiring. You
can also say that you feel drained: Imfinding it
emotionally - / working withyoung children is - /
Ifelt completely drained
freakyou can use the word freak to say that someone
is obsessed with something: my boss is a complete
control ~ / shes a real health - / afitness hang if you get the hang of something, you learn how
to do it: Im slowly getting the - of everything /youll
soon get the - of it / Ill never get the - of this
hand in to hand something in means to give it to
someone in authority: I handed in my notice last
week / canyou handyour homework in now? /
I handed in my resignation
menial if work is menial, it is boring and does not
need any skill: the work is pretty - most of the time
/ doing - jobs / afew - tasks
merger a merger is the joining together of two
organisations to form one larger one.The verb is
merge: a - between the two companies / people
who aren't infavour of the proposed ~ / theyre
planning to merge with an American bank
notice if you give in your notice,you tell your
employer officially that you are going to leave your
job: I handed in my - last week / 1haven't given in
my - yet / 1have to givefour weeksqualification a qualification is a piece of paper that
shows you have passed an exam or completed a
training course. Someone who has qualifications is
qualified: hes got excellent ~s / good academic ~s /
medical -s /you gain a - a t the end of the course /
hes not qualified enough to get thejob / some very
well-qualified candidates

raise a raise is an increase in the amount of money

that you earn.This is also called a rise in British
English: I got a - last month / they offered me
a - / a ~ of 100 a week / unions are callingfor
a 5% pay rise
redundant if you are made redundant,you are told
that your employer no longer has a job for you.
The noun is redundancy: I got made - last month
/ over 500 workers are being made ~ / many of the
staff are nowfacing redundancy / there have been
nearly 300 redundancies at thefactory
rewarding if something is rewarding, it makes you
feel happy and satisfied: Imfinding it very - /
an extremely - job / the work is immensely stimulating if something is stimulating, it is very
interesting.The noun is stimulation: its really- /
a - discussion / the school provides a - environment /
young children need a lot of stimulation
stretch to stretch someone means to make them
use all their skills and abilities: Ifeel Im really -ing
myself I a school which really -es the students / the
work doesn't really - me
workload a workload is the amount of work that
a person has to do: I'm struggling to cope with
m y- / I've got a heavy - / trying to reduce m y- /
having an assistant would ease her - / my - keeps
work out if something works out well, it happens
or develops in a satisfactory way: if things dont withyour newjob, you can always leave / /hope
things -fo r you / it worked out OK in the end
undervalued if something is undervalued, people do
not realise how important or valuable it is. The
verb is undervalue: she left because shefelt - /
good employee relations are often - / its important
not to undervalue these assets
Un d er-

We can add under- to verbs, nouns or adjectives,

It means 'not enough'. For example: shefelt
I was undercharged; underestimate an opponent;
the faci Iities are underused; underdeveloped
countries; underage drinking is quite a big
problem; public transport is still underfunded;
workers complained they were underpaid; a very
underpopulated area; the school is understaffed;

Pa g e s 6 6 -6 7
blessed if you are blessed with something, you are
lucky because you have it: Ifeel truly - / were with good health

conscious if you are conscious of something, you

are aware of it and notice it or think about it.
The adverb is consciously: Im very - of beingfair
to everyone / Im - that everyone should have the
same opportunities / 1made a - effort to make
themfeel welcome / 1wasnt doing it consciously
get through if you get through a difficult experience,
you come to the end of it successfully: I never
thought Id - it 11 dont know how I got through
thatfirst month
interfere to interfere means to become involved
in a situation when your help or advice is not
wanted. The noun is interference. Someone who is
interfering interferes a lot: my manager ~d a lot /
dont -! / 1wish he wouldnt - in my affairs / 1really
resent his interference / shes so interfering!
live up to to live up to expectations means to be
as good as people expected: herjob didnt expectations / the hotel didnt - the promises in the
holiday brochure
logistics logistics are all the practical things you need
to do in a particular order so that something can
be successful: we get trainingfor things like- /
the ~ of running a company / we havent thought
about the - of the dayyet
mind your mind is your thoughts: It never really
crossed my - to quit completely (I never thought
about it) / an idea came into my - / Ceorge sprang
t o-as a possible candidate (I thought about him
immediately) / thanks, Ill bear that in - (Ill think
about it) / the money was preying on my - (I was
worrying about it)
misunderstood if a person is misunderstood, other
people don't like them because they have a
false idea of what the person is like. The verb is
misunderstand: I think shesjust - / most teenagers
think they are - / its easy to misunderstand her
recognise to recognise something means to
realise that it is good or important. The noun is
recognition: his work has been publicly ~d / her
struggle to get her work ~d / she wasnt ~d as an
artist during her lifetime / hesfinally achieved
recognition as an author
manual manual work is work in which you use your
hands.The adverb is manually: I knew I would
enjoy doing - work l a - job / some simple - tasks /
- workers / - tools (not electric or electronic) /you
can set the timings -ly
name after to name someone or something after a
person means to give them that person's name: a
road has been named after me / he was named after
hisfather / she was named Dora after hergrandmother
peacekeeping peacekeeping is preventing other people
from fighting each other: nowadays the armys more
about -/ a United Nations -force / a - mission
push around to push someone around means to treat
them unfairly: I was pushed around a bit at work /
I wont let anyone push me around

rank someone's rank is their position in an

organisation: hopefully Ill achieve a high - 1an
army officer of high - / she was lower in - than
most of herfriends / he rose to the - of captain
retirement retirement is when someone stops
working because of their age. The verb is retire:
when I reach - age / shes lookingforward to her - /
hes really enjoying - / planning to retire nextyear /
willyou retire whenyoure sixty?
role someone's role is the job that they do or the
way they contribute to a situation: women are
often better than men in those -s / its the - of
ajournalist to ask difficult questions / parents
have an important - in their children's education
/ the prime minister will play a crucial - in the
negotiations / he'll be involved in a managerial set foot if you set foot somewhere, you go there: I never
- on the beach / Ill never - in that house again!
stock to stock a place means to fill it with things.To
restock a place means to fill it again: I spent my
time re-ing the bar / weve red thefridge withfood
stuck if you are stuck in a place, you cannot leave:
we were - inside / Im going to be - in London all
summer / the van got - in the mud (was unable
to move)
suck up to suck up to someone means to behave very
nicely towards them because you want something
from them.- other people would - the boss / she
spent all her time sucking up to the teachers
suntan if you have a suntan,your skin has turned
brown in the sun.The adjective is suntanned: a
good way to get a - / shes got afantastic - I lotion/ his suntanned back
tray a tray is a flat piece of plastic or metal that you
use for carrying drinks, plates, etc.: carrying -s in the
bar / she brought the drinks out on a - / balancing
glasses of wine o n a - / a - of things to eat
Pa g e s 6 8 -6 9
affordability the affordability of something is how
easily people can afford to pay for it.The adjective
is affordable: the - of degree courses / the main
thing people take into account when planning a
holiday is - / affordable houses / working women
need affordable childcare
appeal the appeal of something is the quality it
has that makes people like it.The adjective is
appealing: the UK is worried it will lose its - l a
movie with a lot o f- / the sport has great - 1as
a tourist destination, the town holds n o - / his
manner is very -ing / a very -ing design
autonomy autonomy is the power to make your own
decisions. The adjective is autonomous: allowing
universities to have much greater - / the region is
demanding more - 1an autonomous region / an
autonomous organisation

bureaucrat a bureaucrat is someone who works as

part of an official system. An official system with
a lot of complicated rules is called a bureaucracy:
stories about unelected ~s in Brussels / a government
/ trying to reduce the amount of bureaucracy
compatible if different machines or systems are
compatible, they can work with each other.The
noun is compatibility: making quality control
standards more - / the program's not ~ with my
system / check the compatibility beforeyou buy a
new printer
credit a credit is a part of a university course that
you have passed: -s were sometimes awarded to
students based on the number of hours they'd done
/ 1need six ~s thisyear
decentralise to centralise control of something means
to control it all from one place.To decentralise
control means to allow different places to control
things in different ways: some countries have
started decentralising the curricula / parties that
want to - government / planning to - the business /
they want to centralise the education system
earplugs earplugs are small pieces of plastic that
you put into your ears to keep out noise: a new EU
initiativeforcingfootball supporters to wear ~ /
I had - in, so I couldn't hear anything
influence to influence someone or something
means to affect the way they behave or develop.
Influence is also a noun: the Bologna Process is
influencing education systems in other countries
/ myfather ~d me a lot / don't let this -yo u r
decision / he has a lot o f - in the media / trying
to use his - with government ministers / she has
considerable - over him
implementation the implementation of something
is how it is used and made to work.The verb is
implement: the - of the policy / effective - of the
proposals / the local authority will monitor - of the


plan / the policies will be implemented immediately

/ theyfailed to implement the decision
knock-on effect a knock-on effect is an indirect effect
of something: it's starting to have a - elsewhere /
the closure will have a - o n jobs elsewhere
outcome an outcome is a result at the end of a
process or activity: credits will now be based on
learning -s / the - of the election / a successful - /
actions which will achieve the desired outline to outline something means to describe the
main facts about it, without giving all the details.
Outline is also a noun: I'd like to begin by outlining
the proposal / he -d the government's policies
/ briefly - the plan / she gave a brief- of the
company's history / a broad - of the proposals
outrage outrage is a very strong feeling of anger.
Outrage is also a verb.The adjective is outrageous:
it's caused - in Greece and France / it was greeted
with - / there's been widespread public - /felt a
sense of - / a lot of people were -d by the proposals
/ that's - ousI / an -ous idea
overview an overview is a description of the main parts
of something: an - of university education / it gives
an - of American history / a brief- of the problem
restructure to restructure something means to
organise it in a new way: many universities have
started restructuring departments / plans to - local
government / the company's been completely -d
standardisation standardisation is the process of
making different things the same or similar. The
verb is standardise-./or traditionalists, the idea of
any kind o f- is hard to bear / the - of exams / the
need to standardise selection procedures
summarise to summarise something means to
explain it very briefly.The noun is summary: can
you - the ideas in afew words? / to -, this is an
excellent school / a brief summary o f the proposal /
he gave a summary o f their researchfindings


2 Som e.................... offer better benefits than

3 Som etim es employees have to learn how to
m anage th e ir................. .

P r e p o s it io n s

A Complete the sentences with the correct

1 You receive a certificate at the en d ....the course.
2 Fortunately I'm blessed....good health.
3 He rose to the rank... . captain in the navy.
4 Our car got stuck... . in the mud.
5 W e are n 't.... favour of the proposal.
6 The work is boring m ost....the tim e.

Choose the correct preposition.

1 The consultant gave a brief overview at / o f the
2 I read about it in I on the media.

4 O ld er.................... sometimes struggle to

find jobs.
5 She had an excellent m aths.................... in
high school.

C o l l o c a t io n s
A Complete the collocations w ith the verbs in the
list. Look up the verbs if you need help.





3 Everything is controlled to /from the head office.

4 Parents play a role of/ in their children's education.

1 . the hang o f (something)

5 His scientific work w asn't recognised during /

since his lifetim e.

2 in your notice
3 forward to (something)
4 redundant
5 ...... (som ething) in mind
6 foot in/on (something)

W o r d f a m il ie s
A Complete the expressions w ith the correct form
of the word in bold.
1 com pletely drained

an em otionally

2 made redundant

haunted by fears of

3 a stim ulating

m en tal....................

4 too much

a n ................... manager

5 retire from work


6 a suntanned


a good w ay to get a

Complete the sentences w ith the correct words

from the words in brackets.
1 The success o f the project depends on its
correct.....................(im plem ent)
2 Our inefficien t.................... is driving up the
cost o f health care, (bureaucrat)
3 That doesn't sound v e ry .....................(appeal)
4 N obody.....................the good work he does.
5 The company is planning t o .....................
benefits for employees, (standardisation)
6 Thats a n ............... .... suggestion! (outrage)
W O R D - B U IL D IN G ______________________________

A Complete the sentences w ith the correct noun.

7 after (som ething)

Complete the sentences with the correct noun

from the list.




1 M y boss is a total control.....................

2 Unions are calling for a 50% p ay...............
3 I've got a really h e a v y ..................... th is
m onth.
4 Singapore has an excellent education.......... .
5 I made a b rie f.......... ......... o f the report.
6 Closing the road had a knock-on..............
on other traffic.

Ph ra sa l v er b s
A Choose the correct word to complete the
phrasal verb.
1 The course lived up to / by its expectations.
2 I can't carry in / on in this aw ful job.
3 How are things working in /out w ith your
new boss?
4 I ju st have one more exam to get through I by.
5 He likes to push the younger students

around / out.
6 I don't like employees who suck up / around




to me.

1 I am one of the president's greatest



rips you off: that place is such a - / it was a

complete - / - prices / 1think we got ripped o ff /
dishonest tradesmen who rip people off
spree a spree is a tim e w hen you do a lot of
som ething in a short period o f tim e: go on a big
shopping - / a spending - / a massive buying - /
they went on a crime - / a drinking the safe side to be on the safe side means to do
som ething so th at there is no risk that things w ill
go wrong: Ill phone and book a table,ju st to be on

/ wed better leave by ten, to be on -

them e a them e is a general subject: having a - party

(where people wearfancy dress thatfits a theme)

/ a - park (with rides and games a ll on the same
theme) /justice is the main - o f the book / one o f
the central -s o f his speech


Pa g e s 7 2 - 7 3
ashamed if you feel ashamed, you feel guilty and

Pa g e s 7 0 - 7 1

embarrassed about som ething.The noun is

shame, and shame is also a verb: it made them feel

bunch a bunch of people is a group o f people: going

to comefrom Texas / 1was deeply - / slightly o f my behaviour / Ive done nothing to be - o f / it

makes me - to be British / afeeling o f shame / to
hang your head in shame / behaviour which has
shamed ourfam ily

clubbing with a - o ffriends / they're a really nice / a bit o f a mixed cosy if a place is cosy, it is warm, com fortable and
relaxing: a - little restaurant / a ~ sitting room /
it's lovely and ~ in here / warm and ~ by thefire /
a - chat
deadline the deadline for som ething is the tim e or
date by which you must do it: the -fo r this report
Is tomorrow / the - is Monday / working to a very

tight ~ / they've set a - o f next Tuesday / we're

going to struggle to meet the - / worried w e'll miss
the - / the - has already passed
fancy-dress a fancy-dress event is one in which
people w ear costumes for fun. You can also say
that someone goes in fancy dress: a - party / ~

hire / everyone was infancy dress / are you going

infancy dress?
freshen up tofreshen up means to wash your
hands andface so that you feel cleaner and more
comfortable: well have tim e to - / to - before
dinner / would you like to - ?
get-together a get-together is a party or informal
social occasion. You can also say that people get
together: we have a big - / an inform al - / a fam ily

/ we usually get together at Christmas

resign to resign means to say officially th at you are

leaving your job.The noun is resignation: Im going

to try and persuade her not to - / hes -ingfrom

hisjob / he m ay beforced to - as prime m inister
/ she threatened to - / Ive handed in my -ation /
hes announced his -ation from the government /
protesters have calledfo r her -ation
rip-off if som ething is a rip-off, it is more expensive
than it should be. You can also say th at someone


broadcast to broadcast som ething means to put it on

radio or TV. Broadcast is also a noun: his comments

were - all around Britain / the match w ill be - live

/ a programme that was - on BBC1 last night /
w e'll be -ing livefrom the United States / a radio
broadcast / a news broadcast / the prime minister
w ill make a special broadcast later today
burst out to burst out crying or laughing means to
start crying or laughing suddenly. You can also
say that you burst into laughter or tears.The past
tense and past participle are also burst: she -

crying / 1- laughing / she kept bursting into tears

/ the audience burst into applause / he burst into
loud laughter
casual if som ething is casual,you do it w ithout
thinking about it or planning it before: they made

a - remark about George Bush / a - comment / it

wasju st a - conversation / a - meeting with some
friends / give a - glance at something / - sex (not
as part o f a serious relationship)
chain a chain o f shops or businesses is a group of
them th at are all owned by the same person or
company: the owner o f a - o f shops / a - o f clothes
stores / a large hotel - / the big supermarket ~s
at ease if you are at ease,you feel relaxed: he was with them / 1fe lt completely - / we tried to make
him feel - 1 he seemed ill - (not relaxed) / they tried
to put me - (make mefeel relaxed)
fe llo w your fellow students or workers are the
people you study or work w ith: he was talking

to some - businessmen / 1get on w ell with

my - students / his - countrymen / her - office
frown on to frown on som ething means to
disapprove o f it: public displays o f affection are

frowned on / long lunch breaks are definitely

frowned on / people who still - divorce
globalised som ething th a t is globalised
happens in the sam e w ay all over the world.
The noun is globalisation: ou r- 24-hour news

culture / the - economy / the globalisation

o f world trade / people who are opposed to


Some nouns are formed by adding-/fy to

adjectives. For example: a very versatile vegetable
/ show am azing versatility,
a secure environm ent / improve security; lead an
active life/ avoid physical activity; get very humid
f 90% humidity; a very responsible job / take on
more responsibility; a special person / a local
speciality; obese people / combat obesity; in public
/ attract a lot of publicity

interrupt to interrupt someone means to stop

them w hen they are talking or doing som ething.
The noun is interruption: after a m inute or two,
she -ed me / dont - when Im speaking / 1hate

being ~ed when Im working / Im sorry to ~, but

could you look a t this? / there were constant
interruptions / / ignored the interruption and
carried on
jew ellery jew ellery is things such as rings, necklaces
and bracelets th at you w ear on your body: shops

that sell cheap - / 1never wear - / she wears a lot

o f- / buying expensive light-hearted if som ething is light-hearted, It is
not very serious.The adverb is light-heartedly:
a - speech / a -film /a - look at education / he

seemed in a - mood / laughing andjoking -ly

mean to mean to do som ething means to intend to
do it: it was - t to be a joke / 1~t it as a compliment

/ 1didnt - to upset anyone / 1didn't - any harm /

- t to phone him, but Iforgot
on a ir if someone is on air, their voice or picture is
being broadcast on radio or TV. If they are o ff the
air, their voice or picture is not being broadcast: he

didn't realise he was - 1 we g o- in five minutes /

luckily, the remarks were made o ff the air
pregnant if a wom an is pregnant, a baby is growing
in her body.- she wasn't actually - / 1was eight

months - at the tim e / she looked - / 1got - by

protocol protocol is a set o f rules for how to behave:

share the shares in a company are the parts into

which its ownership is divided.The share price
is the price of the company's shares: to buy -s

in a company / a good tim e to sellyour -s / the

companys - price crashed / the ~ price has gone
down to ju st 15p / ~ prices have risen in recent
slap to slap someone means to hit them w ith the
front part o f your hand. Slap is also a noun: she

-ped him in theface / 1wanted to - her hard / 1

-ped him on the leg / he -ped me on the back
(hit me in a friendly way on the back) / she needs
to give that child a - I / we got a - if we behaved
split up if a couple split up, they end their
relationship.The past tense and past participle
are also split up.The noun is split: I didnt know
theyd - / my parents - lastyear / shes - with her
boyfriend / they've got on much better since the

unnoticed if som ething is unnoticed, people do
not notice it: the remark would have passed ~
in previous times / his strange behaviour went
completely - / their work is largely ~
unpatriotic if som ething is unpatriotic, it criticises
your country. The opposite is patriotic: they saw
the remarks as-1 - behaviour / the party members

arefiercely patriotic / using patriotic language

sm all violations o f - / diplom atic - / they didn't

fo llo w standard medical - / a breach o f- /
public eye if you are in the public eye, you are w ell
known and people recognise you and w rite
about you in newspapers, magazines, etc.:

people who are in the - / the disadvantages o f

being in the rem ark a remark is som ething th at you say. Remark
is also a verb: they made a casual - about George
Bush /he made a few tactless -s / accused o f

making racist -s / 1think you should withdraw

that - / / decided to ignore his -s / everyone -ed
that she was looking w ell / we a ll -ed on the
increased security

Pa c e s 7 4 - 7 5
break up to break som ething up means to stop it:

the police had to come and break it up / trying to

- thefig h t / I'm sorry to - the party / the meeting
broke up atfo u r o'clock / the partyfin a lly broke up
at midnight
chat up to chat someone up means to talk to them
because you w ant to have a relationship w ith
them : he kept trying to chat me up / he spent the
evening chatting Beth up / we got chatted up by a

couple o f waiters


drag to drag someone somewhere means to take

them there when they do not really w ant to go:
myfriend -ged me along to the party / trying to -

him aw ayfrom the pub / they -ged me o ff to the

cinema / we managed to - him out o f bed
engagem ent an engagem ent is a form al agreement
to get married. The adjective is engaged: a party

to celebrate our - / theyveju st announced their / she broke o ff the - / were getting engaged / she's
engaged to Frank
fiancee your fiance (m ale) or fiancee (fem ale) is the
person you are engaged to be married to: Im his

fiancee / have you met herfiance?

form someone's form is how w ell they are playing
or performing at a particular tim e: itsju st a
temporary loss o f- / hes in top - at the moment
/ the team are in good - / hoping to m aintain her
current - / they need to return to - before thefin a l
next month
fancy to fancy someone means to find them
attractive and w ant to have a relationship w ith
them : they'vefancied each otherfo r ages / doyou

him ? / she's a goodfriend, but I don't - her

fortune a fortune is a very large am ount of money:

it cost a -t / I've spent a - today! / that ring must

be worth a - /yo u 'll pay a - fo r a m eal there / he

inherited a large -from his grandfather
get lost to get lost means to go away: /had to tell
him to-11 wish he'sju st - / why don'tyou ju st -?
I goon /
get off w ith to get o ff w ith someone means to start
a relationship w ith them : she got o ff with someone

at the party / doyou think he wants to - with you?

/ she's spent all evening trying to - with him
gorgeous if som ething is gorgeous, it is extremely
tasty. You can also say that som ething is
gorgeous if it is extrem ely beautiful.The adverb
is gorgeously: the aubergine dip is - / some - ice
cream / thank you - that was absolutely - / those
flow ers are - /you look - in that dress / it was -ly
rich and creamy
host the host at a party is the person who has invited
all the guests. A wom an is called a hostess: I didn't

know the - / he's a very good - (he looks after his

guests w ell) / trying to be the perfect -ess
leave out to leave someone or som ething out means
to not include them : Ifeel a bit left out / we
tried not to leave anyone out / she left out a few

im portant details / afe w names had been left out

marquee a marquee is a large tent that you use for a
party: they set up a - in the garden / we're going to


hire a - / the reception was held in a - o n the lawn

/ sitting under a large out o f hand if som ething gets out o f hand, it
becomes very difficult to control: it got a bit - /

things were starting to get overhear to overhear a conversation means to hear

it w hen you are not taking part in it: I couldn't
help -ing / 1-d them talking about it / 1-d him
saying he was going to leave / 1don't want anyone
to - this
patch a patch is a short period o f tim e: we're going
through a bad - at the moment / weve had a
difficult - recently / the business has hit a bad - /
going through a rough polish to polish som ething means to rub it to make
it shine. Polish is also a noun: the Chinese used

to - their teeth with it / -ing his shoes / to - the

furniture / a -edfloor / beautifully -ed shoes / the
bestfurniture - / black shoe sneak to sneak somewhere means to go there quietly
or secretly: /got bored and decided to - out / we

-ed in through the back door / let's - round the

back / we -ed o ff home
stuffy if a room is stuffy, it is too warm and there is
no fresh air in it.The noun is stuffiness: it was so

- in there / it's getting a bit - in here / a really classroom / 1can't bear the stuffiness in there
turn out to turn out in a particular w ay means to end
in that way: he turned out to be a complete bore

(we discovered in the end that he was a bore) / it

turned out to be a mistake / I'm sure it'll - OK in the
end / well w ait and see how things - / as it turned
out, we didnt need any extra help
turn up to turn up means to come to a place: hardly
anyone turned up / he turned up h a lf an hour late /
you dont have to book -you can ju st - / she didn't
- fo r workyesterday
versatile if som ething is versatile, it can be used in
a lot o f different ways. The noun is versatility:

aubergines are so- / the sm aller machines are

quite - / an incredibly - actor (able to play a lot
o f different roles) / amazed at his versatility in the
w aste w aste is not using som ething in a proper or
useful way. W aste is also a verb: thefood all went

to waste (wasnt eaten) / what a - 1its a terrible

- o f resources / a drive to improve efficiency and
reduce - / thats a - o f money (not a good use o f
money) / talking to him would be a - o f tim e / Im
not going to - my tim e talking to you / why doyou
- so much money on cheap clothes?


C o l l o c a t io n s
A Complete the sentences w ith the correct form
of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you
need help.

P r e p o sit io n s
A Complete the sentences with the correct

1 I'm going clubbing....some friends tonight.
2 I dont w ant to stay o u t....a long period
o f tim e.
3 It's nice and warm h ere....the fire.
4 Did you watch the g am e....TV last night?
5 The audience b u rst....applause.
6 He owns a ch a in ....shops.
7 She's engaged....Patrick.

Choose the correct preposition.

1 We'd better leave home by /fo r eight p.m.
2 I dont appreciate public displays of/ with
3 She likes to w ear a lot in / ofjew ellery.
4 Theyve got on better since /for the split.
5 I struggled to get out to / o f bed this morning.
6 She's fancied him /or / by ages.

Wo r d

fa m ilies

A Complete the expressions with the correct form

of the word in bold.

1 feel deeply ashamed
2 constant interruptions
3 joking light-heartedly

hang your head

in ............ .......
don't ..... ............... me
a .... ................remark

4 slapped on the back

a h ard ....................
5 engaged to be married a n .................... party
6 gorgeously beautiful
7 too much stuffiness

you look.....................
a .................... room

8 amazing versatility

a ................... machine

A Complete the sentences w ith nouns formed

from the adjectives.




1 Her revealing dress attracted a lot o f...... .............

2 There's not m uch...... in this tow n at
3 Can you ta k e .................... for driving tonight?
4 I dont enjoy the heat a n d ........ ........... of
5 Chicken teriyaki is the restaurant....................
6 Junk food is the main cause of childhood

get (x2)

1 I asked her w hat was wrong and she

.................... into tears.
2. That drunk man is .................... a bit out
o f hand.
3 Their relationship is .................... through a bit
o f a bad patch right now.
4 The match is being.................... live.
5 I .................... on w ell w ith all my colleagues.
6 I'm .................... to a tig ht deadline this week.
7 I d id n 't.................... com pletely at ease at
the party.

Match the two halves of the collocations. Look

up the nouns (a-e) if you need help.

1 a fancy-dress
2 the perfect

a) host
b) air

3 on
4 in top

c) party
d) protocol

5 a breach of

e) form

Complete the collocations w ith nouns from

the unit.
1 a shopping s _ _ _ _ e
2 be on the safe s _ _ e
3 visit a them e p _ _
4 a w aste o f m ____
5 in the public e _
6 m onitor the share p ____ e
7 w orth a f

P h r a sa l

W o r d -B u ild in g




A Choose the correct word to complete the

phrasal verb.
1 I ju st need to freshen up / out a bit.
2 Long coffee breaks are frowned on I o f in
my office.
3 They split out / up after 15 years together.
4 I'm sorry but I have to break aw ay / up the party.
5 W e're married but w e still chat each other

about / up.
6 I feel a bit left in / out when I'm w ith you and
your friends.
7 It turned up / out to be a boring movie.
8 She eventually turned up./in halfw ay through
the evening.



good - consumption (the am ount o ffu el a car uses)

/ the - tank / domestic - bills
GPS GPS is a system for finding out where you are,
by using satellites. It stands for global positioning
system: its got - / 1used the - to get here / 1

wouldn't manage without scar a scar is a permanent mark on someone's skin from
an injury.Scar is also a verb.The adjective is scarred:
he's got a-on hisface / a long -/an unsightly - / it

wont leave a - / he still bears the -s o f his accident /

I dont think itll - / hisface was badly -red
take out to take out a financial agreem ent means to
get it: he should - extra insurance / well have to -

a loan / we could - an advertisem ent in the local



tank the tank is the part o f the car where you put
petrol or other fuel: /filled the - with petrol / we've

got afu ll - / the ~s nearly empty

tyre a tyre is a thick rubber cover that goes around
the wheel of a car or bicycle: we got a fla t - / 1had

Pa c e s 7 6 - 7 7
bald if a tyre is bald, it is no longer safe because it has
become smooth: one o f the tyres is alm ost - / the

fro n t tyres are completely boot the boot of a car is the part at the back where
you can put luggage and other things: there's
plenty o f room in the - / putyour bags in the - /

get the suitcases out o f the - / it'llf it in the ~ o f

your car / quite a big brake the brakes on a car are the parts that you use
to slow it down and stop it. Brake is also a verb:

the -sfeel a bit weird to me / the ~sfailed (stopped

working) / 1slammed on the ~s / 1left the hand- on
/ 1had to brake sharply
bump a bump is an uneven part of a road. A road
that has a lot o f bumps is bumpy: I drove over a / loads of-s in the road / a ~y road / thejourney

to buy two new -s / one o f the -s was a bit worn /

that -s nearly bald
w ear if som ething wears, it becomes thinner
or weaker because it has been used a lot.
The adjective is worn: one o f thefro n t tyres is

beginning to - / thefro n t tyres had worn smooth /

two o f the tyres are a bit worn
windscreen the windscreen is the glass part at the
front and back of a car, th at you look through as
you are driving: the - is cracked / wash the - / the

fro n t - / the rear - /youll have to replace the w ing the wings o f a car are the parts at the side that
cover the wheels: someone knocked the - mirror
o ff / a dent in the nearside - (on the side that
is nearest to the edge o f the road when you are
driving) / the offside - (on the side that isfurthest
from the edge o f the road when you are driving)

was quite -y
cover if your insurance covers something, you w ill
receive money or help if th at thing happens
to you. Cover is also a noun-, the insurance -s
everything / it doesn't - mechanicalfau lts / Im not

-edfor accidental damage / Im ~ed to drive any

vehicle /you need insurance - / make sureyou have
adequate insurance dent a dent is a part o f som ething that has been
banged inwards. Dent is also a verb.The adjective
is dented: theres a ~ in the passenger door / afew

~s in the bonnet / 1hit a gatepost and ~ed thefront

o f the car / the bonnet was badly -ed
fare a fare is an am ount o f money that you pay for
transport: the taxi ~ to the hotel / an increase in
train ~s / the bus -s are quite cheap / trying to keep

-s low I complaints about high -s

fuel fuel is som ething such as petrol or oil that is
used to make som ething work: the cars very

efficient / try to use less - 1 we ran out o f- / very


Pa c e s 7 8 - 7 9
blister a blister is a swollen area on your skin th at is
full o f clear liquid and is caused by rubbing the
skin too much. The adjective is blistered: I got
terrible ~s / -s on myfee t / a nasty - on my left.
heel / myfeet were badly -ed
breathtaking if som ething is breathtaking, it is
extrem ely beautiful.The adverb is breathtakingly:

Lake Baikal was simply - / it was absolutely - / the

scenery was -ly beautiful
claustrophobic if you feel claustrophobic, you feel
scared because you are in a sm all space.The
noun is claustrophobia: I get really - in lifts / 1was

starting tofeel - / the room was sm all and - / she

suffersfrom claustrophobia
desolate if a place is desolate, it is com pletely empty:

we drove through some incredibly - scenery / a

rather - landscape / walking through the - streets

disrepair disrepair is a condition in which som ething

pilgrimages a pilgrimage is a religious journey to

is damaged or broken: it's fallen into - / the whole

a place. Someone who does this is a pilgrim: I

place was in a state o f -

decided to make a pilgrim age to the cathedral o f

Santiago de Compostela / the annual pilgrimage
to Mecca / pilgrims have been walking this path fo r
hundreds o fyears

em bark to embark on a journey or activity means to

begin it. To em bark also means to get on to a ship:

decided to - on the journey / she's about to - on
a degree course / when shefirst -ed on her singing
career I were -ing on a Caribbean cruise / the
passengers were given the signal to faith faith is a strong belief or trust in a god or
som ething else. A faith is also a religion: shes had

a crisis o f - 1 his - in Cod / 1have complete - in you

/ he has enormous - in the authorities / her blind in people (being unable to see theirfau lts) / people
have lost - in the government / we put our - in the
doctors / its restored my - in human nature / the
Muslim - / people o f many ~s (religions)
heart if you know som ething by heart,you know all
the words of it perfectly: I know the lyrics by - 1 we

had to learn poems by -

Ph ra ses

w it h b y

rem arkable if som ething is remarkable, it is unusual

and impressive.The adverb is remarkably: we met

some - people la - journey / she made a - recovery

/ it's a - achievement / he's quite -fo r an 18-yearold I he did remarkably well in his exams / she still
seems remarkablyf it and healthy
remote an area that is remote is far away from
tow ns and cities: a - area la - village / it's

extremely - where they live / 1wouldn't want to

live somewhere so row a row is an angry argum ent. Row is also a verb:
we had the occasional - / a - about money I

we had a blazing - (extremely angry) / a huge between two o f the guests la - with his parents /
theyre always ~ing
spiritual if som ething is spiritual, it relates to your
mind and feelings rather than your body: it was a

truly - journey / a deeply - experience

There are several phrases th at start w ith by. For
example: learn / know som ething by heart.
play by the rules; know somebody by name; I
know her by sight; a shy/violent/quiet person by

nature; charge by the hour; get bigger/better/

worse by the day; travel by train/tube/bus; made
by hand

legend a legend is a very old story about famous

people in the past: according to -, the bones o f a

saint are buried there / ancient Creek -s I the- o f

Robin Hood / some local - s i - has it that his ghost
still appears here twice a year
peak the peak of som ethingis the tim e when it is
biggest or most successful. Peak is also a verb: its

-years were in the 1960s / inflation reached a - o f

15% lastyear / share prices have risen to an all-time
- 1 the- periodfo r tourism / the price o fpetrol has
fallen from its - o f 1.20 a litre / a young tennis
player who hasnt reached his ~ yet I Federer is at
his - now / interest rates -ed at 16%
perspective perspective is a sensible w ay of looking

stretch a stretch o f land or w ater is a piece or area of

it: the worlds longest - o f railw ay / a narrow - o f

water I an empty - o f road / a vast - o f ocean / a

beautiful - o f beach
untouched if som ething is untouched, it has not
been damaged or spoiled: its almost - by the
modern world / an area o f- countryside / the area
is still relatively vast som ething that is vast is extrem ely big: a area o f incredible natural beauty / a -forest I a expanse o f desert la - am ount o ffood / ~ numbers
o f people / the - m ajority o f people
word a word is som ething that you say to someone:

let me give you a - o f advice / Ill give you a - o f

warning / afew ~s o fpraise / 1give you my (I promiseyou) / it s my - against his (we are giving
different accounts o f what happened) I you can
take my -fo r it (you can believe me) I'll put in a
good - fo ryou (say something in yourfavour)
w orthw hile if som ething is w orthw hile, it is worth
the tim e or money that you have spent on it:

that made the whole thing - l a - meeting I a investment / a very - charity / it m ight be - tofin d
out a few more details / 1dont think it's - buying a
lot o f revision guides

at a situation and judging how im portant or

serious it is. A perspective is also one particular
point o f view :you need to put things into - (realise

that things are not as bad or serious asyou think)

/ try to keep a sense o f - / 1think you've got things
out o f - (you think they are more serious than
they really are) Ifro m my -, things are going quite
well / living in another country gives you a different
- on life

Pa g e s 8 0 - 8 1
appeal to appeal means to ask people in authority
to consider a decision again. Appeal is also a
noun: can you - against thefin e? / he's going to
- against the verdict / he's been given leave to -

(permission to appeal) to the High Court I she's


planning to lodge an-1 he won his appeal /you

might loseyour creep if you creep, you move slowly and quietly so
that people w ill not see or hear you. The past tense
and past participle is crept: I tried to - out / 1crept

downstairs / 1crept quietly into bed / someone

crept up behind me
crossing a crossing is a place where people can cross
something safely. A crossing is also a journey
across a stretch of water: people stop at pedestrian

-s / a zebra - (a place with striped lines on the

road, where people can cross) / a level - (where
a road goes over a railway line) we stopped at a
border - / there's a - point down riverfrom here
/ the - was a bit rough (the sea was rough during
flash to flash a light means to shine it for a short
time. To flash someone means to flash a light at
them. Flash is also a noun: I got -ed by a speed
camera / peoplejust - their lights / the warning

light was -ing / lightning -ed across the sky / a - o f

bright light / blinding - o f light (extremely bright) /
a - o f lightning in the sky
handbrake the handbrake in a car is the brake that
you use to stop the car moving when it is parked:

leave the - off / put the - on

indicate to indicate in a car means to put on a
light to show which direction you are going to
move in. The light you put on is an indicator: I

always - before changing lanes / 1-d left / put the

indicator on
infuriating if something is infuriating, it is extremely
annoying.The verb is infuriate.There is also an
adjective infuriated: it's really -I it was absolutely

/ sometimes he infuriates me! I was absolutely

infuriated with her!
lane the lanes on a large road are the parts that
it is divided into, for cars to drive in: everyone

was swerving in and out of-s / in thefast - on

the motorway / driving along in the inside - (the
one closest to the side o f the road) / in the
outside - (the onefurthestfrom the side of
the road)
let to let someone go somewhere means to allow
them to go there: I waitedfo r someone to - me

out (allow me to leave) / open the door to - her in

/ they wouldn't - me through the door / open the
window to - somefresh air in


overtake to overtake means to go past another

vehicle when you are driving: ~ on the inside /
you're not allowed to - here / a van overtook us
over-the-top if something is over-the-top, it is too
extreme: it's so -! / the way she behaved was

completely pavement the pavement is the path by the side of a

road, where people can walk.The usual American
word is sidewalk: I never park on the - / walking

along the - / a narrow - / a car mounted the (drove on to it) / sidewalk cafes
pedestrian a pedestrian is someone who is walking in
a town or city.To pedestrianise an area means to
make it into an area where cars and other vehicles
are not allowed: people usually stopfo r -s / a -

bridge / a - precinct (an areajustfo r pedestrians,

not cars) / a - crossing (where pedestrians can cross
the road) / plans to -ise the town centre
slam to slam something means to hit or push it with
a lot of force: I had to - on my brakes / he -med

the papers down on to the desk / 1said goodbye

and -med the phone down / the car -med into a
telegraph pole
spill to spill something means to accidentally let
it fall out of a container.The noun is spillage: be

careful not to -your coffee / 1-ed milk all over

thefloor / 1nearly -ed my wine / he'd -edfood all
down his shirt / there were afew -ages
speed lim it the speed lim it is the fastest speed that
you are allowed to drive: I was only doing three

miles over the- / 1always stick to the - /try to

keep to the - /you were breaking the - / he was
over the swerve to swerve means to change direction
suddenly when you are driving, cycling, etc.:

everyone was swerving in and out o f lanes / 1-d to

avoid a cat / a lorry -d across the road infront of
me / 1-d off the road
tow to tow a vehicle means to pull it behind another
vehicle. Tow is also a noun: I had my car -ed away

(taken away) / he -ed me to the nearest garage /

had to be -ed home / 1asked if he could give me
a tow / we had the caravan in tow (being towed
behind our car)
traffic warden a traffic warden is an official who
checks that cars are not parked illegally: didn'tyou
see the -? / be careful - there are -s about / a -

gave me a parking ticket


C o l l o c a t io n s
A Complete the sentences w ith the adjectives
from the list.

P r epo sitio n s


A Complete the sentences w ith the correct


My suitcase is ....the boot.

Skiing holidays are
How much did you pay....the tickets?
W e took a ta x i....the hotel.
We've had complaints ,^., the price of
6 I got a blister...... my new shoes.

Wo rd

fam ilies

A Complete the expressions w ith the correct form

o f the w ord in bold.
1 a bumpy journey
2 a dent in the door
3 a breathtaking
4 a claustrophobic
5 He did remarkably
6 an infuriating

lots o f...................
it w as...................
it w as...................
1suffer from ...........
a ...................
She has always
................... me

A Complete the sentences w ith the correct by

by heart
by sight

by nature
by the rules

by the day (x2)

1 Car rental agencies charge yo u ................

2 I know all my friends'telephone numbers
3 Some athletes don't play................... and take
4 She's a lovely person but a bit quiet
5 It seems like my baby daughter gets bigger
6 I know him by name but not


1 We stopped by the side of the road to change a

.......... ........... tyre.
2 It's dangerous to drive with a ...................
3 W e started our journey with a ...................
tank of petrol.
4 Christmas is th e ................... period for
tourism in Australia.
5 Open the window and let in
som e....................air.
6 They had a ................... row in the middle of
the restaurant.

Complete the collocations with nouns from

the unit.

no longer s _ _e to go there
illegal b ______r crossings
travel in the inside I __ e
p a y th e t_ _ ifa re
rising interest r ____ s
make a remarkable r ____ ____

Complete the sentences with the correct form

of the verbs in the list.

Wo r d -B uildin g




1 I ................... on the brakes to avoid an accident

2 The gorgeous w eather..... ............. everything
3 They plan to ................... an appeal against
the judgement.
4 The traffic officer said I w as................. the
speed limit.
5 She said she' a good word for us.
6 The tourist season hasn't.................. its peak yet.

Ph rasal v er b s
A Choose the correct word to complete the
phrasal verb.
1 W e ran away / out of fuel before we arrived.
2 GPS stands/or / by global positioning system.
3 Did you take in / out travel insurance for your trip?
4 Someone knocked the mirror down / off my car.
5 We're about to embark o ff / on a
round-the-world trip.
6 I got a fine for not putting my headlights up / on.



crutches crutches are tw o long sticks that fit under

your arms and help you to walk when you have
hurt your leg: hes on - because hes broken his leg /
hes still walking with - / 1dont need to use - now
eczema eczema is a medical condition th at makes
your skin red and itchy: a lot o fyoung children get / people who sufferfrom - / a flare up o f my (a tim e when it suddenly gets worse) / treatments

fo rfum es fum es are smoke or gas w ith an unpleasant

smell: asthma is made worse by smoke and - /
chemicals which give o ff nasty - / petrol - la
cloud o f toxic - 1 he was overcome by - (made
unconscious by them)
go round if som ething such as an illness goes round,


it spreads between people: theres a bug going

round / there are all sorts o f rumours going around
/ theres a story going round the school
inhaler an inhaler is a device that you use for

Pa g e s 8 2 - 8 3
asthm a asthm a is a medical condition that makes
it difficult to breath.The adjective is asthm atic
and someone who suffers from asthm a is an
asthm atic: I sufferfrom - / 1used to get really bad

~ / severe - / drugs used to treat - I an - attack /

shes -tic / its much worsefo r -tics
bandage a bandage is a long piece o f cloth that you
wrap around a part o f your body that is injured.
Bandage is also a verb: we put a -on it / 1wrapped
the - round his arm / he had a - o n his hand / the is too tight / we -d his arm
break out if som ething breaks out, it starts. The noun
is outbreak: spots were breaking out a ll round his

mouth / sweat was breaking out on hisface / when

did thefire break out? / w ar broke out in Ju ly / the
outbreak o f war
breath your breath is the air that goes in and out of
your body through your nose and mouth. Breathe
is the verb: he was a bit short o f- / people who
sufferfrom bad - (w ith an unpleasant sm ell) / his
smelled o f alcohol / take a deep - and start again
/ she was -ing in short shallow -s / how long can
you hold your - fo r (stop breathing)?

breathing medicine into your body. To inhale

means to breathe in: she takes her - with her

everywhere / an - fo r asthma / 1had to use my - /

inhaled deeply / he had inhaled some o f thefum es
insomnia insomnia is a medical condition in which
you are unable to sleep. Someone who has
insomnia is an insomniac: a lot o fpeople suffer
from - / the drug can cause - / treatmentsfo r - /
Ive been an -cforyears
overnight overnight means during the night or all
through the night: they kept him in hospital - 1 we

decided to travel - / areyou going to stay -? / dont

leave the TV on - / the -ferry
pass out to pass out means to become unconscious:
sheju st passed out / a few people passed outfrom

the heat / 1nearly passed out

pick up to pick som ething up means to get it: I think

I must have picked up a bug / 1picked up an infection /

I picked up a few things at the supermarket (bought
them) / 1picked up afe w useful tips (learned them)
/ he picked up third prize (won it)
postpone to postpone som ething means to delay it
until a later tim e or day.The noun is postponement:

well have to - the trip / the match has been -d /

the meetings been -d until next Thursday / theyve
announced the -ment o f all todays matches

bruise a bruise is a dark mark on your skin where

you have hit it. Bruise is also a verb: heju st had a

regards regards are greetings that you send to

someone: send her my - / give my - to yourfam ily

few cuts and - s i a nasty - on herface / she only

suffered a few minor - s i a dark - on one cheek /
my leg was badly bruised / 1- quite easily

rough if you feel rough, you feel slightly ill: Imfeeling

bug a bug is a minor illness that spreads from person

to person: theres a - going round / 1hope I dont

catch the - / hes got a - / shes gone down with a (is ill with one) / aflu - la stomach - / its a nasty chronic if an illness is chronic, it is serious and lasts
for a long tim e w ithout getting better.The adverb
is chronically: asthma can be a - condition / - back
pain / -ally ill patients


/ Kind -, Alice (at the end o f a letter)

a bit - 1 he looks really - today
spell a spell is a short period o f tim e: she had a dizzy
- / there should be some sunny -s later / some dry

-s (w ithout rain) / a cold - la hot - 1 he had a brief

- in the army
stitches if you have stitches, a doctor uses thread to
join parts o f your skin together after they have
been injured: I think it m ight need - / she had

to have 15- / who put the -in? / when are you

having the - out? (when is the doctor going to

remove them) / dissolvable sw ell up if part of your body swells up, it becomes
bigger.The adjective is swollen.The noun is
swelling: his lips started -ing up / my ankle had

swollen up / herface was a bit swollen / a large

swelling on his neck

Pa g e s 8 4 - 8 5

snore to snore means to breathe noisily w hile you

are asleep: I always - when Im asleep / 1could hear

him snoring
stick to stick som ething somewhere means to put
it there: he asked me to - out my tongue (put it

outside my mouth) / 1stuck my head out o f the

window / - it in the ovenfo r afew minutes / 1stuck
my keys in my bag
stroke a stroke is a serious medical condition in which
blood cannot get to your brain. W hen someone
has had a stroke, often they cannot speak very well

contagious if som ething such as an illness is

contagious, it spreads from person to person: is

it -? I youre -fo r about three days (other people

can catch the illnessfrom you) /fe a r is - / his good
humour was deposit to deposit money means to put it in a
bank.To deposit som ething also means to put it
somewhere. Deposit is also a noun: he ~ed money
in my bank account / she -ed the bags by thefront
door / make a deposit o f200 into your account /
a cash deposit
grant to grant something means to allow someone
to have it: I w ill- yo u three wishes / they didnt -

permissionfo r the building / theyfin a lly -ed my

request / the court has -ed him leave to appeal
irritable if you are irritable,you are likely to get
annoyed quite easily.The adverb is irritably.The
noun is irritability: its making me really- / shes
a bit - this morning /feeling incredibly - / she
answered irritably / tiredness can cause irritability
organ an organ is one o f the parts o f your body that
does a particular job, for example your stomach
or your heart: the various muscles and -s in the

body /your internal -s / the digestive -s / the sex

-s / willing to donateyour -s (allow them to be
used afteryour death) / a n - donor (someone who
allows their organs to be used) / a n - transplant
outw ard outward means easy for other people to
see: the - signs o f cheerfulness / there were no

- signs that he was ill / his - appearance hadnt

poke to poke som ething means to push it w ith your
finger or a stick. Poke is also a noun: it hurts every

tim e I - m yself / he ~d my arm / 1-d the rabbit, but

it didnt move / mindyou dont - someone in the
eye with that / can you give thefire a -?
refer to refer someone to a person or organisation
means to send them there for help: the doctor

-red me to a consultant / 1was -red to an asthma

specialist / the case has been -red to the appeal
court / the m atters been -red to our customer
services department
relieve to relieve something means to make it better.
The noun is relief: a good way to - stress / this
should help - the pain / ways to - the pressure at
work / effective methods o f pain relief

and cannot move some parts o f their body.youre

at risk o f having a - / he suffered a massive - (a very

serious one) / she had a minor - lastyear / - victims
surgery surgery is a medical operation to repair a part
of your body. The adjective is surgical: it happened

while I was undergoing - / have - on my arm /you

may needfurth er - / she had to have emergency / heart - / brain - / keyhole - (in which only a sm all
opening is made through your skin) / cosmetic (to improveyour appearance)'a surgical procedure
to remove the lump / pioneering new surgical
term inal if an illness is term inal, it cannot be cured
and you w ill die from it: Im afraid its - / hes got

- cancer
therapist a therapist is someone who helps w ith a
physical or m ental problem by giving treatm ent or
talking about problems.The treatm ent they give is
therapy: you should go to see a - / a speech - 1 hes

had some therapy / cancer therapy / alternative

transplant an organ transplant is an operation in
which a new organ is put into someone's body.
Transplant is also a verb: to donate a kidneyfo r - /

he needs a heart - / a - operation / the new heart

is ready to be -ed

Pa g e s 8 6 - 8 7
acknowledge to acknowledge something means to
accept that it is true.The noun is acknowledgement:

she ~s that there are some opportunistic practitioners

/ 1do- the needfo r some changes / she refused to
- herguilt / 1fu lly - that I made mistakes / we were
forced to - the truth / 1want an -ment that mistakes
were made
array an array of things is a large number of them :

we have a wide - o f modern hospitals / they've

got a huge - o f different wines / a wonderful - o f
vegetables / we werefaced with a bewildering - o f
electronic devices
beneficiary a beneficiary is someone who benefits
from something: the main beneficiaries o f the

industry / the main - o f the deal / 1was the sole

- o f her w ill (the only person who received money
from her w ill after she died)


boast to boast something good means to have it.

To boast also means to tell other people about
things you have or things you can do, in a way
that is too proud. Boast is also a noun: we - some
o f the best doctors in the world / the area -s some

wonderful beaches / 1hope he's not going to - about

his exam results / one o f his most annoying ~s
cutting edge if something is cutting edge, it uses
the most modern technology: using - medical
techniques / - technology /a - operation
detract to detract from something means to make it
seem less good or less important: this should not from the reality of the change that is happening /

we mustnt let this -from our other achievements

ensure to ensure that something happens means to
make certain that it happens:you should - that

you do research beforeyou go abroad /you must that all the clips are done up securely / precautions
to - the safety of all passengers
gamble to gamble means to do something that
involves risk. It also means to risk money in an
attem pt to win more money. A gamble is a risk
that you take. Gambling is risking money in an
attempt to win more money: if you go abroadfo r
treatment,you are gambling with your health / he's

gambling that the product w ill be popular / I've

never been tempted to - on horse races / deciding
to go ahead with the event was a - f it was a big
- I he took a - and it paid o ff (was successful) /
people who disapprove o fgambling
impoverished if someone is impoverished, they are
extremely poor: an - third world country I an -

student /an- industrial area

negligence negligence is not being careful enough,
with the result that something is damaged or
someone is injured.The adjective is negligent: a
lawyer specialising in medical - cases / he was guilty
ofprofessional - / charged with gross - (very serious
negligence) / theyre threatening to sue himfo r - / the
hospital wasfound to be negligent / grossly negligent

Some nouns are formed by adding -ence to

adjectives. For example: criminally negligent
behaviour / professional negligence.
the crowd was completely silent / a stunned
silence; a very independent person / the country
gained independence-, very different tastes / notice
the difference; an inconvenient truth / apologise
for any inconvenience; a violent person / domestic


outsource to outsource work means to arrange for

someone outside your company or organisation
to do it.The noun is outsourcing: hospitals - their
record keeping / its much cheaper to - the work /

the benefits o foutsourcing

overseas overseas means in or to a different country:
travelling -fo r medical treatment / he works - a lot
/ some o f the difficulties o f living - / - investments
pioneering if something is pioneering, it is being
done for the first tim e, using new techniques.The
verb is pioneer: a - new surgical technique / a experiment / some - research / the technique was

pioneered by an American surgeon

practitioner a practitioner is someone who works
as a doctor or a lawyer. To practise medicine or
law means to work as a doctor or lawyer: there

are some opportunistic -s / a medical ~ / a - o f

hypnotherapy / legal -s / the qualifications you
need to practise medicine / hes not qualified to
practise law in this country
rank how someone ranks is how good or bad they are
compared with other people.The noun is ranking:

he -s among the top six surgeons in the world /

a tennis player who -s ninth in the world / it -s
as one o f the best schools in the country / she still
stands as number one in the world -ings
recuperation recuperation is the process of becoming
healthy and strong again after an illness.The verb is
recuperate: a holiday resortfo r - afteryour operation
/ 1need a period of- / shes still recuperatingfrom
her illness / recuperatingfrom heart surgery
regulatory a regulatory organisation controls an
activity using rules. The verb is regulate: the environment is not very rigorous / the - authority
/ a government - agency / the government body
that regulates the banking industry / the use of

these drugs is strictly regulated

replacement a replacement is something that takes
the place of another thing. The verb is replace: a

hip - (an artificial hip used to replace someones

real hip) / shes had two knee -s / some o f the
furniture requires - / the sales managers leaving,
so well have tofind a -for him I a - T V I she's had
both hips replaced / who's going to replace her
when she leaves?
rigorous if something is rigorous, it is careful and
thorough. The adverb is rigorously: the regulatory
environment is not very - / - safety checks / all
products have to meet our - quality standards / it's

all -ly checked

scam a scam is a dishonest scheme for making
money. Scam is also a verb: be careful to avoid -s
/ a money-making - / a credit-card - / 1realised Id

been -med (tricked using a scam)

opt to opt to do something means to choose to do it:

more people are -ing to go abroadfo r treatment / 1

-edfor treatment at my local hospital


stand you can say that you stand to do something if

that thing is likely to happen to you: a lot ofcountries
- to benefit / he -s to lose a lot o f money / we-to

gain a lotfrom the merger /1-to win 10,000


W o r d -b u il d in g

A Complete the sentences with nouns formed

from the adjectives.

Prepo sitio n s
A Complete the sentences with the correct
1 Many people suffer....back problems.
2 Back problems are made w orse....bad posture.
3 My doctor referred m e....a specialist.
4 I think I've come dow n....a stomach bug.
5 I'll be w alking....crutches for a while.
6 The treatment was pioneered.... a British

Wo rd




1 After a long................... . she finally answered

the question.
2 Traffic jam s cause a lot of ................... for
3 Her bruises are the result of domestic
4 America declared........... .......from Britain in
5 You'll notice a b ig ........... ....... to your health if
you start exercising.

fam ilies

A Complete the expressions with the correct form

of the word in bold.
1 She is chronically ill.
2 a swollen ankle
3 effective pain relief
4 emergency surgery
5 cancer therapy
6 acknowledge the

a ...................
My lips started
try t o ................
a ...................
a visit to a ........
a n ...................
of guilt

Complete the sentences with the correct words

from the words in brackets.
1 She needs h ip ................... surgery, (replace)
2 It has a reputation for being a ....
study programme, (rigorously)
3 The doctor estimates about a week for
4 H e's................... as one of the country's top
neurosurgeons, (ranking)
5 A lot of work is being............... . to India.
6 Smoking cigarettes is ju s t...... ................ with
your health, (gamble)

Which TWO words in the list are NOT both a

noun and a verb?



A Which of the verbs do not form a collocation?
1 The doctor asked him to remain / hold / stay
overnight for observation.
2 Please give / pass/ hand my regards to your
3 The court has given / granted / accepted him
leave to appeal.
4 He deposited / sent / transferred the money into
my bank account.
5 He'sfeeling / looking / making a bit rough this
6 You stand to lose / keep / make a lot of money.

Match the adjectives to the nouns. Look up the

adjectives if you need help.

a deep
the main
a big

a) beneficiary
b) breath
c) organs
d) surgery
e) research
f) gamble

Complete the collocations with nouns from the

1 undergo keyhole s _______
2 an asthma a ______
3 feeling short of b _ _ _ _ h
4 an o ___n d o n o r
5 the _________r service department
6 a holiday r ______t


Pa g e s 9 2 -9 3
bother if you don't bother to do something, you don't
do it because it seems too much effort: he decided

not to - graduating / 1didn't even ~ to open it I a

lot o fpeople didnt ~ voting /you dont need to ~


There are several different expression using

bother. The meaning changes slightly from
expression to expression. For example.-1didnt
bother to call him (=1 was too lazy to do it / It was
too much effort).
It's really starting to bother me. (=annoy me)
It doesnt bother me. (=lt's not a problem for me)
/cant be bothered. (=1 don't want to do it. It's
too much work)
Sorry to botheryou. (=Sorry to trouble /
disturb you)
Dont bother. (=You dont need to do it)

bribe a bribe is money or a present that you offer to

someone so that they will do something for you.
Bribe is also a verb. The crime o f offering bribes is
bribery: hed been taking ~sfo ryears / a 200 - /
he admitted paying -s to tax officials / he accepted
over 5000 in ~s / trying to- a police officer / he

was charged with ~ry

call it a day to call it a day means to stop doing
something: we decided to- / its getting dark - lets commute to commute means to travel regularly to
and from a place where you work. Commute is also
a noun. Someone who does this is a commuter:


they were commuting between London and

Cambridge / 1live in Cambridge and - to London /
fed up with commuting every day / the daily - to
work / a train fu ll o f ~rs
convict to convict someone means to decide in a
court that they are guilty of a crime. The noun is
conviction: he was ~ed o f corruption / there wasnt

enough evidencefo r thejury to - him I if ~ed, she

faces up to ten years in ja il / wrongly ~ed o f murder
hes got three previous convictionsfo r burglary /
not enough evidence to get a conviction
counsellor a counsellor is someone whose job is to
talk to people who have problems and give them
help and advice: she retrained as a - I a marriage
guidance - la debt ~ / a grief - / shes seeing a ~ /
you should talk to a falling-out a falling-out is a disagreement.The verb is
fall out: she had a - with herfather / we had a bit
o f a - la serious ~ / haveyoufallen out with him? I
wevefallen out / theyfe ll out over the business
flick through to flick through a book or magazine
means to turn the pages quickly, looking at some
of the pages but not reading everything: I wasjust

flicking through it I flicking through magazines

at the hairdressers / 1quicklyflicked through the
glance to glance at something means to look at it
quickly. Glance is also a noun: I wasjust glancing
at it 11 -d at my watch / 1~d over my shoulder / we
exchanged ~s (looked at each other) 11 had a quick
~ at the letter / he shot an angry - at me (looked at

me angrily)
kick out to kick someone out of a place means to tell
them to leave: he got kicked out o f school / they

kicked us out atjust after midnight I the landlords

trying to kick us out
knock out to knock someone out of a competition
means to make them leave the competition by
defeating them: they were knocked out o f the cup
/ he was knocked out in the quarter-finals / they

knocked us out lastyear

overreact to overreact means to be more annoyed or
upset about something than is really necessary.The
noun is overreaction: someone insulted him and he
-ed /1thinkyoure -ing / it was a complete ~ion
patch a patch can be a period of time: theyd been
through a rough - / weve hit a bad ~ / our
marriage went through a rocky ~ (a very difficult

period) I all businesses have difficult ~es

rough if something is rough, it is difficult, and there
are a lot of problems: theyd been through a - patch
/ Im having a bit o f a ~ time at work / had a ~ day /

we had a - night last night (with not much sleep)

run a good or bad run is a period of tim e when things
go well or badly for you: his team had been on a

terrible - 1 weve had a bad - o f results recently I

a ~ o f bad luck / a ten-match unbeaten ~ / theyve
been on a winning ~

upbringing your upbringing is the way your parents

looked after you and taught you to behave: she

had quite an interesting ~ / a very strict - la

sheltered - (with not much experience o f the world)
/ 1had a typical middle-class -

Pa c e s 9 4-95
boundary a boundary is a lim it that tells you which
activities or types of behaviour are acceptable
and which are not: it's a good idea to set children

boundaries / give them strict boundaries / 1knew

I'd overstepped the - / Ive always kept within the
boundaries / teenagers like to cross the boundaries
compromise to compromise means to end an
argument by accepting that you cannot have
everything that you want. Compromise is also a
noun: there may be some middle ground whereyou

can - / she refused to- / can we - on the price?

/ 1had to make some ~s / it seemed a sensible ~ /
maybe we can work out a-1 wefin ally reached a defensive if someone is defensive, they are angry
because they think that someone is criticising
them: dont be so-1 saying neverw ill make people
-/ he got a bit - / she was really - about it
disruptive if something is disruptive, it causes
difficulties and prevents things from happening
normally.The verb is disrupt. The noun is
disruption: arguments can be - at work I a student I it was very - / working shifts can be
extremely - tofam ily life / train services have been

disrupted by the bad weather I pupils who disrupt

the class / theres been considerable disruption
due to the storms I it caused a lot o f disruption /
disruptions to train services
face if you lose face, you lose people's respect and
seem weak or foolish. If you save face,you keep
people's respect: dont continue arguingjustfo r
the sake o f not losing - / trying not to lose - 1an

attempt to save flashpoint a flashpoint is a situation in which there

might be serious problems such as arguments or
violence: know the -s I one possible - is when the
demonstrators reach the Houses o f Parliament / the

situation had reached a gesture a gesture is a movement of your body that

communicates a meaning. Gesture is also a verb:

s andfacial expressions can provide warning

signs I he made a rude - / she waved her arms in
a dramatic - l a - o f impatience / she -d to us,
inviting us in / he -d towards thefield
get your own w ay if you get your own way, you get
w hat you want: she cries if she doesnt get her own

way / 1always get my own way in the end

grace grace is kind and polite behaviour: accept the

offer with good - I they took their defeat with bad

- 1at least she had the - to admit she was wrong

ground the ground you cover in a discussion is the

subjects and ideas you discuss: dont go over old
/ there may be some middle - whereyou can
compromise / we covered quite a lot of- / we

seemed to go over the same - lots o f times

irrational if something is irrational, it is not sensible
and is done without any good reason.The adverb
is irrationally: an - shouting match / -fears / his

behaviour seemed a bit - / 1know Im being -/he

was behaving -ly
laid-back if someone is laid-back, they are very calm
and relaxed: she's very - / I'm quite - about it / a -

approach to parenting
lighten up to lighten up means to become more relaxed
and less worried: I thinkyou should -up/ Hey, - up!
move on to move on means to go to the next place,
start doing the next thing, or start discussing the
next subject: lets - / shall we - on to the next

question? / we'll go to Paris, then - to Lyon / 1fe lt it

was timefo r me to- I things have moved on since
the 1970s (changed and developed)
put off to put something off means to delay it until a
later tim e: try to - sensitive topics until later in the

day / 1couldn't put the decision off any longer / 1

was trying to - telling him
resort to resort to something means to do it because
other things have not been successful. Resort is
also a noun: dont - to personal abuse / we may

have to - to taking legal action / 1would never - to

violence / wed only do this as a last - (if everything
else hasfailed)
sake for the sake of something means for that purpose.
For the sake of a person means for that person's
benefit: dont continue arguingjustfor the - ofnot

losingface I do itfor the - o fyour health / laws that

are necessaryfo r the - o fthe whole community /1only
did itforyour - I let's not argue,for the children's set out to set out to do something means to intend
to do it or try to do it.The past tense and past
participle are also set out: he may be setting out

to blockyour ideas / Im setting out to win this

competition / 1never - to hurtyou
slob a slob is someone who is extremely lazy and
untidy. Slob is also a verb: stop being such a - i /

hes a real - / teenagers whojust - around all day /

-bing around the house in my oldjeans
steer to steer through a situation means to control or
influence the way things happen, so that you avoid
bad things and get the results that you want: try

to - through these confrontations /you dont need

to - clear ofthem altogether (avoid them) / try to children towards making the right choices / 1tried
to - the conversation awayfrom the trip / he tried
to - the party in the right direction
tantrum a tantrum is when a young child behaves in
a very angry and unreasonable way: has a - while
her parents are shopping / he used to have terrible

-s / how to deal with -s


toddler a toddler is a young child who is learning to

walk: conflicts with - s i a support groupfo r parents

and ~s
underlying underlying reasons or problems exist, but
are not very obvious and are not stated directly.
The verb is underlie: what - message is he giving?
/ the - reasonsfo r the violence / the - causes o f

crime I an- health problem I the principle that

underlies all our decisions
vain if someone is vain, they are very proud and think
that they are very attractive or special in some
way. The noun is vanity: hes very - 1shes really about her looks / products designed to appeal to

fem ale vanity

a wedding can befinancially - 1the experience had

drained me 11fe lt physically and emotionally drained
elaborate if something is elaborate, it is very
complicated.The adverb is elaborately: weddings
are - affairs I an- pattern I a n - excuse / It all
seemed quite - / some -ly carved wooden pillars
feasting feasting is eating and drinking a lot to
celebrate a special occasion. The verb is feast.The
celebration is a feast: the parties and - continue
/ three days o f- I wefeasted onfine food I a
magnificentfeast / they hold a specialfeast to

grave someone's grave is the place where their body
is buried: we visit her - every weekend / police have
found a body in a shallow - / afreshly-dug - /

a mass - (with a large number of bodies)

Pa g e s 9 6 -9 7
ashes someone's ashes are what remains when their
body has been cremated after their death. Ash is
what remains after something has burned: his were scattered at sea / the - o f thefire / cigarette ash
blossom blossom is the flowers on a tree. One
blossom is one single flower: thefive -s I fru it trees
covered in - / the cherry trees are in - / beautiful
pink - / the apple - is out (theflowers are open)
bury to bury someone means to put their body in the
ground after they die. The noun is burial: doyou
want to be buried or cremated? / shes buried in
the local cemetery I we buried him last week / the

burial w ill take place next Tuesday

cemetery a cemetery is a place where the bodies of
dead people are buried: shes buried in a small - 1
visit the - where he's buried / a small private coffin a coffin is a box in which the body of a dead
person is buried or cremated: the - is carried into
the church / she was carried in a white - / the -

was lowered into the ground

condolences condolences are things you say to
someone to show sympathy when a person has
died: please send my-1 give my - to yourfam ily I
Id like to express my sincere - / please accept my cremate to cremate someone means to burn their
body after they have died.The noun is cremation:
doyou want to be buried or -d? / there w ill be a

short service before the cremation

dawn dawn is the beginning of the day, when it
starts to get light. Dawn is also a verb: the party

continues until - 1we left at-1 - was breaking as

we got up I we got up at the crack of- (just as it
was beginning) I the day wasjust dawning I the
next morning -ed bright and sunny
dignitary a dignitary is an important official: speeches
by the mayor and other dignitaries / some local
dignitaries / a group o f visiting dignitaries
draining if something is draining, it makes you feel
extremely tired.The verb is drain.There is also an
adjective, drained: the experience was emotionally - /


leave leave is a period of tim e when you do not have

to go to work: maternity - (for new mothers) I
paternity - (for newfathers) / paid - / unpaid - /
three weeks- / we get six weeksannual - /

I'm having afew days'leave next week

lengthy if something is lengthy, it is very long,
and perhaps seems too long: - speeches I a discussion / - negotiations / afairly - report / some

- delays la - period o f economic recession

maternity maternity means designed to help women
who are pregnant or have just had a baby. Paternity
means designed to help men who have just become
fathers: we rushed to the - ward / she took a year of
- leave / - pay / ~ clothes I paternity leave
mourner a mourner is someone who goes to a
funeral.To mourn means to feel very sad because
someone has died: there were 3,000 -s at the
funeral / children who are mourning theirfather /
hes mourningfo r his wife / mourning the loss o f a
closefriend / thefam ily is still in mourning (feeling

sad because someone has died)

scan a scan is a medical test which uses special
equipment to make a picture o f the inside of
someone's body. Scan is also a verb. The machine
that is used is a scanner: she had a -yesterday /

an ultrasound - la brain - 1the problem showed

up in a routine - / they -you in your 20th week of
pregnancy I machines that -your luggage / a very
sophisticated -ner
scatter to scatter something means to throw it so
that it spreads over a large area: his ashes were
-ed at sea / - grass seed on the ground I there were

clothes -ed all over thefloor

straightforward if something is straightforward, it
is simple, with no problems or difficulties: it was

a - birth I afairly - decoratingjob I it should be

relatively - to set everything up
toast a toast is an occasion when people drink
together to celebrate something or to wish people
luck. Toast is also a verb: I'd like to propose a- t o the
bride and groom / we drank a - t o the team I we all

-ed the happy couple


Co l l o c a t io n s

A Match the two halves of the collocations. Look

up the nouns (a-h) if you need help.

P r epo sit io n s
A Complete the sentences with the correct

She's fallen o u t....her best friend.

The train is fu ll...... commuters in the morning.
Could you do som
I enjoy talking....strangers on the bus.
He received the bad new s....good grace.
Things aren't going so w e at the office.
She got her own w ay....the end.

Choose the correct preposition.

1 She's learning how to deal on 1 with her divorce.
2 Working overtime can be disruptive of/ to
fam ily life.
3 If guilty she faces five years in / on jail.
4 I think it's tim e/or /from me to find a new job.
5 A lotfo r / o f people didnt vote in the election.
6 He offered his seat to/ fo r an elderly woman.

Wo rd

fam ilies _______________________

A Complete the expressions with the correct form

o f the w ord in bold.
1 charged with bribery

accused of taking

2 1overreacted

it was a complete

3 three days of feasting

invite everyone to

4 buried in the cemetery

5 mourn the loss of a friend

th e ...................
is tomorrow
I'm still in

6 1felt physically drained

an emotionally

7 appeal to her vanity

8 an elaborate affair

about his looks
a n ............. ......
designed T-shirt

Complete the sentences with the correct words

from the words in brackets.
1 It was just a routine pregnancy....................
2 There are some students who always
................. . the class, (disruption)
3 I think you're being a b it....................
4 I don't enjoy................... to work every day.
5 He has two previous................... for drug
dealing, (convicted)
6 W e scattered the
countryside, (ash)


a sheltered
a facial
the middle
an irrational
the crack of
a lengthy
an economic
a mass



Complete the sentences with the correct form

of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you
need help.



1 He argues just for the sake.of..... ..............face.

2 After lots of disagreement, both sides
........ a compromise.
3 The wind had................... my papers all over
the floor.
4 The wedding i s .....
place next Sunday.
5 You should........................... clear of busy roads
during rush hour.
6 A true gentleman

Choose the correct verb to go with each noun.

Look up the nouns if you need help.
1 receive / express my condolences
2 go / walk through a rough patch
3 get / do your own way
4 make / call it a day
5 cover / place a lot of ground
6 take / make maternity leave

Phrasal v erbs ________________________

A Choose the correct word to complete the
phrasal verb.
X Don't put off / over till tomorrow what you can
do today.
2 You're too stressed. Lighten up / off a little bit!
3 I'm really fed in / up with working on weekends.
4 He was kicked away / out of school for bad
5 My grandparents looked by / after me when I
was a child.
6 Just forget it happened and move after / on.
7 I found this story while I was flicking in I
through a magazine.
8 My team was knocked out / over in the semi



proof proof is evidence that shows th at som ething

is true or real.The verb is prove: we need - o f
your address I - o f identity / there was no real

o f his involvement / the documents provided

prove that he knew about the deal I it was
impossible to prove that he was the murderer I
determined to prove her innocence / in the end I
was proved right
record a record is information about som ething that
is w ritten down and kept. Record is also a verb:

according to our -s,your account is overdrawn / the

company'sfinancial -s / his medical -s / keep a o f everything you spend / I'll have to check my -s
/ we've got detailed -s going back 20years / 1-ed
the day and time o f the accident
strengthen to strengthen som ething means to make


it stronger: - the currency / measures to - the

economy / - the bridge I exercises to - his muscles /
the defeat only served to - my resolve

Pa c e s 9 8 - 9 9

authorised if you are authorised to do something,

you have the official right or power to do it. You
can also say that som ething is authorised if
someone has given permission for it to happen.
The verb is authorise. The noun is authorisation:

Im not - to make that decision / the payment

hasn't been - / he - me to sign the cheque / no
leave can be taken without authorisation
cash flow cash flow is the rate at which a person or
business earns money and spends it: Ive got ~
problems / measures to improve - / an increase in commission commission is an extra am ount of

Some verbs are formed by adding -en to

adjectives. Notice there are sometimes
differences between the verbs and the adjectives.
For example: a strong economy / strengthen the
a weak currency I weaken your immune system; a

wide range of products / widen the roads; a long

story I lengthen my stay; a short trip / shorten a
skirt; tight trousers / tighten the law

money th at you pay to an organisation when you

use a service th at it provides: theres 2% ~ on all

transactions I they charge 5 % - 1had to pay 25 in - /

a fixed credit rating a credit rating is financial information
about someone that banks and other organisations
use when they are deciding w hether to lend
money to the person: have a bad - la good - /
how to checkyour - / making late payments can

damageyour exceed to exceed a number or am ount means to be

higher than it: -your overdraft lim it I charged with

-ing the speed lim it / profits -ed 20 m illion

laundering money laundering is putting money from
crim e into legal business accounts in order to hide
the fact th at is has been earned illegally.The verb
is launder: accused o f money - / different ways o f
the proceeds o f crime / they used the business to

launder the drugs money

mix-up a mix-up is a mistake which causes confusion.

transaction a transaction is a business deal in

w hich someone buys or sells something, or
uses a service: there's 2% commission on a ll -s
/ a financial - / business - s i a cash - (in which

someone pays using cash)

trial a trial is a process o f testing som ething to find
out w hether it works well. Trial is also a verb:

a three-month - period I the new drug is still

undergoing -s / we're using it on a - basis / they're
having a - separation (being apartfo r a while, to
fin d out if they want to get divorced) / the new
treatm ent w ill be trialled nextyear
w ithdraw to w ithdraw money from a bank means
to take it out.The noun is w ithdraw al: I need to

some moneyfrom my account 11 withdrew 50

cash I youre charged every tim e you make a -al at
the cash machine / make a -al o f100
w rite off to w rite off a debt means to accept that

The verb is mix up: I'm afraid there's been a - 1 our

a person does not have to pay it back: - a debt /

bags got lost due to a - a t the airport la - over

dates la - between different departments I the
two parcels got mixed up

calling fo r western governments to - third world

debts / the bank has written o ff m illions o f dollars
in unpaid mortgages


P a g e s 100 -101
branch a branch is a part o f a tree that grows out
from the trunk: a bird can only sit on one - / the

topmost - o f the tree (the highest one) / we cut off

some o f the overhanging -es / a dead - had blown
o ff the tree
chuckle to chuckle means to laugh quietly. Chuckle is
also a noun: the old man -d / she -d softly / he was

still chuckling about it / 1~d to m yself / we had a

little - about it
cling to cling to som ething means to hold it tightly.
The past tense and past participle are dung: he

was -ing on to the enormous rope / 1clung to the

edge o f my seat / he clung on to my hand / 1clung
tightly to the papers / we clung together
courtyard a courtyard is a square area that is
surrounded by buildings: they left the bundle o f
wood in the - / the main - o f the castle/ a door

opening out on to a central crammed if som ething is crammed w ith things, it is

full o f them .The verb is cram: the bag was - with
precious things / the place was - with tourists /

bags -fu ll o ffood / 1crammed all the clothes into

my suitcase
descend to descend means to go or come down. The
noun is descent: an enormous rope -edfrom the
s ly / the plane began to - / 1-ed the stairs / a path
which ~s steeply into the valley below / their descent
o f the mountain / the plane began its descent
dignity dignity is the ability to behave in a calm
and controlled w ay even when you are in a very
difficult situation.The adjective is dignified: wants
to preserve his - / they behaved with great - / she

faced her illness with enormous - / 1managed to

m aintain my - / an illness that robsyou o fyour
/ 1m aintained a dignified silence / managed to
remain dignified
dissuade to dissuade someone means to persuade
them not to do something. The noun is dissuasion:

she couldn't - her husband / 1tried to - him from

leaving / a campaign to -young peoplefrom binge
drinking / using dissuasion rather than outright
flow to flow means to move along sm oothly and
continuously. Flow is also a noun: the water that

~s in the river / where the River Thames -s Into the

sea / the traffic was -ing quite well / investment
continued to - into the country / a steadyflo w o f
refugees into the area / a constant - o fgoods into
the country
frugal if you are frugal,you spend very little money
and only buy things that are really necessary.The
adverb is frugally. The noun is frugality: lead a -

life / their - existence / we need to be a bit more - /

we spent our money -ly / the benefits o f- ity
glisten to glisten means to shine brightly.The
adjective is glistening: the golden walls were -ing

in the sunlight / hisface was -ing with sweat / the

-ing dome o f the mosque
go on if som ething goes on, it happens: something
strange was going on / 1wonder what's going on /
there's always plenty going on in the town / doyou
think anything went on between them?
inch an inch is a m easurement o f length, equal to
about 2.54 centim etres. To inch forward means
to move forward very slowly: h alf an - o f rain / a

narrow ledge only about eight -es wide / a sixruler / we were only -es aw ayfrom hitting the lorry
every - o f the w all was covered in posters and
postcards / the queue -edforw ard
lump a lump is a piece o f something: a - o f silver
rolled out / a - o fcoal / a solid - o f concrete / a big
- o fcheese / a huge - o f clay / go to the doctor if
you fin d a - ( a hard part underyour skin, caused by
an illness)
mansion a mansion is a very big house: why don't we
build a big-?/ a luxurious country - / they live in
an old Victorian march a march is a w alk in which people walk
together at the same speed, like soldiers. March is
also a verb: a long - startsfrom the veryfirst step /

we set o ff on a long - la protest - 1 we -edfor ten

hours a day / we -ed south / protesters -ed to the
Houses o f Parliam ent
peer to peer means to look very carefully: -ing out, he
saw an old man/ -ing through the window / she
was -ing intently at the prices
penniless if you are penniless,you are extrem ely poor:

we're -/h e died - / the holiday's left me reluctantly if you do som ething reluctantly, you do
it even though you do not really w ant to.The
adjective is reluctant.The noun is reluctance: the

woodcutter - agreed / he came with us, rather - /

was a bit reluctant to talk about it / she seemed
reluctant to take the job / 1fe lt reluctant to askfo r
more money / /couldn't understand his reluctance
to go on the trip
rope a rope is a long piece of very thick material,
made by tw isting a lot o f threads together. You use
it for tying or pulling things. Rope is also a verb:

an enormous - descendedfrom the sky / tied them

together with - /fixed a - t o the car and towed it
aw ay / the cases were -d to the roofo f the bus
stable a stable is a building where horses are kept.
Stable is also a verb: an ambitious horse w ill never
return to its old - / leave the horses in the - / her
ponys -d (kept in a stable) at a nearbyfarm
stern if someone is stern, they are very serious and
slightly angry.The adverb is sternly.The noun is
sternness: the old man'sface became - / she gave

me a - look / speaking in a - voice / a - warning /

he looked at me -ly / there was a -ness in his voice
that I hadnt heard before
string a string on a m usical instrum ent is a long
thread o f w ire or nylon which you use to make


sounds. You can call an instrum ent w ith strings a

stringed instrum ent: one - makes no music / the
s on my violin / buy some new guitar -s
thatched cottage a thatched cottage is a sm all house
w ith a roof made o f straw or reeds. A roof made
o f this m aterial is a thatch: she proposed building

a - 1 live in a - / a beautiful little - / the thatch

usher to usher someone somewhere means to lead
them there politely. A person w ho does this as
a job is an usher: he was -ed into a magnificent
palace / she -ed me to my seat / the waiter ~ed us
to our table / he -ed us into the kitchen / one o f the
-s took us to our table

stake a stake is an am ount o f money that you risk

when you make a bet.The stakes are things you
risk losing if som ething fails. You can say that
som ething is at stake if you risk losing it: we play

with very sm all - s i a 10 - / the company is taking

a risk, and the -s are high (they risk losing a lot) /
the chairm an has raised the -s by threatening to
resign / theres a lot at - in this election
anti-social someone who is antisocial does not enjoy
m eeting other people or taking part in social
events. Anti-social behaviour shows that you
are not thinking about the feelings or needs of
other people: I dont think theres anything - in
that / dont be so - I I its a bit - not to go / graffiti,

vandalism and other types o f- behaviour

Pa c e s 1 0 2 - 1 0 3

catch a catch is a difficulty or problem that is not very

obvious: theresju st one - / it sounds brilliant - so

w hats the -?/ there must b eabet to bet means to risk money on the result of
something. You can also say that you bet something
is true when you feel fairly certain that it is true.
Bet is also a noun: he - 50 on a horse I tempted to

- on the result o f the election / 1- it was a nice to

have a break / I've got a - o n the result o f thefin a l
I the US are a good - to win (very likely to win) /
my - is that theyll offer him thejob (Ifeel certain
about this)
gamble to gamble means to risk money in the hope
of winning more money. To gamble also means
to do som ething that has risks and w ill only be
successful if certain things happen. Gamble is also
a noun. Someone who risks money regularly is a
gambler: I dont - at casinos I people are gambling
with their lives / we were gambling that hed be
back in tim e / 1knew it was a bit o f a - / calling an

early election was a huge political - / his - paid off

(was successful) / a support groupfo r compulsive
jackpot the jackpot is a very large am ount o f money
that someone wins in a game or lottery. You can
say that someone has hit the jackpot when they
are suddenly very lucky or successful: the - is 30

m illion euros / hoping that Id win the - 1 he hit the

- when he got thatjob / 1seem to have hit the -I
lottery a lottery is a gam e in which people buy
tickets w ith numbers on, and if their numbers are
chosen, they win money. You can also say that a
situation is a lottery if it depends com pletely on
chance or luck: I won 10 on the - / 1do the - every
week / the national - l a - ticket /finding a decent

restaurant is a bit o f a - I healthcare provision is a -

com pulsive if som ething is com pulsive,you cannot

stop yourself from doing it. The adverb is
com pulsively.The noun is compulsion: ~ gambling

is not something we should approve o f I hes a

liar / her - need to be in control I he gambles
compulsively / her compulsion to overeat / 1fe lt a
compulsion to tell the truth
counter argum ent a counter argum ent is a set of
reasons and ideas that you use to oppose another
set o f reasons and ideas th at someone has put
forward: what -s doyou think she w ill give?11

couldnt think o f a good downplay to downplay som ething means to make

it seem less bad or serious than it really is: the

marketing o f lotteries -s the odds against winning /

trying to - the problem
mortgage a mortgage is money that you borrow
from a bank in order to buy a house.To mortgage
a house means to borrow money from a bank
and promise to give your house to the bank if you
cannot pay the money back: there was no money

left to pay the-1 a 200,000 - 1young couples

with big -s I we took out a - lastyear I when we
eventually pay o ff the - / the m onthly - payments /
they -d their house to finance the business
paycheck a paycheck (Am erican) or pay cheque
(British) is a cheque that an em ployer gives to an
employee for work they have done: I sometimes

gambled aw ay my whole - 1 my weekly - 11got a

nice big pay cheque at the end o f the month
remote a remote chance or possibility is one that is
very unlikely to happen. The adverb is rem otely:

odds the odds are the numbers that show how

much money you w ill win if a bet wins. The odds

you only have a very - chance o f winning / 1

suppose its a - possibility / it doesn't sound even
remotely likely

of something happening are how likely it is to

schooling your schooling is your education. The verb

happen: hes thefavourite to win, at - o f2 t o l l the

bookmakers are offering - of3 to Io n a Conservative

victory / what are the - o ffinding the wreckage? I
the - are in ourfavour (we are likely to be successful)
/ the - are against us / she recovered against all the 56 OUTCOMES

is school: debating should be part o f everyones - /

ten years o f compulsory - 1 he had noform a I - / 1
was schooled in Manchester / w ell schooled in the
art o f conversation


4 The tw o countries are trying t o ....................

5 A faster train service w ill.....................

P r e p o sit io n s

com m uting tim e.

6 The gap between rich and poor continues to

A Complete the sentences with the correct

1 I deposited the m oney...... my business accounts.
2 I w ithdrew some m savings account.
3 The ATM charges com m ission....all transactions.
4 She bet 50....a horse.
5 I don't know nothing....that business deal.
6 You need proof....identity to open a bank

Co llo ca tio n s
A Complete the collocations with the verbs in the
list. Look up the verbs if you need help.




7 Keep a record...... everything you spend.

Wo r d


f a m ilie s

A Complete the expressions with the correct form

of the word in bold.
1 no proper authorisation

he is ....................
to make decision

2 prove a point

....... ...... ......of

3 lead a frugal life

a policy of

4 a sternness in her voice

5 a reluctant decision

I agreed

6 w ithdraw some money

make a

1 Crim inals have different ways o f....................

money, (launder)
him from going ahead.

3 That plan is not even ................ ... practical.

(rem ote)
4 It w as a ve ry.................... funeral, (dignity)
5 The plane has already started ....................
6 He talks alm ost........ ............ about his
investments, (compulsive)

Wo r d

b u il d in g ________________________

A Complete the sentences with verbs formed

from the adjectives.
short weak



tig ht

,.,..1...... the jackpot in the lottery

cash flow problems

5 ................... your credit rating

. someone o fth e ir dignity
to the edge of your seat

Complete the collocations with nouns and

adjectives from the unit.
1 a s _________ d instrum ent
2 m aintain your d _______
3 t ____ d world debt
4 a trial p ______ d
5 your m ____I record
6 a _________ ___e liar
7 f .______I schooling

Complete the sentences with the correct words

from the words in brackets.

2 I could n't................. .


your resolve to succeed

......the stakes in a business deal

Match the two halves of the collocation.

1 proof of
2 on a trial

a) back
b) drinking

3 pay something

c) address

4 binge
5 against all
6 anti-social

d) the odds
e) basis
f) behaviour

P h r a sa l v e r b s
A Choose the correct word to complete the
phrasal verb.
1 They mixed out / up our bags at the baggage
2 W ell have to w rite that debt o ff / down.
3 The door opens away / out on to a beautiful patio.
4 W hat's going on / up in your life these days?
5 W e fin ally paid out / offour mortgage last month.
6 I took in / out a bank loan to pay for my car.


1 Falling exports a re .................... the economy.

2 New drugs c a n ....................the lives o f cancer
3 China is ................... control over its steel industry.



slice to slice som ething means to cut it into thin

pieces. Slice is also a noun: - the courgettes / thinly
~d apple / a lo af of-d bread / a thick - o f bread / a

few thin -s o f tom ato 11 cut a - o f cheese

soak to soak som ething means to leave it in w ater or
other liquid for a period o f tim e: - the chickpeas
overnight / leave them to - fo r a few hours / -

them in cold waterfo r two hours / 1could spend

hours -ing in the bath / 1got absolutely -ed (very
wetfrom the rain)
sprinkle to sprinkle som ething means to shake
a small amount o f it over something else. A
sprinkling is a small amount o f som ething that
you sprinkle: - some almonds on top o f the cake / the cake with sugar / a sprinkling o f chopped parsley
squeeze to squeeze something means to press it


Pa g e s 1 0 4 - 1 0 5
blend to blend things means to mix them together.
A blend is a mixture of different things: - the
mixture until its smooth / ~ the butter and sugar

firmly. Squeeze is also a noun: ~ some lemonjuice

over the salad I freshly -ed orangejuice / ~ some

toothpaste out o f the tube / he -d my hand gently /

managed to - past (get through a very sm all space)
/ give her hand a- 1 a - o f lemonjuice / we all got
in, but it was a bit o f a - (there wasnt much room)
steam steam is the hot w et substance that rises from
w ater when it boils.To steam food means to cook
it in steam : ~ thefish / -ed vegetables I a pot o f

together I they can - the coloursfo r you I the

different instruments - together really w ell / a
delicious - o fflavours / the perfect - o fsun, sea
and sand

stock stock is a liquid made by boiling m eat or bones,

w hich you use in cooking: soup made with chicken

crush to crush som ething means to press it very hard

so that it becomes flat or breaks into small pieces:

/ beef- / h alf a litre offish - l a - cube

texture the texture of som ething is w hat it feels like

~ the almonds / add some -ed garlic / his leg was

-ed / he was -ed to death /your car w ill be taken
aw ay and -ed

-ing soup / the windows were all -ed up (covered in

steam) I - coming out o f the kettle

w hen you touch it or eat it: its got a woody - la

lovely smooth creamy - 1 thick cloth with a rough / skin with a lovely soft -

flesh flesh is the part o f an anim al that you can eat

as meat. The flesh o f a fru it is the soft part that
you can eat. A person's flesh is their skin: the -

should come aw ayfrom the bones / a sm all rabbit

with not much - on it / cut the avocado in h a lf and
scoop out the - 1 th e- on her cheek was soft and
smooth / only a - wound (only affecting the skin)
lid a lid is a cover for a container: put a - o n the pan
/ keep the - on while the potatoes are cooking / 1
lifted the - la tight-fitting - la saucepan - 1 the
dustbin peel to peel fruit or vegetables means to take the
skin off. The peel o f a fruit or vegetable is its skin.
The peelings o f a vegetable are the bits o f peel
that you have cut off: ~ the potatoes I to-an

orange / theyre difficult to-1 a piece o f orange - /

some potato -ings
pinch a pinch of som ething is a small am ount o f it
that you can hold between your thum b and one
finger: add a - o f salt la - o f chopped parsley
roughly roughly means approximately, but not
exactly. The adjective is rough: use - a cupful I you
need - 50 grams o f rice per person / hes - the same

age as me / thats only a rough estimate


Pa g e s 1 0 6 - 1 0 7
authenticity if som ething has authenticity, it is real
and not false. The adjective is authentic: Italians
worry aboutfood - more than British people /

question the - o f the document / have doubts

about its - la certificate o f-1 authentic Greek
food / Im not sure the letters are authentic
distinguish to distinguish between things means
to recognise the differences between them . A
distinction is a difference between things: she

wasnt good at -ing between different kinds o f

fish I can you - a real masterpiecefrom a fake? I
there isnt much distinction between them / a clear
distinction between art and entertainm ent I draw
a distinction between a cold and theflu
establish to establish som ething means to start it
or state officially that it exists: the law ~es the

official ingredients o fpizza I t o - a new system fo r

customer complaints / plans t o - a new university
/ the company was -ed in 19671 we need to - the
facts (find out thefacts)

explosion an explosion o f som ething is a sudden

someone means to make them ill or kill them by

very big increase in it.The verb is explode: an o f interest in Japanesefood / an - o f activity / a

giving them poison. The adjective is poisonous:

population - / an - in the number o f students / an

in oil prices / the populated exploded

/ he killed his victims by -ing them / she -ed him

fake if som ething is fake, it is not real, but is made

to look like som ething else. Fake is also a noun
and a verb: they use - olive oil I a ~ passport / ~
documents / a ~ fu r coat la - smile / the painting
was a - / someone had -d my signature
flare up to flare up means to suddenly begin or
become worse.The noun is flare-up: an argument

flared up between a waiter and a customer / my

eczema'sflared up / troubleflared up between rival
supporters / an old injury thatsflared up again / the
fire flared up when I put the dry sticks on it / aflareup o f violence / a really badflare-up o f my asthma
full-blown if som ething is full-blown, it is fully
formed or fully developed: he had created a
-featurefilm / a - crisis / - AIDS / a - war / a

disagreement which turned into a - row

fusion a fusion of different things is a combination of
them which have joined together to form something
new. The verb is fuse: an odd - o fAsianfoods I a - o f
traditional and contemporary styles / a perfect - of

flavours / his musicfuses classical music with jazz

fuss a fuss is behaviour in which you w orry or get
upset about som ething when it is not really
necessary. Fuss is also a verb: they dont want to
make a - / 1dont know what all the - was about
/ it was a lot o f- about nothing / 1ju st wanted
to get through customs with the minimum o f- /
spent hours -ing about what to wear
inspect to inspect som ething means to look at it
carefully to see if it is acceptable.The noun is
inspection: they proceeded to - thefish / the goods

are -ed carefully before they leave thefactory / the carfo r signs o f damage / a thorough -ion o f the
building / we carry out regular safety -ions / the
accounts are availablefo r -ion
m utter to m utter means to say som ething very
quietly. M utter and m uttering are both nouns: he
would - something under his breath / he was -ing

to him self / she was -ing something about health

and safety / 1had a bit o f a - to m yself/ took no
notice o f his -ings
originate to originate from somewhere means to
come from there or begin there: oils which -from
abroad / the idea -d in America / customs which ~d
with thefirst settlers / myfam ily -dfrom Ireland

we were slightly concerned that we had been -ed

with arsenic / accused o fgiving them - / a cake
laced with - (containing it) / poisonous plants / a
poisonous snake
pull out to pull som ething out means to remove it:

no hairs were being pulled out o f thefood / 1had

to have a tooth pulled out / opened her bag and
pulled out a phone
scene a scene is a situation in which people argue in
a noisy and angry w ay in a public place: she told
him not to make a - / 1didnt want her to cause a / there was a terrible - between the two o f them
settle to settle som ething means to end it.To settle a
bill means to pay it: we wereju st settling the b ill /
~ the argument / - the claim out o f court (without
a court case) /fin d a way to - the dispute / the
conflict hasfin a lly been ~d / OK, thats ~d (decided)
substitute a substitute is som ething that is used
instead of som ething else. Substitute is also a
verb: oil that has been mixed with cheap -s /
you can useyogurt as a - fo r cream / a sugar - /
vitam in supplements are no - fo r a healthy diet /
he was brought on at h a lf tim e as a - (to replace
another player) /you can - honeyfo r sugar (use
honey instead o f sugar) / the goalkeeper was -d
(replaced by another player)
tide a tide o f som ething is a large am ount of
something th at happens at the same tim e, or a
strong movement or tendency which develops:

can we stop the - o fforeign fusions? I a - o f

criticism / the - o fpublic opinion / the rising o f unemployment / an attem pt to stem the - o f
economic decline
tough if food is tough, it is hard and difficult to eat:
a - overdone steak / the m eat was really - / cut off

the - outer leaves

tradem ark a tradem ark is a name or design that
belongs to one organisation and is used on its
products: th e'Thai select- / the Nike - / their green vans
uphold to uphold som ething means to show that
you support it or w ant to defend it: ~ standards
/ - workersrights / - the law / determined to traditionalfam ily values
yeast yeast is a living substance that is used in making
bread to make the bread rise and become light: the
dough must use natural - /fresh - / dried -

oven an oven is a large piece of equipm ent that you

heat up and cook food in: it has to be baked on the
flo o r o f a wood-fired - la gas - / bake it in a hot fo r 40 minutes / warm gently in a low - (not very
hot) / dont forget to turn the - o ff I preheat the to 200 degrees
poison a poison is a substance that w ill make you
ill or kill you if you eat it or drink it. To poison

Pa g e s 1 0 8 - 1 0 9
alleged if som ething is alleged, it is claimed to be
true although it is not known for certain.The verb
is allege: its - that he would introduce a cockroach
into hisfood / police are still questioning the - thief


/ the prosecution -s that he stole over 50,000

from the company
allocate to allocate things means to decide which
person to give them to or w hat to use them for.
The noun is allocation: seating is -d on afirstcome,first-served basis / each person was -d 40 to
spend / ~ more money to education / ~ the budget
fo r each department / the allocation o f tickets
announce to announce something means to
tell people about it officially.The noun is
announcement: the government has -d a new
series o f measures to tackle thefood crisis / he's
-d his resignation / they've ~d that they're getting
married nextyear / Id like to make an -ment / an
official -ment about the date o f the election / we're

expecting a government -ment tomorrow

back to back something means to support it. The
noun is backing: he criticised the United Nations

fo r -ing traditionalfarm ing methods /you know I'll

-you all the way (supportyou completely) / 1have
thefu ll -ing o f myfam ily / getfinancial -ingfrom
the government
bid a bid is an attempt to do something: a-to tackle
rising obesity rates / launch a hostile takeover - (an
attempt to take over a company) / he made a -for
freedom / appeared on TVin a ~ to win public support
confess to confess means to admit that you have
done something wrong.The noun is confession: a

majorfast-food chain has ~ed to using wheat and

dairy products toflavour its Frenchfries / he -ed
to the murder / 1- that I didn't behave particularly
well / 1must - I didn't expect it to take this long /
he made afu ll -ion / methods used by the police
to get -ions
convince to convince someone means to make them
believe that something is true. The adjectives
are convinced and convincing: he -d me that it

was a good idea / he managed to - thejury of

his innocence / 1became ~d that he was hiding
something / I'm not entirely -d / a very convincing
encounter to encounter something means to
experience it. Encounter is also a noun: the idea
has -edfierce opposition / we -ed afew problems
/ United Nationsforces -ed some resistance / some
violent -s with the police / a close - with a snake /

ourfirst - (thefirst time we met)

fierce if something is fierce, it is strong or involves
strong feelings. The adverb is fiercely: the idea

has encountered - opposition / there w ill be competitionfo r places in thefin a l / she came info r
some - criticism / he's -ly loyal to hisfriends / a ~ly
competitive market
GM GM foods are foods that contain products
whose genes have been changed. GM stands for
genetically modified: -foods / crops / free food
heavily heavily means very or by a large amount.
The adjective is heavy: GM foods are - restricted /


they're - involved in politics / - armed soldiers / she

was - influenced by American singers / she smokes
quite - / it was raining quite - la heavy reliance on
fossilfuels / a heavy smoker / heavy rain
hygiene hygiene is keeping things clean in order to
prevent illnesses.The adjective is hygienic: poor
food - / his personal - is terrible! / good dental / very high standards of- / the kitchen didn't look

very hygienic
induce to induce someone to do something means
to persuade them to do it.To induce something
means to make it happen: attempts to - undersixteens to eatfastfood / nothing would - me to
work there again / overeating can - vomiting /

they can give drugs to - labour (start the process in

which a woman gives birth)
inform to inform someone of something means to
tell them about it. Someone who is informed has
all the information about something: he -ed us of

his plans / 1regret to -you thatyour application

has been unsuccessful / 1am delighted to -you that
you have been awarded a prize / please keep me -ed
o f any developments / it's important that patients
arefu lly -ed / they seem very well -ed / able to
make an -ed choice (with all the information)
outbreak an outbreak of something is an occasion
when it starts suddenly.The verb is break out: an
o ffood poisoning / a serious - o f cholera / the o f war / -s o f violence on the streets / the day that

war broke out

plead to plead in a court means to say whether you
are guilty or not guilty of a crime. The noun is plea:
he w ill be -ing not guilty / how doyou - - guilty
or not guilty? / he entered a plea o f not guilty /

decided to change her plea

publicity publicity is attention that is given to
something in newspapers and magazines.The
verb is publicise: negative - could do a lot of
damage / a lot of- about his visit / the event
attracted a lot of - / we got a lot o ffree - / the
concert generated a lot o fgood -fo r the band /

they spent a lot of money on publicising the tour


Some verbs are formed by adding -ise to nouns

or adjectives. In American English, these verbs are
usually spelled with -ize. For example: her public
image / publicise an event.
add emphasis I emphasise your point; legal
complications / legalise soft drugs; an industrial
area / the country is being industrialised; special
treatm ent / specialise in furniture design; people
in authority I it was authorised by my boss; write
a summary / summarise the book

Pr epo sit io n s
A Com plete the sentences w ith the correct
1 Do you know where the lid ___this pot is?
2 Slice the tom ato....thin pieces.
3 Soak the beans in w ater___a few hours.
4 I can't decide___the fish and the lobster.
5 You can substitute lem on....lime in this recipe.
6 There's been an poisoning.
7 Starch is in foods such....bread and rice.
Choose the correct preposition.
1 I'm looking for a piece o f I in cheese.
2 You should worry/or / about all the salt you eat.
3 The dressing is oil mixed by / with vinegar.
4 She's very loyal to /fo r her friends.
5 He still relies on / to his parents for money.
6 My diet is influenced o f I by Japanese cooking.

Wo r d

fam ilies

A Complete the expressions with the correct form

of the word in bold.
1 publicise an event

attract a lot of

2 good personal hygiene

4 a serious allegation

a n ...................
tell a ...................
that's w hat she

5 authentic Irish music

1question its

3 not really convinced

6 make a confession
7 provide fierce resistance

h e ................... to
the crime
the team competed

Tick the words which are both a noun and a verb.


tid e ....
fake ......
fu ss___

Wo rd

A Complete the sentences with the correct form
of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you
need help.




1 ..................... the lid on while the soup is cooking.

2 The Yankees ...................past the Red Sox to
win the baseball league.
3 .................. the facts before making an
4 H e............. .... a fuss about the poor service.
5 1................. .. no notice when he loses his
6 1................. .. the bill and left the waiter a tip.
7 W e need to . ..................the tide of teenage
drug addiction.
8 1believe in ............... traditional family values.

Match the two halves of the collocations.


a plea of
an informed
a wood-fired
an old
a close

a) not guilty
b) choice
c) vegetables
d) supplements
e) encounter
f) oven
g) injury

Complete the collocations with nouns and

adjectives from the unit.

a f ____ h wound
a p ____ h of salt
a r ____ h estimate
make a s ____ e
fossil f ____ s
a h ____ smoker

P hrasal v er b s

b u ild in g

A Complete the sentences with verbs formed

from the words in the list.

2 The president......... ............the need to fight

3 Undeveloped countries need help to ....................
4 That law yer........ ........... in divorce cases.
5 I don't have the power to .......... ........ payment.
6 Newspapers........... ........the arrest of the
movie star.



1 The United Kingdom has....................1,000

illegal immigrants.

A Choose the correct word to complete the

phrasal verb.
1 An argument flared over / up over the bill.
2 I'm full but I still have to get by / through dessert.
3 The health department carried out / on a
kitchen inspection.
4 Turn away / down the heat on the stove.
5 I pulled several hairs up / out of my food.
6 A swine flu epidemic has broken out / over.



pass on to pass something on means to give it to

someone else after someone has given it to you:
Im phoning to-on a message / canyou pass this

on to Gemma?
temper a temper is a tendency to become very angry
suddenly: she's got a terrible - / he's got a violent

- after afew drinks / 1managed to control my / sheflew into a-1 he went off in a - / -s were
beginning toflare (people were beginning to get
warehouse a warehouse is a large building where
goods are stored before they are sold: the goods
havent left the -yet / they're still in the- / a -fu ll

o f wine

Pa g es 1 1 0 -1 1 1
chase up to chase something up means to find out
whether it has been dealt with yet: Im phoning to

an order / Ill - the sales department / can you

chase John up about this?
enquire to enquire about something means to ask for
information about it.The noun is enquiry.These
words can also be spelled inquire and inquiry: Im

just calling to - about some prices / I'm phoning

to - whetheryou have any rooms available / we've
had over 500 enquiries about thejob / Ill make a
few enquiries and see what I canfind out / a major
police inquiry is being carried out / launch a murder

Pa g e s 112 -113
acquaintance an acquaintance is someone you know
slightly. You can also say that you are acquainted
w ith someone: a wide circle o ffriends and -s / a
casual - / some business ~s / Im not personally
acquainted with him / Id like to get acquainted

with her
blue-collar blue-collar work is work that involves
physical strength and using your hands. Work in
an office is called white-collar work: ~ work / -

workers la - union
break even to break even means to make no profit
and no loss.The noun is breakeven: eventually we

broke even / the business is breaking even at the

moment / Ill be glad when we reach a breakeven
capital capital is money that you invest or use to
start a business: we raised the - we needed / the

business was set up usingforeign - 1 we dont have

much - / theyve sunk a lot of- into the business /
selling property to release Some nouns are formed by adding -y to a verb. For
example: enquire about prices/ launch a public

recover from an accident / make a quick recovery;
deliver the goods / rearrange the tim e of delivery;
master a language / achieve complete mastery;
discover a cure for the common cold / make a

entrepreneur an entrepreneur is someone who

sets up and runs a business.The adjective is
entrepreneurial: afamous - la successful - / help

fo r budding -s / his -ial skills

excel to excel means to do something very well: he
-led at thejob / she -led at university / he -s at

all sports
float to float a company means to start to sell its
shares on the stock market.The noun is flotation:
we -ed the company on the stock exchange /

theflotation on the stock market is scheduledfo r

December I a 30 million flotation
flagship flagship means the biggest and most
important: were opening a new - store in Tokyo /

one o f our - products

overdue if something is overdue, it has not been
done by the expected time.- an - payment onyour

account / my library books are - (I should have

returned them) / its a week - / these reforms are


foot the foot of something is the bottom part of it:

sitting at the - o f the Tatra Mountains / the - of
the stairs / the - o f the page / the - o f the statue
hostile if something in business is hostile, it is done
to a company that does not want it. Something
that is hostile is also unfriendly or opposed to
something.The noun is hostility: we were the
subject o fa - takeover bid / travelling through -

territory (belonging to the opposing side in a war)

/ most people were - to the idea / a large - crowd
had gathered outside / her speech provoked a ~
reaction / widespread hostility to the idea / a lot
o f hostility towards the president / an outbreak of
hostilities (war)
inquisitive if you are inquisitive, you ask a lot of
questions about things.The adverb is inquisitively.
The noun is inquisitiveness: they are very ~ / an
~ child / she looked at me ~ly / 1found his ~ness

ladder a ladder is a piece of equipment you can climb
up to reach high places. A ladder is also a system
with different levels that you can make progress
through to reach a senior position: he climbed the

corporate - and became UK sales manager / people

at the bottom o f the social ~ / keen to get on the
first rung o f the housing locksmith a locksmith is someone whose job is to fix
locks on doors and windows: initially, he trained as

- / 1had to call a lookout if you are on the lookout for something, you
are trying to find it: they're constantly on the fo r new ideas / we were warned to be on the ~for

network to network means to talk to a lot of people
in order to meet people who w ill be useful for
your work. A network is a group of people or
organisations that work together or are connected
in some way: they're always -ing / it's important to
~ / I've got a good ~ o fcontacts
observer an observer is someone who watches
something carefully.The verb is observe: they're
keen s / an acute - o fhuman nature / the

elections w ill be monitored by independent -s

/ they observe changes /you can learn a lot by
observing people / it'll be interesting to observe
what happens
performance someone's performance is how
well they do something. The verb is perform:

they're alwaysfocused on improving their - / the

goalkeeper gave a brilliant - / his disappointing in the exams / a definite improvement on his last
/ the team all performed brilliantly / she didn't
perform very well in that task
plough to plough money into something means to
invest money in it: we -ed all the money back into
the business / he -ed the profits into a new venture
/ they ~ed all their savings into the business
portfolio a portfolio is a collection of investments
that someone has made, or a collection of things
they can offer or use in business: he built up a
substantial - / a - o f shares / a - o f clients / a -

of skills
property a property is a feature or quality that some
thing has: by exploiting the geothermalproperties

of an underground lake / the chemical properties of

hydrogen / plants with healing properties

renewable if something is renewable, it can be

replaced so that it never runs out. Renewables are
renewable forms of energy: it provides - energyfo r
the whole area / - resources / woodfrom - sources
/ the increasing use of-s
stiff stiff can mean difficult or severe: wefaced some
- competition / ~ opposition to the government
/ drink drivers w illface - new penalties / a - ja il

stock exchange a stock exchange is a place where
shares in companies are bought and sold: we
floated the company on the - / lost a lot o f money
on the ~ / the New York - / the London ~ closed 15
points lower / the -fe ll by 15% I the - rose slightly

takeover a takeover is when one company takes
control of another. The verb is take over: a hostile
- bid / the ~ o f HBOS by Lloyds / the company is
vulnerable to a - / they've taken over two o f their

main rivals
turnover a company's turnover is the amount of
business it does: we have an annual ~ o f three
million dollars / - rose by 6% lastyear / - has
doubled in the last threeyears / a slightfa ll in venture a venture is a new business activity: he

ploughed the profits into a new - / this could be

a profitable - / a successful business * / embark
on a joint - (involving more than one person or

Pa c e s 1 14 -115
adopt to adopt something means to start using it.
The noun is adoption: many countries are -ing

similarformats / the decision to - the euro / voted

to - the proposals / they've -ed a moreflexible
approach / the -ion o f new policies
alert to alert someone means to tell them or warn
them about something. Alert is also a noun:

a website that -s users to special offers / we

immediately -ed the police / afire - / aflood branch out to branch out means to start doing
something different or new: we want to ~ into
other areas / supermarkets that have branched out
into clothing / 1need to - and try something new
complex if something is complex, it is very
complicated.The noun is complexity: the - and
changing nature o f our society / a very - problem
/ a highly - system / it's quite - / it looks very - /

overwhelmed by the sheer -ity of the problems

concept a concept is an idea. The adjective is
conceptual: these are relatively new ~sfor people
living here / start with afew basic -s / the broad
- o f mental illness'/ 1don't have a clear - o f what

we want to achieve / 1found it difficult to grasp

the - (understand it) / a -ualframeworkfor the


deal a deal is an agreement in business or politics: a

two-year sponsorship ~ / can we do a - ? I he cut

a - with the main opposition party (agreed one)
/ we're close to clinching the - (agreeing it) / OK you've got a - I / that wasn't part o f the devastate to devastate something means to damage
it very badly.To devastate a person means to upset
them very badly.The adjectives are devastating
and devastated.The noun is devastation: the

country has been -d by war / losses which have ~d

the economy / 1was absolutely devastated when
he died / a devastating blowfo r this community /
the devastating effects o f the war / the widespread
devastation caused by the storm / a scene of
complete devastation
device a device is a machine or tool: a - that allows
you to sharefiles / an ingenious little - / some
sophisticated - s i a -for measuring electricalflow
/ it's fitted with a special anti-locking - / all our
vehicles have the latest hi-tech safety -s

overwhelmingly overwhelmingly means to a very

great extent. The adjective is overwhelming:
reality TV is - positive / they voted - in support of
the idea / the overwhelming m ajority of students
/ managed to succeed against overwhelming odds
/ overwhelming evidence that he was guilty / the

idea won overwhelming support

pitch to pitch something means to talk about it and
try to persuade people to buy it. Pitch is also a
noun: they - their ideas to the panel / there were
three o f them -ingfo r the contract / a sales - / 1

only had ten minutes to make my plunge to plunge means to decrease quickly by a
large amount. Plunge is also a noun: profits have
-d / share prices have -d / temperatures -d to
minus 15 / a - in house prices
reflect to reflect something means to show it or be a
sign of it. The noun is reflection: they directly - the
needs o f the Afghan economy / his speech didn't -

expansion expansion is when something increases

in size. The verb is expand: they present their
businesses and plansfo r - / planning a massive - /

the views o f the government / the election result -s

public anger over the recent scandals / a clear -ion
o f his intentions / their behaviour is a -ion on their
parents / a sad -ion on modern society

the company is setfo r a major - / the company's plans / the business expanded dram atically in the
first two years / plans to expandfurther

saturated if the market is saturated, there are more

products available for sale than people want to
buy. The verb is saturate: the market's - / a flood of

fuel fuel is a substance such as coal or petrol that can

be burned to produce energy: high - costsforced

him to close down / rising - bills / oil is quite an

expensive - /fossil -s / the development ofbio-s
(fuels madefrom plants) I new efficient vehicles
instability if there is instability, a situation is likely
to change suddenly.The adjective is unstable:
political - / things that can cause economic - /1

was worried about her emotional - 1an unstable

economy / the situation is still unstable / she seems
a bit unstable at the moment
negotiation negotiation is an official discussion
between groups who want different things
and are trying to reach an agreement. The verb
is negotiate: there is no - on the amount /

ongoing -s between the two countries / peace -s

/ resolving problems through - / the details are
still under - / they can negotiate what percentage
o f the company they w ill own / both sides seem
willing to negotiate / refused to negotiate with
niche a niche is an opportunity to sell a special
product to a small group of people. Niche is
also an adjective: it's a - market la - product /

managed to exploit a - in the market / he spotted a

- in thefashion market


cheap imports w ill saturate the market

scrutiny scrutiny is the careful examination of
something. The verb is scrutinise, the plans come

under -from local experts / their accounts have

come under intense - / the government's proposals
are being subjected to close - /to scrutinise the
documents carefully
stake someone's stake in a business is the share
that they own. Someone who owns a stake is a
stakeholder: buy a - in the company / they own a
30% - in the company / increase their - la majority

-/he now has a controlling - (enough shares to

control the company) / a big -holder in the company
strategy a strategy is a planned series of actions
in order to achieve something.The adjective is
strategic: planning and marketing strategies / a

successful business -/an effective -for economic

recovery / draw up a long-term - / strategic
planning / it was a strategic decision
sustain to sustain something means to make it
continue: it w ill be difficult to - itself / measures

designed to - economic growth / the nutrients

necessary to - life
would-be would-be means hoping to become
something: a group of- entrepreneurs / a - actor

/ - pop stars


C o l l o c a t io n s

A Complete the sentences with the correct form

of the verbs in the list. Look up the verbs if you
need help.

Pr e p o sit io n s
A Complete the sentences with the correct
1 Im interested in one....your products.
2 The goods are still sitting ....the warehouse.
3 Do you ever buy shares....the stock market?
4 I'm right....the bottom of the corporate ladder.
5 The two companies embarked....a joint venture.
6 There are no job vacancies....the moment.

Wo rd

fam ilies

A Complete the expressions with the correct form

of the word in bold.
1 scrutinise the accounts






1 W e ....... acquainted at the staff

cocktail party.
2 Sh e................... a business from her home.
3 A large crow d................... to hear the
president's speech.
4 W e ................... all our money into the new
5 Drink drivers will soon................... stiffer
6 The company................... a niche in the market.
7 It was our presentation w hich................... the

2 enter into negotiations

3 expansion plans

We are

Complete the m issing adjectives

1 Business success depends on s
2 We bought a m _ ______ stake in a rival
3 The company's performance has come under

4 a complex problem

into Asia
a problem
of great

5 a disappointing performance

I usually

_ e scrutiny.
4 P __________ I instability is bad for business.

6 an outbreak o f hostilities

well in exams
a .......... ......

5 The hurricane left a scene o f _________e

6 The company invests in r _ _ _ _ ____ e energy

Wo rd

b u ild in g

A Complete the sentences with nouns formed

from the verbs in the list.
discover recover enquire master deliver
1 Part of thinking
2 W e lose sales because of product.......... .
3 Scientists have made a cancer treatment
4 W e expect a slo w ................... from the
5 I made a n ................... about flight availability.

M atch the tw o halves o f the collocations.

1 a pop
a) pitch

a saturated
against overwhelming
a sales

6 the opposition

c) party
d) star
e) market
f) odds

Phrasal v er b s
A Choose the correct word to complete the
phrasal verb.
1 We need to chase over / up some orders to
meet our target.
2 The police are carrying on / out a murder
3 Please pass this message up / on to the sales
4 We're setting on I up a Singapore office.
5 She's really climbing up / overthe corporate ladder.
6 We've run down / out of tim e with this project.




P rep o sit io n s



8 by



P r e p o s it io n s



P r e p o sit io n s

P r ep o sit io n s



W o rd

fa m ilies





W o rd

fa m ilies





Wo rd

fa m ilies


abuse, claim,
assault, conduct boost

W o rd fa m ilie s

Co llocations




feature, disguise, despair






P h ra sa l v e rb s




8 g









P h ra sa l

v er b s



Pa ttern s


avoiding/to avoid
to make
to dance

settle, navy




P h ra sa l veri


Pattern s





to help
to freeze
to do
to tighten







P hrasal



broke down
goes against
cut back on

P r e p o s it io n s

P r ep o sit io n s


P r e p o sit io n s

P r ep o sit io n s

l about
2 of
3 of
4 from
5 from
6 about
7 into
8 for
9 on
W o r d f a m ilie s


foul, sprain, sack, tackle




C o l l o c a t io n s









o rd

-b u


il d in g





W o r d - bu ild in g








6 local




P h r a s a l v e rb s



1 d
3 a

4 e
5 b
6 f

1 overwhelming
2 thinking
3 extreme
4 way
5 symptoms

P h ra sa l v e r b s


5 in
6 of
7 in


W o rd fa m ilie s


W o rd fa m ilie s



6 off


to contest
to make
to call
to make


6 into / to
7 in
8 on

W o rd fa m ilie s




1 lecturer
2 announcer
3 accelerator
4 incinerator
5 instructor
6 backer
7 cooker
8 sweetener






2 d
3 a

4 b
5 e
6 f



broke into
got back
came up
come forward
went off
get hold of

1 down
2 up
3 with

4 out
5 out
6 in







P r e p o s it io n s


P r e p o s it io n s

P r e p o s it io n s


P r e p o s it io n s

4 in
5 in
6 of

1 of
2 with
3 of

1 of
2 in
3 from

4 in
5 during

o r d f a m il ie s




o r d -B u i l d i n g

4 workers
5 teacher



5 bear
6 set
7 named


1 to
2 on
3 out

1 by
2 of
3 of


4 since
5 of
6 for

4 through
5 around
6 up



Co l l o c a t io n s





o r d f a m il ie s

l bumps

6 infuriated

o r d -B u i l d i n g

by the day
by heart
by the rules
by nature
by the day
by sight
Co l l o c a t io n s





4 taxi
5 rates
6 recovery




o r d f a m il ie s



1 replacement


breath, replace

o r d -B u i l d i n g



C o l l o c a t io n s



l out
2 for
3 out


l silence



1 safe
2 border
3 lane



o u tco m es

4 to
5 about
6 from


1 in
2 of
3 for

o r d -B u il d i n g

2 a
3 b


Ph r a sa l

5 into
6 of
7 to

Co l l o c a t io n s


8 versatile


1 supporters
2 employers
3 managers



4 off
5 on
6 on


1 b
3 d



4 a

P r e p o s it io n s
l with

P r e p o s it io n s

P r e p o s it io n s

P r e p o s it io n s


l into


2 from

3 on
4 on
5 about
6 of
7 of

1 with

o r d f a m il ie s




o r d f a m il ie s










1 strengthen
2 raise
3 win
4 have
5 check
6 rob
7 cling


Phra sa l


o r d -B u i l d i n g

C o l l o c a t io n s




Co l l o c a t io n s






2 e
3 a

1 of





4 b

1 of
2 about
3 with

4 to
5 on
6 by

o r d f a m il ie s



squeeze, encounter,
fake, fuss

o r d -B u il d i n g

| legalised
C o l l o c a t io n s








o r d f a m il ie s

l scrutiny
2 negotiate


o r d -B u il d i n g

l mastery
2 delivery

3 discovery
4 recovery
5 enquiry
C o l l o c a t io n s





1 d
2 e
3 f

4 b







v o c a b u l a r y b u il d e r












began /bigaen/

begun //




bite /bait/


bitten /bitan/

blow //

blew /blu:/

blown / /





brought /bro.t/


build /bild/

built /bilt/






bought /by.t/



caught /



chose /tfauz/














draw /dro:/

drew /dru:/

drawn /dn:n/



dreamed /dreamt



drunk /drAQk/





ate //

eaten /!:/

fall lfx \ l

fell /fel/

fallen /fsilan/

feel /fl:l/

felt /felt/


fight /fait/




found /faond/





fly /flai/

flew /flu:/

flown /flaun/












got [US: gotten]




grow //



grew /gru:/

grown //







hear /hia/

heard /h3:d /

heard /h3:d/



hidden /hidan/







hurt /h3:t/






know //

knew /nju:/

known //

lay /lei/



lead /li:d/

led /led/


learn /1:/

















lie (not tell the truth)



lose /lu:z/












pay /pei/

paid /peid/








read /ri:d/

read /red/

read /red/





rang //

rung //

run //

ran /raen/


say /sei/

said /sed/



saw /S3:/





















sang /saer]/

sung /SAfJ/


sank /saeqk/























spread /spred/










stuck /stAk/


strike /straik/

struck /strAk/







swum /swAm/

take /teik/

took /tuk/

taken /teikan/


taught /






thought /0D:t/


throw /0/

threw /0ru:/

thrown //





woke /wauk/

woken /waukan/

wear /wea/

wore /w :/

worn /W3:n/


won /WAn/




written /ritan/




CENGAGE Learning'
Upper Intermediate
Vocabulary Builder
Sheila Dignen and
Guy de Villiers
Publisher: Jason Mann
Senior Commissioning Editor:
John Waterman
Content Project Editor:
Amy Smith

2010 Heinle, Cengage Learning

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The Outcomes Vocabulary Builder booklet contains key language

from the Students Book and is organised by unit so that learners
can easily refer to the words they need while they are studying.



The Outcomes Vocabulary Builder contains:

A short explanation for each word

Common collocations and phrases
Practice activities
Regular language boxes for extra information on word
families, word-building and phrasal verbs
Answer key

Also available for the student:

Workbook - additional language and skills practice, a
Developing Writing section, extra activities for the Outcomes
Vocabulary Builder and audio CDs for the listening activities.
MyOutcomes - online practice for grammar, vocabulary and all
four skills. Use for self study or interact with your teacher and
get feedback on your progress. Pin code available at the back
of the Students Book.

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