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Energy stored in capacitor

V = VB

V = VB

Charging capacitor

Stored charge
+Q

+Q

V = VB

V = VB

-Q

-Q

V = VB

Stored charge produces the current


+Q

-Q

10mA

V = VB

Energy stored in capacitor


Electric Energy = Charge x Voltage: W = Q V
This formula would be true for capacitors, had the
charge between plates been transferred at a constant voltage.
For capacitors, Q = C V
As the charge Q on the plate increases,
the voltage V increases too (and vice versa).
Suppose the capacitor was charged to the voltage V0:
Q

The stored energy is the area under


the Q V line.

Q0

Note that, Q0 = C V0:


WC
V0

V0 Q0
WC =
2
CV02
WC =
2

V0 is the voltage on the charged capacitor

Example problem 1
The capacitor of 1 mF has been charged to 100 V.
What energy is stored in the capacitor in Joules?

WC

2
CV0
=

0
of
5

120
Timed response

Commercial capacitors

C=

20 mF capacitor

d 0 A
d

Capacitor bank (series-parallel)

Parallel connection of capacitors


V = VB

C1

C2

Q1 = C1 V1
Q2 = C2 V2

Capacitors C1 and C2 are connected in parallel: both terminal of each


capacitor are connected to the same wires.
The voltage on each of the capacitors is the same, VB
The charge on the capacitor C1, Q1 = C1VB
The charge on the capacitor C2, Q2 = C2VB
Total charge stored in both capacitors:
QTot = Q1 + Q2 = (C1 + C2) VB
The equivalent capacitance, Ceq = QTot/ VB = C1 + C2

Cpar= C1 + C2

Parallel connection of capacitors


C1

V = VB

IT

C2

I1

I2

We can also find the equivalent capacitance from the KCL.


For the 1st and 2nd capacitors,
V
V

I1 = C1

; I 2 = C2

According to the KCL, the total current IT = I1 + I2.


Substituting the values for I1 and I2:
V
V
V
V
= (C1 + C2 )
+ C2
= C par
IT = C1
;
t
t
t
t

Cpar= C1 + C2

Series connection of capacitors


V = VB

C1

C2
Q = C1 V1 ; Q = C2 V2 ;

V1

V2

C1
V2 = V1
C2

Capacitors C1 and C2 are connected in series:


the charge Q on C1 and C2 is the same; For each of the capacitors,
From the KVL, VTot= V1 + V2.
The total charge, on the C1 C2 combination is still Q.
The equivalent capacitance is defined as: Q = CEqS VTot

C1
Q = CEqS (V1 + V2 ) = CEqS V1 + V1 ; Q = C1 V1 ;
C2

1/CSer= 1/C1 + 1/C2

CC
CS = 1 2
C1 + C2

C1
CEqS 1 + = C1 ;
C2

Example problem 2
Three capacitors 2 mF each are connected in parallel.
What is the total capacitance in mF?

0
of
5

120
Timed response

Example problem 3
Three capacitors 2 mF each are connected in series.
What is the total capacitance in mF?

0
of
5

120
Timed response

Example problem 4
Parallel-plate capacitor has a capacitance of 9 nF.
A thin metal plate has been inserted in the middle
between the top and bottom plates.
What is the capacitance (in nF) of the capacitor now?

C=

d 0 A
d

0
of
5

120
Timed response

Transients in R-C circuit


C

VB

d VC
IC = C
dt
VR
IR =
R

Series R-C circuit


The first moment after closing the switch, the voltage across the capacitor = 0;
The capacitor behaves as a short-circuit;
The current at t=0, I0 = VB/R;
After all the transients are over (t Yh) , I = 0

Commutation rule for capacitors


C

VB

VC

V_

Consider a capacitor right before and right


after commutation in an arbitrary circuit.
The capacitor voltage (charge) does not
have to be zero before the commutation.

V+
Commutation event

time

If VC changes instantaneously after the commutation, the current in the


connected circuit would be infinitely high:

d VC
V+ V
IC = C
=C
dt
dt |0

If V+ is different from V- when dt 0,


then IC 

The capacitor voltage does not change after commutation: VC- = VC+

Graphs showing the current and


voltage for a capacitor charging

VB
I (t ) = e
R

t
RC

Capacitor voltage

RC
VC (t ) = VB 1 e

RC = RC
When t = 3 RC,
VC = 0.95VB ;

Graphs showing the current and


voltage for a capacitor discharging
Capacitor starting voltage is VB

VB
I (t ) = e
R

t
RC

VC (t ) = VB e

t
RC

RC = RC
When t = 3 RC,
VC = 0.05VB=5% VB

General formula for step response of an arbitrary R-C circuit


C

VS

R-C circuit

vC = vCF + ( vC 0 vCF ) e

t /

= RC

VC0 is the capacitor voltage right after (or right before) the commutation;
VCF is the capacitor voltage long time after all the transient processes are over.

R is the total resistance connected to the capacitor after commutation


(al the sources are zeroed to find the equivalent total resistance)

Example 1
Delayed alarm circuit
S1
R=10 k
VB=4.5 V

S2

C=0.5 mF

Sensor switch: S1.


Electronic switch S2 triggers the alarm system when the voltage
across it exceeds the preset threshold value VT.
R = 10k; C = 0.5 mF; VB = 4.5 V.
Assume the S2 resistance infinitely high.
The required time delay between the switch S1 turn-on and triggering
switch S2 must be tt = 3s.
What threshold voltage VT must the switch S2 be tuned to?

Example 1
Delayed alarm circuit
S1
R=10 k
VB=4.5 V

S2

C=0.5 mF

vC = vCF + ( vC 0 vCF ) e t /
VC0 = 0; VCF = VB; = RC;

vC = vB vB e t /

The required alarm triggering time: tt=3s

The required switch threshold voltage vSW = vc(tr):

vsw = 4.5 4.5 e 3 /(10 e 30.5e3) = 4.5 4.5 e 0.6 = 2V

Example 2

The switch in the circuit shown in Fig. 7.25 has been in position
a for a long time. At t = 0 the switch is moved to position b.
What is the vC time dependence at t>0?

vC = vCF + ( vC 0 vCF ) e t /
vC0 = V60 = 40V *60/(60+20) = -30 V
vF = 90 V;

= RC = 400 k 0.5F = 0.2 s.

vC = 90 120 e t / 0.2 V