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Technical note

Synchronous generators for steam and gas turbines

Pre-engineered generators - Cooling systems

ABB is a leading supplier of synchronous

turbine-driven generators to power utilities, paper mills, sugar plants, oil and gas
installations, and many other sectors.
We have been manufacturing generators
for more than 120 years and have extensive application experience with tens of
thousands of installations all over the
world. ABB offers reliable and efficient
power generation with worldwide

One of the factors that determine the lifetime of a generator is temperature. As all losses generate heat it is
important to have a cooling system that can maintain a
sufficiently low operating temperature within all parts of
the generator. In order to achieve this, pre-engineered
generators use a symmetrical cooling principle that
allows uniform cooling within the generator.

Open ventilated (IC3A1)

Pre-engineered generators are equipped as standard with an
open ventilated (IC3A1) cooling system with ducts on the air
inlets and outlet. The ducts are fitted with flanges for the connection of external air channels. The inlet air channels must
be equipped with filters (minimum filter class F6). This cooling
method is more dependent on ambient conditions than the
others, as dirt can be sucked into the generator and cause

Available cooling systems

The pre-engineered generator line can be provided with three
different cooling methods depending on the ambient conditions.

The open ventilated cooling method also requires greater attention to the design of the external air channels, for example:

Open ventilated where the ambient air is used directly for

Air-to-water cooler where the internal air in the generator
is cooled by a top mounted water cooler.
Air-to-air cooler where the internal air is cooled by the
ambient air through a top mounted tube heat exchanger.

Cold environment - avoiding stand-still draft into the generator.

Pressure drop - maximum allowed pressure drop is 400Pa
for the external ducts
Noise level - without external ducts the noise is typically
15dB higher than for an enclosed water cooled generator.
Mix of cold and warm air - as a minimum requires external
intake duct.

The air-to-water cooler is available with a water design pressure

of 0.6 or 1.0 MPa and a water test pressure of 0.9 or 1.5 MPa.
The cooler can be provided with single or double tubes and
flanges according to DIN (DN100) or ANSI (4). Redundancy is
only available for coolers with the higher design and test pressure (1.0/1.5 MPa).
The following materials are used in air-to-water coolers:

Inner tube material: copper-nickel (90/10)

Outer tube material for double tube cooler: copper
Plate fin material: aluminum
Cooler top housing material: Painted carbon steel
Tube sheet material: naval brass (CuZn38Sn1)
Header material: rilsan coated steel (polyamide 11)
Cooler element casing material: galvanized steel

For more information please visit:

We reserve the right to make technical changes or modify the contents of this
document without prior notice. With regard to purchase orders, the agreed
particulars shall prevail. ABB Ltd does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for potential errors or possible lack of information in this document.

Air-to-air cooler (IC6A1A6)

This cooling method is suitable for generators installed in locations with limited or no access to cooling water. The standard
air-to-air cooler is fitted with two external fans, each delivering
50% of the required cooling capacity.
The following materials are used as standard in the air-to-air
Tube material: galvanized steel or aluminum
Tube plate material: mild steel
Intermediate plate material: mild steel

The following materials are available as an option:

Tube material: AISI 304L

Tube sheet material: AISI 304L
Intermediate plate material: AISI 304L
Pressure switches in cooler inlet air circuit

The following fan configurations are available as options:

Three external fans for a redundancy of 3 x 50%
Certified for hazardous area

Please note that the delivery time of the complete generator may
be affected by the choice of options.

We reserve all rights in this document and in the subject matter and illustrations contained herein. Any reproduction, disclosure to third parties or utilization of its contents - in whole or in part- is forbidden without prior written
consent of ABB Ltd.

Copyright 2013 ABB. All Rights Reserved

Copyright ABB. 3AAM100455 EN 03-2013

Air-to-water cooler (IC8A1W7)

Pre-engineered generators can also be provided with an airto-water cooler. This cooling method is preferable if there is
access to cooling water. The air-to-water cooler is designed
for easy withdrawal of the cooler battery from the cooler top.
It is cleanable and provided with drain holes. The air-to-water
cooler is prepared for industrial charged, fresh or brackish
water and calculated and designed for a maximum fouling
factor of 0.00009.