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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2015,

ISSN 2348 8050

Image Binarization And OCR Toolkit For Old Degraded Documents

Prof.D.J.Bonde Prathamesh Bhokare*, Ramdas Chavan**,Akash Dhawade***,Prashant Patule**** *Information Technology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune **Information Technology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune ***Information Technology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune ****Information Technology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune **** * Department of Information Technology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune

ABSTRACT Segmentation of text from badly degraded document images is a very challenging task. Because of little bit difference between background and foreground text of various document images. In this paper we propose image binarization technique which addresses the issue of adaptive image contrast which is combination of local image contrast and local image gradient . In this technique adaptive contrast map is first constructed as an input of degraded document image. The contrast map is then binarized and combined with Canny’s edge map to identify the text stroke edge pixels. Then further document is segmented by a local threshold that is estimated based on the intensities of detected text stroke edge pixels within a local window. The proposed method is simple, robust, and involves minimum parameter tuning.

Keywords: - OCR (Optical Character Recognization)

1. INTRODUCTION Document Image Binarization is performed in the preprocessing stage for document analysis and it aims. To segment the foreground text from the document background. A fast and accurate document image binarization technique is becoming increasingly important as more number of text docment images are scanned in speedy and thruthfull manner.Image binarization has been studied for many years but there are still unsettled problems related to thresholding. The proposed method is simple robust and has minimum parameters.In Binarization a old documents image is converted into a Binarized image. which is an enhanced image of the input image. On this enhanced image OCR technique is applied ,for character recognization.

2. Related Work Many thresholding techniques have been reported for document image binarization. As many degraded documents do not have a clear bimodal pattern, global

thresholding is usually not a suitable approach for the degraded document binarization. Adaptive thresholding, which estimates a local threshold for each document image pixel, is often a better approach to deal with different variations within degraded document images. For example, the early window-based adaptive thresholding techniques estimate the local threshold by using the mean and the standard variation of image pixels within a local neighborhood window. The main drawback of these window-based thresholding techniques is that the thresholding performance depends on the window size and hence the character stroke width. Other approaches have also been reported, including background subtraction texture analysis recursive method , decomposition method , contour completion , Markov Random Field , matched wavelet , cross section sequence graph analysis , self-learning , Laplacian energy user assistance and combination of binarization techniques . These methods combine different types of image information and domain knowledge and are often complex. The local image contrast and the local image gradient are very useful features for segmenting the text from the document background because the document text usually has certain image contrast to the neighboring document background. They are very effective and have been used in many document image binarization techniques.

3. PROPOSED WORK AND METHODS:

This proposed system convert Grayscale document image into Binary document image.This section describes the proposed document image binarization techniques. Given a degraded document image, a grayscale image is first constructed then depending upon the threshold value a final black and white image is contructed. The text is then segmented and scaling in performed for template matching and character recognization . Some post-processing is further applied to improve the document binarization quality like the thinning process.

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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2015,

ISSN 2348 8050

Aim to develop system that takes scanned image of particular degraded document and produce binary image and applying the various Binarization technique also OCR is used for text extraction.

3.1. BLURRING:

In Blurring,we simple blur and image. In blurring we simply reduce an noise from the degraded document which are affected due to changes in temperature or environmental conditions. An image looks more sharp or more detailed if we are able to perceive all the objects and their shapes correctly in it.For example an image with a face,looks clear when we are able to identify eyes,ears,nose,lips,forehead e.t.c very clear.This shape of an object is due to its edges.So in blurring we simply reduce the edge content and make the transition from one color to the other very smooth.

make the transition from one color to the other very smooth. Figure 1: Blurring of text

Figure 1: Blurring of text

color to the other very smooth. Figure 1: Blurring of text Figure 2:Blurring of image Noise

Figure 2:Blurring of image

Noise Reduction-Using Filtering

Median filtering is very widely used in digital image processing because, under certain conditions, it preserves edges while removing noise The median filter is a nonlinear digital filtering technique, often used to remove noise. The idea of mean filtering is simply to replace each pixel value in an image with the mean (`average') value of its neighbors

3.2. GRAYSCALING:

In grayscale images, however, we do not differentiate how much we emit of the different colors, we emit the same amount in each channel.In gray scalling we apply the scanline algorithm and seprateout the RGB colours. What we can differentiate is the total amount of emitted light for each pixel; little light gives dark pixels and much light is perceived as bright pixels.When converting an RGB image to grayscale, we have to take the RGB values for each pixel and make as output a single value reflecting the brightness of that pixel. One such approach is to take the average of the contribution from each channel: (R+B+C)/3. However, since the perceived brightness is often dominated by the green component, a different, more "human-oriented", method is to take a weighted average, e.g.: 0.3R + 0.59G + 0.11B.

is to take a weighted average, e.g.: 0.3R + 0.59G + 0.11B. Figure 3:RGB to Gryascale

Figure 3:RGB to Gryascale

3.3 IMAGE SEGMENTATION:

Image segmentation is the process of dividing an image into multiple parts. Segmentation is nothing but small part of the memory ie,This is typically used to identify objects or other relevant information in digital images. There are many different ways to perform image segmentation like thresholding. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image, or a set of contours extracted from the image. Each of the pixels in a region are similar with respect to some characteristic or computed property,such as color, intensity, or texture. Adjacent regions are significantly different with respect to the same characteristics:

3.3.1. Scan Line:

The main advantage of this method is that sorting vertices along the normal of the scanning plane reduces the number of comparisons between edges. Another advantage is that it is not necessary to translate the coordinates of all vertices from the main memory into the working memoryonly vertices defining edges

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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2015,

ISSN 2348 8050

that intersect the current scan line need to be in active memory, and each vertex is read in only once.

Steps:

1.Locate the intersection point along the line with the image. 2.Sort the intersection from left to right. 3.Set the corresponding buffer positions between each intersection with a specified fill color.

between each intersection with a specified fill color. Figure 4:Scanline 3.3.2. Thresholding: Thresholding is a

Figure 4:Scanline

3.3.2. Thresholding:

Thresholding is a non-linear operation that converts a gray-scale image into a binary image where the two levels are assigned to pixels that are below or above the specified threshold value. For good quality of document image global threshoulding is used to extract the document text. You can apply a threshold to data directly from the command

line,

myGrayImage>thresholdValue ?255: 0 It is however far more efficient to use the ImageThreshold operation which also provides several methods for finding the "optimal" threshold value for a given image. Thresholding is the simplest method of image segmentation. From a grayscale image, thresholding can be used to create binary images Image Threshold provides the following methods for determining the threshold value:

=

e.g,

myBinaryImage

Thresholding Methods:

1. Automatically calculate a threshold value using

an iterative method.

2. Approximate the histogram of the image as a bimodal distribution and choose a mid point value as the threshold level

3. Adaptive thresholding. Evaluate the threshold based on the last 8 pixels in each row, using alternating rows.

on the last 8 pixels in each row, using alternating rows. Figure 5:Threshold Image 3.4 MEDIAN

Figure 5:Threshold Image

3.4 MEDIAN FILTERING:

The main idea of the median filter is to run through the signal entry by entry, replacing each entry with the median of neighboring entries. The pattern of neighbors is called the "window", which slides, entry by entry, over the entire signal.

3.4.1. Thinning:

Thinning is a morphological operation that is used to remove selected foreground pixels from binary images, somewhat like erosion or opening. It can be used for several applications, but is particularly useful for skeletonization. In this mode it is commonly used to tidy up the output of edge detectors by reducing all lines to single pixel thickness. Thinning is normally only applied to binary images, and produces another binary image as output.The thinning operation is related to the hit-and-miss transform, and so it is helpful to have an understanding of that operator before reading on. How It Works:

Like other morphological operators, the behavior of the thinning operation is determined by a structuring element. The binary structuring elements used for thinning are of the extended type described under the hit- and-miss transform (i.e. they can contain both ones and zeros). The thinning operation is related to the hit-and-miss transform and can be expressed quite simply in terms of it. The thinning of an image I by a structuring element J is:

thinning of an image I by a structuring element J is: Where the subtraction is a

Where the subtraction is a logical subtraction defined by.

Where the subtraction is a logical subtraction defined by. In everyday terms, the thinning operation is

In everyday terms, the thinning operation is calculated by translating the origin of the structuring element to

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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

each possible pixel position in the image, and at each such position comparing it with the underlying image pixels. If the foreground and background pixels in the structuring element exactly match foreground and background pixels in the image, then the image pixel underneath the origin of the structuring element is set to background (zero). Otherwise it is left unchanged. Note that the structuring element must always have a one or a blank at its origin if it is to have any effect.

3.4.2. Template Matching:

Template matching is a technique in digital image processing for finding small parts of an image which match a template image.A basic method of template matching uses a convolution mask (template), tailored to a specific feature of the search image, which we want to detect. This technique can be easily performed on grey images or edge images.

Improving Template Matching Improvements can be made to the matching method by using more than one template, these other templates can have different scales and rotations. It is also possible to improve the accuracy of the matching method by hybridizing the feature-based and template- based approaches. Naturally, this requires that the search and template images have features that are apparent enough to support feature matching.

Benefit of Binarization vs Template Matching The convolution output will be highest at places where the image structure matches the mask structure, where large image values get multiplied by large mask values.

1]Fast Binarization 2]Quality of Binarization

mask values. 1]Fast Binarization 2]Quality of Binarization Figure 6.Template Matching 3.5 Mathematical Equation 

Figure 6.Template Matching

3.5 Mathematical Equation

S={ I , IGs ,B,

Ir Filter(), IO}

S= set of Systems to which we provide an input image and the system performs Processing on the input image

Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2015,

ISSN 2348 8050

I= input image (on which processing is performed) IG’s- Image gray scale Igs= Gray Scale Image

( RGB converted into gray

image is converted to 16 bits) IO=Image Output

images scale ,24 bit

I={I1,I2,……………In}

I=no of Images

B={B1,B2………Bn}

B=Set of blocks

IO={IOi,……………IOn} IO=set of output images (that is enhanced image)

4. FLOW OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

IO={IOi,……………IOn} IO=set of output images (that is enhanced image) 4. FLOW OF PROPOSED SYSTEM: www.ijete.org 23

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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 2 Issue 1, January 2015,

ISSN 2348 8050

We will call the search image S(x, y), where (x, y) represent the coordinates of each pixel in the search image. We will call the template T(x t , y t ), where (x t , y t ) represent the coordinates of each pixel in the template. We then simply move the center (or the origin) of the template T(x t , y t ) over each (x, y) point in the search image and calculate the sum of products between the coefficients in S(x, y) and T(x t , y t ) over the whole area spanned by the template. As all possible positions of the template with respect to the search image are considered, the position with the highest score is the best position. This method is sometimes referred to as 'Linear Spatial Filtering' and the template is called a filter mask.

4.1 OCR(Optical Character Recogonization)

OCR (optical character recognition) is the recognition of

printed or written text characters by a computer. In OCR processing, the scanned-in image or bitmap is analyzed for light and dark areas in order to identify each alphabetic letter or numeric digit. When a character is recognized, it is converted into an ASCII code. Special circuit boards and computer chips designed expressly for OCR are used to speed up the recognition process. OCR is being used by libraries to digitize and preserve their holdings. OCR is also used to process checks and credit card slips and sort the mail. Output of a given input image(i.e binarized image) is taken as input in OCR.OCR extracts text from image.

5. ADAVANTAGES & DISADAVATAGES

5.1 ADAVANTAGES

More stable and easy to use for document images with different kinds of degradation .

Superior performance .

Less human effort.

Easy and accurate process.

5.2 DISADAVANTAGES

Based on Scored performance

Not very accurate

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921.

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6. CONCLUSION:

This system proposed a system called Image Binarization And OCR Toolkit For Old degreded documents .Our systems provides the Binarized image of old degreded documents, and recognized characters using OCR toolkit,.

REFERENCES:

[1] S. Lu, B. Su, and C. L. Tan, ―Document image binarization using background

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