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Chapter 7

Correlational Research

Gay, Mills, and Airasian

Topics to Be Discussed

n

n

n

correlational research

Correlation coefficients and their

significance

Process of conducting correlational

research

Relationship studies

Prediction studies

Correlational Research

n

Definition

n

Purpose

n

n

related

Determine relationships

Make predictions

Limitation

n

Objectives 1.1, 1.2, & 1.3

The Process

n

Problem selection

n

basis of some rationale

n

n

Teachers sense of efficacy and their effectiveness

results

results from a shotgun approach

Objective 2.1

The Process

n

n

n

Minimum of 30 subjects

Instruments must be valid and reliable

n

n

n

Lower validity and reliability requires larger samples

subject

Data analysis

n

Objectives 2.2 & 2.3

Correlation Coefficients

n

size and direction of a relationship

n

Size/magnitude

n

Direction

n

Positive or negative

Correlation Coefficients

n

n

General rule

n

n

n

Between .36 and .65 is a moderate correlation

Above .66 is a high correlation

Predictions

n

predictions

Above .80 is adequate for individual predictions

Objective 3.5

Correlation Coefficients

n

n

Criterion-related validity

n

n

Above .80 for tests is minimally acceptable

Inter-rater reliability

n

n

n

n

Between .80 and .89 is acceptable

Between .70 and .79 is minimally acceptable

Lower than .69 is problematic

Objective 3.5

Correlation Coefficients

n

n

Direction

n

Positive

n

Negative

n

scores on the criterion

Low scores on the predictor are associated with low

scores on the criterion

High scores on the predictor are associated with low

scores on the criterion

Low scores on the predictor are associated with high

scores on the criterion

Objective 3.3

Correlation Coefficients

n

correlations using the general rule

n

n

n

n

n

n

+.50 is a moderate positive correlation

+.20 is a low positive correlation

-.26 is a low negative correlation

-.49 is a moderate negative correlation

-.95 is a strong negative correlation

strongest, the first or last?

Objective 3.3 & 3.5

Correlation Coefficients

n

Scatterplots

Graphical presentations of correlations

n Example of predicting from an attitude

scale EX 1 to an achievement test

EX 2

n

horizontal axis

Criterion variable - EX 2 - is on the vertical

axis

Objective 3.4

An Example of a Scatterplot

50.00

Linear Regression

R-Square = 0.66

ex2

45.00

40.00

35.00

30.00

30.00

40.00

ex1

50.00

Objective 3.4

Correlation Coefficients

n

Common variance

n

Definition

n

n

Interpreted as the percentage of variance in the criterion

variable explained by the predictor variable

Computation

n

n

Examples

2

n If r = .50 then r = .25

n 25% of the variance in the criterion can be explained

by the predictor

2

n If r = .70 then r = .49

n 49% of the variance in the criterion can be explained

by the predictor

Objectives 3.6 & 3.7

Statistical Significance

n

Statistical significance

n

n

n

n

n

Is the correlation only the result of chance?

Consult a table of the critical values of r

See Table A.2 in Appendix A

n

n

n

.05 (5 chances out of 100)

.10 (10 chances out of 100)

Objectives 4.1 & 4.3

Statistical Significance

n

n

n

Large samples require lower correlations for significance

n

though they have little practical significance

n +.20

n

n

Little or no practical significance because it is very low and

predicts only .04 of the variation in the criterion scores

-.30

n

n

Little or no practical significance because it is low and predicts

only .09 of the variation in the criterion scores

Objectives 4.2 & 4.4

Relationship Studies

n

General purpose

n

variables relevant to educators

n

n

n

Achievement

Self-esteem

Self-concept

n

and effect between variables found to be related

Control for variables related to the dependent

variable in experimental studies

Objectives 5.1 & 5.2

n

n

n

n

n

n

n

Avoid the shotgun approach

n Possibility of erroneous relationships

n Issues related to determining statistical significance

Identify appropriate instruments for measuring each

variable

Collect data for each instrument from each subject

Compute the appropriate correlation coefficient

Objective 6.1

n

measurement level of the variables

n

n

variables

n

variables

n

Objectives 7.1, 7.2, & 7.3

n

Linear relationships

n

described by a straight line

n

n

Teacher efficacy and teacher effectiveness

Curvilinear relationships

n

by functions

n

n

Anxiety and achievement

Objectives 8.1, 8.2, & 8.3

1.0000

Linear Regression

R-Square = 0.80

fp

0.9000

0.8000

0.7000

30.00

40.00

50.00

ex1

Objective 8.4

LLR Smoother

100.00

score

75.00

50.00

25.00

0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

study

Objective 8.4

n

Sample size

n

a high correlation

Analysis of subgroups

n

n

n

gender represents a subgroup

Results across subgroups can be different because they

are being obscured by the analysis of the data for the

total sample

Reduces the size of the sample

Potentially reduces variation in the scores

Objective 9.1

n

Variation

The greater the variation in scores the

higher the likelihood of a strong correlation

n The lower the variation in scores the higher

the likelihood of a weak correlation

n

Attenuation

Correlation coefficients are lower when the

instruments being used have low reliability

n A correction for attenuation is available

n

Prediction Studies

n

relationships between or among

variables

The predictor variable is the variable from

which the researcher is predicting

n The criterion variable is the variable to

which the researcher is predicting

n

Prediction Studies

n

Three purposes

Facilitates decisions about individuals to

help a selection decision

n Tests variables believed to be good

predictors of a criterion

n Determines the predictive validity of an

instrument

n

Objective 11.1

Prediction Studies

n

n

criterion

n

n

Y = a + bX

r2

predictor and one criterion

n

n

r2 or the coefficient of determination

Objective 11.4

n

n

n

n

Identify appropriate instruments for measuring each

variable

n

n

n The multiple regression coefficient

n The multiple regression equation (i.e., the

prediction equation)

n

Issues of concern

Shrinkage the tendency of a prediction

equation to become less accurate when

used with a group other than the one on

which the equation was originally

developed

n Cross validation validation of a prediction

equation with another group of subjects to

identify problematic variables

n

Objective 11.3

n

n

reliability) diminish the accuracy of the prediction

Intervening variables can influence the predictive

process if there is too much time between

collecting the predictor and criterion variables

Criterion variables defined in general terms (e.g.,

teacher effectiveness, success in school) tend to

have lower prediction accuracy than those defined

very narrowly (e.g., overall GPA, test scores)

Objective 11.5

n

that is usually discussed in terms of two

variables

Relationship studies develop insight into the

relationships between several variables

n

the same time

relationships between or among variables

n

the criterion variable

Objectives 11.2 & 11.3

n

Path analysis

n

number of variables

Results in a diagram that indicates the specific

manner by which variables are related (i.e., paths)

and the strength of those relationships

An extension of this analysis is structural equation

modeling (SEM)

n

n

n

variables based on underlying theoretical constructs

More precise than path analysis

Often known as LISREL for the first computer program

used to conduct this analysis

Objective 13.1

n

Similar to multiple regression except that

the criterion variable is categorical

n Typically used to predict group

membership

n

n

n

Achievers or non-achievers

Objective 13.2

n

Cannonical correlation

n

than one predictor variable and more than one

criterion variable are used

Factor analysis

n

number of variables and group them into a smaller

number of clusters of similar variables called

factors

Objectives 13.3 & 13.4

A Checklist of Questions

n

n

n

used?

Is the validity and reliability of the

instruments acceptable?

Is there a restricted range of scores?

How large is the sample?

Statistical Assessment of

Relationships

Data

Are the data quantitative or nominal?

quantitative

nominal

variables?

No

Yes

Correlation Analysis:

variables?

No

Yes

Chi-Square Analysis:

Regression Analysis: R

Log-Linear Analysis

Logistic Regression

Scatterplot

College

GPA

4.0

the scores on the predictor variable

and the y axis represents the scores

on the outcome variable. A point is3.0

plotted for each individual at the

intersection of their scores.

2.0

Regression Line

1.0

of the points from the line are

minimized. (least square methods)

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

High School

GPA

Y

Y

Positive Linear

Negative Linear

Curvilinear

X

Y

Curvilinear

Independent

Coefficient

Calculation

Esteem 1 Esteem 2

1

4 (4-3)/0.8 =1.674

2

4

3

3

3

2

4

2

2

5

2

1

Mean

2.4

r = (Z

ZY )

N 1

[(4-3)(4-2.4)]2 + ...

[( X X )(Y Y )]

= [ ( X X ) ][ (Y Y )

(4-2.4)2 + ...

(4-3)2 + ...

4+4+3+2+2

4 x 4 + 4 x 3 + ...

=

Task 1: compute r

XY

( X )( Y )

N

4+3+2+2+1

5

2

2

&

#

&

#

(

)

(

)

X

Y

2

2

$ X

! $ Y

!

N

N

$%

!" $%

!"

4 x 4 + 4 x 4 + 3 x 3 ...

4 x 4 + 3 x 3 + 2 x 2 ...

Interpretation of r

-1< r <1

If the relationship between X and Y are positive:0 < r < 1

-1 < r < 0

If the relationship between X and Y are negative:

If p-value associated with the r is < .05

The variable X and Y are significantly correlate to each other.

Positively: 0 < r < 1, Negatively -1 < r < 0

If p-value associated with the r is >. 05

There is no significant correlation between X and Y

Reporting Correlations

r(Number of Participants) = Correlation Coefficient r, p < p value.

As predicted by the research hypothesis, the variable of optimism

and reported health behavior were (significantly) positively correlated

in the sample (the data), r(20) = .52, p < .01

Limitation

1. Cases in which the correlation between X and Y that have

curvilinier relationships

r=0

2. Cases in which the range of variables is restricted.

Example. SAT scores and college GPA Restriction of Range

3. Cases in which the data have outliers

r > |.99|

Limitation (visual)

Curviliniar

Small Range

Outlier

Yes

Northerner

No

45 (.225) 55 (.275)

Southerner

45 (.225) 55 (.275)

Row marginal X Column marginal

N

fe =

Task 2 computation 2

2 =

X=

( fo fe )2

f

e

+

+

+

22.5

27.5

22.5

27.5

Interpretation of 2

Go to Table E in Appendix E.

(Level of variable 1 - 1) X (Level of variable 2 -1)

Number of Participants

See the value at the intersection between Alpha p < .05 and df

If 2 is greater than the value in Table E, the contingency table

is significantly differ from the expectation.

If 2 is greater than the value in Table E, the contingency table

is not significantly differ from the expectation.

2 (degree of freedom (df), Number of Participants(N)) =

Chi value, p < p value

As predicted by the research hypothesis, the southerners were more

likely to approve of a policeman striking an adult male citizen who

was being questioned as a suspect in a murder case, 2(1, N =30) =

34.23, p < .01

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