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Chapter 1

Name
kusno
When born, Soekarno Kusno name given by his parents. [5] However,
because he was often sick five-year-old then when his name was changed to the
Soekarno by his father. [5] [7]: 35-36 The name comes from a warlord in the
story of Bharata Yudha namely Karna. [5] [7] The name "Karna" to "Karno"
because in Javanese letter "a" is changed to "o" while the prefix "su" means
"good". [7]

Later in the day when he became president, the spelling of the name
Sukarno Sukarno was replaced by himself into because he thinks these names
using spelling colonizers (Netherlands) [7]: 32. He still uses the name of Sukarno
in his signature because the signature is a signature that is listed in the text of
the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence should not be changed, but it is
not easy to change the signature after the age of 50 years [7]: 32. The term
familiar to Soekarno was Bung Karno.
In some Western countries, the name is sometimes written Sukarno
Achmed Sukarno. This happens because when Soekarno first visit to the United
States, a number of journalists to wonder, "Who's maiden name Sukarno?"
[Citation needed] because they do not understand the habits of most people in
Indonesia who only uses one name only or do not have a family name ,

Sukarno said that the name of Achmed got when pilgrimage. [8] In
another version, [citation needed] mentioned naming Achmed in front of
the name Sukarno, carried out by diplomats Muslim from Indonesia who
are conducting foreign missions in an effort to gain recognition Indonesian
sovereignty by Arab countries.

In the book Bung Karno mouthpiece Rakyat Indonesia (translation Syamsu


Hadi. Ed. Rev. 2011. Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo, and Bung Karno Foundation,
ISBN 979-911-032-7-9) page 32 explained that his name only "Sukarno" course ,
because in Indonesian society is not an unusual thing to have a name that
consists of the word.

Chapter 2
Life
Masa kecil dan remaja
Soekarno dilahirkan dengan seorang ayah yang bernama Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo dan
ibunya yaitu Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai.[5] Keduanya bertemu ketika Raden Soekemi yang merupakan
seorang guru ditempatkan di Sekolah Dasar Pribumi di Singaraja,Bali.[5] Nyoman Rai merupakan
keturunan bangsawan dari Bali dan beragama Hindu, sedangkan Raden Soekemi sendiri
beragama Islam.[5] Mereka telah memiliki seorang putri yang bernama Sukarmini sebelum
Soekarno

lahir.[9]:4-6,

247-251

Ketika

kecil

Soekarno

tinggal

bersama

kakeknya, Raden Hardjokromo di Tulung Agung, Jawa Timur.[5]

Ia bersekolah pertama kali di Tulung Agung hingga akhirnya ia pindah ke Mojokerto, mengikuti
orangtuanya yang ditugaskan di kota tersebut. [5] Di Mojokerto, ayahnya memasukan Soekarno
ke Eerste Inlandse School, sekolah tempat ia bekerja.[9]Kemudian pada Juni 1911 Soekarno
dipindahkan ke Europeesche Lagere School (ELS) untuk memudahkannya diterima diHogere
Burger School (HBS).[5] Pada tahun 1915, Soekarno telah menyelesaikan pendidikannya di ELS
dan berhasil melanjutkan ke HBS di Surabaya, Jawa Timur. [5] Ia dapat diterima di HBS atas
bantuan seorang kawan bapaknya yang bernamaH.O.S. Tjokroaminoto.[5] Tjokroaminoto bahkan
memberi tempat tinggal bagi Soekarno di pondokan kediamannya. [5] Di Surabaya, Soekarno
banyak bertemu dengan para pemimpin Sarekat Islam, organisasi yang dipimpin Tjokroaminoto
saat itu, seperti Alimin, Musso, Dharsono, Haji Agus

Salim, dan Abdul Muis.[5] Soekarno

kemudian aktif dalam kegiatan organisasi pemuda Tri Koro Dharmo yang dibentuk sebagai
organisasi dari Budi Utomo.[5] Nama organisasi tersebut kemudian ia ganti menjadi Jong
Java (Pemuda Jawa) pada 1918.[5] Selain itu, Soekarno juga aktif menulis di harian "Oetoesan
Hindia" yang dipimpin oleh Tjokroaminoto.[9]

Graduated HBS Soerabaja July 1921 [10], along with Djoko Asmo mates
forces at HBS, Sukarno continued to Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng (now
ITB) in Bandung majoring in civil engineering in 1921, [1]: 38 after two months
he leaving college, but in 1922 signed up back [1]: 38 and graduated in 1926.
[11] Sukarno passed the test engineer on May 25, 1926 and on Anniversary 6 TH
Bandung on July 3, 1926 he graduated together eight Twelve other engineers.
[1]: 37 Prof. Jacob Clay as chairman of the faculty at that time stating "Especially
important events for us because there are among them 3 engineers Javanese".
[1]: 37 They are Soekarno, Anwari, and Soetedjo, [12]: 167 in addition to the
existing one again from Minahasa namely Alexander Johannes Henricus Ondang.
[12]: 167

While in Bandung, Sukarno stayed at the residence of Haji Sanusi who is a


member of SI and sidekick Tjokroaminoto. [5] There he interacts with Ki Hajar
Dewantara, Cipto Mangunkusumo, and Dr. Douwes Dekker, who was then the
leader of the organization Indische Party.

As the architect
Bung Karno was the first president of Indonesia, also known as the
architect of the alumni of the Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng (now ITB) in
Bandung majoring in civil engineering and graduated in 1926. [note 3] [note 4]
[13]

Employment and Work in the Field


of Architecture
Ir. Sukarno in 1926 founded the firm together engineer Ir. Anwari, a lot of work on
the design of the building. Furthermore, together with Ir. Rooseno also design
and build houses and other types of buildings.
When discarded in Bengkulu took time to design several houses and
renovate a total mosque Jami 'in the city center. [14]
Against influence During his architectural work as President [Edit | edit
source]

President Soekarno reviewing the readiness of the Bung Karno so that


Indonesian people can be aligned with other nations.
During his tenure as president, there are some architectural works that
influenced or triggered by Sukarno. Also traveling in the marathon from May to
July in 1956 to the countries of USA, Canada, Italy, West Germany, and
Switzerland. Creating natural horizon thought Sukarno increasingly rich in
managing Indonesia holistically and displays them as a newly independent
country. [15]

Jakarta Soekarno aim as the face (face) Indonesia related to some


international activities held in the city, but also planning a city from the
beginning expected as the central government in the future. Some works are

affected by or at the behest of Sukarno and its coordination with several


architects such as Frederich Silaban and RM Soedarsono, assisted by some junior
architect for visualization. Some architectural design is also made through the
contest. [16]

Istiqlal mosque in 1951


National Monument in 1960
CONEFO building [16]
Sarinah building [16]
Wisma Nusantara [16]
Hotel Indonesia 1962 [17]
Welcome Monument [17]
West Irian Liberation Monument [17]
Dirgantara statue [17]
1955 Ir. Soekarno pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and as an architect,
Sukarno moved contributing architectural ideas to the government of Saudi
Arabia in order to make the building to perform sa'i be two lines in the two-storey
building. The Saudi Arabian government ended up doing the renovation Haram
massively in 1966, including the creation of raised floor for the people who carry
out sa'i into two paths and terraced floors to perform tawaf [13]
The draft scheme of Urban Spatial Palangkaraya, inaugurated in 1957 [13]
The period of the national movement [Edit | edit source]

Soekarno first became famous when he became a member of Jong Java


Surabaya branch in 1915. For Sukarno nature of the organization that is Javacentric and only think of culture alone is a challenge. In the annual plenary
meeting held Jong Java Surabaya branch Soekarno tumultuous session with a
speech using the Java language ngoko (rough). A month later he sparked heated
debate by suggesting that the newspaper Jong Java published in the Malay
language only, and not in Dutch. [18]

In 1926, Sukarno founded the General Study Club (ASC) [note 5] [20] in
Bandung, which is the result of inspiration from Indonesische Studie Club Dr.
Soetomo. [5] This organization became the forerunner of the National Party of
Indonesia was established in 1927. [11] Activity in PNI caused arrested Soekarno
Netherlands on December 29, 1929 in Yogyakarta and Bandung moved to the
next day, was thrown into prison for Banceuy. In 1930 he was transferred to the
court Landraad Sukamiskin and Bandung December 18th 1930 he read pledoi
phenomenal Indonesia Sues, until freed again on December 31, 1931.

In July 1932, Sukarno joined the Party of Indonesia (Partindo), which is a


fraction of the PNI. Sukarno was re-arrested in August 1933 and was exiled to
Flores. Here, Soekarno almost forgotten by national figures. But his spirit still
burning as implied in every letter to a teacher named Ahmad Hasan Islamic
Union.

In 1938 until 1942 Sukarno was exiled to Bengkulu Province.

Sukarno had returned free during the Japanese occupation in 1942.

During the Japanese occupation [Edit | edit source]


At the beginning of the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the Japanese
government had not noticed movement figures Indonesia mainly to "secure" its
presence in Indonesia. It looks at the movement of the characters 3A with
Shimizu and Mr. Shamsuddin were less popular.

But eventually, the Japanese occupation government attention and


simultaneously utilize Indonesian leaders such as Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta,
and others in any organizations and institutions to attract the hearts of the
Indonesian population. Mentioned in various organizations such as Java Hokokai,
the People Power Center (Son), BPUPKI and PPKI, prominent figures such as
Sukarno, Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantara, KH Mas Mansyur, and others mentioned and
look so active. And finally the national leaders to cooperate with the Japanese
occupation government to achieve the independence of Indonesia, although
some are forced underground as Sutan Sjahrir and Amir Syarifuddin because
they think Japan is a dangerous fascist.

President Sukarno, when reading the text of the opening speech before
the proclamation of independence, saying that even though we cooperate with
Japan in fact we believe and trust and rely on its own strength.

He was active in the preparations of Indonesia's independence, among


them is to formulate Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution, and the fundamental basis
of the Indonesian government, including formulating the text of the proclamation
of Independence. He was persuaded to step aside to Rengasdengklok.

In 1943, Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo invited the leaders Indonesia
Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta and Ki Bagus Hadikusumo to Japan and received by
Emperor Hirohito. Even emperors gave imperial star (Holy Ratna) to the three
Indonesian leaders. Star conferment it makes Japanese occupation government
was surprised, because it means that all three figures Indonesia was considered
the imperial family of Japan itself. In August 1945, he was invited by Marshal
Terauchi, the Army leadership in the Southeast Asia region Dalat Vietnam who
later stated that the proclamation of independence of Indonesia is the Indonesian
people themselves.

But his involvement in the bodies established by the Japanese


organization makes Sukarno was accused by the Netherlands in cooperation with
Japan, among others, in the case of romusha.

Revolutionary War period [Edit | edit source]

The living room Bung Karno safe house in Rengasdengklok.


Soekarno with national figures began to prepare ahead of the
proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia. After the trial

Committee for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence BPUPKI,


Committee for Small consisting of eight people (official), small committee
consisting of nine people / Committee of Nine (which resulted in the Jakarta
Charter) and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence PPKI,
Soekarno-Hatta establishing the State Indonesia based on Pancasila and the
1945 Constitution.

After seeing Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam, Rengasdengklok incident


happened on August 16, 1945; Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta persuaded by the
youth to go away to boarding Homeland Defense forces Rengasdengklok map.
Youth leaders who persuaded among others Soekarni, Wikana, Singgih and Saleh.
The youths demanded that Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed Indonesia's
independence soon, because in Indonesia occurred a power vacuum. This is
because the Japanese had surrendered and the Allied forces had not arrived. But
Sukarno, Hatta and leaders refused on the grounds waiting for clarity regarding
the surrender of Japan. Another reason is the growing Soekarno right moment to
establish the independence of Indonesia was chosen on 17 August 1945 when it
coincided with Ramadan, the Muslim holy month which is believed to be the
revelation of the first month of the Muslims to the Prophet Muhammad, Al
Qur'an. On August 18, 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta PPKI be appointed
by the President and the Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia. On August
29, 1945 the appointment of the president and vice president be confirmed by
KNIP. On September 19, 1945 Sukarno authority can resolve without bloodshed
events Ikada Stadium where 200,000 people of Jakarta will clash with Japanese
troops were still armed.

On arrival the Allied (AFNEI) led by Lieutenant General. Sir Philip


Christison, Christison finally recognized de facto Indonesian sovereignty after a
meeting with the President. President Soekarno was also trying to solve the crisis
in Surabaya. However, due to the provocations launched troops NICA
(Netherlands) bum Allies (under the UK), burst Event 10 November 1945 in
Surabaya and the death of Brigadier General AWS Mallaby.

Because a lot of provocation in Jakarta at the time, the President finally


move the capital of the Republic of Indonesia from Jakarta to Yogyakarta.
Followed by the vice president and other senior state officials.

President Sukarno and Nikita Khruschev in a meeting of Heads of State


were full of warmth
The position of the President under the 1945 Constitution is the position of
the President as the head of government and head of state (presidential / single
executive). During the revolution, the government system turns into a double
semi-presidential or executive. President Sukarno as Head of State and Sutan
Sjahrir as Prime Minister / Head of Government. It happened because of the vice
president's edict No. X, and a government edict in November 1945 on political
parties. It is taken to the Republic of Indonesia is considered a more democratic
country.

Although the system of government changed, at the time of the


revolution, the position of the President remains the most important, especially
in the face of Madiun in 1948 and when the Dutch Military Aggression II that led
to the President, Vice President Mohammad Hatta and a number of state officials
arrested the Netherlands. Although the existing Emergency Government of the
Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) with chairman Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, but in
reality the international and domestic situation still acknowledge that SoekarnoHatta is the real leader of Indonesia, only policies that can resolve the dispute
between Indonesia and the Netherlands.

Independence period [Edit | edit source]

Sukarno and Tito

President Sukarno's visit to the United States in 1961 was warmly


welcomed by the President John F. Kennedy

President Sukarno, President Osvaldo Dorticos, Fidel Castro and Che


Guevara, on May 9, 1960, a state visit to Havana, Cuba

Sukarno spoke with Mao Tse-Tung, November 24, 1956, Beijing, China

President Soekarno shook Soviet Prime Minister Nikita Khruschev when it


comes to ready the feast in New York, United States.
After Sovereignty Recognition (Dutch Government mentions as delivery of
Sovereignty), President Soekarno was appointed as the President of the Republic
of Indonesia (RIS) and Mohammad Hatta was appointed as prime minister of RIS.
The office of President of the Republic of Indonesia handed over to Mr Assaat,
which became known as Java-Yogya RI. However, because of the demands of all
Indonesian people who want to return to a unitary state, then on August 17,
1950, RIS again changed to the Republic of Indonesia and the President became
President. Mr Assaat mandate as acting President handed back to Ir. Sukarno.
The official position of the President is the constitutional president, but in fact
government policy made after consulting him.

Myth Dwitunggal Soekarno-Hatta quite popular and stronger among the


masses than to the heads of government of the prime minister. The rise and fall
of the cabinet known as the "cabinet whole corn" makes the President less
trusting multiparty system, even called it a "disease of the party". Not
infrequently, he also intervene to mediate conflicts in a military body which also
affected the rise and fall of the cabinet. October 17, 1952 such events and
events in the Air Force.

President Sukarno also provides many ideas in the international world.


Concern over the fate of the peoples of Asia and Africa, are still not free, not
have the right to determine their own fate, causing the president Sukarno, in
1955, took the initiative to hold the Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung, which

produces Ten Principles of Bandung. Known as the Bandung Asian-African Capital.


Inequality and conflict as a result of a "time bomb" left by western countries who
stamped still concerned with imperialism and colonialism, inequality and fears of
the emergence of a nuclear war that changed civilization, injustice international
agencies in the settlement of the conflict is also a concern. Together with
President Tito (Yugoslavia), Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt), Mohammad Ali Jinnah
(Pakistan), U Nu, (Burma) and Jawaharlal Nehru (India) he held Asian-African
Conference which led to the Non-Aligned Movement. Thanks to its services,
many Asian and African countries that gained independence. But unfortunately,
there are still many who experience prolonged conflict until today because of
injustice in problem solving, which is still controlled by powerful countries or
superpowers. Thanks to this addition, many residents of the region of Africa that
does not forget the Soekarno when remembered or knew would be Indonesia.
[Citation needed]

In order to carry out an independent foreign policy-active in the


international world, the President visited many countries and met with leaders of
the country. Among them was Nikita Khruschev (USSR), John Fitzgerald Kennedy
(USA), Fidel Castro (Cuba), Mao Tse Tung (PRC).

Marabahaya period [Edit | edit source]

Being one of the leading countries in Asia and Africa are called anticapitalism, neo-colonialism, and independence is certainly not a simple matter.
Excesses many assassination attempts against Sukarno, and only seven

assassination attempts that can be remembered in the years of loyal bodyguards


vivere pericoloso or The year of living dangerously --meminjam phrase a movie
starring Mel Gibson with background Jakarta 1965

President Soekarno was accompanied by Lt. TNI Maulwi Saelan during the
inauguration of the Bung Karno Stadium and GANEFO opening in 1962.
Sukarno, Indonesia's first president, at least once suffered an
assassination attempt more than one occasion, his daughter, Megawati
Soekarnoputri never mentions the number 23. "I want to take a concrete
example, the President suffered attempted murder of the name of the new level
until the execution plan (as much) 23 times, "said Mega in July 2009. Meanwhile,
the smaller number out of the mouth Sudarto Danusubroto. He presidential aide
in the final period of Sukarno. Sudarto never said there 7 times the assassination
attempt against Sukarno. This number is never shared by the former Deputy
Commander Tjakrabirawa, Colonel Maulwi Saelan. But former bodyguard, only
able to remember 7 attempts attempted murder. [21]

Grenade Cikini [Edit | edit source]


On November 30, 1957, the President came to College Cikini (Percik),
where their children go to school, to celebrate the 15th anniversary Percik.
Grenade suddenly exploded in the middle of the welcoming party president. Nine
people were killed, 100 people were injured, including the presidential guard.
Sukarno himself along with her son and daughter survived. Three people were
arrested as a result of the incident. They overseas from Bima alleged terror
stooges motion DI / TII. [21]

Shooting the Presidential Palace [Edit | edit source]


On March 9, 1960, the Right daylight stomping presidential palace by an
explosion coming from 23 mm cannon fire Mig-17 aircraft piloted by Daniel
Maukar. Maukar is Lt. AU who have been affected Permesta. Canon imposed
Maukar hit a pillar and one of them fell not far from the workbench Soekarno.
Fortunately Sukarno was not there. Sukarno was leading a meeting in the
building next to the Presidential Palace. (Maukar himself denied he tried to kill
Sukarno. The action is just a warning. Before shooting the Presidential Palace, he
was sure did not see the yellow flag was hoisted at the palace - the president
sign in the Palace). This action makes 'Tiger', call sign Maukar, have languished
in jail for 8 years. [21]

Rajamandala interception [Edit | edit source]


In April 1960, Prime Minister of the Soviet Union at the time, Nikita
Khrushchev a state visit to Indonesia. He took time to visit Bandung, Yogyakarta
and Bali. President Soekarno accompany to West Java. When, up in the Bridge
Rajamandala, turns a group of DI / TII deterrence. Lucky presidential guards
swiftly passed the two leaders of the world. [21]

Grenade Makassar [Edit | edit source]


On January 7, 1962, the President was in Makassar. That evening, he will
attend an event at the House of Sport Mattoangin. It was then that, as it passes
through the bird of paradise, someone threw a grenade. The grenade missed, fell

on another car. Sukarno survived. The culprit Sergeant Marcus Latuperissa and
Ida Bagus Surya Tenaya sentenced to death. [21]

Shooting Eid [Edit | edit source]


On May 14, 1962, Bachrum very happy when managed to get seated in
the front ranks in the assembly line of Eid al-Adha prayers at the mosque
Baiturahim. When he saw Sukarno, he drew a pistol hidden under his jacket, and
then directed to the body's muzzle Soekarno. In a fraction of a second when it hit
me, the direction was off, and the bullet missed Soekarno body, grazed House
Speaker GR KH Zainul Arifin. Haji Bachrum sentenced to death, but then he got a
pardon. [21]

Mortars shooting Kahar Muzakar [Edit | edit source]


In the 1960s, President Sukarno in working visit to Sulawesi. While on his
way out of Airfield Mandai, a mortar round fired subordinates Muzakkar Kahar.
Bung Karno at her vehicle, but was missed by far. Sukarno once again,
congratulations. [21]

Grenade Cimanggis [Edit | edit source]


At December 1964, the President in the course of Bogor to Jakarta.
Entourage formed a convoy of vehicles. In the vehicle speed slowly, eyes
Sukarno had bersirobok with an unidentified man on a roadside. Soekarno feeling
less comfortable. Sure enough, the man threw a grenade towards the president's

car. Luckily, the distance pelemparannya already beyond the reach of an


oncoming car. Sukarno was saved. [21]

Character assassination [edit | edit source]

Ceremony commemorating the 21st anniversary of the Proclamation of


Independence August 17, 1966 at page Merdeka Palace in Jakarta. Speech of the
President at the ceremony titled Never Occasionally Leaving History (JASMERAH).

President Soekarno and Dr.J. Leimena sang along with the artists at the
reception of the 21st Anniversary of the Proclamation of Independence at the
Bogor Palace.
1950s and 1960s, American Central Intelligence Agency through
perpanjangtanganannya never cease trying to interfere in each others affairs of
state. In Indonesia, in addition to event discovery mission Allen Pope, there is
also a secret mission that aims to kill the character and authority of the President
through popular media agitation and propaganda via the production of
pornographic films are played by actors who resemble Sukarno. The goal of this
smear campaign is to change the perception of the international community
against Sukarno's anti-capitalism and admire the Eve but subject helpless under
the control of Russian agents. [22] [23]

"That success inspired CIA officials to make a step further. They intend to
produce pornographic films Soekarno with a blonde woman who made as if

stewardess Russian," wrote Blum cites the recognition of former CIA agent,
Joseph Burkholder Smith, who wrote a book Portrait of a Cold Warrior. Los
Angeles Police Chief to intervene looking for a dark-skinned man who bit bald
and beautiful blonde woman. There's nothing like Sukarno, the CIA made a
special mask-like Sukarno then sent to Los Angeles. Porn star Soekarno asked to
wear a mask during the sordid scenes. CIA record and take photographs of the
scene of the blue. [22]

According to J. Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison in Feet to the Fire: CIA
Covert Operations in Indonesia, 1957-1958, pornographic film was done in
Hollywood studio operated Bing Crosby and his brother. This film was intended to
fuel accusations that Sukarno (played male Chicano) embarrass themselves by
screwing Soviet agent (played by blonde Caucasian women) posing as airline
stewardess. "This project resulted in at least some of the photos, though
apparently never used," wrote William Blum in Killing Hope: US Military and CIA
Interventions Since World War II. [23]

But the pictures were finally not be disseminated. Many versions of why
the CIA canceled spreading nasty scene. Most researchers assessed the
campaign as black as it is not immune to overthrow Sukarno. Moreover, there is
a myth that believes if a man stout and powerful, legitimate contact with many
women. After all the kings of the archipelago also used to have many wives and
concubines. [22] "The fate of the end of the film, entitled Happy Days, was never
reported." [23]

Embargo period superpower [Edit | edit source]

Zhou Enlai, President Sukarno, and Kawashima during the 10th


anniversary year Asian-African Conference in Bandung on 19 April 1965.
In pre and post independence, Indonesia pinched on two blocks of a
superpower with ideologies that contradict each other. Capitalist bloc led by the
United States and allies on the one hand, and the left block contested between
Russia and China axis. Americans do policy embargo against Indonesia since
Sukarno assess trends close to the rival bloc. America can not move slightly
when Allen Lawrence Pope, the Central Intelligence Agency agents caught redhanded. Bargain arrest Allen Pope, the United States finally settled the economic
embargo and inject funds into Indonesia, including poured 37 thousand tons of
rice and hundreds of weapons needed by Indonesia at the time after the highlevel diplomacy between John F. Kennedy with Sukarno. [24] While Russians
applying military embargo against Indonesia as genocide against leftist
elements, the Indonesian Communist Party in 1965-1967. [25] Indonesia itself
sandwiched between geopolitics of Southeast Asia, Malaysia is considered
Sukarno is a British puppet state, also Singapore breakaway as the new state on
August 9, 1965. Sukarno declared a confrontational attitude towards the
formation of the Malaysian federation in January 1963. So in 1964 -1965
federation of Malaysia declared 16 September 1963 the embargoed Sukarno.
[26] Singapore opened the tap cooperation and strive by all means to maintain
trade with Indonesia despite having boycotted and embargoed. It is considered
detrimental to the economic aspects of Singapore as a result of the
confrontation. [27]

Deterioration period [Edit | edit source]

Sukarno and Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai Bandung greet residents
use the car in the skin of the face TEMPO Special Edition 60 Years of AsianAfrican Conference (Bandung 1955)

After the events Supersemar, President Sukarno and Soeharto invited


Japanese Emperor's Birthday Reception at the residence of the Ambassador of
Japan, 29 April 1966.
Indonesia's political situation became uncertain after six generals were
killed in the events known as the September 30th Movement, or G30S in 1965.
[11] [28] The real culprit of these events is controversial although PKI accused of
being involved in it. [11] Then the mass from WE (Indonesian Student Action
Union) and KAPI (Student Action Unit Indonesia) held a demonstration and deliver
Tri People's Demands (Tritura) which one it requested that the CPI was
disbanded. [28] However, Sukarno refused to disband PKI because it is contrary
to the view Nasakom (Nationalism, Religion, Communism). [6] [28] The attitude
of Sukarno, who refused to disperse PKI then weaken his position in politics. [6]
[11]

Five months later, was issued supersemar signed by Sukarno. [28] The
content of the letter is a command to Lieutenant-General Suharto to take the
measures necessary to maintain the security of government and personal safety
of the president. [28] The letter is then used by Soeharto who has been
appointed commander of the Army to disband PKI and declare it as a banned

terrorist organization. [28] Then MPRS also issued two statutes, namely TAP No.
IX / 1966 on inaugural Supersemar be MPRS TAP and TAP No. XV / 1966 which
gives assurance to Soeharto as the holder at any time Supersemar to become
president when the president is absent. [29]

President Sukarno and Dewi Sukarno either by the Ambassador of Japan in


the Japanese Emperor's Birthday celebration on 29 April 1966.

Sukarno declared that supersemar to Suharto is a power of attorney,


among others, to secure the situation and security conditions, maintain the
authority of the president, not the letter of transfer of power
Sukarno then bring accountability statement regarding his attitude
towards G30S at the Fourth General Assembly MPRS. [28] The speech, entitled
"Nawaksara" and was read on June 22, 1966. [6] MPRS then asked Sukarno to
complement the speech. [28] Speech "Complementary Nawaskara" was
delivered by Soekarno on January 10, 1967 but was later rejected by MPRS on
February 16 the same year. [28]

Finally on February 20, 1967 Sukarno signed a Statement of Delivery of


power at the presidential palace. [29] With the signing of the letter then Suharto
became the de facto head of the government of Indonesia. [29] After the Special
Session of the MPRS also revoke the power of President Sukarno, revoke the title

Leader Revolution and appointed Soeharto as President until the next general
election is held. [29]

Sick to death [Edit | edit source]

The Son Funeral Dawn, Sukarno, on June 22, 1970, Blitar, East Java

Tomb of President Sukarno in Blitar, East Java.


Soekarno health has begun to decline since August 1965. [29] Previously,
it has been declared a kidney disorder and had undergone treatment in Vienna,
Austria in 1961 and 1964. [29] Prof. Dr. K. Fellinger of the Faculty of Medicine,
University of Vienna suggested that Sukarno left kidney removed, but he rejected
it in favor of traditional medicine. [29] He survived for 5 years before it finally
died on Sunday, June 21, 1970 at Army Hospital (Hospital Central Army ) Gatot
Subroto, Jakarta status as political prisoners. [5] [29] The body of Sukarno was
transferred from the army hospital to Wisma Yasso owned by Ratna Sari Dewi.
[29] Before declared dead, a routine inspection of Sukarno was performed by Dr.
Mahar Mardjono which is a member of the presidential medical team. [29] A
short time later was issued a medical communique signed by the Chairman Prof.
Dr. Mahar Mardjono along with Vice Chairman Major General Dr. (Army) Rubiono
Kertopati. [29]

The medical communique stated as follows: [29]

On Saturday, June 20, 1970 20:30 Ir health conditions. Sukarno


deteriorated and awareness gradually declined.
Dated June 21, 1970 03:50 o'clock in the morning, Ir. Soekarno
unconscious and then at 07.00 Ir. Sukarno died.
The team of doctors is continuously trying to overcome the critical
situation Ir. Soekarno until death.
Although Sukarno never requested that he be buried in the Palace Slate,
Bogor, but the administration of President Soeharto choose Blitar, East Java, as
the burial place of Sukarno. [29] It is determined through Presidential Decree No.
44 in 1970. [29] The bodies were taken to Blitar Soekarno day after his death and
was buried the next morning next to his mother's grave. [29] The funeral
Sukarno led by Armed Forces Chief General M. Panggabean as inspector of the
ceremony. [29] The government then set the mourning period for seven days.
[29]

Heritage [Edit | edit source]

Bung Karno Stadium in 1962.


In order to commemorate 100 years of the birth of Sukarno on June 6th,
2001, the Jakarta Philatelic Office issuing stamps "100 Years of Bung Karno." [9]:
247-251 Stamps issued a four stamps background flag and displays a picture of
yourself Soekarno when young to be President of the Republic of Indonesia. [9]
The first stamp has a nominal value of 500 and a portrait of Sukarno during high

school. The second picture is worth Rp800 and Sukarno when he was in college
in the 1920s emblazoned on it. Meanwhile, the third stamp has a nominal 900 as
well as the photo shows Sukarno when the proclamation of independence of
Indonesia. Stamp the latter has a picture of Sukarno when he became President
and bernominal Rp1000. The fourth stamp was designed by Heri Purnomo and
printed as many as 2.5 million sets by Peruri. [9] In addition to stamps, philately
division of PT Pos Indonesia also publishes five kinds of packaging stamps, stamp
collection album, four types of postcards, two kinds of posters Bung Karno and
Bung Karno three jerseys designs. [9]

Stamps featuring Soekarno also published by the Cuban government on


June 19, 2008. The stamps featuring images of Sukarno and Cuban president
Fidel Castro. [30] Publishing coincided with the 80th anniversary of Fidel Castro
and warnings visit of President of Indonesia, Sukarno, Cuba ,

Name Soekarno been immortalized as the name of a sports arena in 1958.


The building, which Bung Karno Stadium, was established as a means purposes
of the Asian Games IV in 1962 in Jakarta. During the New Order, the sports
complex was renamed Senayan Stadium. But according to the decision of
President Abdurrahman Wahid, Senayan Stadium back to its original name of
Bung Karno Stadium. This is done in order to commemorate the services of Bung
Karno. [31]

After his death, several foundations were made on behalf of Sukarno. Two
of them are Soekarno and Education Foundation Bung Karno Foundation. Sukarno

Educational Foundation is the organization that sparked the idea to build a


university with the understanding that taught Bung Karno. The foundation is led
by Rachmawati Sukarnoputri, Sukarno's third child and Fatmawati. In June 25,
1999 President Jusuf Habibie Bacharuddin formalize the Bung Karno University
officially forward thinking Bung Karno, Nation and Character Building to his
students. [32]

Meanwhile, Bung Karno Foundation has a goal to collect and preserve


objects of art and nonseni belongs Soekarno scattered in various regions in
Indonesia. [33] The Foundation was established on June 1, 1978 by the eight
sons and daughters of Sukarno namely Guntur Soekarnoputra, Megawati
Soekarnoputri, rachmawati soekarnoputri, Sukmawati Soekarnoputri, thunder
Soekarnoputra, Typhoon Soekarnoputra, Bayu Soekarnoputra, and Kartika Sari
Dewi Sukarno. [33] In 2003, the Bung Karno Foundation booth at Jakarta Fair
Arena. [9] In its booth featured a video speech Soekarno titled "Indonesia Sues"
delivered at the House Landraad 1930 as well as photographs during the
Sukarno becomes president. [9] In addition to showing videos and photos,
various souvenirs Soekarno sold at its booth. [9] Among these are the socks, gold
watch, gold coins, CDs containing speeches of Sukarno, as well as postcards of
Sukarno. [9]

Between dialectic and praxis in the turmoil of the revolution distress


Sukarno had devoted whole-body and soul to Mother Earth

Someone named Soenuso Goroyo Sukarno claims to have property


inheritance Sukarno. [9] Soenuso claimed a former sergeant of Battalion Air
Defense Artillery Medium. [9] He never shows objects that are considered as
heritage Sukarno told reporters at his home in Cullinan , Bogor. [9] These objects
include a slab of yellow gold of pure 24 carat registered in the register of gold JM
London, white gold with a stamp horseshoe JM Mathey London and placards
metal yellow with the words old spelling form of deposits grants. [ 9] In addition,
there is also money UBCN (Brazil) and Yugoslavia as well as certificates of
deposit guaranty bonds at Bank of Switzerland and the Netherlands Bank. [9]
Although gold is shown by Soenuso certified but no experts that ensure the
authenticity of the gold. [34]

Award [Edit | edit source]