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Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge)

Chapter 12 Basic Approaches to Leadership


1) John Kotter's view argues that management focuses on coping with complexity, whereas
leadership focuses on coping with ________.
A) conflict
B) success
C) defeat
D) morale
E) change
Answer: E
Explanation: Management, according to John Kotter of the Harvard Business School, pertains to
coping with complexity. By drawing up formal plans, designing rigid organizational structures,
and monitoring results against these plans, good managers create order and maintain consistency.
In contrast, Kotter defines leadership as the ability to deal effectively with change. When leaders
develop a vision of the future, they establish a new direction by bringing people together and
inspiring them to overcome obstacles.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 376
Topic: What Is Leadership?
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Management and Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1
2) Leadership is best defined as ________.
A) the ability to influence a group in goal achievement
B) keeping order and consistency in the midst of change
C) implementing the vision and strategy provided by management
D) coordinating and staffing the organization and handling day-to-day problems
E) not a relevant variable in modern organizations
Answer: A
Explanation: Leadership is defined as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of
a vision or set of goals. Management, on the other hand, relates primarily to maintaining order
and consistency. Good leaders establish a vision and inspire others to follow a new direction to
achieve these goals.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 376
Topic: What Is Leadership?
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

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3) Which of the following statements regarding leadership is true?


A) All leaders are managers.
B) Formal rights enable managers to lead effectively.
C) All managers are leaders.
D) All leaders are hierarchically superior to followers.
E) Nonsanctioned leadership is as important as or more important than formal influence.
Answer: E
Explanation: Although some leaders emerge after rising through the ranks of an organization,
many others result from nonsanctioned leadershipthe ability to influence that arises outside the
formal structure of the organization. Nonsanctioned leadership is often as important or more
important than formal influence. Not all gifted leaders are competent managers, and not all great
managers are inspired leaders. Formal appointment to a leadership position does not guarantee
effective leadership.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 377
Topic: What Is Leadership?
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Leadership
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 1
4) Which theory differentiates leaders from nonleaders by focusing on personal qualities and
characteristics?
A) Fiedler's perspective
B) characteristic theory
C) LPC
D) contingency theory
E) trait theory
Answer: E
Explanation: Trait theory focuses on personal qualities and characteristics. Researchers study
personal, social, physical, or intellectual qualities possessed by great leaders that distinguish
them from nonleaders. Many strong leaders throughout history, including Buddha, Napoleon,
Mao, Churchill, Roosevelt, and Reagan have been described in terms of their traits, and the
earliest stages of leadership research sought to uncover unique sets of traits exemplified by great
leaders.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 377
Topic: Trait Theories
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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5) According to a comprehensive review of the leadership literature, what is the most important
trait of effective leaders?
A) conscientiousness
B) openness
C) extraversion
D) agreeableness
E) emotional stability
Answer: C
Explanation: Years of accumulated research pertaining to trait theory has found extraversion to
be the most important trait possessed by strong leaders. Extraversion is strongly related to leader
emergence, although it does not necessarily predict leader effectiveness. Sociable and dominant
people are more likely to assert themselves in group situations, and leaders who like being
around people and are able to assert themselves have an apparent advantage over those who are
more introverted.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 378
Topic: Trait Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2
6) Recent studies indicate that ________ may indicate effective leadership.
A) an endless supply of terrific ideas
B) a compelling vision
C) a highly analytical mind
D) outstanding training
E) emotional intelligence
Answer: E
Explanation: Emotional intelligence (EI) is vital to effective leadership because leaders who
possess emotional intelligence also have empathy for their followers. Empathetic leaders are
better at listening to others and can sense their needs and read their reactions. These qualities are
increasingly important as a potential leader moves up within an organization.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 378
Topic: Trait Theories
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Emotional Intelligence and Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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7) Emotional intelligence is so critical to effective leadership because one of its core components
is ________.
A) conscientiousness
B) empathy
C) openness
D) extroversion
E) agreeableness
Answer: B
Explanation: When leaders show empathy, caring about their followers and the obstacles they
may face, these leaders are often rewarded with greater loyalty. Empathetic leaders are better
able to listen to their followers, gain a sense of their needs, and anticipate their reactions in
advance. Followers of an empathetic leader are more willing to stay with him or her during
turbulent times.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 378
Topic: Trait Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2
8) There is fairly strong evidence that traits can predict ________ more accurately than
leadership effectiveness.
A) leadership emergence
B) extroversion in leaders
C) leadership awareness
D) leadership competence
E) the conscientiousness of leaders
Answer: A
Explanation: Generally speaking, traits can be used to predict leadership propensity. However,
current studies have concluded that trait research does a better job predicting leader emergence
than leader effectiveness. Although a potential leader may possess an ideal set of traits, he or she
may not be successful at directing others to achieve goals.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 378
Topic: Trait Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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9) If trait theories of leadership are valid, then leaders are ________.


A) trained
B) born
C) authoritarian
D) educated
E) grown
Answer: B
Explanation: Trait theories of leadership focus on personal, social, physical, or intellectual
attributes possessed by great leaders. These attributes, or traits, are innate and present at birth.
Proponents of trait theories of leadership argue that possession of these particular traits
determines who will become a strong leader.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 377-378
Topic: Trait Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2
10) If behavioral leadership theories are correct, then ________.
A) leadership behaviors are consistent
B) leaders are born with leadership behaviors
C) leaders' behavior should be altered
D) leadership can be taught
E) women generally make better leaders than men
Answer: D
Explanation: Behavioral studies of leadership investigate how great leaders act or behave. Strong
leaders seem to exhibit structuring behaviors, defining roles in the search for goal attainment, or
considering behaviors, forming relationships which center on mutual trust and respect. If these
successful leadership behaviors can be learned, then behavioral theory suggests that people may
be taught to be great leaders.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Behavioral Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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11) The two dimensions of leadership behavior explained in the Ohio State studies are
________.
A) coercion and motivation
B) concern for people and concern for production
C) employee-oriented and production-oriented
D) initiating structure and consideration
E) operant conditioning and classical conditioning
Answer: D
Explanation: Seeking to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior, the Ohio State
Studies determined that two dimensions accounted for most effective leadership behavior:
initiating structure and consideration. Initiating structure is the extent to which leaders are likely
to define and structure their roles and those of their employees in the search for goal attainment.
Consideration is the extent to which a leader's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust,
respect for employees ideas, and regard for their feelings.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Ohio State Studies
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3
12) A leader high in initiating structure would do which of the following?
A) seek consensus
B) exhibit laissez- faire type of leadership
C) maximize leader- member relations
D) assign group members to particular tasks
E) empower employees to make their own decisions
Answer: D
Explanation: Initiating structure is the extent to which leaders define and structure their roles and
the roles of their employees in the search for goal attainment. It includes behavior that attempts
to organize work, relationships, and goals. A leader who assigns group members to particular
tasks, expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance, and emphasizes the
meeting of deadlines would be considered high in initiating structure. Leaders who display high
initiating structure tend to enjoy higher levels of group and organizational productivity and more
positive performance evaluations.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Initiating Structure
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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13) According to the Ohio State studies, the extent to which a leader is likely to have job
relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for his/her employees is ________.
A) consideration
B) matrix
C) consensus-building
D) LPC
E) maximization
Answer: A
Explanation: In behavioral leadership theory, consideration is defined as the exte nt to which a
person's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees ideas, and
regard for their feelings. A leader high in consideration helps employees with personal problems,
is friendly and approachable, treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and
support. In recent studies, followers of leaders high in consideration were more satisfied with
their jobs, more motivated to complete tasks, and had more respect for their leaders.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Consideration
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3
14) The two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan studies
are ________.
A) coercion and motivation
B) emotional and rational
C) employee-oriented and production-oriented
D) initiating structure and consideration
E) initiation and completion
Answer: C
Explanation: Leadership studies at the University of Michigans Survey Research Center found
two important behavioral characteristics displayed by effective leaders. These two behavioral
dimensions pointed to employee-oriented leaders and production-oriented leaders. Employeeoriented leaders emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking a personal interest in the needs
of their employees and accepting individual differences among them. In contrast, productionoriented leaders emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job, focusing on accomplishing
their groups tasks.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: University of Michigan Studies
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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15) The University of Michigan studies define a(n) ________ leader as one who takes a personal
interest in the needs of his/her subordinates.
A) LMX
B) contextual
C) employee-oriented
D) consensus-building
E) consummate
Answer: C
Explanation: The University of Michigan Studies emphasized two behavioral dimensions
common to successful leaders: employee-oriented leaders and production-oriented leaders.
Employee-oriented leaders develop strong interpersonal relationships by taking a personal
interest in the needs of their employees and accepting their individual differences. Employeeoriented leadership is closely related to consideration, the effective leadership dimension
proposed by the Ohio State Studies.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Employee-Oriented Leaders
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3
16) If a leader's main concern is accomplishing his/her group's tasks, the University of Michigan
studies label this leader ________.
A) consideration-oriented
B) managerial
C) ineffective
D) high achieving
E) production-oriented
Answer: E
Explanation: The University of Michigan Studies emphasized two behavioral dimensions
common to successful leaders: employee-oriented leaders and production-oriented leaders.
Production-oriented leaders emphasize the technical or task completion aspects of the job,
focusing on the accomplishment of goals. Production-oriented leadership is closely related to
initiating structure, the effective leadership dimension proposed by the Ohio State Studies.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Production-Oriented Leaders
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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17) All contingency theories are based on the idea that effective leadership performance depends
on ________.
A) the proper match between the leader's style and the control the situation gives the leader
B) selecting the right leadership style based on the level of the followers' readiness
C) using a leadership style that is appropriate to the situational conditions
D) making use of the best path for the goal that is identified
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Explanation: Numerous studies have shown that predicting leadership success is more complex
than isolating a few traits or behaviors, since leadership styles that are effective in ver y bad times
or in very good times do not necessarily translate into long-term success. This idea led
researchers to change their focus from trait and behavior theories to situational influences on
leadership styles, also known as contingency theory.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 381
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Contingency Models
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
18) The first comprehensive contingency model for lead ership was developed by ________.
A) Hersey and Blanchard
B) Blake and Mouton
C) Fred Fiedler
D) John Kotter
E) Douglas Surber
Answer: C
Explanation: The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by Fred
Fiedler. Fiedler believes that a key factor in leadership success is the individuals basic
leadership style. According to the Fiedler contingency model, effective group performance
depends on the proper match between the leaders style and the degree to which the situation
gives the leader control.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 381-382
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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19) Which model represents the theory that effective group performance depends on the proper
match between a leader's style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader?
A) Leader-Member Exchange Model
B) Fiedler's Contingency Model
C) Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model
D) Vroom and Yetton's Leader-Participation Model
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Explanation: According to Fiedler's Contingency Model, the key factor predicting leadership
success is the individuals basic leadership style. Since Fiedler assumes an individuals
leadership style is fixed, effective group performance depends on the proper match between the
leaders style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control. If a situation requires
a task-oriented leader, for example, and the person in the leadership position is relationship
oriented, either the situation has to be modified or the leader has to be replaced.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 381
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
20) Who developed the LPC (least preferred co-worker) questionnaire?
A) Wachner
B) Fiedler
C) House
D) Blake and Mouton
E) Surber
Answer: B
Explanation: Fiedler believes a key factor in leadership success is the individuals basic
leadership style, and he created the least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire to identify that
style. The LPC questionnaire measures whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented by
asking respondents to think of all the coworkers they have ever had and describe the one person
they least enjoyed working with. Respondents then rate that person on a scale of 1 to 8 for each
of 16 sets of contrasting adjectives. If you describe the person you are least able to work with in
favorable terms (a high LPC score), Fiedler would label you relationship-oriented. In contrast, if
you see your least-preferred coworker in relatively unfavorable terms (a low LPC score), you are
primarily interested in productivity and are task-oriented.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 381-382
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Least Preferred Coworker
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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21) In Fiedler's model, if a respondent describes his or her least preferred co-worker in relatively
positive terms, then the respondent is considered to be ________.
A) relationship-oriented
B) people-oriented
C) consensus-building
D) consideration- focused
E) unrealistic
Answer: A
Explanation: Fiedler's least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire measures whether a person
is task- or relationship-oriented by asking respondents to rate their least favorite coworker. If
respondents describe their least favorite coworker in favorable terms (a high LPC score), they are
probably relationship-oriented. In contrast, respondents who describe their least-preferred
coworker in unfavorable terms (a low LPC score) are viewed as primarily interested in
productivity and as being task-oriented.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 382
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Least Preferred Coworker
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
22) If a survey respondent sees his or her least preferred co-worker in unfavorable terms, Fiedler
would categorize the respondent as ________.
A) overly critical
B) task-oriented
C) emotionally deficient
D) insightful
E) laissez-faire
Answer: B
Explanation: Fiedler's least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire measures whether a person
is task- or relationship-oriented by asking respondents to rate their least favorite coworker.
Respondents who describe their least-preferred coworker in unfavorable terms (a low LPC score)
are viewed as primarily interested in productivity and as being task-oriented. Conversely,
respondents who describe their least- favorite coworker in favorable terms (a high LPC score) are
considered to be relationship-oriented.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 382
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Least Preferred Coworker
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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23) Fiedler labels the degree of confidence, trust, and respect that subordinates have in their
leader as ________.
A) leader- member relations
B) relationship orientation
C) positional power
D) employee-orientation
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Explanation: Fiedler introduced the least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire to determine
an individuals basic leadership style in order to match the leader with his or her ideal situation.
Fiedler identified three contingency or situational dimensions, includ ing leader- member
relations, task structure, and position power. Leader- member relations is the degree of
confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 382
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leaders hip Theory
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Leader-Member Relations
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
24) The degree to which job assignments are procedurized is classified in the Fiedler model as
________.
A) leader- member relations
B) task orientation
C) task structure
D) initiating structure
E) productivity oriented
Answer: C
Explanation: Fiedler identified three contingency or situational dimensions in which certain
types of leaders might excel or fail, including leader- member relations, task structure, and
position power. Task structure is the degree to which job assignments are procedurized (that is,
structured or unstructured). Leaders who are task-oriented, Fielder proposes, perform best when
the situation is very favorable or very unfavorable.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 382
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Task Structures
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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25) Based on the contingency theory, if the leadership style does not match the situation, you
should ________.
A) change the leader to fit the situation
B) change the situation to fit the leader
C) accept this circumstance as unchangeable
D) either A or B
E) retrain the leader in a more appropriate style
Answer: D
Explanation: Since Fiedler views an individuals leadership style as fixed, there are only two
ways to improve leader effectiveness, according to his contingency theory. First, an organization
may change leaders to fit the existing situation. Alternatively, organizations may choose to
change the situation to fit the leader by restructuring tasks or increasing or decreasing the
leaders power.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 383
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situatio nal Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Matching Leaders and Situations
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4
26) Hersey and Blanchard developed which of the following?
A) situational leadership theory
B) cognitive resource theory
C) managerial grid model
D) path- goal theory
E) cognitive orientation model
Answer: A
Explanation: Developed by Hersey and Blanchard, situational leadership theory (SLT) focuses
on the followers. It says successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style
contingent on the followers' readiness, or the extent to which they are willing and able to
accomplish a specific task. A leader should choose one of four behaviors depending on follower
readiness.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Situational Leadership Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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27) Hersey and Blanchard's leadership theory differs from other leadership theories primarily
because it ________.
A) explores the role of the expectations of the leader for the follower
B) focuses on the followers
C) holds that leadership style should be dependent on the situation
D) is normative
E) deals strictly and exclusively with contingencies
Answer: B
Explanation: Unlike other leadership theories, Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership
theory (SLT) focuses on the followers. Successful leadership, according to SLT, is achieved
when the right leadership style is paired with the followers' readiness, or their level of
willingness or ability to accomplish specific tasks. Depending on follower readiness, a leader
should choose one of four behaviors.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Situational Leadership Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
28) According to Hersey and Blanchard, readiness encompasses the ________.
A) degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader
B) amount of influence a leader has over variables such as hiring, firing, and salaries
C) level of morale and satisfaction of the employees
D) ability and willingness of the followers to accomplish a task
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Explanation: According to Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory (SLT),
successful leadership is accomplished when the right leadership style is paired with the
followers' readiness, or their level of willingness or ability to accomplish specific tasks.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Readiness
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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29) What theory was developed by Robert House?


A) cognitive resource model
B) decision theory
C) leader- member exchange theory
D) path- goal theory
E) situational leadership theory
Answer: D
Explanation: Developed by Robert House, path- goal theory builds on the Ohio State leadership
research on initiating structure and consideration and the expectancy theory of motivation. Pathgoal theory proposes that its the leaders job to provide followers with the information, support,
or other resources necessary to achieve their goals. Effective leaders help their followers by
reducing obstacles in their paths so they may achieve work goals.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Path-Goal Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
30) What is the main principle of path-goal theory?
A) Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style.
B) Stress is a form of situational unfavorableness and a leader's reaction to it depends on his or
her intelligence and experience.
C) Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style and the
degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.
D) Leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers because of time
pressures.
E) The leader is responsible for providing followers with the information, support, or other
resources necessary for them to do their jobs.
Answer: E
Explanation: Path- goal theory proposes that its the leaders job to provide followers with
information, support, or other resources necessary to achieve their goals. Depending on a
complex analysis of the situation, a leader should adjust his or her leadership s tyle to be more
directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented. Effective leaders help their
followers by reducing obstacles in their paths so they may achieve work goals more easily.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 385-386
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Path-Goal Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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31) Which of the following is not an example of a prediction based on path-goal theory?
A) Subordinates with an internal locus of control will be more satisfied with a directive style.
B) Directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful.
C) Supportive leadership results in high employee performance when performing structured
tasks.
D) Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant by employees with a lot of
experience.
E) All of the above are examples of predictions based on path- goal theory.
Answer: A
Explanation: According to path- goal theory, ideal leadership depends on complex analysis of the
situation. It theorizes that directive leadership yields greater satisfaction when tasks are
ambiguous or stressful. Supportive leadership is most effective when employees are performing
structured tasks, and directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant among employees
with high ability or considerable experience.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 385
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Path-Goal Theory Predictions
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 4
32) The leader-participation model was developed by ________.
A) Hersey and Blanchard
B) Fred Fiedler
C) Blake and Mouton
D) Vroom and Yetton
E) Douglas and Surber
Answer: D
Explanation: Developed by Vroom and Yetton, the leader-participation model proposes that the
way a leader makes decisions is as important as what he or she decides. Leaders must adjust their
behavior to reflect the task structure. The leader-participation model provides a decision tree of
seven contingencies and five leadership styles for determining the ideal form and amount of
participation in decision making.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 385
Topic: Decision Theory; Vroom and Yetton's Leader-Participation Model
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Leadership-Participation Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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33) Which of the following theories argues that because of time pressures, leaders establish a
special relationship with a small group of their subordinates?
A) situational leadership theory
B) leader- member exchange
C) path-goal
D) expectancy
E) contingency
Answer: B
Explanation: Leadermember exchange (LMX) theory proposes that, because of time pressures,
leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. These individuals
make up the in- group. Members of the in- group are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the
leaders attention, and are more likely to receive special privileges. Other followers fall into the
out- group.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 386
Topic: Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
34) According to LMX theory, a leader implicitly categorizes followers as "in" or "out"
________.
A) after careful analysis
B) on a temporary basis
C) early in the interaction
D) because of political pressure
E) based on job requirements
Answer: C
Explanation: Leader- member exchange theory (LMX) proposes that early in the leader-follower
relationship, the leader categorizes the follower as an in or an out, and this determination
remains stable over time. Leaders reward those employees with whom they want a closer linkage
and punish those with whom they do not. Evidence suggests that in- group members have
demographic, attitude, and personality characteristics similar to the leaders or a higher level of
competence than out- group members.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 386
Topic: Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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35) Which of the following is not a key characteristic of a charismatic leader?


A) sensitivity to follower needs
B) unconventional behavior
C) vision and articulation
D) task orientation
E) willingness to take risks
Answer: D
Explanation: Charismatic leadership theory, developed by Robert House, is based on the idea
that when followers observe certain behaviors displayed by a leader, they view that leader as
having extraordinary or even heroic leadership abilities. Recent studies have sought to identify
these specific behaviors. Charismatic leaders appear to possess key characteristics, including
sensitivity to follower needs, unconventional behavior, vision and articulation, and willingness to
take risks.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 387-388
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5
36) Leaders who clarify role and task requirements to accomplish established goals exhibit a
_________ style of leadership.
A) transformational
B) transactional
C) charismatic
D) self- initiating
E) situational
Answer: B
Explanation: Recent studies, including the Ohio State Studies, Fiedlers model, and path-goal
theory, have focused on the differences between transformational leaders and transactional
leaders. In contrast to transformational leaders who inspire their followers to transcend their selfinterests for the good of the organization, transactional leaders encourage their followers to
achieve goals by defining specific goals and task requirements.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 390-391
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5

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37) Which of the following would not be a likely outcome of a workplace governed by a
transformational leader?
A) lower employee morale
B) lower employee stress
C) higher productivity
D) lower turnover rates
E) higher employee satisfaction
Answer: A
Explanation: Transformational leaders can have an extraordinary effect on their followers,
inspiring them toward selfless goals that benefit the larger organization. These types of leaders
inspire their followers by paying attention to their concerns, helping them rethink old problems
in new ways, and encouraging them to achieve goals as a group. As a result, transformational
leadership is strongly correlated with lower turnover rates, higher productivity, lower employee
stress and burnout, and higher employee satisfaction.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 390
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5
38) Richard is a transactional leader who has just assigned a series of tasks to a project team.
Which of the following is most likely to be true about the team's performance under Richard's
guidance?
A) They will set new standards of productivity for the department, exceeding Richard's
expectations.
B) They will meet the goals set for them but are unlikely to go beyond those goals.
C) They will tend to be unclear about the roles assigned to each team member.
D) They will be highly motivated by what they view as Richard's heroic or extraordinary
qualities.
E) They will tend to put their individual self- interest above the interests of the company.
Answer: B
Explanation: Transactional leaders set goals for their employees and define role s and
expectations. Unlike transformational leaders, however, transactional leaders are unlikely to
motivate their employees to exceed expectations or go beyond the call of duty.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 390-391
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 5

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39) Researchers are conducting a study of a company called Acme Corp, which they believe to
be led by a transformational leader. Which of the following, if true, would most support the
conclusion that Acme's leader is a transformational leader?
A) Acme's top managers often conflict over defining the organizations goals.
B) Acme's goals tend to be very ambitious and to hold personal value for employees.
C) Creativity is discouraged among Acme employees.
D) Acme managers are cautious and rarely take risks.
E) Acme's compensation plans are designed to reward short-term results.
Answer: B
Explanation: The followers of transformational leaders tend to pursue ambitious goals and to
believe that the goals they are pursuing are personally important. There tends to be consensus
among managers under this leadership style, and creativity in employees is encouraged.
Managers are more likely to take risks, and compensation plans emphasize long-term results.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 392
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 5
40) Two companies, Roland Media and Go! Corp, are both headed by transformational leaders.
However, Roland Media showed much greater profitability over a 5-year time period than did
Go! Corp. Which of the following best explains why Roland Media performed better than Go!
Corp under transformational leadership?
A) Go! Corps leader regularly interacts with the companys workforce to make decisions,
whereas Roland Medias leader must go through a complex bureaucratic structure.
B) Unlike Go! Corps employees, Roland Medias employees dont readily give up decisionmaking authority.
C) Roland Media is a small, privately held firm, whereas Go! Corp is a large, complex public
company.
D) Roland Media is headquartered in a high power distance country, whereas Go! Corp is
headquartered in a country that is high in collectivism.
E) Roland Medias employees tend to be more highly individualistic than do Go! Corps
employees.
Answer: C
Explanation: Transformational leadership is most effective in small, privately held companies. It
is less effective in complex organizations. It is also less effective when leaders must deal with
bureaucratic structures, when employees are highly individualistic, and when employees dont
easily give up decision- making authority.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 394
Topic: Authentic Leadership: Ethics and Trust are the Foundation of Leadership
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 5

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41) Which of the following would best serve as evidence to support the conclusion that an
individual is an authentic leader?
A) The leader is cautious about information sharing and tends to provide updates only to top
management.
B) In business exchanges, the leader puts the companys bottom line before his or her ideals.
C) The leader acts in the companys best interest as long as those interests dont conflict with his
personal ambitions.
D) The leader continually questions his or her values.
E) The leader inspires a great deal of trust in his or her followers.
Answer: E
Explanation: Authentic leaders inspire trust in their followers. They are open about sharing
information, they stick to their ideals, they follow an ethical code, and they are clear about their
values.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 394
Topic: Authentic Leadership: Ethics and Trust are the Foundation of Leadership
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 6
42) If an employee is considering sharing a new creative idea with a supervisor, which of the
following would most help to support the employee's level of trust in making the decision to
share her idea?
A) The employee has had strong performance appraisals from other supervisors in the past.
B) The employee is working under a short-term contract with the organization.
C) The supervisor has demonstrated himself to be an effective problem solver.
D) The supervisor has a track record of giving employees credit for their contributions.
E) The supervisor is working under a stable, long-term contract with the organization.
Answer: D
Explanation: In order for an employee to be willing to share an idea, an element of trust would
be involved. In choosing to share a new idea, the employee would have to trust that the
supervisor would not steal the credit behind the employees back
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 395
Topic: Authentic Leadership: Ethics and Trust are the Foundatio n of Leadership
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 6

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43) Team A is preparing for a large project that will involve aggressive competition against other
teams in the company. Several members argue that the team should have a male leader since the
project will require aggressive competition. Which of the following pieces of evidence, if true,
would best support the team members' conclusion?
A) Female leaders perform more strongly than do male leaders when the competition involves
improving positive relationships within the team.
B) Male leaders tend to exhibit stronger performances than women in situations that involve
competing teams.
C) Female leaders outperform male leaders when competition occurs within a team.
D) Many women leaders in the company are comfortable with competitive situations.
E) Women leaders in the company have often served as team leaders.
Answer: B
Explanation: If male leaders exhibit stronger performances within competing team situations,
this piece of evidence would support the conclusion that Team A should have a male leader.
Even if women leaders are comfortable with competition and have served as team leaders, the
statement that men have performed better provides stronger evidence for Team As argument.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 400
Topic: Challenges to the Leadership Construct
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills; Multicultural and Diversity
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 8
44) Harriet discovered that she was a top job candidate for a company that planned to hire a
transformational leader. Which of the following was most likely true for Harriet during the
application process?
A) Harriets application revealed that she had high emotional intelligence.
B) A personality test showed that Harriet was primarily introverted.
C) Harriets self- monitoring score was low compared to other candidates.
D) Harriets leadership experience was general rather situation-specific.
E) Harriets written communication scores were stronger than her in-person interview.
Answer: A
Explanation: Candidates with high emotional intelligence tend to have an advantage in
leadership hiring processes, especially in situations requiring transformational leadership. High
emotional intelligence scores would therefore have been likely to improve Harriets standing as
an applicant. Other qualities that help identify strong leaders are: extraversion, high selfmonitoring, situation-specific experience, and a charismatic physical presence.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 402
Topic: Finding and Creating Effective Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 8

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45) Darius is a training manager for a large retail clothing store. He is organizing a leadership
development institute for the company's top executives. Though there are 35 executives who
might potentially benefit from the training, the institute can only accommodate 20 participants.
Which of the following participants should Darius invite to attend in order to be sure to
maximize the success of the training?
A) supervisors from collectivist cultures
B) front- line managers in retail stores
C) leaders who are high self- monitors
D) individuals who have taken the Myers-Briggs test
E) executives who manage the distribution division
Answer: C
Explanation: Research shows that leadership training of any kind is likely to be more successful
with high self- monitors. Such individuals have the flexibility to change their behavior.
Therefore, to maximize the effect of the companys leadership-training budget, Darius should
invite high self- monitors to participate in the institute.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 402
Topic: Finding and Creating Effective Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 8

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Your company's HR director is a believer in trait theories of leadership. He believes that he can
differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics. The
HR director plans to promote Lawrence, a highly extroverted manager with a great deal o f
ambition and energy. Furthermore, the president of the company is preparing to retire, and the
HR director is searching for her replacement. He asks for your expertise in helping him to apply
trait theory to leadership selection within your company.
46) The director believes that because of these innate characteristics, Lawrence will be highly
effective at helping the company achieve its production goals. You advise the director against
this decision because ________.
A) research has identified emotional stability as the strongest predictor of leadership
effectiveness
B) studies have found that the Big Five traits are difficult to identify in leaders
C) studies have shown that traits are poor predictors of leadership effectiveness
D) research has found that conscientiousness is a better predictor of effectiveness than
extroversion
E) research has shown that effective managers are often unlikely to become effective leaders
Answer: C
Explanation: As important as traits and behaviors are in identifying effective or ineffective
leaders, they do not guarantee success. The context matters, too.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 381
Topic: Application of Trait Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4

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You have decided to use Fiedler's LPC questionnaire to help your employees learn more about
their leadership styles. Each of your employees has filled out and scored the instrument. It is
your job to try to explain to them how to use the survey information.
47) According to Fiedler's approach, your employees should assume which of the following
about the leadership styles determined through using the survey?
A) Each person's style is essentially fixed.
B) Each person can use the information to change his/her style to a more productive style.
C) Task-oriented leaders will not perform as well as relationship-oriented leaders in situations
that are very unfavorable.
D) Task-oriented leaders will perform better than relationship-oriented leaders in moderately
favorable situations.
E) Each person's style will change in accordance with the situation at hand.
Answer: A
Explanation: Fiedler assumes an individual's leadership style is fixed. This means if a situation
requires a task-oriented leader and the person in the leadership position is relationship oriented,
either the situation has to be modified or the leader has to be replaced to achieve optimal
effectiveness.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 382
Topic: Application of Fiedler's Contingency Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4
48) Fran completes the LPC questionnaire and finds that she described her least preferred coworker in relatively positive terms. She is surprised by this finding because she recalls being
particularly annoyed by this difficult co-worker. Based on your understanding of Fiedler's model,
you explain to Fran that her LPC score makes sense within the model because ________.
A) Fran tends to become very dominating when given ambiguo us tasks
B) Fran is usually much more focused on productivity than on developing relationships
C) Fran tends in general to focus on building good relationships with the other employees at your
company
D) Fran has a spotty work history and has tended to switch jobs every couple of years
E) Fran is usually chosen for positions of high responsibility within your organization
Answer: C
Explanation: If you describe the person you are least able to work with in favorable terms (a high
LPC score), Fiedler would label you relationship oriented. In contrast, if you see your least
preferred co-worker in relatively unfavorable terms (a low LPC score), you are primarily
interested in productivity and are task oriented.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 382
Topic: Application of Fiedler's Contingency Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Least Preferred Coworker
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4
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49) In utilizing Fiedler's contingency model, which of the following contingency dimensions
should your employees pay attention to?
A) leader- member relations
B) task structure
C) position power
D) All of the above are important dimensions in this model.
E) None of the above are important dimensions in this model.
Answer: D
Explanation: Fiedler has identified three contingency or situational dimensions:
1. Leadermember relations is the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in
their leader.
2. Task structure is the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized (that is, structured
or unstructured).
3. Position power is the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring,
firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 382
Topic: Application of Fiedler's Contingency Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Fiedler's Key Situational Factors
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4
Your boss has been reading several books on leadership. You notice that every few months he is
spouting a different approach and philosophy. You have been trying to keep up with him and
figure out which "leadership theory of the month" he is studying.
50) Suddenly your boss begins sending people to training to help them develop more effective
leadership styles. It is clear that he is reading an author who supports ________.
A) trait theories
B) behavioral theories
C) Fiedler's contingency model
D) the reflection effect
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Explanation: Behavioral theories of leadership are theories proposing that specific behaviors
differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 381
Topic: Application of Various Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Behavioral Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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51) Now your boss seems to be trying to analyze each leader according to which employees they
interact with most and least, and which employees they rate highest and lowest. You suspect that
he is reading about which of the following models?
A) SLT
B) LMX
C) LPC
D) PGT
E) SNFU
Answer: B
Explanation: Leadermember exchange (LMX) theory argues that, because of time pressures,
leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. These individuals
make up the in- groupthey are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader's attention,
and are more likely to receive special privileges. Other followers fall into the out- group.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 386
Topic: Application of Various Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 4
As you have observed your department manager and her interactions with the department's
employees, you have come to believe in LMX theory. Sarah and Joe get less of the manager's
time. Sally gets fewer of the preferred rewards that the manager controls and John has a
relationship with the manager based on formal authority interactions. Rebecca is trusted. Jennifer
gets a disproportionate amount of the manager's attention and is more likely to receive special
privileges.
52) According to LMX theory, the in- group is likely to be composed of ________.
A) Rebecca and Jennifer only
B) Jennifer only
C) Rebecca only
D) John, Rebecca, and Jennifer only
E) Sarah, Joe, Sally, and John only
Answer: A
Explanation: The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a
leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an "in" or an "out,"
and that relationship is relatively stable over time. Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those
employees with whom they want a closer linkage and punishing those with whom they do not.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 386
Topic: Application of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: In-Group
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 4

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53) According to LMX theory, which of the following employees is likely to be included in the
out- group?
A) Rebecca only
B) Jennifer only
C) Sarah and Jennifer only
D) Sarah and Joe only
E) Sarah, Joe, Sally, and John only
Answer: C
Explanation: The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a
leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an "in" or an "out,"
and that relationship is relatively stable over time. Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those
employees with whom they want a closer linkage and punishing those with whom they do not.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 386
Topic: Application of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Out-Group
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 4
54) Because he has an internationally based team, Leo and the team do most of their business
communications via e- mail. Which of the following represents what is least likely to be true of
Leo's experience working with the team in an online environment?
A) Leo relies heavily on his written skills to communicate support and inspiration.
B) Team members must be particularly adept at reading emotions in others messages
C) Team members tend to have high levels of identification-based trust.
D) Negotiations between team members sometimes stall due to lack of trust.
E) Leo uses written communication to reinforce what he conveys to team members verbally.
Answer: C
Explanation: Online leaders confront unique challenges, particularly around developing a nd
maintaining trust. Identification-based trust, based on a mutual understanding of each others
intentions and appreciation of the others wants and desires, is particularly difficult to achieve
without face-to-face interaction. Leos team would be least likely to experience high levels of
identification-based trust. Online negotiations might also be hindered because parties express
lower levels of trust.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 402
Topic: Challenges to the Leadership Construct
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills; Multicultural and Diversity
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 9

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Leo supervises a global team of project members based in multiple countries. Marta is Brazilian;
Jean-Paul is French, Amit is Egyptian, and Xiang is Chinese. Leo is American and is based in the
United States.
55) Two of the team members seem to respond most effectively when Leo exhibits high levels of
initiating structure. These are most likely which of the following?
A) Jean-Paul and Xiang
B) Amit and Xiang
C) Maria and Jean-Paul
D) Amit and Maria
E) Xiang and Amit
Answer: A
Explanation: France and China are countries where individuals tend to value initiating structure.
The French have a bureaucratic view of leaders and expect leaders to make decisions relatively
autocratically. The Chinese have a high performance orientation that emphasizes status
differences between employees. Leaders with high initiating structures therefore have better
results in these countries.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 403-404
Topic: Application of Various Theories
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills; Multicultural and Diversity
Objective: Behavioral Theories
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 9
56) Which of the following team members would be least likely to respond favorably if Leo
made project-related decisions independently, without consulting the team?
A) Maria
B) Jean-Paul
C) Amit
D) Xiang
E) Maria and Jean-Paul
Answer: A
Explanation: Brazilians value participatory decision- making. Maria would thus be least likely to
respond favorably to autocratic decision- making on Leos part. As one Brazilian manager
remarked in a research study, We do not prefer leaders who take self- governing decisions and
act alone without engaging the group. Thats part of who we are.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 403-404
Topic: Global Implications
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills; Multicultural and Diversity
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 9

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57) The team agrees that a large component of the project will be carried out at the Chinese
headquarters, with Xiang responsible for leading that support team. Based on what Leo knows
about Chinese culture, he expects that Xiang will be most effective if he implements which of
the following decision- making styles?
A) infrequent decision- making
B) highly participatory decision- making
C) autocratic decision- making
D) decision- making without initiating structure
E) moderately participatory decision- making
Answer: E
Explanation: Chinese culture emphasizes being polite, considerate, and unselfish, but it also has
a high performance orientation. These two factors suggest consideration and initiating structure
may both be important. Although Chinese culture is relatively participative compared to that of
the United States, there are also status differences between leaders and employees. This suggests
a moderately participative style may work best there.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 404
Topic: Global Implications
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills; Multicultural and Diversity
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 9
Your company's HR director is a believer in trait theories of leadership. He believes that he can
differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics. The
HR director plans to promote Lawrence, a highly extroverted manager with a great deal of
ambition and energy. Furthermore, the president of the company is preparing to retire, and the
HR director is searching for her replacement. He asks for your expertise in helping him to apply
trait theory to leadership selection within your company.
58) You explain that research efforts at isolating leadership traits have ________.
A) identified six leadership traits that predict leadership
B) been supportive of the Big Five leadership traits predicting leadership
C) shown that conscientiousness does not help much in predicting leadership
D) identified emotional stability as the most strongly related trait to leader emergence
E) been more focused on developing contingency theories and replacing trait theories
Answer: B
Explanation: For managers who must fill key positions in their organization with effective
leaders, there are several tests and interviews that help identify people with leadership qualities.
Recent efforts using the Big Five personality framework have generated encouraging results.
Extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience show strong and consistent
relationships to leadership.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 405
Topic: Application of Trait Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Big Five and Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 9
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Leo supervises a global team of project members based in multiple countries. Marta is Brazilian;
Jean-Paul is French, Amit is Egyptian, and Xiang is Chinese. Leo is American and is based in the
United States.
59) In carrying out a transformational approach to overseeing the project, Leo strives to
implement the universal elements of transformational leadership. He most likely implements all
of the following except ________.
A) vision
B) providing encouragement
C) positiveness
D) proactiveness
E) silent leadership
Answer: E
Explanation: The silence of a leader is very powerful in Japan, but not necessarily in other
countries. Silent leadership is, therefore, not considered one of the university elements of
transformational leadership. The elements are: vision, foresight, providing encouragement,
trustworthiness, dynamism, positiveness, and proactiveness.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 405
Topic: Global Implications
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills; Multicultural and Diversity
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 9
60) Leadership and management are two terms that are often confused.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Although often used interchangeably, the terms leadership and management have
two different meanings. John Kotter of the Harvard Business School argues that management is
the ability to cope with complexity. Leadership, by contrast, is defined as the ability to cope
with change.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 376
Topic: What Is Leadership?
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Management and Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

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61) According to Kotter, management focuses on coping with change; leadership focuses on
coping with complexity.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: John Kotter of the Harvard Business School defines management as the ability to
cope with complexity and leadership as the ability to cope with change. Effective managers, he
argues, bring about order and consistency by drawing up formal plans, designing rigid
organization structures, and monitoring results against the plans. Alternatively, strong leaders
establish direction by developing a vision of the future. They align people by communicating this
vision and inspiring them to overcome hurdles.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 376
Topic: What Is Leadership?
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills
Objective: Management and Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1
62) Leadership can be defined as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of order
and consistency.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Strong leaders, according to John Kotter, possess the ability to deal effectively
with change. Great leaders establish new direction for their followers by developing a vision of
the future. They excel at aligning people by communicating this vision and inspiring them to
overcome hurdles.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 376
Topic: What Is Leadership?
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1
63) Holding a management position is an important step toward becoming a leader in an
organization.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Even if an organization provides its managers with certain formal rights, there is
no guarantee that they will become effective leaders. Nonsanctioned leadershipthe ability to
influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organizationis often as important or
more important than formal influence. In many cases, leaders emerge from within a group and
not necessarily by formal appointment.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 376
Topic: What Is Leadership?
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Management and Leadership
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

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64) Research efforts at isolating leadership traits achieved a breakthrough, of sorts, when
researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: By the 1990s, after numerous studies and analyses, researchers had determined that
most leaders differed from non- leaders, but the particular traits that characterized them varied a
great deal from review to review. When researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five
personality framework, they gained some new insights. Most of the dozens of traits identified in
various leadership reviews fit under one of the Big Five (ambition and energy are part of
extraversion, for instance), giving strong support to traits as predictors of leadership.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 377
Topic: Trait Theories
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills
Objective: Big Five and Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2
65) One assumption of the trait view of leadership is that leaders cannot be trained.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Trait theories of leadership focus on personal, social, physical, or intellectual
attributes possessed by great leaders. These attributes, or traits, are innate and present at birth.
Proponents of trait theories of leadership argue that possession of these particular traits will
determine who will become a strong leader, implying that great leaders are born and not trained.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 377
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2
66) The Big Five personality framework revealed that traits are most useful as predictors of
leadership emergence.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Current leadership research, when organized around the Big Five, suggests that
certain traits are common to strong leaders. These traits, however, are more strongly related to
leader emergence than to leader effectiveness. Sociable and dominant people, for example, are
more likely to assert themselves in group situations and emerge as potential leaders.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 378
Topic: Trait Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Big Five and Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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67) Trait research would provide a basis for selecting the "right" persons to assume formal
positions requiring leadership.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Current leadership studies suggest that traits can predict effective leaders. Leaders
who are extroverted, conscientious, creative, and flexible do have an apparent advantage when it
comes to leadership. Possession of certain key traits, therefore, could be a valid criteria to select
the "right" person for a formal leadership position.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 378
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Trait Theories
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2
68) If behavioral theories of leadership are valid, selection of leaders should focus on length of
experience an individual has obtained in the right situations.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Behavioral theories of leadership have indicated that great leaders may be trained
to exhibit successful leadership behaviors. Therefore, the length of a potential leader's related
experience would not be important since great leaders may be taught successful behaviors,
including consideration and initiating structure. Leaders who display consideration and
structuring behaviors appear to be most effective.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Behavioral Theories
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 3
69) If behavioral theories of leadership are valid, we could have an infinite supply of effective
leaders.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Behavioral studies of leadership investigate how great leaders act or behave.
Strong leaders seem to exhibit structuring behaviors (defining roles in the search for goal
attainment) or considering behaviors (forming relationships which center on mutual trust and
respect). If these successful leadership behaviors can be learned, then behavioral theory suggests
that people may be taught to be great leaders.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Objective: Behavioral Theories
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 3

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70) The most comprehensive and replicated of the behavioral theories resulted from research
begun by Fred Fiedler.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The most comprehensive and replicated behavioral theories resulted from the Ohio
State Studies in the late 1940s. This research sought to identify independent dimensions of
leader behavior. From a list of over 1,000 dimensions, researchers narrowed the list to two that
accounted for most of the leadership behavior described by employees. These dimensions were
identified as consideration and initiating structure.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Communication; Analytic Skills
Objective: Ohio State Studies
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3
71) The Ohio State Studies involved research on only two dimensions - initiating structure and
consideration.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: The Ohio State Studies focused on two dimensions of leader behavior: initiating
structure and consideration. Initiating structure is the extent to which a leader is likely to define
and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment.
Consideration is the extent to which a leaders job relationships are characterized by mutual
trust, respect for employees ideas, and regard for their feelings.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Ohio State Studies
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3
72) A leader designated as high on initiating structure would be likely to clearly define the roles
of his or her subordinates.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: According to the Ohio State Studies, initiating structure indicates the degree to
which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the
search for goal attainment. Initiating structure includes behavior that attempts to organize work,
foster work relationships, and achieve goals. A leader high in initiating structure is someone who
assigns group members to particular tasks, expects workers to maintain definite standards of
performance, and emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Initiating Structure
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3

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73) According to the University of Michigan studies, production-oriented leadership is defined


as the extent to which a leader tends to emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Leadership studies at the University of Michigans Survey Research Center
identified two behavioral characteristics of leaders that appeared related to performance
effectiveness. Employee-oriented leaders emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking a
personal interest in the needs of their employees and accepting individual differences among
them. Production-oriented leaders emphasized the technical or task aspects of the jobtheir
concern was in accomplishing their groups tasks.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 380
Topic: Behavioral Theories
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: University of Michigan Studies
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 3
74) The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends upon the
proper match between a leader's style and the degree to which a situation gives control to the
leader.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Fiedler's contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on
the proper match between the leaders style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader
control. A key factor in leadership success, Fiedler argued, is the individuals basic leadership
style. To identify a person's leadership style, Fiedler developed the least preferred coworker
(LPC) questionnaire which measures whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 381-382
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theor y
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
75) Fiedler's contingency model is considered to be the first comprehensive contingency model
for leadership.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by Fred
Fiedler. The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on
the proper match between the leaders style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader
control.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 381
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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76) In Fiedler's approach, if a respondent uses unfavorable terms to describe the co-worker in
question, the respondent can be said to be primarily task-oriented.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: According to Fiedler's least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire, if you see
your least preferred co-worker in relatively unfavorable terms (a low LPC score), you are
primarily interested in productivity and are task oriented.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 382
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Least Preferred Coworker
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
77) According to Fiedler, task structure is the degree to which the job assignments are
procedurized.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: According to Fiedler, task structure is the degree to which the job assignments are
procedurized (that is, structured or unstructured).
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 382
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Task Structures
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
78) According to Fiedler, leader- member relations concerns the degree to which a leader takes a
personal interest in the needs of his or her employees and accepts individual differences among
them.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: According to Fiedler, leader- member relations concerns the degree of confidence,
trust, and respect members have in their leader.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 382
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Position Power
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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79) According to Fiedler's contingency model, task-oriented leaders are most effective in
situations of high or low control.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: According to Fiedler's contingency model, task-oriented leaders perform best in
situations of high and low control, whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in
moderate control situations.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 383
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Matching Leaders and Situations
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
80) Taken as a whole, tests of the overall validity of the Fiedler model tend to support substantial
parts of the model.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Studies testing the overall validity of the Fiedler model find considerable evidence
to support substantial parts of it. If we use only three categories rather than the original eight,
there is ample evidence to support Fiedler's conclusions. But the logic underlying the LPC
questionnaire is not well understood, and respondents' scores are not stable. The contingency
variables are also complex and difficult for practitioners to assess.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
81) One criticism of the Fiedler model concerns the fact that the logic underlying the model's
questionnaire is not well understood.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: The logic underlying the LPC questionnaire is not well understood, and
respondents' scores are not stable. The contingency variables are also complex and difficult for
practitioners to assess.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Problems with Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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82) Studies regarding the Fiedler model have shown that respondents' questionnaire scores tend
to be relatively stable.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The logic underlying the LPC questionnaire is not well understood, and
respondents' scores are not stable. The contingency variables are also complex and difficult for
practitioners to assess.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Problems with Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
83) One advantage of the Fiedler model is that its contingency variables are simple and easy to
assess.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The logic underlying the LPC questionnaire is not well understood, and
respondents' scores are not stable. The contingency variables are also complex and difficult for
practitioners to assess.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Problems with Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
84) Hersey and Blanchard argue that the correct leadership style is contingent on the level of the
follower's readiness.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Situational leadership theory says that successful leadership is achieved by
selecting the right leadership style contingent on the followers' readiness, or the extent to which
they are willing and able to accomplish a specific task.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Situational Leadership Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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85) Situational leadership theory has been well validated by research but not well received by
practitioners because there are so many factors to examine.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Situational leadership theory has intuitive appeal. It acknowledges the importance
of followers and builds on the logic that leaders can compensate for their limited ability and
motivation. Yet research efforts to test and support the theory have generally been disappointing.
Possible explanations include internal ambiguities and inconsistencies in the model itself as well
as problems with research methodology in tests.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Situational Leadership Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
86) SLT is an example of a trait theory.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Situational leadership theory (SLT) is a contingency theory that focuses on
followers' readiness.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Situational Leadership Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
87) Path-goal theory assumes leaders are flexible and can display different leadership behavior
depending on the situation.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Path- goal theory states that it is the leader's job to assist followers in attaining their
goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that followers' goals a re
compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 385
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Path-Goal Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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88) A hypothesis that has evolved out of path-goal theory is that directive leadership leads to
greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: According to path- goal theory, whether a leader should be directive or supportive
or should demonstrate some other behavior depends on a complex analysis of the situation.
Among other things, this theory predicts that directive leadership yields greater satisfaction when
tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 385
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Path-Goal Theory Predictions
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
89) The leader-participation model provides a set of rules that leaders can use to determine the
appropriate leadership behavior for a given task structure.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: The leader-participation model is a leadership theory that provides a set of rules to
determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 385
Topic: Decision Theory; Vroom and Yetton's Leader-Participation Model
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Leadership-Participation Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
90) The complexity of the leadership-participation model enables leaders to apply it realistically
when they are assessing decision-making situations.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Research testing both the original and revised leader-participation models has not
been encouraging, although the revised model rates higher in effectiveness. Criticism focuses on
the model's complexity and the variables it omits. Although Vroom and Jago have developed a
computer program to guide managers through all the decision branches in the revised model, it's
not very realistic to expect practicing managers to consider 12 contingency variables, eight
problem types, and five leadership styles to select the decision process for a problem.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 385
Topic: Decision Theory; Vroom and Yetton's Leader-Participation Model
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Criticism of Leadership-Participation Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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91) In the leader- member exchange theory, leaders don't treat all of their subordinates alike.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Leadermember exchange theory argues that, because of time pressures, leaders
establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. These individuals make up
the in-groupthey are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader's attention, and are
more likely to receive special privileges. Other followers fall into the out-group.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 386
Topic: Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
92) According to LMX theory, out- group members get more of the leader's time, but in a
negative manner.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Leadermember exchange (LMX) theory argues that, because of time pressures,
leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. These individuals
make up the in- groupthey are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader's attention,
and are more likely to receive special privileges. Other followers fall into the out- group.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 386
Topic: Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
93) Research testing of LMX theory has been generally supportive.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Research to test LMX theory has been generally supportive, with substantive
evidence that leaders do differentiate among followers; that these disparities are far from
random; and that followers with in- group status will have higher performance ratings, engage in
more helping or "citizenship" behaviors at work, and report greater sa tisfaction with their
superiors.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 386
Topic: Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Evaluation of Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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94) Most experts believe that individuals may be trained to exhibit charismatic behavior.
Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Although individuals inherit certain tendencies, most experts believe that
charismatic behaviors may be learned. Studies have suggested the effectiveness of a three-step
process to teach potential leaders to exhibit charismatic behaviors. This process includes
developing and maintaining an optimistic view, drawing others to this view by creating a bond
with followers, and bringing out the potential in others by tapping into their emotions.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 388
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5
95) As a transactional leader, a CEO is more likely to be effective if he lets employees make
decisions and avoids intervening when business problems arise.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Transactional leaders can display three different styles: laissez- faire, management
by exception, and contingent reward. A laissez- faire approach, in which the leader lets followers
make decisions and avoids intervening in business affairs, is the least effective of the
transactional approaches.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 391
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Tra nsformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4
96) The benefits of employee mentoring are primarily career-related, including higher
compensation and improved job performance.
Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Mentoring, the practice in which a senior employee sponsors and supports a less
experienced employee, is most valuable for its psychological benefits. Current research indicates
that mentoring yields very small objective outcomes like higher compensation and improved job
performance. The benefits of mentoring are primarily of a psychological nature since the senior
employee can provide friendship, share helpful personal experiences, and act as a role model for
the junior employee.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 398
Topic: Contemporary Leadership Roles
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 7

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97) Leadership training is most likely to be successful with individuals who are low selfmonitors.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 403
Topic: Finding and Creating Effective Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Communication
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 8
98) What are the implications of the behavioral theories of leadership?
Answer: If trait research had been successful, it would have provided a bas is for selecting the
"right" persons to assume formal positions in groups and organizations requiring leadership. In
contrast, if behavioral studies were to turn up critical behavioral determinants of leadership, we
could train people to be leaders. The difference between trait and behavioral theories, in terms of
application, lies in their underlying assumptions. If trait theories were valid, then leaders are born
rather than made. On the other hand, if there were specific behaviors that identified leaders, then
we could teach leadership - we could design programs that implanted these behavioral patterns in
individuals who desired to be effective leaders.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 389
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Implications of Behavioral Theories
LO: 5
99) Identify and explain the two dimensions of leadership described in the Ohio State studies.
Answer: The Ohio State studies proposed that two categories accounted for most of the
leadership behavior described by employees. They called these two dimensions initiating
structure and consideration.
a) Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or
her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 389
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Ohio State Studies
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 5

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100) Describe LMX theory and identify its main beliefs.


Answer: This theory argues that because of time pressures, leaders establish a special
relationship with a small group of their followers. These individuals make up the in- group - they
are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader's attention, and are more likely to receive
special privileges. Other followers fall into the out-group. They get less of the leader's time,
fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls, and have leader- follower relations based
on formal authority interactions. The leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an "in" or "out"
and that relationship is relatively stable over time.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 386
Topic: Application of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
101) Describe the leader-participation model.
Answer: Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton developed a model that related leadership behavior
and participation in decision making. Recognizing that task structures have varying demands for
routine and non-routine activities, these researchers argued that leader behavior must adjust to
reflect the task structure. The model was normative - it provided a sequential set of rules that
should be followed in determining the form and amount of participation in decision making, as
determined by different types of situations. The model was a decision tree incorporating seven
contingencies and five alternative leadership styles.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 385
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Leadership-Participation Model
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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102) Explain the principles of Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory.
Answer: Situational leadership is a contingency theory that focuses on the followers. Successful
leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which they ar gue is contingent on
the level of the followers' readiness. The emphasis on the followers in leadership effectiveness
reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leaders. Readiness refers to the
extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. SLT says if
a follower is unable and unwilling to do a task, the leader needs to give clear and specific
directions; if followers are unable and willing, the leader needs to display high task orientation to
compensate for the followers' lack of ability and high relationship orientation to get the follower
to "buy into" the leader's desires; if followers are able and unwilling, the leader needs to use a
supportive and participative style; and if the employee is both able and willing, the leader doesn't
need to do much.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Situational Leadership Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4
103) Summarize the leader- member exchange theory.
Answer: The leader- member exchange (LMX) theory argues that because of time pressures,
leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. These individuals
make up the in- groupthey are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader's attention,
and are more likely to receive special privileges. Other followers fall into the out- group. They
get less of the leader's time, fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls, and have
leader- follower relations based on formal authority interactions. The theory proposes that early
in the history of the interaction between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly
categorizes the follower as an "in" or an "out" and that relationship is relatively stable over time.
The theory and research surrounding it provide substantive evidence that leaders do differentiate
among followers; that these disparities are far from random; and that follo wers with in- group
status will have higher performance ratings, lower turnover intentions, greater satisfaction with
their superior, and higher overall satisfaction than will the out-group. These positive findings for
in- group members are consistent with our knowledge of the self- fulfilling prophesy.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 386
Topic: Application of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 4

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104) Do charismatic and transformational leadership generalize across cultures? Explain why or
why not.
Answer: It appears that these leadership approaches can be generalized across cultures to some
degree. We know very little about how culture might influence the validity of the theories,
particularly in Eastern cultures. However, a study known as the Global Leadership and
Organizational
Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) research project has produced some useful preliminary
insights. These insights do not provide definitive guidelines for how leadership dimensions
translate across cultures, but they do suggest that leaders need to take culture into account
whenever managing employees from different cultures. There also appear to be universal aspects
of leadership, particularly transformational leadership, regardless of country.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 387-393, 403-405
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills; Multicultural and Diversity
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5, 9

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105) Compare and contrast Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory with House's
path-goal theory.
Answer: Hersey and Blanchard's situation leadership theory is a contingency theory that focuses
on the followers. Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which
Hersey and Blanchard argue is contingent on the level of the followers' readiness. The emphasis
on the followers in leadership effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept
or reject the leaders. The term readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and
willingness to accomplish a specific task. SLT says if a follower is unable and unwilling to do a
task, the leader needs to give clear and specific directions; if followers are unable and willing,
the leader needs to display high task orientation to compensate for the followers' lack of ability
and high relationship orientation to get the follower to "buy into" the leader's desires; if followers
are able and unwilling, the leader needs to use a supportive and participative style; and if the
employee is both able and willing, the leader doesn't need to do much.
Path- goal theory was developed by Robert House. The essence of the theory is that it's the
leader's job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction
and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group
or organization. The term path-goal is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify the
path to help their followers get from where they are to the achievement of their work goals and
make the journey along the path easier by reducing roadblocks. House identified four leadership
behaviors. The directive leader lets followers know what is expected of them, schedules work to
be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks. The supportive leader is
friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers. The participative leader consults with
followers and uses their suggestions before making a decision. The achievement-oriented leader
sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level. House assumes
that leaders are flexible and that the same leader can display any or all of these behaviors
depending on the situation.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 384-385
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Situational Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory
Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4

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106) Explain the differences between charismatic, transformational, and authentic leadership.
Could an individual display all three types of leadership?
Answer: Charismatic leaders are those who are perceived to have heroic or extraordinary
leadership abilities when they exhibit certain behaviors. Charismatic leaders have a vision, are
willing to take personal risks to achieve that vision, are sensitive to follower needs, and exhibit
unconventional behaviors.
Transactional leaders inspire their followers by paying attention to their concerns, helping them
rethink old problems in new ways, and encouraging them to achieve goals as a group. They can
have an extraordinary effect on their followers, inspiring the m toward selfless goals that benefit
the larger organization. As a result, transformational leadership is strongly correlated with lower
turnover rates, higher productivity, lower employee stress and burnout, and higher employee
satisfaction.
Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those
values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers consider them ethical people. The
primary quality produced by authentic leadership, therefore, is trust. Authentic leader s share
information, encourage open communication, and stick to their ideals. The result: people come to
have faith in them.
Some researchers, such as Robert House, believe that charismatic and transactional leadership
are essentially synonymous. A leader who scores high on transformational leadership qualities is
likely to score high on charisma as well. Both charismatic and transformational leaders could
display the qualities of authentic leadership and engender trust in their followers as well.
Therefore, it could be possible for a single leader to display all three types of leadership.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 387-397
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Quest. Category: Critical Thinking
LO: 5, 6
107) What is the main difference between trait and behavioral leadership theories on the one
hand, and contingency theories of leadership on the other?
Answer: Trait and behavioral theories center around aspects of the individual leadereither
personality characteristics or the actions that person performs. Contingency theories, by contrast,
concern situational factors that affect leadership success. They focus on defining the conditions
under which different leadership styles will succeed.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 377-387
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Reflective Thinking; Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Synthesis
LO: 2, 3, 4

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108) Explain Fiedler's contingency model. In your discussion, describe the role of the LPC (least
preferred co-worker) questionnaire and identify the key situational factors that determine
leadership effectiveness, according to this model.
Answer: Fred Fiedler developed the first comprehensive contingency model for leadership. This
model proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the
leader's style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.
The least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire is used to determine what the leader's basic
style is. Sixteen contrasting adjectives are used to ask respondents to describe their leastpreferred co-worker. If the least preferred co-worker is described in relatively positive terms (a
high LPC score), then the respondent is primarily interested in good personal relations with this
co-worker. This person is considered relationship oriented. If the least preferred co-worker is
primarily interested in productivity, they would be labeled task oriented. Fiedler assumes that an
individual's leadership style is fixed.
Fiedler identified three contingency dimensions that define the key situational factors that
determine leadership effectiveness.
a) Leader- member relations are the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in
their leader.
b) Task structure is the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.
c) Position power is the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring,
firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.
The better the leader- member relations, the more highly structured the job, and the stronger the
position power, the more control the leader has. With knowledge of an individual's LPC and an
assessment of the three contingency variables, Fiedler p roposes matching them up to achieve
maximum leadership effectiveness. Task-oriented leaders tend to perform better in situations that
were very favorable to them and in situations that were very unfavorable. Relationship oriented
leaders perform better in moderately favorable situations. Fiedler has suggested recently that
task-oriented leaders perform best in situations of high and low control, while relationshiporiented leaders perform best in moderate control situations.
There are two ways to improve leader effectiveness. You can change the leader to fit the
situation. The second alternative would be to change the situation to fit the leader. This could be
done by restructuring tasks or increasing or decreasing the power that the leader has to control
factors such as salary increases, promotions, and disciplinary actions.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 381-384
Topic: Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model
Quest. Category: Synthesis
LO: 4

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109) Why might a charismatic leader exhibit unethical behaviors, and what have researchers
proposed as a way to reduce the likelihood of such ethical problems?
Answer: Charismatic leaders may display a "dark side," using their power to remake companies
in their own image. Instead of acting in the best interests of their organizations, these types of
leaders can allow their own interest and personal goals to override the goals of the organization.
Companies such as Enron, Tyco, WorldCom, and HealthSouth, for instance, had leaders who
recklessly used organizational resources for their personal benefit. These leaders violated laws
and ethical boundaries to inflate stock prices and allow leaders to cash in millions of dollars in
stock options.
Scholars have tried to integrate ethical and charismatic leadership by advancing the idea of
socialized charis matic leaders hipleadership that conveys other centered (not self centered)
values by leaders who model ethical conduct. Socialized charismatic leaders are able to bring
employee values in line with their own values through their words and actions. These types of
leaders set high ethical standards and demonstrate those standards through their own behavior.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 390, 394-395
Topic: Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders
Skill: AACSB: Reflective Thinking; Analytic Skills
Quest. Category: Synthesis
LO: 5, 6

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