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N.A.B.U.

1995 n1 (Mars)

Non mi sono note, poi, attestazioni che riguardino il prezzo dell'urudu ad Ebla, a parte il
frammentario MEE 13, 29, r. I, 1-2: 1 ma-na 5 (gn) [] / n-[m] 10 <ma-na> uru[du]; se si tratta, nel primo
registro, di k: babbar, e nel secondo giusta l'integrazione delle mine (v. ex.g. pi sopra l'attestazione di
MEE 10, 29), allora si avrebbe un rapporto di 1 = 9 ca., in cui il rame puro risulta essere per lo meno 5
volte pi prezioso di quello da fusione.
Franco D'AGOSTINO (15-03-95)
Diptm. di Studi Orientali
Via Palestro 63
I-00185 ROMA , ITALIE
14) z-aka = gancio nella documentazione di Ebla La traduzione di z-aka come (munito di)
gancio, che si vuole proporre in questa breve nota, basata sulla l. sin. 221 dei VE KA.AKA, ga-ba-lu-um,
ri-gi-tum; vorrei mettere in relazione la prima glossa con l'ar. ka/ibl, catena, legaccio; eb. kebel, legame,
legaccio, entrambi di origine aramaica: aram. kibl, sir. kebl, legaccio; ancora ge. kabalo, occhiello (per
il laccio del sandalo), per cui si veda W. Leslau, CDG, p. 274 s.v.; acc. kablu, legare (su questo cfr. gi G.
Pettinato, Bilinguismo, p. 46; si veda in generale sulla glossa eblaita G. Conti, QdS 17, p. 100 e n. 168).
L'altra glossa, ri-gi-tum, *rigim-t-um, urlo, fatta derivare generalmente dalla radice *rgm, per cui
si veda a mo' d'esempio dello scrivente StSem NS 7, p. 165 sg., nota 65 con bibliografia precedente; mi
chiedo ora per, sulla scorta dell'altra glossa, a mio avviso da rapportarsi alla radice *kbl come pi sopra
evidenziato, se non sia pi esatto avvicinare ri-gi-tum alla radice *rkb (= *rikib-t-um), che in ar. ha il senso:
sich auf etwas setzen > auf etwas gesetzt sein > mit etwas nahe, unmittelbar verbunden sein (cfr. H.S. Nyberg,
Wortbildung mit Prfixen in den semitischen Sprachen, Le Monde Oriental 14, 1920, p. 275, cit. in W.
Leslau, CDG, p. 469, s.v. rakaba I); il significato sarebbe quello di legame [imposto con violenza?]
paralleli eblaiti dell'assimilazione della bilabiale sono ex.g.: l.sin. 562: -dim, u-zi-tum, u-zi-ba-tum (cfr.
da ultimo G. Conti, QdS 17, p. 158); l.sin. 1270': A: ENGUR, -da-um la-ti-tum, i-da-um la-ti-ba-t[um].
Questo lemma si ritrova essenzialmente, ma non esclusivamente, nella documentazione eblaita, in
connesione con il gr-mar-tu: si tratta, nella mia interpretazione, di un pugnale (amorreo?) munito di un
gancio, o occhiello, mediante il quale poteva essere legato alla cintura (per ulteriori e differenti interpretazioni
cfr. ex.g. MEE 2, p. 168 adr. VI, 8; MEE 10, p. 164 sg.).
In modo assai differente da quello qui proposto interpreta questo lessema H. Waetzoldt, OrAn 29,
1990, pp. 13 sg., e n. 76 con bibliografia, dove viene richiamata l'equivalenza mesopotamica ka-aka-a =
patnu, mangiare. Mentre dobbiamo notare per da un lato che questa resa rappresenta un probabile conio
post-sumerico, basato sull'etimologia originaria dei due segni, bisogna sottolineare ancora come il termine
z-aka si ritrovi anche in altri contesti, dove l'ipotesi interpretativa di H. Waetzoldt non sembra
difendibile. Si confronti infatti ex.g. MEE 10, 29, r. III, 17-19: 1 gn-dilmun k: babbar / nu##-za 1 z / 1
gi-gigr-2 z-aka / i-b-s-pi, che vorrei tradurre ipoteticamente cos: 1 siclo dilmunita d'argento per la
velatura di 1 lato del carro a due (ruote) con maniglia (per sorreggersi stando in piedi) di Ibbi-Sipi). Si
consideri ancora il difficile passo del testo MEE 7, 47, r. XV, 1-7: (x) gn-dilmun k: babbar / kin-aka / 6
z-z-ba-tum / gi-bar-u / z-aka / 2 gi-gigr-2 / en, sicli dilmuniti di argento per fare 6 (dell')asta
(munita di) ganci di 2 carri a due (ruote) del sovrano.
Franco D'AGOSTINO (15-03-95)
15) Two Proposed Janus Parallelisms in Akkadian Literature In recent years the topic of Janus Parallelism
has attracted the attention of scholars of biblical and Mesopotamian literature. Janus Parallelism in the Bible
was studied and amply documented in the 1992 article of S.M. Paul, Polysensuous Polyvalency in Poetic
Parallelism,1 and attempts have also been made in the 1990's to identify examples of Janus Parallelism in
Akkadian.2 Here we would like to propose two examples of this poetic tour de force in Akkadian literature:
I. Lines 171-173 of the Akkadian Shamash Hymn (Lambert BWL 136):
171. lam [t tm]ti a mal puluta
172. e-ri-ib t[m]ti a aps iba'
173. miirti3 nri a irtedd fiama ina mark[a]
171. The lamu-beings4 o[f the se]a who are filled with fearsomeness,
172. the erib tmti which passes through the Deep,5
173. the abundance of the river which moves, O Shamash, are before yo[u.]
Here in the Shamash Hymn 171-173 the Akkadian author achieves a Janus parallelism by means of a
pun on the pivotal first two words of the middle stich of a tristich, erib tmti (line 172). When facing forward,

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N.A.B.U. 1995 n1 (Mars)

erib tmti, should be translated, gifts of the sea, providing an apt parallel to miirti nri, abundance of the
river in line 173. In this case, erib tmti is derived from erbu/irbu/urbu gifts, income (CAD I/J 173). These
lines, Shamash Hymn 172-173, may then be compared with the bilingual hymn to Marduk 4R 20 + dupl. where
miirtu also occurs with erbu/irbu (see CAD MII 123). However, when pivoting backwards, erib tmti must be
the homonym locust of the sea (shellfish), from Akkadian erbu/erebu/aribu locust (see CAD E 256,
290).6 Here locust of the sea parallels lamu-beings of the sea in line 171 thereby creating, in addition, a
merism including all the creatures of the sea, great and small, from the fearsome lamu to the humble shellfish.
II. Enuma Elish I 99-102
99. ulluma ina ilni
100. mertu uttu

tur ln[u]
i-lit/li-ta tur

101. ma-ri--tu
102. mri ami

ma-ri--tu
ami a ilni

99. (He was) exalted among the gods, surpassing was [his] stature.
100. His limbs were long, he was surpassing as to his i-lit/li-ta.
101. mri'tu, mri'tu,
102 . Son of the Sun, Sun of the gods.7
The Janus parallelism in En. el. I 99-102 pivotally revolves around i-lit/li-tu in line 100.8 When
facing forward towards En. el. I 101-102, the word may be understood as ilittu (double t, from the root waldu),
offspring.9 Here ilittu parallels mru, son, which occurs three times in lines 101-102. However, when
facing backwards, the word may represent iltu (with single t, from the root el), upper part (of
something); 10 in this context, the upper part of Marduk's physique. Here ilta tur, as his upper parts
surpassing, in line 100 both forms a chiasm with tur ln[u], surpassing in stature, in the second half of
En. el. I 99, and echoes the II stative ullu from el in the first half of line 99.11 Thus, the author of Enuma Elish
has artistically employed a Janus parallelism based on homonyms derived from two different roots whose
meanings are determined by the direction in which they face.
1. In Shaarei Talmon: Studies in the Bible, Qumran, and the Ancient Near East Presented to Shemaryahu Talmon, eds.
M. Fishbane and E. Tov (Winona Lake, 1992): 147-163.
2. S. Noegel, A Janus Parallelism in the Gilgamesh Flood Story, ASJ 13 (1991) 419-421; An Asymmetrical Janus
Parallelism in the Gilgamesh Flood Story, ASJ 16 (1994) 306-308; J-G. Heintz, NABU 1994/68; cf. J. Sasson, NABU 1994/42.
3. For the reading miirtu, see CAD MII 124-125. Previously the word was read miirtu/meertu (Lambert BWL 323 n.
173; AHw. 640). AHw. 1575 now also reads mii/ertum.
4. For the lamu and their function as cosmic gate-keepers, see W.G. Lambert, Or. 54 (1985) 189-202.
5. Although aps and tmtu, sea, are normally two separate bodies of water in Mesopotamian cosmography, aps
does occur on a few occasions, as in Shamash Hymn 171-173, in the context of the depths of the sea (tmti). Note, for example,
a parallel in lines 37-38 of The Shamash Hymn (Lambert BWL 128) where the rays of Shamash that descend into aps are seen
by the lamu-beings of the sea (tmti), and Gilg. XI 271-276 where Gilgamesh dives down into aps and emerges on the shore of
the sea, tmtu. The cosmographies of the sea and Apsu are examined in W. Horowitz, Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography (in
press, Eisenbrauns).
6. For buru a.ab.ba = erib tmti locust of the sea = crustacean see Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary B 209.
Also note AHw. 234; F. Wiggermann, BiOr 44 (1987) 171-172; A. Salonen, Die Fischerei im alten Mesopotamien nach
sumerich-akkadischen Quellen (Helsinki, 1970), 174-175.
7. For puns in En. el. I 101-102, see E. Speiser, Pritchard ANET3 62 n. 35 with further references.
8. See AHw. 371 ilittu for variant writings with and without double t (i-lit/li-ta/tu) in En.el. I 100.
9. See AHw. 371 ilittu 1). CAD I/J 72-73 does not list En.el. I 100 under ilittu.
10. eltu/iltu/altu. See CAD E 98-99, AHW. 202. Neither dictionray lists this passage under this word.
11. A derivation of i-lit/li-ta from the root el has already been anticipated by a number of translators of Enuma Elish.
See E.A. Speiser, Pritchard ANET3 62; E. Ebeling, Das Babylonische Weltschopfungslied (Breslau, 1921) 21; A. Heidel, The
Babylonian Genesis (Chicago, 1942) 22; R. Labat, Le Pome babylonien de la Cration (Paris, 1935) 87; Religions du
Proche-Orient (Paris, 1970) 41; S. Langdon, The Babylonian Epic of Creation (Oxford, 1923) 81. More recently note S. Dalley,
Myths from Mesopotamia (Oxford, 1989) 236 (his height (?) outstanding).

Wayne HOROWITZ and Shalom PAUL (15-03-95)


Hebrew University,
JERUSALEM, ISRAL

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