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St. Augustine was the most important of all the church Fathers. He found in Christianity the
answer to his long search for meaning in life. Augustine defended Christianity against its critics.
Confessions and City of God are Augustine's most famous works.

Most influential Christian theoretician, Bishop of Hippo in North Africa

Studied law and Latin classics, turned to Manichaeism
Inspired by sermons of Ambrose, he converted to Christianity

Constantine was the first Roman emperor to support Christianity and become Christian. He
established a new eastern capital on the straits of Bosporus first named new Rome and then
Constantinople. Today's Istanbul. In 395 Constantinople became the Capitol of the eastern or
Byzantine empire which survived the Western Roman Empire by nearly a thousand years.
Jesus is stated in the New Testament to have had 12 apostles. The meaning, "A person sent
forth". Apostles are the closest followers of Jesus.
St. Paul:
He was a Hellenized Jew from Tarsus. Because he was a Roman citizen, could travel and preach
throughout the Empire. Paul saw no difference between Jew and Gentile and saw ministry of
Jesus for all. Paul broke with Jewish roots by insisting that Mosaic Law was superseded by
resurrection; this made new religion attractive to Greco-Roman world. Next to Jesus, Paul was
the person most responsible for the spread of Christianity. Paul managed to bring his message to
areas of the world that Jesus never reached.
Great Fire of Rome:
The fire spread quickly and burned for 6 days. Only four of the fourteen districts of Rome
escaped the fire; three districts were completely destroyed and the other seven suffered serious
damage. Nero blames the Christians.
Council of Nicea:
The largest assembly of bishops yet. Established Nicean Creed, a hierarchy and organization.
(Network of urban bishoprics grouped into provinces.) The purpose was to resolve disputes in
the church - primarily those concerned with Arianism - regarding the relationship between the
Father and Son.

It is a great location, better then Rome even. It was the capital city of the Eastern Roman or
Byzantine Empire. This location was easy to protect from attack. *Look up newer powerpoint*
Byzantine Empire:
It was the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centered on the capital of
Constantinople. It is also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire. It was the direct continuation
of the Roman state and maintained its traditions unlike the Western Roman Empire. During most
of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in
Europe. The Byzantine Empire finally collapsed in 1453 due to invasions by the Ottomans.
5 Pillars of Islam:
They are five basic acts in Islam, foundation of Muslim life. They did a prayer 5 times a day
towards Mecca. They had a public recital on a Friday at noon if possible.

Shahadah: declaration of faith

"I bear witness that there is no god, but God; I bear witness that Muhammad is the
prophet of God." By reciting this, one enters Islamic faith.

Salah: prayer
Muslims are required to pray five times a day, washing themselves before prayer and
facing in the direction of Mecca while praying.

Zakat: giving a fixed proportion to charity

Muslims are required to give away a percentage of their earnings to those less fortunate,
regardless of their religion.

Saum: fasting during the month of Ramadan

Muslims fast for one lunar month each year, a period called Ramadan. During this time,
Muslims reflect on their behaviour and strive to purify their thoughts.

Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca

If it is financially possible, Muslims are required to travel to Mecca once in their lifetime.

Literally means "law" in reality not just law but instruction on moral conduct and daily life.
Sharia is a now a familiar term to Muslims and non-Muslims. It can often be heard in news
stories about politics, crime, feminism, and terrorism. The Islamic holy law, drawn up by
theologians from the Quran and accounts of Muhammad's.

The Islam word meaning is "struggle". Some interpret as general instruction to fight evil.
He was born in Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula. The last and final Messenger of God to be sent
to humanity. He was sent to complete the mission of the previous Messengers (including
Abraham, Moses, Jesus and others) of calling people to believing in God and following the
guidance and teachings of God.
Ummayad Caliphate:
The first Islamic dynasty. After the assassination of Ali, the establishment of the Ummayad
dynasty solved the problem of succession, at least temporarily. The Umayyads ranked among the
most prominent of the Mecca merchant clans, and their reputation and network of alliances
helped bring stability to the Islamic community. The Umayyads established their capital at
Damascus. Although the Umayyads' dynasty solved the problem of succession, their tightly
centralized rule and the favor they showed to their fellow Arabs generated an administrative
problem. Beginning in the early 18th century, the Umayyad caliphs became alienated even from
other Arabs.
Abbasid Caliphate:
The Abbasid dynasty differed considerably from the Umayyad. For one thing, the Abbasid state
was far more cosmopolitan than its predecessor. Abbasid rulers did not show special favor to the
Arab military aristocracy. Arabs continued to play a large role in government. The Abbasid
dynasty differed from the Umayyad also in that it was not a conquering dynasty. The battle of
Talas River was exceptionally important: it ended the expansion of China's Tang Dynasty into
central Asia and it opened the door for the spread of Islam among Turkish peoples.
Abu al-Abbas:
Descendant of Mohammeds uncle, leads rebellion against Umayyad in 750. He establishes new
Abbasid rulers in Baghdad. Abu al-Abbas founded the Abbasid dynasty.
Islamic minority in opposition to the Sunni majority. They are representing a minority sect. Their
belief is that leadership should reside in the line descended from Ali.

"Traditionalists," the most popular branch of Islam. Sunnis believe in the legitimacy of the early
caliphs, compared with the Shiite belief that only a descendant of Ali can lead.
Pilgrimage to Mecca. It draws Muslims by the hundreds of thousands from all parts of the world
to Saudi Arabia. Each year Muslims travel to Mecca by land, sea, and air to make the pilgrimage
and visit the holy sites of Islam. By the 9th century, pilgrimage had become so popular.
Abu Bakr:
First caliph (leader) after the death of Muhammad. The Abu Bakr become head of state for
Islamic community as well as chief judge, religious leader, and military commander. Sought to
prevent Muslims giving up on the new religion/government and continue spreading faith.
Ali was a candidate for caliph when the prophet died. Ali served briefly as the fourth caliph but
his enemies assassinated him and also killed many of his relatives. His assassination begins a
deep sectarian controversy within the faith that continues to this day. After the assassination of
Ali, the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty solved the problem of succession, at least
It is the birth place for Mohammed. In the center of the mosque in Mecca, is the cube-shaped
building called a Kaaba is found. All Muslims face the direction of the Kaaba during ritual
prayer (5 times a day).
Muslims called their new home Medina. Muhammad's move to Medina serves as the starting
point of the official Islamic calendar. Muhammad found himself at the head of a small but
growing society in exile that needed guidance in practical as well as spiritual affairs.
The Umayyads established their capital at Damascus, a thriving commercial city in Syria, whose
central location enabled them to maintain better communication with the cast and still-expanding
Islamic empire.
Abu al-Abbas establishes new Abbasid rulers in Baghdad. The Abbasids associated themselves
with the cosmopolitan environment of Mesopotamia. Baghdad was a round city protected by

three round walls. At the heart of the city was the caliph's green-domed palace. It is the capital of
modern Iraq.

Code of law / statecraft. Written by Chandraguptas minister Kautalya. Some of Kautalya's
advice survives in the ancient Indian political handbook which is known as Arthashastra.
It became before recorded time. Unlike other world religions no specific event or person (No
Jesus). Main religion of India, a combination of Dravidian and Aryan concepts. Hinduism's goal
is to reach spiritual purity and union with the great world spirit. It's important concepts include
dharma, karma, and samsara.
The "enlightened one," the term applied to Siddhartha Gautama after his discoveries that would
form the foundations of Buddhism. His teachings quickly attracted attention. He organized them
into a community of monks who owned only their yellow robes and their begging bowls.
Buddhist concept of a state of spiritual perfection and enlighten in which distracting passions are
eliminated. Buddhists also consider nirvana as freedom from all worldly concerns such as greed,
hate, and ignorance.
Hindu caste of priests. They are at the top of the chart.
A system of division of labor and power in human society. One of the hereditary social classes in
Hinduism that restrict the occupation of their members and their association with the members of
other castes
Mahayana Buddhism:
Mahayana = "the greater vehicle" which could carry more people to salvation. It spread rapidly
through India and attracted many converts from lay and wealthy classes. It became established in
central Asia, China, Japan, and Korea. It flourished partly because of educational institutions
partly because of educational institutions that efficiently promoted faith.

Hindu concept of the salvation (rescue) of the soul. It means to let go of all the suffering and put
an end to it. Release from travails of life.
Hindu term for the concept of transmigration, that is, the soul passing into a new incarnation.
Literally meaning "continuous flow", is the repeating cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth.
Hindu concept of the enjoyment of physical and sexual pleasure.
good acts = purification of the atman
good karma = effects brought about by good acts
lots of good karma = purified atman = breaks cycle of samsara
Hindu concept of obedience to religious and moral laws and order. Also, the basic doctrine of
Buddhism. The principle or law that orders the universe. Hinduism Individual obligation with
respect to caste, social custom, civil law, and sacred law.
Chandragupta Maurya:
An ambitious adventurer named Chandragupta Maurya exploited that opportunity and laid the
foundation for the Mauryan empire. Chandragupta began by seizing control of small, remote
regions of Magadha and then worked his way gradually towards the center. He had overthrown
the ruling dynasty and consolidated his hold on the kingdom. Chandragupta's empire embraced
all of northern India. It latest for a century and a half.
The high point of the Mauryan empire, however, came during the reign of Chandragupta's
grandson Ashoka. He began his region as a conqueror. He is much better known as a governor
than as a conqueror. He provided comforts for administrators, merchants, and other travelers by
planting banyan trees to provide shade, digging wells, and establishing inns along the roads.
Mauryan Empire:
Indian dynasty founded by Chandragupta Mauryan and reaching its peak under Ashoka. It had an
imperial government. Its ruling philosophy = dandaniti.
Chandra Gupta I:

He founded the Gupta empire. Son, Samudra Gupta = one of Indias greatest conquerors. His
troops conquered one northern Indian kingdom after another and claimed lands that stretched as
far as west as Afghanistan.

Gupta Empire:
The Gupta dynasty period is regarded as the Golden Age of India. The administrative system
during the Gupta period was similar to that of the Mauryan Empire. The King was that highest
authority and possessed wide powers to enable the smooth functioning of the empire. (allowed
cities/villiages) The Gupta rulers gave a lot of importance to education. Pearl industry was also
very popular. The most important industry was pottery. The Gupta rulers issued large number of
gold coins.
Kingdom in ancient India.
White Huns:
They invaded from central Asia to India and disrupted the Gupta Administration. It caused the
Gupta administration to collapse in the 6th century.
Chola Kingdom:
The first kingdom that expanded enough to exercise at least nominal rule over much of south
India. Chola forces conquered Ceylon and parts of southeast Asia. The Chola navy dominated the
waters from the South China Sea to the Arabian Sea. Chola rulers did not build a tightly
centralized state: they allowed considerable autonomy for local and village institutions as long as
they maintained order and delivered tax revenues on time. Chola rulers had less interest in
building a powerful state than in realizing profits that came from their domination of trade in the
Indian Ocean basin. The Chola state was in decline by the 12th century.
King Harsha temporarily restored unified rule in most of northern India and sought to revive
imperial authority. Harsha came to the throne of his kingdom in the lower Ganges valley at the
age of sixteen. He led his army throughout northern India. He was himself a Buddhist, but he
looked kindly on other faiths as well. He built hospitals and provided free medical care for his
subjects. Harsha generously patronized scholars and reportedly even wrote three plays himself.
Tang Dynasty:

Under the Tang Dynasty the empire continued to grow in strength, wealth and size. Yuans son,
Tai Cong, established a strong central government, allowing him to easily maintain control over
his massive kingdom. Officials in the government were required to pass difficult written exams
that measured how qualified an individual was to serve in government. The peace that lasted
during the Tang Dynasty allowed the people to improve their technologies. One important
technological advance was in the area of growing rice. Under the Tang Dynasty trade flourished.
With new roads and improved waterways, merchants were able to bring Chinese goods out to the
rest of the world and exotic goods back into China. This new wealth allowed the Chinese capital
of Changan to grow into the largest city in the world at the time. Printing becomes common
during this period. Ex. Block printing. 3 key: 1. Good transport and communication network, 2.
land distributed rather fairly, 3. Bureaucracy based on merit.
Song Dynasty:
Song Taizu Rules, It starts off as a powerful warlord, promoted to Emperor by troops. Songs will
have bureaucrats operate as state officials in all capacities and pays them handsomely. During
this phase, the bureaucratic expand. This will eat up all the wealth which is the reason for the
dynastic crash. Like the Tang, agriculture flourishes like never before in China. Better use of
agricultural technology such as iron plows and ox labor.
Sui Dynasty:
China reunified under leadership of Yang Jian who is a northern Chinese ruler. This is a short
lived dynasty. The Sui Dynasty build a strong centralized government all on the back of the
people just like the Qin did earlier. They had high taxes and compulsory labor. The Grand Canal
was the major project of this period.
Grand Canal:
The Grand Canal is the most efficient way to move crops around. It would move rice from the
Yangzi River to the North. There is over 2000 km of canals linking together most of the country.
Sui Yangdi completed the canal but got assassinated in 618.
Confucians of the Song dynasty studied the classic works of their traditions, but they also
became familiar with the writings of Buddhists. It illustrates the deep influence of Buddhism in
Chinese society. Neo-Confucianism influenced east Asian thought over a very long term. NeoConfucianism shaped philosophical, political, and moral thought for half a millennium and more.
Concept relating to the mixing of political and religious authority, as with the Roman emperors,
that was central to the church-versus-state controversy in medieval Europe.

The most important early emperor on this side. He was married to Theodora and they were both
educated and came from nothing. They rose through the ranks of the military bureaucracy to
come to power. He codifies the Roman Law and gets all the bits and pieces and puts them all in
one book.
The Franks:
They build for themselves an impressive state. Come to have about 1/2 of the old Western
Empire territory. They have a poor administer, no real trade links like in other places, and give
lots of power over to the Church.
You may know him as Charles the Great. He was the King of The Franks. He sets up
temporarily reestablished imperial rule.
A group that raided the British Isles from their homes at Vik in southern Norway. The Vikings
were able to make their way up the many rivers offering access to interior regions of Europe.
Vikings coordinated their ships movements and timed their attacks to take advantage of the tides.
Fleets of Viking boats with ferocious dragon heads mounted on their prows could sail up a river.
Historians once used the term feudalism to characterize the political and social order of medieval
Europe. They spoke routinely of a "feudal system" involving a neat hierarchy of lords and
vassals, who collectively took charge of political and military affairs on the basis of person
Nara Japan:
The first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara.