Sei sulla pagina 1di 9
2

2

! " # ! U $ H % T P " " # ! U

! "

# ! U

$ H% T P" "

# ! U

$ H% T P" "

4

3

3

& $ % ˆ ∆ H r ( T , P ) """ ! !

& $ %

ˆ

H

r (

T

,

P

)

""" ! !

""" T P

"""

""" ! T P"

5

' ! # & ( () ° * ˆ ∆ H r (25 C,1atm) °

' ! #

& ( ()° *

ˆ

H

r

(25 C,1atm)

°

= −

125.4 kJ/mol

* ( * ' * T P ()° * !

H products H reactants = 125.4 kJ

6

, v A n A , r T 0 P 0 ! ∆ H =

, v A n A,r T 0 P 0 !

H

=

ˆ

H

r

(

T

0

,

P

0

 

)

   

n

,

A r

   

v

A

 
 

H

ˆ

= ξ

H

r

(

T

0

,

P

0

)

' ξ

8

ˆ ∆ H (100 C,1atm) ° = − 50 kJ/mol r ! − 50 kJ
ˆ
H
(100 C,1atm)
°
= −
50 kJ/mol
r
!
− 50 kJ
− 50 kJ
− 50 kJ
=
=
2 mol A consumed
1mol B consumed
3 mol C generated
*)+
− 50 kJ
H
=
150 mol C generated
= −2500kJ
× 3 mol C generated
7

!!

! ! ˆ ∆ H r ( T , P ) *% T P " ˆ

ˆ

H

r

(

T

,

P

)

*%

T P"

ˆ

H

r

(

T

,

P

)

(%

T P"

ˆ

H

r

(

T

,

P

)

 

ˆ

-%. !

! ! "

r

H

(

T

)

/%& ! "

see textbook p.443 for more details

9

!!

! ! )%& ! $ % ! " ˆ ∆ H = − 890.3kJ/mol ˆ r

)%& ! $ % ! "

ˆ

H

= − 890.3kJ/mol

ˆ

r

H

r

= − 802.3 kJ/mol

ˆ

0%&

H

o

r

!

! ! $()° * %"

!

10

""##$$%%&&%%'' $$(((())** ""++**

% ' ' $ $ ( ( ( ( ) ) * * " " +

4

(/++ 2 3 (

!

! () "

H (kJ/s)

Solution: refer to textbook for full solution

12

""##$$%%&&%%'' $$(((())** ""%%**

% ' ' $ $ ( ( ( ( ) ) * * " " %

& 1 !

ˆ

H

o = − 2878kJ/mol

r

!

(/++ 2 3 ( ! ! () "

Solution: refer to textbook for full solution

H (kJ/s)

11

""##$$%%&&%%'' $$(((())** ""))**

% ' ' $ $ ( ( ( ( ) ) * * " " )

& ! 1 ()° *5"( 62 //"+ 62 ! " 4

(/++ 2 3 (

!

! () "

H (kJ/s)

Solution: refer to textbook for full solution

13

,, --

, , - - ! " & U p r o d u c t s

! "

& U products U reactants ! T"

ˆ

U

r

(

T

)

ˆ

r

(

T

)

RT

= ∆ H

i

v

i

v

 

gaseous

products

gaseous

reactants

Assumptions:

ideal gas

specific V of (l) & (s) are negligible

14

,,
,,

" ' !

4 ! * +") 3 (

*

T reactant () !! "

' T 3 ( ! ! 3 ( ' 3 3 ( $ ! 3 %"

3"

16

,,
,,

. 7 1 "

& !

"

 

ˆ

&

H

o

r

! ! "

15

,,
,,

#

 

ˆ

H

o = − 393.51kJ/mol

r

1

ˆ

H

o = − 282.99 kJ/mol

r

2

'! 1 " & ! !

ˆ

ˆ

H

o = ?

r 3

Since H is a statefunction,

H ˆ

 

H ˆ

 

ˆ

o = ∆

r3

o

r

1

+ −∆

(

H

o

r 2

)

ˆ

o

r 3

()°

()°

H

ˆ o ∆H r 1
ˆ
o
∆H
r
1

()°

ˆ o − ∆ H r 2
ˆ
o
− ∆ H
r 2

17

// 00

/ / 0 0 1 % 1 +' )'2' % +' )'2 18

1 % 1 +' )'2'

% +' )'2

18

44 44

4 4 4 4 . ! ! $ " " 3 ( 3%" & ! *

. ! !

$ " " 3 ( 3%"

& ! * ! T P

$ ()° * %

ˆ

! "

H

o

f

20

// 00 ""##$$++&&%%'' $$((((33**

# $ $ + + & & % % ' ' $ $ ( ( (

& '! #

 

ˆ

H

o

= − 1559.8 kJ/mol

r

1

 

ˆ

H

ˆ

H

o

r 2

o

r 3

= − 393.5 kJ/mol

= − 285.8 kJ/mol

8 9

Solution: refer to textbook for full solution

19

44 44

4 4 4 4 : ! & "*" ˆ ' ! ∆ H o f 7-0)"*/

: ! & "*"

ˆ

' !

H

o

f

7-0)"*/ 62

ˆ

H

o = − 365.14 kJ/mol

r

" $ $ + * 5 $

21

44 44

4 4 4 4 9 ; v i ˆ o ∆ H f i ! i

9 ; v i

ˆ

o

H

f i

! i

ˆ o ∆ H = o v ∆ H ˆ r i f i i
ˆ
o
H
=
o
v
H ˆ
r
i
f i
i
products
reactants

22

ˆ o = o ˆ v ∆ H − f v ∆ H i f
ˆ
o
=
o
ˆ
v
H
f
v
H
i
f i
i
i
ˆ o = o ˆ v ∆ H − f v ∆ H i f i
ˆ o = o ˆ v ∆ H − f v ∆ H i f i
ˆ o = o ˆ v ∆ H − f v ∆ H i f i

,,

, , &   ˆ ∆ H o c """ ' """ ! ! = "

&

 

ˆ

H

o

c

""" '

""" ! ! = " " 3 ( $ % ( 3$ %>

""" ! ()° * "

24

44 ""##$$))&&%%'' $$((((66**

# $ $ ) ) & & % % ' ' $ $ ( ( (

< 1! (3$ % ! "

Solution: refer to textbook for full solution

23

,, 77

, , 7 7 & "* " & ! # $ % 3 ( $ %

& "* "

& ! #

$ % 3 ( $ %

$ % ( 3$ %

$ % :3

$ % ? ( $ %"

( $ %

25

,, 77

, , 7 7 ' ! # & "* 7*-00"5 62 ˆ ∆ H r (25

' ! # & "* 7*-00"5 62

ˆ

H

r

(25 C,1atm)

°

= −

1366.9 kJ/mol

: ! "

26

,,

, , : ! ! ˆ o ∆ H = − o v ∆ H ˆ

: !

!

ˆ o ∆ H = − o v ∆ H ˆ r i c i
ˆ
o
H
= −
o
v
H ˆ
r
i
c
i
i
o
c i
reactants
products

!

ˆ

! = 3 ( ( 3$ % :3 ( @>

A "

H

c

o

28

=

ˆ

v i

H

o

c i

v

i

ˆ

H

,,

, , . ! ! $ % 3 ( () ° $ % 3 ( (

. ! !

$ % 3 ( ()°

$ % 3 ( ( 3 ! ! 3 (

: ! $ % ! "

27

,, ""##$$((&&%%'' $$((((##** # - & "*# ˆ ( ∆ H o ) =
,,
""##$$((&&%%'' $$((((##**
#
- & "*#
ˆ
(
H
o )
= −
1559.9 kJ/mol
c
C
2 H
6
ˆ
( ∆
H
o )
= −
1411.0 kJ/mol
c
C
2 H
4
ˆ
o
( ∆
H
= −
285.84 kJ/mol
) H
c
2
ˆ
o
ˆ
o
ˆ
o
ˆ
o
∆ H
=
(
H
)
(
H
)
(
H
= 136.9kJ/mol
) H
r
c
C H
c
C H
c
2
6
2
4
2
29

& ! ! " & ! ! ! # 4 . . 30

& ! ! "

& ! ! ! #

4 .

.

30

"" **

" " * * /% ! 1 ! ! " )% ! ! " 0% "

/% ! 1 ! ! "

)% ! ! "

0% "

H

i

B%:

! "

refer to textbook (p.450) for full procedures

32

H

"" **

" " * * " *% ! ' ! " (% ! ! " -% !

"

*% ! ' ! "

(% ! ! "

-% ! ' "

31

∆ H = ∆ H + ∆ H + ∆ H 1 2 3 brings
∆ H
= ∆
H
+ ∆
H
+ ∆
H
1
2
3
brings the
reactants from
inlet conditions
to reference
states at 25°C
H
T
T
in
out
H
= −
ˆ
n
H
ˆ
H
=
n
H
1
in
in
3
out
out
()°
()°
brings the product
from reference
states at 25°C to
outlet conditions
ˆ
o
H
=
ξ H
2
i
r
i
carry out the reaction at 25°C
33

"" ** 44

" " * * 4 4 2 ! " *% ! ' ! " (% !

2 ! "

*% ! ' ! "

(% ! ! "

-% ! 1 ! ! "

34

44 ∆ H = ∆ H + ∆ H 1 2 ∆ H T T
44
∆ H
= ∆
H
+ ∆
H
1
2
H
T
T
in
out
ˆ
ˆ
H
= −
n
H
H
=
n
H
1
in
in
2
out
out
brings the reactants
from inlet conditions
to constituent
elements at 25°C
take the elements
to the products at
outlet conditions
()°
36

"" ** 44

" " * * 4 4 /% ! ! " )% " Note that heat of

/% ! ! "

)% " Note that heat of

H

i

reaction terms are not required if the elements are

chosen as reference.

0%:

! "

refer to textbook (p.451) for full procedures

35

H

37

37