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# Tutor: Teenanda Ayasamy

## Collect data : e.g. Survey

Present data: e.g. Tables and graphs
Characterize data: e.g. The sample mean

Estimation
e.g., Estimate the population
mean weight using the sample
mean weight

Hypothesis testing
e.g., Test the claim that the
population mean weight is 120
pounds

## Drawing conclusions about a large group of

individuals based on a smaller group.

VARIABLES
Variables are a characteristics of an item or individual and are what you analyze when you
use a statistical method.
DATA
Data are the different values associated with a variable.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
Data values are meaningless unless their variables have operational definitions, universally
accepted meanings that are clear to all associated with an analysis.
POPULATION
A population consists of all the items or individuals about which you want to draw a
conclusion. The population is the large group
SAMPLE
A sample is the portion of a population selected for analysis. The sample is the small
group

PARAMETER
A parameter is a numerical measure that describes a characteristic of a population.
STATISTIC
A statistic is a numerical measure that describes a characteristic of a sample.

Population

## Measures used to describe the

population are called parameters

Sample

## Measures used to describe the

sample are called statistics

## Using the DCOVA methodology

Define the variables for which you want to reach
conclusions
Collect the data from appropriate sources
Organize the data collected by developing tables
Visualize the data by developing charts
Analyze the data by examining the appropriate tables and
charts (and in later chapters by using other statistical
methods) to reach conclusions

Categorical (qualitative)
variables have values that
can only be placed into
categories, such as yes
and no.
Numerical (quantitative)
variables have values that
represent quantities.
o Discrete variables arise from a
counting process
o Continuous variables arise
from a measuring process

DCOVA
Variables

Categorical

Numerical

Examples:
Marital Status
Political Party
Eye Color
(Defined categories)

Discrete

Continuous

Examples:

Examples:

Number of Children
Defects per hour
(Counted items)

Weight
Voltage
(Measured
characteristics)

Primary Sources: The data collector is the one using the data for
analysis
o Data from a political survey
o Data collected from an experiment
o Observed data
Secondary Sources: The person performing data analysis is not the
data collector
o Analyzing census data
o Examining data from print journals or data published on the
internet.
Sources of data fall into four categories
Data distributed by an organization or an individual
A designed experiment
A survey
An observational study

DCOVA

## Sort raw data in ascending order:

DCOVA

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Find range: 58 - 12 = 46
Select number of classes: 5 (usually between 5 and 15)
Compute class interval (width): 10 (46/5 then round up)
Determine class boundaries (limits):

Class 1:
Class 2:
Class 3:
Class 4:
Class 5:

10 to less than 20
20 to less than 30
30 to less than 40
40 to less than 50
50 to less than 60

## Compute class midpoints: 15, 25, 35, 45, 55

Count observations & assign to classes

DCOVA
Data in ordered array:
12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Class

## 10 but less than 20

20 but less than 30
30 but less than 40
40 but less than 50
50 but less than 60
Total

Midpoints

15
25
35
45
55

Frequency

3
6
5
4
2
20

DCOVA
Data in ordered array:
12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Class

## 10 but less than 20

20 but less than 30
30 but less than 40
40 but less than 50
50 but less than 60
Total

Frequency

3
6
5
4
2
20

Relative
Frequency

.15
.30
.25
.20
.10
1.00

Percentage

15
30
25
20
10
100

DCOVA
Data in ordered array:
12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Class

Frequency Percentage

Cumulative Cumulative
Frequency Percentage

15%

15%

30%

45%

25%

14

70%

20%

18

90%

10%

20

100%

100

20

100%

Total

20

DCOVA

## It allows for a quick visual interpretation of the data

It enables the determination of the major characteristics of the data
set including where the data are concentrated / clustered
Frequency Distributions: Some Tips
Different class boundaries may provide different pictures for the
same data (especially for smaller data sets)
Shifts in data concentration may show up when different class
boundaries are chosen
As the size of the data set increases, the impact of alterations in
the selection of class boundaries is greatly reduced
When comparing two or more groups with different sample
sizes, you must use either a relative frequency or a percentage
distribution

DCOVA
In a bar chart, a bar shows each category, the length of which
represents the amount, frequency or percentage of values falling into a
category which come from the summary table of the variable.
Banking Preference
Banking Preference?
ATM
Automated or live
telephone

Internet

16%
2%

Drive-through service at
branch

17%

In person at branch

41%

Internet

24%

In person at branch
Drive-through service at branch
Automated or live telephone
ATM
0%

## 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45%

DCOVA
The pie chart is a circle broken up into slices that represent categories. The
size of each slice of the pie varies according to the percentage in each
category.
Banking Preference

Banking Preference?

ATM

16%
ATM

Automated or live
telephone

16%

24%
2%

2%

Drive-through service at
branch

17%

In person at branch

41%

Internet

24%

17%

Automated or live
telephone
Drive-through service at
branch
In person at branch
Internet

41%

## A vertical bar chart of the data

in a frequency distribution is
called a histogram.
In a histogram there are no gaps
The class boundaries (or class
midpoints) are shown on the
horizontal axis.

DCOVA
Class

Frequency

## 10 but less than 20

20 but less than 30
30 but less than 40
40 but less than 50
50 but less than 60
Total

3
6
5
4
2
20

Relative
Frequency

Percentage

.15
.30
.25
.20
.10
1.00

15
30
25
20
10
100

## The vertical axis is either

frequency, relative frequency,
or percentage.

Frequency

6
4

2
0

## The height of the bars represent

the frequency, relative
frequency, or percentage.

15

25

35

45

55 More

## (In a percentage histogram the vertical axis would be

defined to show the percentage of observations per
class)

DCOVA
A percentage polygon is formed by having the midpoint of each
class represent the data in that class and then connecting the
sequence of midpoints at their respective class percentages.
The cumulative percentage polygon, or ogive, displays the
variable of interest along the X axis, and the cumulative
percentages along the Y axis.
Useful when there are two or more groups to compare.

DCOVA
Class

Frequency

15
25
35
45
55

3
6
5
4
2

Frequency

## 10 but less than 20

20 but less than 30
30 but less than 40
40 but less than 50
50 but less than 60

Class
Midpoint

## (In a percentage polygon the

vertical axis would be defined to
show the percentage of
observations per class)

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
5

15

25

35

Class Midpoints

45

55

65

218

DCOVA
Class

## 10 but less than 20

20 but less than 30
30 but less than 40
40 but less than 50
50 but less than 60

Lower
% less
class
than lower
boundary boundary
10
15
20
45
30
70
40
90
50
100

## (In an ogive the percentage of the

observations less than each lower
class boundary are plotted versus the
lower class boundaries.

Cumulative Percentage

100
80
60
40
20
0
10

20

30

40

50

## Lower Class Boundary

60

DCOVA
Scatter plots are used for numerical data consisting of paired
observations taken from two numerical variables
One variable is measured on the vertical axis and the other variable
is measured on the horizontal axis
Scatter plots are used to examine possible relationships between
two numerical variables

DCOVA
Volume
per day

Cost per
day

23

125

26

140

250

29

146

200

33

160
167

42

170

50

188

38

150
100
50
0
20

30

40

50

55

195

60

200

60

70